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Four-stroke diesel engines compliant with IMO Tier II


Project Guide Marine
L+V32/44CR
D2366456EN Printed in Germany GMC2-05100.5
Copyright MAN Diesel & Turbo Subject to modification in the interest of technical progress.
32/44CR
Project Guide Marine
Four-stroke diesel engines
MAN Diesel & Turbo compliant with IMO Tier II
MAN Diesel & Turbo
86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
marineengines-de@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com

10-056_PPG_L+V3244CR_Marine_IMO_TII.indd U4 05.05.2010 11:10:46


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======

32/44CR
Project Guide - Marine
Four-stroke diesel engines
compliant with IMO Tier II
Titelseite_Marine_32-44CR2.fm

Status Version Checked Date Checked Date


12.2011 2.7 Utjesinovic 2011-12-23 Rid 2011-12-23
All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational purposes only and is
especially not guaranteed in any way.
Depending on the subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to changes
and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This will depend on the particular
characteristics of each individual project, especially specific site and operational conditions.
If this document is delivered in another language than English and doubts arise concerning the transla-
tion, the English text shall prevail.

For latest updates on Project Guides, visit our website www.mandieselturbo.com:


"Products Marine Engines & Systems Medium speed Project Guides".
In addition, please always contact MAN Diesel & Turbo at early project stage to ensure that the latest
information is transferred and the latest status of project tools is used.

MAN Diesel & Turbo


86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
marineengines-de@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com
Titelseite_Marine_32-44CR2.fm

MAN Diesel & Turbo


Reproduction permitted provided source is given.
Table of contents
1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 1 - 1
1.1 Four stroke diesel engine programme for marine................................................................... 1 - 3

1.2 Engine description 32/44CR IMO Tier II ................................................................................... 1 - 5

1.3 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements.................................................................... 1 - 7

2 Engine and operation ........................................................................ 2 - 1


2.1 Approved applications.............................................................................................................. 2 - 3

2.2 Engine design............................................................................................................................ 2 - 5


2.2.1 Engine cross section............................................................................................. 2 - 5
2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters............................................................. 2 - 7
2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments ................................................................................... 2 - 9
2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views ....................................................... 2 - 11
2.2.5 Engine inclination ................................................................................................ 2 - 13
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications .......................................................... 2 - 15

2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds .................................................................................................. 2 - 21


2.3.1 Standard engine ratings ...................................................................................... 2 - 21
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications .................................................. 2 - 23
2.3.3 Speeds ............................................................................................................... 2 - 27
2.3.4 Speed adjusting range ........................................................................................ 2 - 29

2.4 Engine operation under arctic conditions.............................................................................. 2 - 31

2.5 Low load operation ................................................................................................................. 2 - 35

2.6 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive) ............................................................... 2 - 37


2.6.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)......................................... 2 - 37
2.6.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control.................................................. 2 - 39
2.6.3 Operating range for fixed-pitch propeller (FPP).................................................... 2 - 43
2.6.4 Operating range for dredger pumps.................................................................... 2 - 45
2.6.5 Acceleration times .............................................................................................. 2 - 47

2.7 Diesel-electric operation ........................................................................................................ 2 - 51


M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

2.7.1 Operating range for diesel-electric operation/GenSets ........................................ 2 - 51


2.7.2 Starting conditions and load application for diesel-electric plants ........................ 2 - 53
2.7.3 Load application Preheated engine .................................................................. 2 - 57
2.7.4 Load application Cold engine (only emergency case) ....................................... 2 - 60
2.7.5 Load application for ship electrical systems ........................................................ 2 - 61

32/44CR Table of contents - 1


2.7.6 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations ...................................... 2 - 65
2.7.7 Load reduction ................................................................................................... 2 - 67
2.7.8 Diesel-electric operation of vessels Failure of one engine.................................. 2 - 69
2.7.9 Alternator Reverse power protection ................................................................ 2 - 71
2.7.10 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators .......................... 2 - 73

2.8 Fuel oil; lube oil; starting air/control air consumption.......................................................... 2 - 75


2.8.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II....................................... 2 - 75
2.8.2 Lube oil consumption.......................................................................................... 2 - 77
2.8.3 Starting air/control air consumption .................................................................... 2 - 78
2.8.4 Calculation of fuel consumption at site ................................................................ 2 - 79
2.8.5 Aging .................................................................................................................. 2 - 81

2.9 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II................................................................. 2 - 83


2.9.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L32/44CR............................................ 2 - 84
2.9.2 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L32/44CR ..................... 2 - 86
2.9.3 Nominal values for cooler specification V32/44CR............................................ 2 - 87
2.9.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V32/44CR..................... 2 - 89
2.9.5 Load specific values at tropical conditions L/V32/44CR ................................... 2 - 90
2.9.6 Load specific values at ISO-conditions L/V32/44CR ........................................... 2 - 92
2.9.7 Filling volumes and flow resistances .................................................................... 2 - 94
2.9.8 Operating/service temperatures and pressures ................................................... 2 - 95
2.9.9 Internal media systems ....................................................................................... 2 - 98
2.9.10 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger................................................ 2 - 103

2.10 Exhaust gas emission........................................................................................................... 2 - 105


2.10.1 Maximum allowed emission value NOx IMO Tier II............................................. 2 - 105
2.10.2 Smoke emission index (FSN)............................................................................. 2 - 105
2.10.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines............. 2 - 107

2.11 Noise...................................................................................................................................... 2 - 109


2.11.1 Engine noise ..................................................................................................... 2 - 109
2.11.2 Intake noise ...................................................................................................... 2 - 111
2.11.3 Exhaust gas noise............................................................................................. 2 - 113

2.12 Vibration ................................................................................................................................ 2 - 115


2.12.1 Torsional vibrations ........................................................................................... 2 - 115

2.13 Requirement for power drive connection (static)................................................................ 2 - 119

2.14 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)......................................................... 2 - 121


M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

2.14.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel................................................. 2 - 121


2.14.2 Balancing of masses Firing order ................................................................... 2 - 125
2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation .................................................................................... 2 - 129

Table of contents - 2 32/44CR


2.15 Power transmission .............................................................................................................. 2 - 135
2.15.1 Flywheel arrangement ...................................................................................... 2 - 135

2.16 Arrangement of attached pumps ......................................................................................... 2 - 139

2.17 Foundation ............................................................................................................................ 2 - 141


2.17.1 General requirements for engine foundation ...................................................... 2 - 141
2.17.2 Rigid seating ..................................................................................................... 2 - 143
2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin............................................................................ 2 - 151
2.17.4 Resilient seating................................................................................................ 2 - 157
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation....................................................... 2 - 159
2.17.6 Engine alignment .............................................................................................. 2 - 167

3 Engine automation ............................................................................ 3 - 1


3.1 SaCoSone system overview....................................................................................................... 3 - 3

3.2 Power supply and distribution ................................................................................................. 3 - 9

3.3 Operation................................................................................................................................. 3 - 11

3.4 Functionality ........................................................................................................................... 3 - 13

3.5 Interfaces ................................................................................................................................ 3 - 17

3.6 Technical Data ........................................................................................................................ 3 - 19

3.7 Installation requirements ....................................................................................................... 3 - 21

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices .................................................................... 3 - 23

4 Specification for engine supplies ..................................................... 4 - 1


4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies................................................................................ 4 - 3
4.1.1 Lubricating oil ....................................................................................................... 4 - 3
4.1.2 Fuel ...................................................................................................................... 4 - 3
4.1.3 Engine cooling water............................................................................................. 4 - 4
4.1.4 Intake air............................................................................................................... 4 - 4

4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and bi-
ofuels ......................................................................................................................................... 4 - 5

4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO) .................. 4 - 11
M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO) .............................................................................. 4 - 17

4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)........................................................................................... 4 - 19

4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)..................................................................................... 4 - 21

32/44CR Table of contents - 3


4.7 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram) ....................................................................... 4 - 33

4.8 Specification for engine cooling water .................................................................................. 4 - 35

4.9 Cooling water inspecting........................................................................................................ 4 - 43

4.10 Cooling water system cleaning .............................................................................................. 4 - 45

4.11 Specification for intake air (combustion air)......................................................................... 4 - 47

5 Engine supply systems ..................................................................... 5 - 1


5.1 Basic principles for pipe selection........................................................................................... 5 - 3
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions ............................................................. 5 - 3
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines.................. 5 - 5
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels ...................................... 5 - 11

5.2 Lube oil system ....................................................................................................................... 5 - 15


5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram ..................................................................................... 5 - 15
5.2.2 Lube oil system description................................................................................. 5 - 19
5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication.............................................................................. 5 - 29
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets ................................................................................................... 5 - 31
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank ........................................................................................... 5 - 35
5.2.6 Pressure control valve......................................................................................... 5 - 39
5.2.7 Lube oil automatic filter ....................................................................................... 5 - 41
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent............................................................................. 5 - 43

5.3 Water systems ........................................................................................................................ 5 - 45


5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram............................................................................ 5 - 45
5.3.2 Cooling water system description ....................................................................... 5 - 51
5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system........................................................ 5 - 57
5.3.4 Miscellaneous items............................................................................................ 5 - 59
5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device ................ 5 - 61
5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation ............................................................. 5 - 63
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system and diagram.................................................................... 5 - 65
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module .............................................................................. 5 - 69
5.3.9 Preheating module.............................................................................................. 5 - 73

5.4 Fuel oil system ........................................................................................................................ 5 - 75


5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system ........................................................... 5 - 75
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines .................................... 5 - 77
M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system................................................................. 5 - 81


5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system ..................................................................... 5 - 85
5.4.5 Fuel supply at blackout conditions ...................................................................... 5 - 96

Table of contents - 4 32/44CR


5.5 Compressed air system .......................................................................................................... 5 - 97
5.5.1 Starting air system .............................................................................................. 5 - 97
5.5.2 Starting air vessels, compressors...................................................................... 5 - 103
5.5.3 Jet Assist .......................................................................................................... 5 - 109

5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air....................................................................... 5 - 111

5.7 Exhaust gas system.............................................................................................................. 5 - 113


5.7.1 General information........................................................................................... 5 - 113
5.7.2 Components and assemblies............................................................................ 5 - 115

5.8 Exhaust gas aftertreatment Selective catalytic reduction............................................... 5 - 117


5.8.1 SCR Selective catalytic reduction ................................................................... 5 - 117
5.8.2 System overview............................................................................................... 5 - 117
5.8.3 System design data .......................................................................................... 5 - 124

6 Engine room planning ....................................................................... 6 - 1


6.1 Installation and arrangement................................................................................................... 6 - 3
6.1.1 General details ...................................................................................................... 6 - 3
6.1.2 Installation drawings.............................................................................................. 6 - 5
6.1.3 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner ................................................. 6 - 13
6.1.4 3D Engine Viewer
A support programme to configure the engine room ........................................... 6 - 25
6.1.5 Comparison of engine arrangements .................................................................. 6 - 29
6.1.6 Lifting appliance.................................................................................................. 6 - 33
6.1.7 Space requirement for maintenance ................................................................... 6 - 37
6.1.8 Major spare parts................................................................................................ 6 - 39
6.1.9 Arrangement of diesel-electric propulsion plants ................................................. 6 - 45
6.1.10 Example: Mechanical propulsion system arrangement ........................................ 6 - 47

6.2 Exhaust gas ducting ............................................................................................................... 6 - 49


6.2.1 Example: Ducting arrangement ........................................................................... 6 - 49
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger ................................................. 6 - 51

7 Propulsion packages......................................................................... 7 - 1
7.1 General ...................................................................................................................................... 7 - 3

7.2 Propeller layout data................................................................................................................. 7 - 5


M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

7.3 Propeller clearance................................................................................................................... 7 - 7

32/44CR Table of contents - 5


8 Diesel-electric propulsion plants...................................................... 8 - 1
8.1 Advantages of diesel-electric propulsion ................................................................................ 8 - 3

8.2 Efficiencies in diesel-electric plants........................................................................................ 8 - 5

8.3 Components of a diesel-electric propulsion plant .................................................................. 8 - 7

8.4 Diesel-electric plant design ..................................................................................................... 8 - 9

8.5 Engine selection...................................................................................................................... 8 - 11

8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design.......................................................................... 8 - 13

8.7 Over-torque capability ............................................................................................................ 8 - 17

8.8 Protection of the electric plant............................................................................................... 8 - 19

8.9 Drive control............................................................................................................................ 8 - 21

8.10 Power management................................................................................................................ 8 - 23

8.11 Example configurations of diesel-electric propulsion plants ............................................... 8 - 27

9 Annex ................................................................................................. 9 - 1
9.1 Safety instructions and necessary safety measures .............................................................. 9 - 3
9.1.1 General................................................................................................................. 9 - 3
9.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side .............................................. 9 - 4

9.2 Programme for Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)....................................................................... 9 - 7

9.3 Engine running-in ..................................................................................................................... 9 - 9

9.4 Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 9 - 13

9.5 Symbols................................................................................................................................... 9 - 17

9.6 Preservation, packaging, storage .......................................................................................... 9 - 21


9.6.1 General information............................................................................................. 9 - 21
9.6.2 Storage location and duration ............................................................................. 9 - 22
9.6.3 Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded............................ 9 - 23
9.6.4 Removal of corrosion protection ......................................................................... 9 - 23

9.7 Engine colour .......................................................................................................................... 9 - 25


M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

9.8 Form ........................................................................................................................................ 9 - 29


9.8.1 Diesel-electric plant layout data........................................................................... 9 - 29
9.8.2 Propeller layout data ........................................................................................... 9 - 35

Table of contents - 6 32/44CR


Index ......................................................................................................... I
M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

32/44CR Table of contents - 7


M_32-44CR-II-neu2011IVZ.fm

Table of contents - 8 32/44CR


======

1 Introduction
Kapiteltitel 1 M2.fm

Page 1 - 1
Page 1 - 2
Kapiteltitel 1 M2.fm
Introduction
1.1 Four stroke diesel engine programme for marine

1.1 Four stroke diesel engine programme for marine

MAN Medium Speed Propulsion Engines


r/min Engine type

400-428 L58/64

500-514 L51/60DF V51/60DF

500-514 L48/60CR V48/60CR

500-514 L48/60B V48/60B

720-750 L32/44CR V32/44CR

720-750 L32/40 V32/40

1000-
V28/33D*
1032

1000-
V28/33D STC*
1032

L27/38
800
L27/38 (MGO)

1000 L21/31

0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000


kW
* The engine complies with EPA Tier 2.

Figure 1-1 MAN Diesel & Turbo engine programme


0101-0000MAII2.fm

C-BB Page 1 - 3
Introduction
1.1 Four stroke diesel engine programme for marine

0101-0000MAII2.fm

Page 1 - 4 C-BB
Introduction
1.2 Engine description 32/44CR IMO Tier II

1.2 Engine description 32/44CR IMO Tier II

General greater system reliability and very easy maintaina-


bility. Also, integrated into the CR technology are
With the 32/44CR (Common Rail), MAN Diesel &
well-proven components with long service experi-
Turbo is embarking on a new era in modern diesel
ence, such as conventional injection nozzles.
engine design. Based on the thousandfold well-
proven 32/40 engine, the 32/44CR was devel- Large reductions in NOx, CO2 and soot emissions
oped for use as a propulsion and auxiliary engine are a strategic success factor for HFO diesel en-
in ships, stationary applications and for offshore gines. Special emphasis is placed on low load op-
industry. By the use of electronic injection, future eration, where conventional injection leaves little
emissions standards can be fulfilled at low fuel room for optimization, as the injection process,
consumption, high specific power output and high controlled by the camshaft, is linked to engine
availability. The 32/44CR thereby sets the new speed. Thus, possibilities for designing a load-in-
standard in this engine class. dependent approach to the combustion process
are severely limited.
Fuels
MAN Diesel & Turbo's common rail technology
The 32/44 common rail injection system can be severs this link in medium speed four-stroke en-
operated with MGO (Class DMA or Class DMZ ac- gines. CR permits continuous and load-independ-
cording to DIN EN 590 and ISO 8217-2010), MDO ent control of injection timing, injection pressure
(ISO-F-DMB according ISO8217-2010) and HFO and injection volume. This means that common
(according to ISO8217-2010) with HFO-viscosi- rail technology achieves the highest levels of flexi-
ties up to 700 cSt at 50 C. The fuel system is also bility for all load ranges and yields significantly bet-
designed for starting and stopping the engine dur- ter results than any conventional injection system.
ing HFO operation.
Electronics
Common rail injection
The 32/44CR is equipped with the latest genera-
The 32/44 common rail injection system uses the tion of proven MAN Diesel & Turbo engine man-
latest MAN Diesel & Turbo common rail technolo- agement system. For the first time, SaCoSone
gy which allows flexible setting of injection timing, combines all functions of modern engine man-
injection duration and injection pressure for each agement into one complete system. Through inte-
cylinder. This flexibility allows optimization of fuel gration on the engine, it forms one unit with the
consumption and emissions at any point within its drive assembly.
operating profile.
SaCoSone offers:
Features and advantages Integrated self-diagnosis functions
As a matter of principle, MAN Diesel & Turbo has Maximum reliability and availability
kept the basic concept of its common rail technol-
Simple use and diagnosis
ogy as simple as possible and has integrated
technically proven components into the design. Quick exchange of modules (plug in)
For example, in keeping with this philosophy, the
Trouble-free and time-saving commissioning
design does not use a separate servo circuit for
activating the injection valve. Less maintenance is
one of the benefits as well as extremely quick and
0102-0000MQcr2.fm

accurate reaction times of the injection system.


The electronically controlled injection valves are on
the rail outside the cylinder head, resulting in

L-BB 32/44CR Page 1 - 5


Introduction
1.2 Engine description 32/44CR IMO Tier II

Safety concept Miller valve timing


The common rail system comprises an intelligent To reduce the temperature peaks which promote
designed safety concept: the formation of NOx, early closure of the inlet valve
causes the charge air to expand and cool before
All high pressure pipes are screened or have a
start of compression. The resulting reduction in
double wall design.
combustion temperature reduces NOx emissions.
Flow limiting valves at each cylinder prevent un-
controlled injection. High pressure ratio turbocharger
Redundant high pressure pumps guarantee The use of MAN Diesel & Turbo turbochargers
continued engine operation even in the event of equipped with the latest high efficiency compres-
high pressure pump malfunction. sor wheels alleviate the NOx-SFOC trade off. The
higher pressure ratio increases the efficiency of the
Twin type pressure sensors and speed sensors
engine and thus compensates the increase in
assure that the engine stays operational even in
SFOC normally associated with lower NOx emis-
the event of failure of one of these elements. In
sions. The higher pressure ratio also increases the
case of single engine plants the Electronic Con-
scope for Miller valve timing.
trol Units (ECUs) are in double type as well.
Committed to the future
NOx reduction measures L+V32/44CR
Technologies which promise compliance with the
RI Retarded Injection IMO Tier III emission limits valid from 2016 com-
Retarded injection timing delays combustion heat bined with further optimised engine performance
release and thus lowers combustion chamber are already under development at MAN Diesel &
temperature peaks. Turbo.

New piston for increased compression ratio


The use of a new piston provides a higher com-
pression ratio and gives a faster reduction in tem-
perature after the ignition of the fuel, thus reducing
NOx formation. The increase in compression ratio
also compensates the reduction in firing tempera-
ture due to retarded injection and hence the asso-
ciated increase in SFOC.

Variable Valve Timing (VVT)


Variable valve timing enables variations in the
opening and closing of the inlet valves. It can be
used to compensate the increase in SFOC associ-
ated with lower NOx emissions. VVT is an enabling
technology of variable Miller valve timing. A strong
Miller effect under high load operation results in an
improvement in the NOx-SFOC trade-off. At low
load the Miller valve timings are reduced to attain
higher combustion temperatures and thus lower
0102-0000MQcr2.fm

soot emissions.

Page 1 - 6 32/44CR L-BB


Introduction
1.3 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements

1.3 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements

Figure 1-3 Cruising vessel

Figure 1-4 Heavy lift cargo vessel


0104-0000MQcr2.fm

H-AG 32/44CR Page 1 - 7


Introduction
1.3 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements

Figure 1-5 Fishing vessel

0104-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 1 - 8 32/44CR H-AG


======

2 Engine and operation


Kapiteltitel 2 M2.fm

Page 2 - 1
Page 2 - 2
Kapiteltitel 2 M2.fm
Introduction
2.1 Approved applications

2.1 Approved applications

The 32/44CR is designed as multi-purpose drive. Offshore


It has been approved by type approval as marine For offshore applications it may be applied for me-
main engine and auxiliary engine by all main classi- chanical or diesel-electric drive2 or as auxiliary en-
fication societies (ABS, BV, CCS, ClassNK, CR, CRS, gine for applications as:
DNV, GL, KRS, LR, RINA, RS).
Platforms/offshore supply vessels
As marine main engine1 it may be applied for me-
Ancor handling tugs
chanical or diesel-electric propulsion drive2 for ap-
plications, General all kinds of service & supply vessels
as bulker, container vessel and general cargo Drilling ships
vessel. Semi subs
as fishing vessel. FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Of-
as ferry and cruise liner. floading Unit)
as tanker. Hereby it can be applied for single- and for multi-
engine plants.
for dredger and tugs in line with project require-
ments regarding needed high-torque perform- Due to the wide range of possible requirements
ance engine will be adapted. such as flag state regulations, fire fighting items,
redundancy, inclinations and dynamic positioning
others to fulfill all customers needs the project
modes all project requirements need to be clarified
requirements have to be defined at an early
at an early stage.
stage.
Hereby it can be applied for single- and for multi-
engine plants.
As marine auxiliary engine it may be applied for
diesel-electric power generation2 for auxiliary du-
ties for applications as:
Auxiliary GenSet3
Emergency GenSet all project requirements
such as maximum inclination and needed star-
tup time need to be clarified at an early project
stage

1
In line with rules of classifications societies each engine whose driving force may be used for propulsion pur-
0200-0000MQcr2.fm

pose is stated as main engine.


2
See "Section 2.3.2: Engine ratings (output) for different applications, page 2-23".
3
Not used for emergency case or fire fighting purposes.

J-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 3


Introduction
2.1 Approved applications

0200-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 4 32/44CR J-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.1 Engine cross section

2.2 Engine design

2.2.1 Engine cross section


0201-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-1 Cross section Engine L32/44CR; view on counter coupling side

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 5


Engine and operation
2.2.1 Engine cross section

Figure 2-2 Cross section Engine V32/44CR


0201-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 6 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters

2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters


Engine L+V32/44CR
Example to declare engine designations

18V32/44CR
Design index
Piston stroke [cm]

Cylinder bore [cm]

V= Vee engine, L= in-line engine

Cylinder number

Parameter Abbreviations Unit

Number of cylinders 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 -
12, 14, 16, 18, 20

Cylinder bore 32 cm

Piston stroke 44

Table 2-1 Designations engine 32/44CR

Parameter Value Unit

Cylinder bore 320 mm

Piston stroke 440

Swept volume per cylinder 35.4 dm3

Compression ratio 560 kW/cyl. marine plants 16.3 -

Distance between cylinder centres L = 530 mm

Distance between cylinder centres V = 630

Vee engine, vee angle 45

Crankshaft diameter at journal, in-line engine L = 290 mm

Crankshaft diameter at journal, vee engine V = 320

Crankshaft diameter at crank pin 290

Table 2-2 Design parameters engine 32/44CR


0201-0200MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 7


Engine and operation
2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters

0201-0200MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 8 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments

2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments

32/44CR

No. of CPP/GenSet FPP


cylinder
560 kW/cyl. 510 kW/cyl.
720/750 rpm 750 rpm
6L TCR20-42 TCR20-42
7L TCR22-42 TCR22-42
8L TCR22-42 TCR22-42
9L TCR22-42 TCR22-42
10L TCR22-42 TCR22-42
12V TCR20-42 TCR20-42
14V TCR22-42 TCR22-42
16V TCR22-42 TCR22-42
18V TCR22-42 TCR22-42
20V TCR22-42 TCR22-42
Table 2-3 Turbocharger assignments

Please consider the relevant turbocharger project


guide according to this table.
0201-0210MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 9


Engine and operation
2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments

0201-0210MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 10 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views

2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views


Engine L32/44CR

Figure 2-3 Main dimensions Engine L32/44CR

Legend

Engine L L1 W H Weight without fly-


wheel1)

mm t

6L32/44CR 6,312 5,265 2,174 4,163 39.5

7L32/44CR 6,924 5,877 2,359 4,369 44.5

8L32/44CR 7,454 6,407 49.5

9L32/44CR 7,984 6,937 53.5

10L32/44CR 8,603 7,556 58.0

The dimensions and weights are given for guidance only.

Table 2-4 Main dimensions and weights Engine L32/44CR


1) Including built-on lube oil automatic filter, fuel oil filter and electronic equipment.

Minimum centreline distance for twin engine installation: 2,500 mm L-engine


Flywheel data, see "Section 2.14.1: Moments of
0201-0300MQcr2.fm

inertia Engine, damper, flywheel, page 2-121"

J-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 11


Engine and operation
2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views

Engine V32/44CR

Figure 2-4 Main dimensions and weights V32/44CR

Legend

Engine L L1 W H Weight without fly-


wheel1)

mm t

12V32/44CR 7,195 5,795 3,100 4,039 70

14V32/44CR 7,970 6,425 4,262 79

16V32/44CR 8,600 7,055 87

18V32/44CR 9,230 7,685 96

20V32/44CR 9,860 8,315 104

The dimensions and weights are given for guidance only.

Table 2-5 Main dimensions and weights Engine V32/44CR


1) Including built-on lube oil automatic filter, fuel oil filter and electronic equipment.

Minimum centreline distance for twin engine installation: 4,000 mm L-engine


Flywheel data, see "Section 2.14.1: Moments of
inertia Engine, damper, flywheel, page 2-121"
0201-0300MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 12 32/44CR J-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.5 Engine inclination

2.2.5 Engine inclination

D
D

Figure 2-5 Angle of inclination

Legend

Athwartships

Fore and aft

Max. permissible angle of inclination []1)

Application Athwartships Fore and aft

Heel to each Rolling to Trim (static)2) Pitching


side (static) each side (dynamic)
(dynamic) L < 100 m L > 100 m

Main engines 15 22.5 5 500/L 7.5

Table 2-6 Inclinations


1)
Athwartships and fore and aft inclinations may occur simultaneously.
2)
Depending on length L of the ship.

Note!
0201-0400MA2.fm

For higher requirements contact MAN Diesel & Turbo. Arrange engines always lengthwise of the
ship!

E-BB Page 2 - 13
Engine and operation
2.2.5 Engine inclination

0201-0400MA2.fm

Page 2 - 14 E-BB
Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

Device/measure Ship

Propeller Auxiliary engines

Diesel- Diesel-
mechanical electrical

Charge air blow-off for firing pressure limitation Order-related, if the intake air 5C

Charge air blow off for firing pressure limitation and Order-related, for plants with catalyst converter
exhaust gas temperature control

Charge air by-pass X - -

Two-stage charge air cooler X X X

CHATCO (Charge air temperature control) X X X

VVT (Variable Valve Timing) X X X

Jet assist (acceleration of the turbocharger) O (X1)) X X

Slow turn O X O (X2))

Oil mist detector O O O

Splash oil monitoring X X X

Main bearing temperature monitoring X X X

Attached HT cooling water pump O O O

Attached LT cooling water pump O O O

Attached lubrication oil pump O O O

X = required, O = optional, - not designed.

Table 2-7 Additional engine equipment


1)
Required if special demands exist regarding fast acceleration and fast load application without increased soot emission.
2)
Required for plants with Power Managment System demanding automatic engine start.
0204-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 15


Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

Engine equipment for various applications General description


Charge air blow-off for firing pressure limitation CHATCO (Charge Air Temperature Control)
If engines are operated at full load at low intake The charge air temperature control CHATCO
temperature, the high air density leads to the dan- serves to prevent accumulation of condensed wa-
ger of excessive charge air pressure and, conse- ter in the charge air pipe. In this connection, the
quently, much too high ignition pressure. In order charge air temperature is, depending on the intake
to avoid such conditions, part of the charge air is air temperature, controlled in such a way that, as-
withdrawn upstream or downstream of the charge suming a constant relative air humidity of 80 %,
air cooler and blown off into the engine room. This the temperature in the charge air pipe does not fall
is achieved by means of an electro-pneumatically below the condensation temperature.
controlled flap or a spring-loaded valve.
Integrated in the functionality of CHATCO is
Charge air blow-off device for firing pressure limitation Charge air preheating by LT shut off.
and exhaust gas temperature control after turbine
VVT (Variable Valve Timing)
For plants with an SCR catalyst, downstream of
Variable Valve Timing enables variations in the
the turbine, a minimum exhaust gas temperature
opening and closing of the inlet valves. At low load
upstream of the SCR catalyst is necessary in order
operation it is used to attain higher combustion
to ensure its proper performance.
temperatures and thus lower soot emissions. At
This minimum exhaust gas temperature depends higher loads it is used to attain low combustion
on the type and design of the SCR catalyst and is temperatures and thus lower NOx emissions (Mill-
fixed by its manufacturer. In case the temperature er Valve timing).
downstream of the turbine falls below the set min-
Jet Assist (acceleration of the turbocharger)
imum exhaust gas temperature, a flap provided on
the engine is opened gradually in order to blow-off This equipment is used where special demands
the charge air until the exhaust gas temperature exist regarding fast acceleration and/or load appli-
downstream of the engine (and thus upstream of cation. In such cases, compressed air from the
the SCR catalyst) has reached the required level. starting air vessels is reduced to a pressure of ap-
prox. 4 bar before being passed into the compres-
Charge air by-pass
sor casing of the turbocharger to be admitted to
The charge air pipe is connected to the exhaust the compressor wheel via inclined bored passag-
pipe via a reduced diameter pipe and a by-pass es. In this way, additional air is supplied to the
flap. The flap is closed in normal operation. Mainly compressor which in turn is accelerated, thereby
in propeller operation between 25 and 60 % en- increasing the charge air pressure. Operation of
gine load (above cross-over point) the charge air the accelerating system is initiated by a control,
by-pass is opened, so that the turbocharger is op- and limited to a fixed load range.
erated at a higher air flow with higher efficiency.
The resultant increased charge air pressure with
improved scavenging pressure gradient leads to
lower component temperatures.
Two-stage charge air cooler
The two stage charge air cooler consists of two
stages which differ in the temperature level of the
connected water circuits. The charge air is first
0204-0000MQcr2.fm

cooled by the HT circuit (high temperature stage of


the charge air cooler, engine) and then further
cooled down by the LT circuit (low temperature
stage of the charge air cooler, lube oil cooler).

Page 2 - 16 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

Slow turn
Engines, which are equipped with slow turn, are
automatically turned prior to engine start, with the
turning process being monitored by the engine
control. If the engine does not reach the expected
number of crankshaft revolutions (2.5 revolutions)
within a specified period of time, or in case the
slow-turn time is shorter than the programmed
minimum slow-turn time, an error message is is-
sued. This error message serves as an indication
that there is liquid (oil, water, fuel) in the combus-
tion chamber. If the slow-turn manoeuvre is com-
pleted successfully, the engine is started
automatically.
Oil mist detector
Bearing damage, piston seizure and blow-by in
combustion chamber leads to increased oil mist
formation. As a part of the safety system the oil
mist detector monitors the oil mist concentration
in crankcase to indicate these failures at an early
stage.
Splash oil monitoring system
The splash-oil monitoring system is a constituent
part of the safety system. Sensors are used to
monitor the temperature of each individual drive
unit (or pair of drive at V engines) indirectly via
splash oil.
Main bearing temperature monitoring
As an important part of the safety system the tem-
peratures of the crankshaft main bearings are
measured just underneath the bearing shells in the
bearing caps. This is carried out using oil-tight re-
sistance temperature sensors.
0204-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 17


Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

0204-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 18 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

Charge air blow-off


0201-0700MRQcr2.fm

Figure 2-6 Hot charge air blow-off for selective catalyst operation

L-BB V28/33D, 32/44CR Page 2 - 19


Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

0201-0700MRQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 20 V28/33D, 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.3.1 Standard engine ratings

2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds

2.3.1 Standard engine ratings

Engine 32/44CR
560 kW/cyl., 720/750 rpm

Engine type Engine rating PISO, Standard1)2)


No. of cylinders
720 rpm3) 750 rpm

Available turning Available turning


direction4) direction4)

kW CW CCW kW CW CCW

6L32/44CR 6 3,360 Yes Yes 3,360 Yes Yes

7L32/44CR 7 3,920 3,920

8L32/44CR 8 4,480 4,480

9L32/44CR 9 5,040 5,040

10L32/44CR 10 5,600 5,600

12V32/44CR 12 6,720 Yes Yes 6,720 Yes Yes

14V32/44CR 14 7,840 Yes 7,840 Yes

16V32/44CR 16 8,960 Yes 8,960 Yes

18V32/44CR 18 10,080 Yes 10,080 Yes

20V32/44CR 20 11,200 No 11,200 No

Power take-off on engine free end up to 100 % of rated output.

Table 2-8 Engine ratings 32/44CR


1) P as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1, "Paragraph: Definition of engine rating, page 2-22".
ISO, Standard
2)
Engine fuel: Distillate according to ISO 8217 DMA/DMB/DMZ-grade fuel or RM-grade fuel, fullfilling the stated quality
requirements.
3)
Speed 720 rpm available for alternator drive only.
4) CW clockwise; CCW counter clockwise.
0202-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 21


Engine and operation
2.3.1 Standard engine ratings

Definition of engine rating


General definition of diesel engine rating
(according to ISO 15550: 2002; ISO 3046-1:
2002)

Reference conditions:
ISO 3046-1: 2002; ISO 15550: 2002

Air temperature Tr K / C 298/ 25

Air pressure pr kPa 100

Relative humidity r % 30

Cooling water temperature K / C 298/ 25


upstream charge air cooler tcr

Table 2-9 Standard reference conditions

0202-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 22 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

PApplication, ISO: Available output under ISO-conditions dependent on application

Max. allowed speed reduction


Available output in percentage

Fuel stop power (blocking)


from ISO-standard-output

/ percentage of POperating
Optional power take-off
at maximum torque1)

(tr/tcr/pr=100kPa)2)
Tropic conditions

available?
P Application

Notes
Kind of application % % % C - -

Electricity generation
3) 4)
Auxiliary engines in ships 100 110 - 45/38 -

Marine main engines (with mechanical or diesel-electric drive)


3) 4)
Main drive alternator 100 110 - 45/38 -

Main drive with controllable pitch propeller5) 100 100 - 45/38 -

Main drive with fixed-pitch propeller5) 90 90 10 45/38 6) 7)

Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)

Main drive for suction dredger/pumps for 90 90 20 45/38 6) 7) Yes/ up to


engines 6-10L32/44CR5) 100 %
6) 7)
Main drive for suction dredger/pumps for 90 90 20 45/38 Yes/ up to
engines 12-18V32/44CR5) 100%,
(not 20V32/44CR) only at
nominal
speed

Table 2-10 Available outputs/related reference conditions 32/44CR Tier II


1) Maximum torque given by available output and nominal speed.
2) t =
r Air temperature at compressor inlet of turbocharger.
tcr = Cooling water temperature before charge air cooler.
pr = Barometric pressure.
3) According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the rated engine output is permissible only for a short time to provide addi-
tional engine power for governing purpose only (e. g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied load).
This additional power shall not be used for the supply of electrical consumers.
4) 12 20V32/44CR GenSets with flexible coupling only.
5) Only applicable with nominal speed of 750 rpm.
0202-020aMQcr2.fm

6) According to DIN ISO 3046-1 MAN Diesel & Turbo has specified a maximum continuous rating for marine engines

listed in the column P Application.


7) Special turbocharger matching required.

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 23


Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

0202-020aMQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 24 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.2.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

P Operating: Available rating (output) under local conditions and dependent on application
Dependent on local conditions or special application demands a further load reduction of P Application, ISO
might be needed.
1. No de-rating necessary, provided the conditions listed in the respective column
(see "Table 2-11: De-rating Limits of ambient conditions") are met:

No de-rating up to De-rating needed according to formula, De-rating


stated reference see 2. needed
conditions (Tropic), accord. to spe-
see 1. cial calcula-
tion, see 3.

Air temperature before 318 K (45 C) 318 K (45 C) < Tx 333 K (60 C) > 333 K (60 C)
turbocharger Tx

Ambient pressure 100 kPa (1 bar) 100 kPa (1 bar) > pambient 90 kPa < 90 kPa

Cooling water tempera- 311 K (38 C) 311 K (38 C) < Tcx 316 K (43 C) > 316 K (43 C)
ture inlet charge air
cooler (LT stage)

Intake pressure before 20 mbar1) 20 mbar > pair before compressor 40 mbar1) < 40 mbar1)
compressor

Exhaust gas back pres- 30 mbar1) 30 mbar < pexhaust after turbine 60 mbar1) > 60 mbar1)
sure after turbocharger

Table 2-11 De-rating Limits of ambient conditions


1) Below/above atmospheric pressure.

2. De-rating due to ambient conditions and negative intake pressure before compressor or exhaust gas
back pressure after turbocharger.

318
1.2
311
a 1.09 0.09 with a 1
Tx U O Tcx

POperating PApplication,ISO a

a Correction factor for ambient conditions

Tx Air temperature before turbocharger [K] being considered T x


273 t x
U Increased negative intake pressure before compressor leads to an de-rating, calculated as increased air temperature
before turbocharger


U 20mbar p Air before compressor mbar 0.25K mbar withU 0
0202-020bMA2.fm

D-BB Page 2 - 25
Engine and operation
2.2.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

O Increased exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger leads to a de-rating, calculated as increased air temperature
before turbocharger:


O PExhaust after turbine mbar 30mbar 0.25K mbar with 0 0

Tcx Cooling water temperature inlet charge air cooler (LT stage) [K] being considered TCX 273 tcx
T Temperature in Kelvin [K]

t Temperature in degree Celsius [C]

3. De-rating due to special conditions or demands.


Please contact MAN Diesel & Turbo:
If limits of ambient conditions mentioned in "Ta-
ble 2-11: De-rating Limits of ambient conditions"
are exceeded. A special calculation is neces-
sary.
If higher requirements for the emission level ex-
ist. For the allowed requirements see "Section:
Exhaust gas emission".
If special requirements of the plant for heat re-
covery exist.
If special requirements on media temperatures
of the engine exist.
If any requirements of MAN Diesel & Turbo
mentioned in the Project Guide can not be
kept.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further speci-
fication are given below/above atmospheric
pressure.
0202-020bMA2.fm

Page 2 - 26 D-BB
Engine and operation
2.3.3 Speeds

2.3.3 Speeds

Unit 60Hz 50Hz

Rated speed rpm 720 750

Mean piston speed m/s 10.6 11.0

Ignition speed rpm V-engine: 45


(starting device deactivated) L-engine: 60

Engine running 300


(activation of alarm- and safety system)

Speed set point deactivation prelubrication pump 400


(engines with attached lube oil pump)

Speed set point deactivation external cooling water pump 500


(engines with attached cooling water pump)

Minimum engine operating speed1)


FPP (30 % of nominal speed) not available 225
CPP (60 % of nominal speed) not available 450
GenSet (100 % of nominal speed) 720 750

Clutch
Minium engine speed for activation (FPP) "Minimum engine operating speed" x 1.3
Minium engine speed for activation (CPP) "Minimum engine operating speed" x 1.1
Maximum engine speed for activation 7202) 7502)

Highest engine operating speed 7733)

Alarm overspeed (110 % of nominal speed) 792 825

Auto shutdown overspeed (115 % of nominal speed) 828 863


via control module/alarm

Speed adjusting range See "Section 2.3.4: Speed adjusting range, page
2-29"
Alternator frequency for GenSet Hz 60 50

Number of pole pairs - 5 4

Note!
Power take-off on engine free end up to 100 % of rated output.

Table 2-12 Engine speeds and related main data


1) Inrare occasions it might be necessary that certain engine speed intervals have to be barred for continuous operation.
For FPP applications as well as for applications using resilient mounted engines, the admissible engine speed range has to
be confirmed (preferably at an early project phase) by a torsional vibration calculation, by a dimensioning of the resilient
mounting, and, if necessary, by an engine operational vibration calculation.
2)
May possibly be restricted by manufacturer of clutch.
0202-0300MQcr2.fm

3)
This concession may possibly be restricted, see "Section 2.7.6: Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations, page 2-65".

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 27


Engine and operation
2.3.3 Speeds

0202-0300MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 28 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.3.4 Speed adjusting range

2.3.4 Speed adjusting range


The following specification represents the stand-
ard settings. For special applications, deviating
settings may be necessary.

Drive Speed droop Maximum Maximum Minimum


speed at full speed at idle speed
load running

1 main engine with control- 0% 100% (+0,5%) 100% (+0,5%) 60 %


lable-pitch propeller and with-
out PTO

1 main engine with control- 0% 100% (+0,5%) 100% (+0,5%) 60 %


lable-pitch propeller and with
PTO

Parallel operation of 2 engines


Electronic governors

driving 1 shaft with/without


PTO:

Load sharing via speed droop 5% 100% (+0,5%) 105% (+0,5%) 60 %


or

Master/slave operation 0% 100% (+0,5%) 100% (+0,5%) 60 %

GenSets/Diesel-electric plants:

with load sharing via speed 5% 100% (+0,5%) 105% (+0,5%) 60 %


droop
or

Isochronous operation 0% 100% (+0,5%) 100% (+0,5%) 60 %

Fixed-pitch propeller plants 0% 100% (+0,5%) - 30 %

Note!
For single-engine plants with fixed-pitch propeller, the speed droop is of no significance.
Only if several engines drive one shaft with fixed-pitch propeller, the speed droop is relevant for the load distribu-
tion. In the case of electronic speed control, a speed droop of 0 % is also possible during parallel operation.

Table 2-13 Electronic governors


0202-0400MQcr2.fm

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 29


Engine and operation
2.3.4 Speed adjusting range

0202-0400MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 30 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.4 Engine operation under arctic conditions

2.4 Engine operation under arctic conditions

Arctic condition is defined as: Engine equipment


Air intake temperatures of the engine below +5 C SaCoS/SaCoSone
If engines operate under arctic conditions (inter- SaCoS/SaCoSone equipment is suitable to be
mittently or permanently), the engine equipment stored at minimum temperatures of 15 C.
and plant installation have to meet special design
In case these conditions cannot be met, pro-
features and requirements. They depend on the
tective measures against climatic influences
possible minimum air intake temperature of the
have to be taken for the following electronic
engine and the specification of the fuel used.
components:
Minimum air intake temperature of the engine, tx:
- EDS Databox APC620
Category A
- TFT-touchscreen display
+5 C > tx 15 C
- Emergency switch module BD5937
Category B
These components have to be stored at plac-
15 C > tx 35 C es, where the temperature is above 15 C.
Category C A minimum operating temperature of +5 C
has to be ensured. The use of an optional elec-
tx 35 C
tric heating is recommended.
Special engine design requirements
Alternators
Charge air blow-off according to categories A,
Alternator operation is possible according to sup-
B or C.
pliers specification.
If arctic fuel (with very low lubricating properties)
is used, the following actions are required: Plant installation
- The maximum allowable fuel temperatures Intake air conditioning
have to be kept.
Air intake of the engine and power house/en-
- Fuel injection pump gine room ventilation have to be two different
systems to ensure that the power house/en-
Only in case of conventional fuel injection
gine room temperature is not too low caused
system, dependent on engine type installa-
by the ambient air temperature.
tion and activation of sealing oil system may
be necessary, because low viscosity of the It is necessary to ensure that the charge air
fuel can cause an increased leakage and the cooler cannot freeze when the engine is out of
lube oil will possibly being contaminated. operation (and the cold air is at the air inlet
side).
- Fuel injection valve
Nozzle cooling has to be switched off to
avoid corrosion caused by temperatures be-
low the dew point.
- Inlet valve lubrication
0205-0000AA2.fm

Has to be activated to avoid an increased


wear of the inlet valves.

D-BB Page 2 - 31
Engine and operation
2.4 Engine operation under arctic conditions

Gas engines - Category C


- An air intake temperature +5 C has to be > An air intake temperature 35 C has to
ensured by preheating. be ensured by preheating.
- In addition, the maximum ambient tempera- > Additionally the charge air before the cyl-
ture has to be considered since the engine inder is preheated by the HT circuit of the
control can only compensate a limited tem- charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).
perature range.
Instruction for minimum admissible fuel temperature
Example:
In general the minimum viscosity before engine
Maximum ambient temperature .... +35 C of 1.9 cSt must not be undershoot.
Temperature compensation The fuel specific characteristic values pour
by engine.......................................... 20 K point and cold filter plugging point have to be
observed to ensure pumpability respectively fil-
> An air intake temperature of +15 C
terability of the fuel oil.
(35 C 20 K = 15 C) has to be en-
sured by preheating. Fuel temperatures of approximately minus 10
C and less are to be avoided, due to tempo-
Dual-fuel engines
rarily embrittlement of seals used in the engines
- Category A, B fuel oil system and as a result their possibly loss
No additional actions are necessary. The of function.
charge air before the cylinder is preheated
Minimum power house/engine room temperature
by the HT circuit of the charge air cooler (LT
circuit closed). Ventilation of power house/engine room
- Category C The air of the power house/engine room venti-
lation must not be too cold (preheating is nec-
> An air intake temperature 35 C has to
essary) to avoid the freezing of the liquids in the
be ensured by preheating.
power house/engine room systems.
> Additionally the charge air before the cyl-
Minimum powerhouse/engine room tempera-
inder is preheated by the HT circuit of the
ture for design +5 C
charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).
Coolant and lube oil systems
> In special cases the change-over point
for the change from diesel operation to - HT and lube oil system has to be preheated
dual-fuel mode (gas mode) has to be for each individual engine, see "Section 2.7.2:
shifted to a higher load. Starting conditions and load application for diesel-
electric plants, page 2-53".
Diesel engines
- Design requirements for the preheater of HT
- Category A, B
systems:
No additional actions are necessary. The
charge air before the cylinder is preheated > Category A
by the HT circuit of the charge air cooler (LT Standard preheater
circuit closed).
> Category B
50 % increased capacity of the preheater
> Category C
0205-0000AA2.fm

100 % increased capacity of the pre-


heater

Page 2 - 32 D-BB
Engine and operation
2.4 Engine operation under arctic conditions

- If a concentration of anti-freezing agents of


> 50 % in the cooling water systems is
needed, please contact MAN Diesel &
Turbo for approval.
- For information regarding engine cooling
water see "Section 4: Specification for engine
supplies, page 4-1".
Insulation
The design of the insulation of the piping sys-
tems and other plant parts (tanks, heat ex-
changer etc.) has to be modified and designed
for the special requirements of arctic condi-
tions.
Heat tracing
To support the restart procedures in cold con-
dition (e. g. after unmanned survival mode dur-
ing winter), it is recommended to install a heat
tracing system in the piping to the engine.
Note!
A preheating of the lube oil has to be ensured.
If the plant is not equipped with a lube oil sep-
arator (e. g. plants only operating on MGO) al-
ternative equipment for preheating of the lube
oil must be provided.
For plants taken out of operation and cooled
down below temperatures of +5 C additional
special measures are needed in this case
please contact MAN Diesel & Turbo.
0205-0000AA2.fm

D-BB Page 2 - 33
Engine and operation
2.4 Engine operation under arctic conditions

0205-0000AA2.fm

Page 2 - 34 D-BB
Engine and operation
2.5 Low load operation

2.5 Low load operation

Definition Operation on heavy fuel oil


Generally the following load conditions are differ- Because of the afore mentioned reasons, low load
entiated: operation < 25 % of full load output on heavy fuel
oil is subjected to certain limitations. For further in-
Overload (for regulation):
formation see "Figure 2-7: Time limits for low load op-
> 100 % of full load output
eration (on the left), duration of relieving operation (on
Full load: 100 % of full load output the right)", the engine must, after a phase of part
Part load: < 100 % of full load output load operation, either be switched over to diesel
operation or be operated at high load (> 70 % of
Low load: < 25 % of full load output full load output) for a certain period of time in order
to reduce the deposits in the cylinder and exhaust
Correlations gas turbocharger again.
The ideal operating conditions for the engine pre- In case the engine is to be operated at low load for
vail under even loading at 60 % to 90 % of the full a period exceeding (see "Figure 2-7: Time limits for
load output. Engine control and rating of all sys- low load operation (on the left), duration of relieving op-
tems are based on the full load output. eration (on the right)"), the engine is to be switched
In the idling mode or during low load engine oper- over to diesel oil operation beforehand.
ation, combustion in the cylinders is not ideal. De- Be aware, that after 500 hours continuous heavy
posits may form in the combustion chamber, fuel oil operation at low load in the range 20 % to
which result in a higher soot emission and an in- 25 % of the full engine output a new running in of
crease of cylinder contamination. the engine is needed (see "Section 9.3: Engine run-
Moreover, in low load operation and during ma- ning-in, page 9-9"). For continuous heavy fuel oil op-
noeuvring of ships, the cooling water tempera- eration at low load in the range < 25 % of the full
tures cannot be regulated optimally high for all engine output, coordination with MAN Diesel &
load conditions which, however, is of particular im- Turbo is absolutely necessary.
portance during operation on heavy fuel oil.
Operation on diesel fuel
Better conditions For low load operation on diesel fuel oil, the follow-
Optimization of low load operation is obtained by ing rules apply:
cutoff of the LT stage of the charge air cooler or A continuous operation below 20 % of full load
perfusion of the LT stage with HT water if HT or LT has to be avoided, if possible.
switching is available for this engine type.
Note!
For common rail engines mostly this is not neces-
sary because optimized combustion is realized by Should this be absolutely necessary, MAN Diesel &
an electronically controlled fuel injection system. Turbo has to be consulted for special arrange-
ments (e. g. the use of part load injection nozzles).
HT: High temperature
A no-load operation, especially at nominal
LT: Low temperature speed (alternator operation) is only permitted
for a maximum period of one hour.
No limitations are required for loads above 20 % of
0206-0000MA2.fm

full load, as long as the specified operating data of


the engine will not be exceeded.

E-BB Page 2 - 35
Engine and operation
2.5 Low load operation

P [%] Time limits for low-load operation Duration of "relieving operation"


MGO.MDO,HFO-operation
> 70% of full-load output

t [h]
Figure 2-7 Time limits for low load operation (on the left), duration of relieving operation (on the right)

Legend

P Full load output [%]

t Operating period [h]

Explanations
New running in needed after > 500 hours low load
operation (see "Section 9.3: Engine running-in, page
9-9").
Note!
Acceleration time from present output to 70 %
of full load output not less than 15 minutes.
Example
Line a (time limits for low load operation):
At 10 % of full load output, HFO operation is per-
missible for maximum 19 hours, MGO/MDO oper-
ation for maximum 40 hours, than output has to
be increased.
Line b (duration of relieving operation):
Operate the engine for approx. 1.2 hours at not
less than 70 % of full load output to burn away the
deposits that have formed.
0206-0000MA2.fm

Page 2 - 36 E-BB
Engine and operation
2.6.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)

2.6 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)

2.6.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)

Engine output [%] Torque, BMEP [%]

110 100
1 Load limit MCR
2 Recommended combinator curve
100 90
3 Zero thrust

90
80

80
70

70 Max. permitted engine output


after load reduction demand of 60
engine control
60
1 50
50
2
40
40
Range II
Range I 30
30

20
20

3
10 10

0
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Engine speed [%]

Figure 2-8 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller

The shown speed range can suffer restrictions in 2. Additional restrictions may be required in case
two cases: of engines with resilient mounting. For more in-
0207-0000MAsd2.fm

formation see "Section: Foundation Resilient seat-


1. Certain intervals may be barred for continuous
ing".
operation to avoid torsional vibration resonanc-
es (happens rarely).

L-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR Page 2 - 37


Engine and operation
2.6.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)

Rated output/operating range


Maximum continuous rating (MCR)
Range I: Operating range for continuous opera-
tion.
Range II: Operating range which is temporarily ad-
missible e. g. during acceleration and manoeu-
vring.
The combinator curve must keep a sufficient dis-
tance to the load limit curve. For overload protec-
tion, a load control has to be provided.
Transmission losses (e. g. by gearboxes and shaft
power) and additional power requirements (e. g.
by PTO) must be taken into account.

0207-0000MAsd2.fm

Page 2 - 38 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.6.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control

2.6.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control


Pitch control of the propeller plant The area above the combinator curve should not
be reached.
For mechanical speed governors
As a load indication a 4 20 mA signal from the
engines admission teletransmitter is supplied to
the propeller control system.
For electronic speed governors
As a load indication a 4 20 mA signal from the
engines electronic governor is supplied to the pro-
peller control system.
General
A distinction between constant-speed operation
and combinator-curve operation has to be en-
sured.
Combinator-curve operation:
The 4 20 mA signal has to be used for the as-
signment of the propeller pitch to the respective
engine speed. The operation curve of engine
speed and propeller pitch (for power range, see
"Section 2.6.1: Operating range for controllable-pitch pro-
peller (CPP), page 2-37") has to be observed also
during acceleration/load increase and unloading.

Acceleration/load increase
The engine speed has to be increased before in-
creasing the propeller pitch (see "Figure 2-9: Exam-
ple to illustrate the change from one load step to
another").
Or if increasing both synchronic the speed has to
be increased faster than the propeller pitch. The
area above the combinator curve should not be
reached.
Automatic limiting of the rate of load increase must
also be implemented in the propulsion control.

Deceleration/unloading the engine


The engine speed has to be reduced later than the
propeller pitch (see "Figure 2-9: Example to illustrate
the change from one load step to another").
0207-0200MA2.fm

Or if decreasing both synchronic the propeller


pitch has to be decreased faster than the speed.

K-BB Page 2 - 39
Engine and operation
2.6.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control

Engine output [%]

1 Load limit
2 Recommended combinator curve MCR
3 Zero thrust

Detail:
decreasing load

1st Pitch
1
(load)

2nd Speed
2

Detail:
increasing load

2nd Pitch
(load)

1st Speed

Load steps

Engine speed [%]


0207-0200MA2.fm

Figure 2-9 Example to illustrate the change from one load step to another

Page 2 - 40 K-BB
Engine and operation
2.6.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control

Windmilling protection Propeller pitch reduction contact


If a stopped engine (fuel admission at zero) is be- This contact is activated when disturbances in en-
ing turned by the propeller, this is called windmill- gine operation occur, for example too high ex-
ing. The permissible period for windmilling is haust-gas mean-value deviation. When the
short, because windmilling can cause, due to poor contact is activated, the propeller control system
lubrication at low propeller speed, excessive wear has to reduce the propeller pitch to 60 % of the
of the engines bearings. rated engine output, without change in engine
speed.
Single-screw ship
The propeller control has to ensure that the wind- Distinction between normal manoeuvre and emergen-
milling time is less than 40 sec. cy manoeuvre
Multiple-screw ship The propeller control system has to be able to dis-
tinguish between normal manoeuvre and emer-
The propeller control has to ensure that the wind-
gency manoeuvre (i.e., two different acceleration
milling time is less than 40 sec. In case of plants
curves are necessary).
without shifting clutch, it has to be ensured that a
stopped engine won't be turned by the propeller.
MAN Diesel & Turbo's guidelines concerning acceler-
(Regarding maintenance work a shaft interlock ation times and power range have to be observed
has to be provided for each propeller shaft.)
The power range (see"Section 2.6.1: Operating range
for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP), page 2-37") and
Binary signals from engine control
the acceleration times (see "Section 2.5.4: Accelera-
Overload contact tion times, page 2-41") are to be observed.
The overload contact will be activated when the
engines fuel admission reaches the maximum po-
sition. At this position, the control system has to
stop the increase of the propeller pitch. If this sig-
nal remains longer than the predetermined time
limit, the propeller pitch has to be decreased.
Operation close to the limit curves (only for electronic
speed governors)
This contact is activated when the engine is oper-
ated close to a limit curve (torque limiter, charge air
pressure limiter...). When the contact is activated,
the propeller control system has to keep from in-
creasing the propeller pitch. In case the signal re-
mains longer than the predetermined time limit,
the propeller pitch has to be decreased.
0207-0200MA2.fm

K-BB Page 2 - 41
Engine and operation
2.6.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control

0207-0200MA2.fm

Page 2 - 42 K-BB
Engine and operation
2.6.3 Operating range for fixed-pitch propeller (FPP)

2.6.3 Operating range for fixed-pitch propeller (FPP)

Engine output [%] Torque, BMEP [%]


110 100
MCR
(reduced output according to
100 chapter available outputs)
90
1 Design of propeller (FP)
90 2 Theoretical propeller curve
80
3 Load limit
4 Max. permitted engine
80 output after load reduction
demand of engine control 70

70 3
2
1 60

60 4 4
50
50
40
40

30
30

20
20

10 10


0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Engine speed [%]
0207-0300MA2.fm

* For further information about reduced output see "Section 2.7.6: Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations, page 2-65"
Figure 2-10 Operating range for fixed-pitch propeller

L-BB 32/40, 32/44CR Page 2 - 43


Engine and operation
2.6.3 Operating range for fixed-pitch propeller (FPP)

Maximum continuous rating (MCR), fuel stop


power
1) Design of propeller (FP)
A new propeller must be designed to be operated
within this range. Boundary conditions for the de-
sign are clean hull, calm weather, propeller light
running inter alia.

2) Theoretical propeller curve


This curve must not be be exceeded, except tem-
porarily during manoeuvring and accelerating.
Boundary conditions are fouled hull, heavy weath-
er, propeller heavy running.

3) Torque limit curve


This curve corresponds to the maximum permit-
ted overload.

4) Maximum permitted engine output after load re-


duction demand of engine control is 60 %.

Attention!
Engine operation in a speed range between
103 % and 106 % is permissible for maximum
1 hour!
The propeller design depends on type and appli-
cation of the vessel. Therefore the determination of
the installed propulsive power in the ship is always
the exclusive responsibility of the yard.
Determining the engine power: The energy de-
mand or the energy losses from all at the engine
additionally attached aggregates has to be con-
sidered (e. g. shaft alternators, gearboxes). That
means, after deduction of their energy demand
from the engine power the remaining engine pow-
er must be sufficient for the required power.
Note!
Type testing of the engines is carried out at
0207-0300MA2.fm

110 % rated output and 103 % rated engine


speed.

Page 2 - 44 32/40, 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.6.4 Operating range for dredger pumps

2.6.4 Operating range for dredger pumps

Torque, BMEP [%]


Engine output [%]

110 100
MCR
(reduced output according to
100 chapter available outputs) 90

Range I operating range for


90 80
continuous operation

80 3 Theoretical propeller curve


70

70
3 60
Max. permitted engine
60 output after load
reduction demand of 50
engine control
50
40
40
30
30 Range I
20
20

10 10

0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Engine speed [%]
Figure 2-11 Operating range for dredger pumps
0207-0400MA2.fm

L-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 58/64 Page 2 - 45


Engine and operation
2.6.4 Operating range for dredger pumps

MCR
Maximum continuous rating, fuel stop power
Range I
Operating range for continuous operation
For dredge applications with dredge pumps di-
rectly mechanically driven by the engines there
is a requirement for full constant torque opera-
tion between 80 % and 100 % of nominal en-
gine speed. This specific operating range
results in a reduced output of the engine ac-
cording to "Table: Available outputs/related refer-
ence conditions" in "Section: Engine ratings (output)
for different applications Ratings (output) and
speeds".

0207-0400MA2.fm

Page 2 - 46 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 58/64 L-BB


Engine and operation
2.6.5 Acceleration times

2.6.5 Acceleration times

Acceleration times for fixed-pitch and controllable pitch-propeller plants


Notes on design
For remote controlled propeller drives for ships
with unmanned or centrally monitored engine-
room operation, a load programme has to be pro-
vided for the engines. Within the scope of the re-
mote control system (for the pitch adjustment of
the controllable pitch propeller or reversing and
load application of the engine).
This programme serves to protect the
preheated engine(s) (lube oil temperature 40 C
and fresh water temperature 60 C) against ex-
cessive thermal stresses, increased wear and ex-
haust gas turbidity, when the engines are loaded
for the first time possibly up to the rated output.
In case of a manned engine room, the engine
room personnel is responsible for the soft loading
sequence, before control is handed over to the
bridge.
The lower time limits for normal and emergency
manoeuvres are given in our diagrams for applica-
tion and shedding of load. We strongly recom-
mend that the limits for normal manoeuvring will
be observed during normal operation, to achieve
trouble-free engine operation on a long-term ba-
sis. An automatic change-over to a shortened load
programme is required for emergency manoeu-
vres.
The final design of the programme should be joint-
ly determined by all the involved parties, consider-
ing the demands for manoeuvring and the actual
service capacity.
Please note that the time constants for the dynam-
ic behaviour of the prime mover and the vessel are
in the ratio of about 1:100. It can be seen from this
that an extremely short load application time gen-
erally don't lead to an improvement in ships ma-
noeuvring behaviour (except tugs and small, fast
vessels).
0207-050aMBT2.fm

H-AJ 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF Page 2 - 47


Engine and operation
2.6.5 Acceleration times

0207-050aMBT2.fm

Page 2 - 48 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF H-AJ


0207-050bMBCQT2.fm

B-BA
Figure 2-12
Engine and operation

ASTERN AHEAD
2.6.5 Acceleration times

FULL ASTERN STOP FULL AHEAD


STOP to FULL AHEAD
to STOP to FULL ASTERN to STOP

100

90
Engines 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 40/54

Emergency Manoeuvre
80

Control lever setting/propeller pitch


70

60
Normal Manoeuvre
50

40

Engine rating [%]


30

20

32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 40/54


10

0
1 0 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2
Time in minutes Time in minutes

Time [min] with preheated engine (lube oil temperature minimum 40C, cooling water temperature minimum 60C)
Engine speed should generally rise more quickly than pitch when loading and fall more slowly when unloading the engine.

Page 2 - 49
Engine and operation
2.6.5 Acceleration times

0207-050bMBCQT2.fm

Page 2 - 50 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 40/54 B-BA


Engine and operation
2.7.1 Operating range for diesel-electric operation/GenSets

2.7 Diesel-electric operation

2.7.1 Operating range for diesel-electric operation/GenSets

Engine output [%] Torque, BMEP [%]


110 100
Range III
100 Overload
90
MCR
90 80

80
70

70
Range I 60

60 Max. permitted engine output after load


reduction demand of engine control 50
50

Range II 40
40

30
30

20
20

10 10

0
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Engine speed [%] 103
0208-0100MA.fm

105
Figure 2-13 Operating range for diesel-electric operation

L-BB Page 2 - 51
Engine and operation
2.7.1 Operating range for diesel-electric operation/GenSets

MCR
Maximum continuous rating
Range I
Operating range for continuous service
Range II
No continuous operation allowed in this area
Range III
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of
the rated output is permissible only for a short
time to provide additional engine power for
governing purposes only (e.g. transient load
conditions and suddenly applied load). This ad-
ditional power shall not be used for the supply
of electrical consumers.

0208-0100MA.fm

Page 2 - 52 L-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.2 Starting conditions and load application for diesel-electric plants

2.7.2 Starting conditions and load application for diesel-electric plants


In multiple-engine plants with GenSet operation Plant
and load regulation by a power management sys-
Prelubrication pump with low pressure before
tem, the availability of engines not in operation is
engine (0.3 bar < pOil before engine < 0.6 bar)
an important aspect.
Note!
The following data and conditions are of rele-
vance: Oil pressure > 0.3 bar to be ensured also for lube
oil temperature up to 80 C.
Engine start-up time until synchronization
Equipment to ensure fuel oil pressure of
"Black-Start" capability (with restriction of the
> 0.6 bar for engines with conventional injec-
plant)
tion system and > 3.0 bar for common rail sys-
Load application times tem
Note!
Requirements on engine and plant installation for
"Stand-by Operation" capability E. g. air driven fuel oil supply pump or fuel oil serv-
ice tank at sufficient height or pressurized fuel oil
Engine
tank, if no fuel oil supply pump is attached at the
Attached lube oil pump engine.
Plant Note!
Prelubrication pump with low pressure before Statements are relevant for non arctic condi-
engine tions.
(0.3 bar < pOil before engine < 0.6 bar)
For arctic conditions please consider relevant
Note! sections and clarify undefined details with
MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Oil pressure > 0.3 bar to be ensured also for lube
oil temperature up to 80 C.
Preheating HT cooling water system
(60 90 C)
Preheating lube oil system (> 40 C)
Power management system with supervision of
stand-by times engines

Requirements on engine and plant installation for


"Black-Start" capability
Engine
Attached lube oil pump
Attached HT cooling water pump recommend-
ed
Attached LT cooling water pump recommend-
ed
0208-0200MA2.fm

Attached fuel oil supply pump recommended (if


applicable)

C-BB Page 2 - 53
Engine and operation
2.7.2 Starting conditions and load application for diesel-electric plants

Engine starting After blackout or "Dead From stand-by mode After stand-still
conditions Ship" ("Black-Start") ("Normal Start")

Start up time until < 1 minute < 1 minute > 2 minutes


load application

General notes

- Engine start-up only within Maximum stand-by time -


1 h after stop of engine that has 7 days
been in operation Supervised by power manage-
1 h after end of stand-by mode ment system plant.
(For longer stand-by periods in
Note! special cases contact MAN
In case of "Dead Ship" condi- Diesel & Turbo.)
tion a main engine has to be
put back to service within max. Stand-by mode only possible after
30 min. according to IACS UR engine has been started with Nor-
M61. mal Starting Procedure and has
been in operation.

Required engine conditions

Start-blocking active No No No
Start-blocking of engine leads
to withdraw of "Stand-by Oper-
ation".

Slow turn No No Yes1)

Preheated and prelubri- No, if engine was previously in Yes Yes


cated operation or stand-by as per gen-
eral notes above.
For other engines see require-
ments in other columns.

Required system conditions

Lube oil system

Prelubrication period No, if engine was previously in Permanent Permanent


operation or stand-by as per gen-
eral notes above.
For other engines see require-
ments in other columns.

Prelubrication pressure pOil before engine < 0.3 bar 0.3 bar < pOil before engine 0.3 bar < pOil before
before engine permissible < 0.6 bar engine <0.6 bar

Preheating tempera- Less than 40 C permissible > 40 C > 40 C


ture before engine

Table 2-14 Required starting conditions for diesel-electric plants (1 of 2)


0208-0200MA2.fm

Page 2 - 54 C-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.2 Starting conditions and load application for diesel-electric plants

Engine starting After blackout or "Dead From stand-by mode After stand-still
conditions Ship" ("Black-Start") ("Normal Start")

HT cooling water

Preheating tempera- Less than 60 C permissible 60 90 C 60 90 C


ture before engine

Fuel system

For MDO operation If fuel oil supply pump is not Supply pumps in operation or with starting command to
attached to the engine: engine.
Air driven fuel oil supply pump or
For HFO operation Supply and booster pumps in operation, fuel preheated to
fuel oils service tank at sufficient
operating viscosity.
height or pressurized fuel oil tank
required. (In case of permanent stand-by a periodical exchange of the
circulating HFO has to be ensured to avoid cracking of the
fuel. This can be done by releasing a certain amount of circu-
lating HFO into the day tank and substituting it with "fresh"
fuel from the tank.)

Table 2-14 Required starting conditions for diesel-electric plants (2 of 2)


1) It is recommended to install slow turn. Otherwise the engine has to be turned by turning gear.
0208-0200MA2.fm

C-BB Page 2 - 55
Engine and operation
2.7.2 Starting conditions and load application for diesel-electric plants

0208-0200MA2.fm

Page 2 - 56 C-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.3 Load application Preheated engine

2.7.3 Load application Preheated engine


In the case of highly supercharged engines, load load application times for continuously loading the
application is limited. This is due to the fact that engine and load application within three load
the charge-air pressure build-up is delayed by the steps.
turbocharger run-up. Besides, a slow load appli-
"Figure 2-17: Load application for diesel-electric marine
cation promotes uniform heating of the engine.
plants; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchroniza-
"Figure 2-14: Start up times until load application for die- tion speed reached Only emergency case" shows the
sel-electric marine plants from stand-by mode; engines shortest possible load application time for contin-
preheated and prelubricated" shows the shortest time uously loading in case of emergency. MAN
to run up the engines from stand-by mode (pre- Diesel & Turbo can not guarantee the invisibility of
heated and prelubricated). the exhaust gas under these circumstances.
"Figure 2-15: Start up times until load application for die- To limit the effort regarding regulating the media
sel-electric marine plants in Normal Starting Mode (not in circuits, also to ensure an uniform heat input it al-
stand-by mode); engines preheated" shows the short- ways should be aimed for longer load application
est time to run up the engines in normal starting times by taking into account the realistic require-
mode, with the needed time for start up lube oil ments of the specific plant.
system + prelubrication of the engines.
All questions regarding the dynamic behaviour
"Figure 2-16: Load application for diesel-electric marine should be clarified in close cooperation between
plants; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchroniza- the customer and MAN Diesel & Turbo at an early
tion speed reached" shows the maximum allowable project stage.

Figure 2-14 Start up times until load application for diesel-electric marine plants from stand-by mode; engines preheated
and prelubricated

Engines in stand-by mode can be started with Normal Starting Procedure at any time.
0208-0300MA2.fm

D-BB Page 2 - 57
Engine and operation
2.7.3 Load application Preheated engine

Figure 2-15 Start up times until load application for diesel-electric marine plants in Normal Starting Mode (not in stand-by mode); en-
gines preheated

Engine Shortest possible Maximum allowable Shortest possible


load [%] continuous loading load application within continuous loading
(with Jet-assist) three load steps (without Jet-assist)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20 Valid only for preheated engines:
Lube oil temperature > 40&
10 Cooling water temperature > 60&

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
0208-0300MA2.fm

Time [sec]
Figure 2-16 Load application for diesel-electric marine plants; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchronization speed
reached

Page 2 - 58 D-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.3 Load application Preheated engine

Engine
load [%]
2nly emergency case (visible exhaust gas likely)
100
90
80
Emergency loading
70 (with / without Jet-assist)

60
50
40
30
20 Valid only for preheated engines:
Lube oil temperature > 40 C
10 Cooling water temperature > 60 C

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time [sec]
Figure 2-17 Load application for diesel-electric marine plants; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchronization speed
reached Only emergency case
0208-0300MA2.fm

D-BB Page 2 - 59
Engine and operation
2.7.4 Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)

2.7.4 Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)


In case of emergency, it is possible to start the The necessary time span for this process depends
cold engine provided the required media tempera- on the actual media temperatures and the specific
tures are present: lube oil > 20 C, cooling water design of the plant. After these prescribed media
> 20 C temperatures are reached the engine can be load-
ed regularly up to 100 % engine load according to
The engine is prelubricated.
"Figure 2-16: Load application for diesel-electric marine
The engine is started and accelerated up to plants; engines preheated and prelubricated, synchroniza-
100 % engine speed within 1 3 minutes. tion speed reached".
Loading the engine gradually up to 30 % en-
gine load within 5 minutes.
Warming up the engine: lube oil temperature
> 40 C, cooling water temperature > 60 C.

Engine speed or
engine load [%]
100
Further engine loading after reaching the prescribed media
90 temperatures: Lube oil > 40 C, Cooling water > 60 C

80
Engine speed
70
60 Emergency case
Required for starting the engine: Time span depends on actual media
50 Engine pre-lubricated temperatures and specific design of the plant
Lube oil > 20C
40 Cool. water > 20C
30
40 sec
20
Engine load 2 min
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Time
18 19 20
[min]
Figure 2-18 Load application for diesel-electric marine plants, emergency case; cold engines
0208-0300MA2.fm

Page 2 - 60 D-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.5 Load application for ship electrical systems

2.7.5 Load application for ship electrical systems


In the age of highly turbocharged diesel engines,
building rules of classification societies regarding
load application (e .g. 0 % => 50 % => 100 %)
cannot be complied with, neither by special meas-
ures. However the requirements of the Internation-
al Association of Classification Societies (IACS)
and ISO 8528-5 are realistic. In the case of ship's
engines the application of IACS requirements has
to be clarified with the respective classification so-
ciety as well as with the shipyard and the owner.
Therefore the IACS requirements has been estab-
lished as "MAN Diesel & Turbo standard".
For applications from 0 % to 100 % continuous
rating, according to IACS and ISO 8528-5, the fol-
lowing diagram is applied:

Pe [%]
100

90 1 1st Step
4
80 2 2nd Step
70 3 3rd Step
3
60 4 4th Step
50 Pe [%] Load application
40 2 of continuous rating

30 pe [bar] Mean effective


pressure (mep) of the
20 continuous rating
10
1

0
5 10 15 20 25 30
pe [bar]
Figure 2-19 Load application in steps as per IACS and ISO 8528-5
0208-0302MA2.fm

J-BB Page 2 - 61
Engine and operation
2.7.5 Load application for ship electrical systems

According to the previous diagram the maximum


allowable load application steps are defined in the
table below. (24.8 bar mean effective pressure has
been determined as a mean value for the listed en-
gine types).
Note!
Higher load steps than listed in general are not
allowed.

Engine bmep [bar] 1st step 2nd step 3rd step 4th step

V28/33D 26.6...28.6 33 % 23 % 18 % 26 %

32/40 24.9...25.9

32/44CR 25.3...26.4

40/54 23.2...24.8

48/60B 24.7...26.5

48/60CR 25.8...26.5 33 % 34 % -

58/64 23.2 23 % 18 % 26 %

Table 2-15 Maximum allowable load application steps (higher load steps than listed are not possible as a standard)

Requirements of the classification societies:


Minimum requirements concerning dynamic
speed drop, remaining speed variation and recov-
ery time during load application are listed below.

Classification Society Dynamic speed Remaining speed Recovery time until reach-
drop in% of the variation in% of the ing the tolerance band
nominal speed nominal speed 1 % of nominal speed
Germanischer Lloyd 10 % 5 % 5 sec.

RINA

Lloyds Register 5 sec., max 8 sec.

American Bureau of Shipping 5 sec.

Bureau Veritas

Det Norske Veritas

ISO 8528-5

Table 2-16 Minimum requirements of the classification societies plus ISO rule

In case of a load drop of 100 % nominal engine ing speed variation must not surpass 5 % of the
power, the dynamic speed variation must not ex- nominal speed.
0208-0302MA2.fm

ceed 10 % of the nominal speed and the remain-

Page 2 - 62 J-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.5 Load application for ship electrical systems

Requirements for plant design:


The load application behaviour must be con-
sidered in the electrical system design of the
plant.
The system operation must be safe in case of
graduated load application.
The load application conditions (E-balance)
must be approved during the planning and ex-
amination phase.
The possible failure of one engine must be
considered please see "Section 2.7.8: Diesel-
electric operation of vessels Failure of one engine,
page 2-69".
Questions concerning the dynamic operational
behaviour of the engine/s has to be clarified with
MAN Diesel & Turbo and should be a part of the
contract.
0208-0302MA2.fm

J-BB Page 2 - 63
Engine and operation
2.7.5 Load application for ship electrical systems

0208-0302MA2.fm

Page 2 - 64 J-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.6 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations

2.7.6 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations


General Limiting parameters
Generating sets, which are integrated in an elec- Max. torque
tricity supply system, are subjected to the frequen-
In case the frequency decreases, the available
cy fluctuations of the mains. Depending on the
output is limited by the maximum permissible
severity of the frequency fluctuations, output and
torque of the generating set.
operation respectively have to be restricted.
Max. speed for continuous rating
Frequency adjustment range
An increase in frequency, resulting in a speed that
According to DIN ISO 8528-5: 1997-11, operating is higher than the maximum speed admissible for
limits of > 2.5 % are specified for the lower and up- continuous operation, is only permissible for a
per frequency adjustment range. short period of time, i. e. for less than 2 minutes.
For engine-specific information see "Section: Rat-
Operating range
ings (output) and speeds of the specific engine."
Depending on the prevailing local ambient condi-
tions, a certain maximum continuous rating will be Overload
available.
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the
In the output/speed and frequency diagrams, a rated engine output is permissible only for a short
range has specifically been marked with No con- time to provide additional engine power for gov-
tinuous operation allowed in this area. Operation erning purpose only (e. g. transient load condi-
in this range is only permissible for a short period tions and suddenly applied load). This additional
of time, i. e. for less than 2 minutes. In special cas- power shall not be used for the supply of electrical
es, a continuous rating is permissible if the stand- consumers.
ard frequency is exceeded by more than 3 %.

Figure 2-20 Permissible frequency deviations and corresponding max. output


0208-0400AA2.fm

A-BB Page 2 - 65
Engine and operation
2.7.6 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations

0208-0400AA2.fm

Page 2 - 66 A-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.7 Load reduction

2.7.7 Load reduction


Sudden load shedding Recommended load reduction/stopping the
engine
For the sudden load shedding from 100 % to 0 %
PNominal several requirements from the classification Run-down cooling
societies regarding the dynamic and permanent
In order to dissipate the residual engine heat,
change of engine speed have to be fulfilled.
the system circuits should be kept in operation
A sudden load shedding represents a rather ex- for a minimum of 15 min.
ceptional situation e. g. opening of the diesel-elec-
"Figure 2-21: Engine ramping down, generally" shows
tric plants alternator switch during high load.
the shortest possible times for continuously ramp-
After a sudden load shedding it has to be ensured ing down the engine and a sudden load shedding.
that system circuits remain in operation for a min-
To limit the effort regarding regulating the media
imum of 15 min. to dissipate the residual engine
circuits, also to ensure an uniform heat dissipation
heat.
it always should be aimed for longer ramping
In case of a sudden load shedding and related down times by taking into account the realistic re-
compressor surging, please check the proper quirements of the specific plant.
function of the turbo charger silencer filter mat.

Engine
load [%]
100
90 Shortest possible continuous load reduction

80
70
60
50 Sudden load shedding
In case of related compressor
40 surging please check the
proper function of the turbo
30 charger silencer filter mat

20
10
0
0 5 10
Time [sec]
Figure 2-21 Engine ramping down, generally
0208-0500MA2.fm

I-BB Page 2 - 67
Engine and operation
2.7.7 Load reduction

0208-0500MA2.fm

Page 2 - 68 I-BB
Engine and operation
2.7.8 Diesel-electric operation of vessels Failure of one engine

2.7.8 Diesel-electric operation of vessels Failure of one engine


Diesel-electric operation of vessels is defined as Load application in case one engine fails
parallel operation of GenSets forming a closed
In case one engine fails, its output has to be made
system.
up for by the remaining engines in the system
In the electrical system design of the plant the pos- and/or the load has to be decreased by reducing
sible failure of one engine has to be considered in the propulsive output and/or by switching off elec-
order to avoid overloading and under frequency of trical consumers.
the remaining engines with the risk of an electrical
The immediate load transfer to one engine does
blackout.
not always correspond with the load reserves that
Therefore we recommend to install a power man- the particular engine still has available in the re-
agement system. This ensures uninterrupted op- spective moment. That depends on its base load.
eration in the maximum output range and in case
The permissible load applications for such a case
one unit fails the power management system re-
can be derived from "Figure 2-22: Load application de-
duces the propulsive output or switches off less
pending on base load".
important energy consumers in order to avoid un-
der frequency.
According to the operating conditions it's the re-
sponsibility of the ship's operator to set priorities
and to decide which energy consumer has to be
switched off.
The base load should be chosen as high as possi-
ble to achieve an optimum engine operation and
lowest soot emissions.
The optimum operating range and the permissible
part loads are to be observed (see "Section 2.5: Low
load operation, page 2-35").

Figure 2-22 Load application depending on base load


0208-0600MA2.fm

A-BA Page 2 - 69
Engine and operation
2.7.8 Diesel-electric operation of vessels Failure of one engine

The maximum engine load per engine in a multi-


engine plant, dependent on the total number of
operating engines, which doesn't lead to a total
output reduction in case one GenSet fails, can be
derived (see "Table 2-17: Load application in case one
engine fails").

No. of engines running-in the system 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Utilisation of engines capacity during system 50 75 80 83 86 87.5 89 90


operation in (%) of Pmax

Table 2-17 Load application in case one engine fails

Example
The isolated network consists of 4 engines with
12,170 kW electrical output each.

To achieve an uniform load sharing all engines


must have the same speed droop.

The possible output of the multi-engine plant op-


erating at 100 % load is:

Pmax 4 12,170kW 48,680kW 100%

If the present system load is P0 = 39,000, each en-


gine runs with:

100% P0 Pmax 100% 39,000 48,680 80%Load

In case one unit suddenly fails, an immediate


transfer of 20 % engine output is possible accord-
ing to the diagram, i. e. from 80 % to 100 % en-
gine output.
100 % engine output of the remaining
3 engines is calculated as follows:

P1 3 12,170kW 36,500kW

Consequently, an immediate load decrease from


39,000 kW to 36,500 kW is necessary, e. g. elec-
trical consumers of a total amount of 2,500 kW
have to be switched off.
0208-0600MA2.fm

Page 2 - 70 A-BA
Engine and operation
2.7.9 Alternator Reverse power protection

2.7.9 Alternator Reverse power protection


Demand for reverse power protection Adjusting the reverse power protection relay
For each alternator (arranged for parallel opera- Adjusting value for reverse power protection relay:
tion) a reverse power protection device has to be Maximum 3 % of the rated alternator power.
provided because if a stopped combustion engine
On vessels with electric traction motor and crash
(fuel admission at zero) is being turned it can
stop requirements (shifting the manoeuvring lever
cause, due to poor lubrication, excessive wear on
from forward to full reverse), special arrangements
the engines bearings. This is also a classifications
for the adjustment value of the reverse power relay
requirement.
have to be made, which are only valid in the event
of a crash stop manoeuvre.
Definition of reverse power
If an alternator, coupled to a combustion engine, is Time delay
no longer driven by this engine, but is supplied
For activation of the reverse power protection relay
with propulsive power by the connected electric
a time delay between 3 s and 10 s has to be fixed.
grid and operates as an electric motor instead of
working as an alternator, this is called reverse Maximum permissible time period for reverse power
power.
If a reverse power higher than the adjusted val-
Examples for possible reverse power ue for the reverse power protection relay oc-
curs, the alternator switch has to open
Due to lack of fuel the combustion engine no
immediately after the time delay elapsed.
longer drives the alternator, which is still con-
nected to the mains. Reverse power below the adjusted value for the
reverse power protection relay for periods ex-
Stopping of the combustion engine while the
ceeding 30 seconds is not permitted.
driven alternator is still connected to the electric
grid.
On ships with diesel-electric drive the propeller
can also drive the electric traction motor and
this in turn drives the alternator and the alterna-
tor drives the connected combustion engine.
Sudden frequency increase, e. g. because of a
load decrease in an isolated electrical system ->
if the combustion engine is operated at low
load (e. g. just after synchronising).
0208-1000MA2.fm

E-BA Page 2 - 71
Engine and operation
2.7.9 Alternator Reverse power protection

0208-1000MA2.fm

Page 2 - 72 E-BA
Engine and operation
2.7.10 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators

2.7.10 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators


General Measures to be taken on the alternator
The use of electrical equipment on diesel engines Because of slight magnetic unbalances and ring
requires precautions to be taken for protection excitations, shaft voltages, i. e. voltages between
against shock current and for equipotential bond- the two shaft ends, are generated in electrical ma-
ing. These not only serve as shock protection but chines. In the case of considerable values (e. g.
also for functional protection of electric and elec- > 0.3 V), there is the risk that bearing damage oc-
tronic devices (EMC protection, device protection curs due to current transfers. For this reason, at
in case of welding, etc.). least the bearing that is not located on the drive
end is insulated on alternators approx. > 1 MW.
For verification, the voltage available at the shaft
voltage) is measured while the alternator is running
and excited. With proper insulation, a voltage can
be measured. In order to protect the prime mover
and to divert electrostatic charging, an earthing
brush is often fitted on the coupling side.
Observation of the required measures is the alter-
nator manufacturers responsibility.

Consequences of inadequate bearing


insulation on the alternator, and insulation check
In case the bearing insulation is inadequate, e. g.,
if the bearing insulation was short-circuit by a
measuring lead (PT100, vibration sensor), leakage
currents may occur, which result in the destruction
of the bearings. One possibility to check the insu-
lation with the machine at standstill (prior to cou-
pling the alternator to the engine; this, however, is
only possible in the case of single-bearing alterna-
Figure 2-23 Earthing connection on engine
tors) would be to raise the alternator rotor (insulat-
ed, in the crane) on the coupling side, and to
Earthing connections on the engine
measure the insulation by means of the Megger
Threaded bores M12, 20 mm deep, marked with test against earth (in this connection, the max.
the earthing symbol have been provided in the en- voltage permitted by the alternator manufacturer is
gine foot on both ends of the engines. to be observed!).
It has to be ensured that earthing is carried out im- If the shaft voltage of the alternator at rated speed
mediately after engine set-up! (If this cannot be ac- and rated voltage is known (e. g. from the test
complished any other way, at least provisional record of the alternator acceptance test), it is also
earthing is to be effected right at the beginning.) possible to carry out a comparative measurement.
If the measured shaft voltage is lower than the re-
sult of the earlier measurement (test record), the
alternator manufacturer should be consulted.
0208-1100BQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/40, 32/44CR Page 2 - 73


Engine and operation
2.7.10 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators

Earthing conductor
The nominal cross section of the earthing conduc-
tor (equipotential bonding conductor) has to be
selected in accordance with DIN VDE 0100, part
540 (up to 1000 V) or DIN VDE 0141 (in excess of
1 KV).
Generally, the following applies:
The protective conductor to be assigned to the
largest main conductor is to be taken as a basis
for sizing the cross sections of the equipotential
bonding conductors.
Flexible conductors have to be used for the con-
nection of resiliently mounted engines.

Execution of earthing
On vessels, earthing must be done by the shipyard
during assembly on board.
Earthing strips are not included in the MAN
Diesel & Turbo scope of supply.

Additional information regarding the use of welding


equipment
In order to prevent damage on electrical compo-
nents, it is imperative to earth welding equipment
close to the welding area, i. e., the distance be-
tween the welding electrode and the earthing con-
nection should not exceed 10 m.

0208-1100BQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 74 32/40, 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.8.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II

2.8 Fuel oil; lube oil; starting air/control air consumption


2.8.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Engine 32/44CR GenSet
560 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 560 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

% Load 100 851) 75 50 25

Specific fuel consumption (g/kWh) without attached pumps2)3)4) 178.5 176 180.5 184 205

2-18a Fuel oil consumption 32/44CR GenSet


1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance for warranty +5 %. Note! The additions to fuel gas consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-22: Reference conditions 32/44CR".
4)
Relevant for engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2/D2 Test cycle.

Engine 32/44CR Controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)


560 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

% Load 100 851) 75 50 25

Speed constant = 750 rpm

Specific fuel consumption (g/kWh) without attached pumps2)3)4) 178.5 176 180.5 184 205

Speeds according recommended combinator curve (+/-5 rpm] 750 750 731 674 587
rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm

Specific fuel consumption (g/kWh) without attached pumps2)3)4) 178.5 176 179.5 181 190

q~=OJ18b Fuel oil consumption 32/44CR Controllable-pitch propeller


1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance for warranty +5 %.Note! The additions to fuel gas consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-22: Reference conditions 32/44CR".
4)
Due to engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 (Test cycle for "constant-speed main propulsion application" including diesel-elec-
tric drive and all controllable-pitch propeller installations) factory acceptance test will be done with constant speed only.

Engine 32/44CR Fixed-pitch propeller (FPP)


510 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

% Load 100 851) 75 50 25

Speeds according FPP curve (+/-5 rpm] 750 710 683 600 473
rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm

2)3)4)
Specific fuel consumption (g/kWh) without attached pumps 177 176.5 179.5 185 2082

2-18c Fuel oil consumption 32/44CR Fixed-pitch propeller (FPP)


1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2) Tolerance for warranty +5 %. Note! The additions to fuel gas consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-22: Reference conditions 32/44CR".
0209-0000MQcr2.fm

4) Relevant for engines certification for compliance with the NO limits according E3 Test cycle.
x

C-BC 32/44CR Page 2 - 75


Engine and operation
2.8.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II

Engine 32/44CR Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)


510 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

% Load 100 851) 75 50 25

Speed constant = 750 rpm

Specific fuel consumption (g/kWh) without attached pumps2)3)4) 177 176.5 179.5 185 208

2-19 Fuel oil consumption 32/44CR Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)


1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance for warranty +5 %. Note! The additions to fuel gas consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-22: Reference conditions 32/44CR".
4)
Clarification needed on early project stage if engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits needs to be done according C1, E2 or E3 Test cycle.

Additions to fuel consumption (g/kWh)

% Load 100 85 75 50 25

For each attached cooling water pump +1.0 +1.5 +1.5 +2.0 +4.0

For all attached lube oil pumps +2.0 +2.5 +3.0 +4.0 +8.0

For exhaust gas back pressure after turbine > 30 mbar Every additional 1 mbar (0.1 kPa) backpressure addition of 0.05 g/kWh to be
calculated

Charge air blow off for exhaust gas temperature control For every increase of the exhaust gas temperature by 1 C, due to activation of
charge air blow-off device, an addition of 0.1 g/kWh to be calculated
(plants with catalyst converter)

Table 2-20 Additions to fuel consumption

Idle running fuel consumption (kg/h)

No. of cylinders 6L 7L 8L 9L 10L 12V 14V 16V 18V 20V

Speed 720/750 rpm 100 120 140 160 200 200 240 280 320 400

2-21 Fuel oil consumption at idle running

Reference conditions (according to ISO 3046-1: 2002; ISO 1550:2002)

Air temperature before turbocharger tr C 25

Ambient pressure pr bar 1

Relative humidity r % 30

Engine type specific reference charge air temperature before cylinder tbar1) C 40

Net calorific value NCV kJ/kg 42,700

Table 2-22 Reference conditions 32/44CR


1) Specified reference charge air temperature corresponds to a mean value for all cylinder numbers that will be achieved with 25 C LT cooling water temperature
before charge air cooler (according to ISO).

IMO Tier II Requirements:


0209-0000MQcr2.fm

For detailed information see "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water system diagram, page 5-45".
IMO: International Maritime Organization
MARPOL 73/78; Revised Annex VI-2008, Regulation 13.
Tier II: NOx technical code on control of emission of nitrogen oxides from diesel engines.

Page 2 - 76 32/44CR C-BC


Engine and operation
2.8.2 Lube oil consumption

2.8.2 Lube oil consumption


Engine 32/44CR
560 kW/cyl.; 720/750 rpm
Specific lube oil consumption . . . . . 0.5 g/kWh

Total lube oil consumption [kg/h]1)

No. of cylinders 6L 7L 8L 9L 10L 12V 14V 16V 18V 20V

Speed 720/750 rpm 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.4 3.9 4.5 5.0 5.6

Table 2-23 Total lube oil consumption 32/44CR


1) Tolerance for warranty +20 %.

Note!
As a matter of principle, the lubricating oil con-
sumption is to be stated as total lubricating oil
consumption related to the tabulated ISO full
load output (see "Section 2.3: Ratings (output) and
speeds, page 2-21").
0209-0200MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 77


Engine and operation
2.8.3 Starting air/control air consumption

2.8.3 Starting air/control air consumption

Number of cylinders 6L 7L 8L 9L 10L 12V 14V 16V 18V 20V

Air consumption per Nm 2.5 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.0 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.0
start (20 C)

Air consumption per 2.3 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 4.5 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
Jet Assist activation
(*5 sec. duration)

Air consumption per 5.0 5.5 5.5 6.0 6.0 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0
slow turn manoeuvre

Table 2-24 Starting air consumption 32/44CR

*The above-mentioned air consumption per Jet


Assist activation is valid for a jet duration of
5 seconds. The jet duration may vary between
3 sec and 10 sec, depending on the loading (aver-
age jet duration 5 sec).

0209-0200MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 78 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.8.4 Recalculation of fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions

2.8.4 Recalculation of fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions


In accordance to ISO-Standard ISO 3046-1:2002 Reciprocating internal combustion engines Performance,
Part 1: Declarations of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods Additional requirements for en-
gines for general use MAN Diesel & Turbo specifies the method for recalculation of fuel consumption de-
pendent on ambient conditions for 1-stage turbocharged engines as follows:

= 1+ 0.0006 ( t x tr ) + 0.0004 ( tbax tbar ) + 0.07 ( pr p x )

The formula is valid within the following limits:


+ Ambient air temperature 5 C 55 C
+ Charge air temperature before cylinder 25 C 75 C
+ Ambient air pressure 0.885 bar 1.030 bar

bx
bx = br br =

Fuel consumption factor

tbar Engine type specific reference charge air temperature before cylinder
see "Table: Reference conditions" in "Section: Fuel oil; lube oil; starting air/control
air consumption".

Legend Reference At test run or at site

Specific fuel consumption [g/kWh] br bx

Ambient air temperature [C] tr tx


Charge air temperature before cylinder [C] tbar tbax
Ambient air pressure [bar] pr px

Example
Reference values:
br = 200 g/kWh, tr = 25 C, tbar = 40 C, pr = 1.0 bar
At Site:
tx = 45 C, tbax = 50 C, px = 0.9 bar
= 1+ 0.0006 (45 25) + 0.0004 (50 40) + 0.07 (1.0 0.9) = 1.023
bx = x br = 1.023 x 200 = 204.6 g/kWh
0209-0300AA2.fm

C-BC Page 2 - 79
Engine and operation
2.8.4 Recalculation of fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions

0209-0300AA2.fm

Page 2 - 80 C-BC
Introduction

2.8.5 Aging

Aging curve - 32/44 CR


2,00

early maintenance every 12000 or 30000 operating hrs


1,75 late maintenance every 15000 or 40000 operating hrs
Increase of fuel oil consumption [%]

1,50

1,25

1,00

0,75

0,50

0,25

0,00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Operating hours [ x 1000 h]

Figure 2-24 Influence from total engine running time and service intervals on fuel oil consumption

The fuel oil consumption will increase over the run-


ning time of the engine. Proper service can reduce
or eliminate this increase. Dependencies can be
seen in "Figure 2-24: Influence from total engine running
time and service intervals on fuel oil consumption".
0209-0400MQcr2.fm

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 81


Introduction

0209-0400MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 82 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation

2.9 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II

Note!
If an advanced HT cooling water system for in-
creased freshwater generation is to be ap-
plied, please contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for
corresponding planning data.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 83


Engine and operation
2.9.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L32/44CR

2.9.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L32/44CR


560 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 560 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

Reference conditions: Tropics

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. bef. charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 50

Number of cylinders - 6L 7L 8L 9L 10L

Engine output kW 3,360 3,920 4,480 5,040 5,600

Heat to be dissipated1)

Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder kW 400 470 535 600 670

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT 1,010 1,200 1,330 1,525 1,650

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT 500 595 680 775 860

Lube oil (L.O.) cooler + separator2) 410 480 550 620 685

Cooling water fuel nozzles 13 15 17 20 22

Heat radiation engine 120 140 160 180 200

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (C.W. cylinder + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 42 49 56 63 70

LT circuit (L.O. cooler + charge air cooler LT) 66 77 88 99 110

Lube oil (4 bar before engine) including flushing oil 110 120 130 140 150
amount of attached lube oil automatic filter of 13 m/h

Cooling water fuel nozzles 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel 1.4

Pumps

a) Engine driven pumps

HT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar) m/h 70

LT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar) 140 225

Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application with constant speed 120 120 141 141 162

Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application with variable speed 110+z 120+z 130+z 140+z 150+z
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Table 2-25 Nominal values for cooler specification L32/44CR (1 of 2)

Page 2 - 84 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L32/44CR

Reference conditions: Tropics

b) External pumps4)

HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 42 49 56 63 70

LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) Depending on plant design

Lube oil (8.0 bar) 100+z 110+z 120+z 130+z 140+z

Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar) 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

MGO/MDO supply pump (p 14.0 bar) 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.8 4.2

HFO supply pump (p 8.0 bar) 1.3 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.2

HFO circulating pump (abs. 14.0 bar, p 10.0 bar) 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.8 4.2

Note!
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding chapters.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-53".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-20" and "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-20".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-29".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-53".

Table 2-25 Nominal values for cooler specification L32/44CR (2 of 2)


1) Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2) Including
separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
3) Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4) Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.

z = flushing oil of additonal external automatic filter.

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 85


Engine and operation
2.9.2 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L32/44CR

2.9.2 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L32/44CR
560 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 560 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

Reference conditions: Tropics

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air 38


cooler (LT stage)

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 50

Number of cylinders 6L 7L 8L 9L 10L

Engine output kW 3,360 3,920 4,480 5,040 5,600

Temperature basis

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet 38 C (Setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil engine inlet 65

Cooling water fuel nozzles inlet 60

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air C 56 55 56 55 56


cooler outlet

Air flow rate3) m3/h 20,410 23,810 27,210 30,610 34,020

t/h 22.3 26.1 29.8 33.5 37.2

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.64

Air required to dissipate heat radiation m/h 38,540 44,960 51,380 57,810 64,230
(engine) (t2t1 = 10 C)

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger m3/h 40,690 47,410 54,300 61,030 67,750
outlet)5)

Mass flow t/h 23.0 26.8 30.7 34.5 38.3

Temperature at turbine outlet C 343

Heat content (190 C) kW 1,050 1,225 1,400 1,575 1,750

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar < 30


after turbocharger

Table 2-26 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L32/44CR
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2) Fordesign see "Section 5.3.2: Cooling water system description, page 5-51".
3) Under above mentioned reference conditions.

Page 2 - 86 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.3 Nominal values for cooler specification V32/44CR

4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
5)
Under below mentioned temperature at turbine outlet and pressure according above mentioned reference conditions.

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.

2.9.3 Nominal values for cooler specification V32/44CR


560 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 560 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

Reference conditions: Tropics

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. bef. charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 50

Number of cylinders - 12 14 16 18 20

Engine output kW 6,720 7,840 8,960 10,080 11,200

Heat to be dissipated1)

Cooling water (C.W.) cylinder kW 800 935 1,070 1,200 1,335

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT 2,085 2,460 2,735 3,110 3,380

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT 930 1,120 1,275 1,465 1,630

Lube oil (L.O.)cooler + separator2) 810 945 1,085 1,220 1,355

Cooling water fuel nozzles 26 30 35 39 44

Heat radiation engine 240 280 320 360 395

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (C.W. cylinder + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 84 98 112 126 140

LT circuit (L.O. cooler + charge air cooler LT) 132 154 176 198 220

Lube oil (5 bar before engine) including flushing oil 165 185 205 225 245
amount of attached lube oil automatic filter of
15 m/h

Cooling water fuel nozzles 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.2

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel 2.8


0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Table 2-27 Nominal values for cooler specification Engine V32/44CR (1 of 2)

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 87


Engine and operation
2.9.3 Nominal values for cooler specification V32/44CR

Reference conditions: Tropics

Pumps

a) Engine driven pumps

HT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar) m/h 140

LT circuit cooling water (4.5 bar) 225

Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application with constant speed 162 191 191 226 240

Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application with variable speed 191 191 226 226 240

b) External pumps4)

HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 84 98 112 126 140

LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) Depending on plant design

Lube oil (8.0 bar) 165+z 185+z 205+z 225+z 245+z

Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar) 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6

MGO/MDO supply pump ( p 14.0 bar) 5.0 5.9 6.7 7.6 8.4

HFO supply pump ( p 8.0 bar) 2.6 3.1 3.5 4.0 4.4

HFO circulating pump (abs. 14.0 bar, p 10.0 bar) 5.0 5.9 6.7 7.6 8.4

Note!
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding chapters.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-53".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-20" and "Paragraph: H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-20".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-29".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph: H-001/Preheater, page 5-53".

Table 2-27 Nominal values for cooler specification Engine V32/44CR (2 of 2)


1) Tolerance:
+10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2) Including
separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
3) Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of additonal external automatic filter.

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 88 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V32/44CR

2.9.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V32/44CR
560 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 560 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

Reference conditions: Tropics

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air 38


cooler (LT stage)

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 50

Number of cylinders - 12 14 16 18 20

Engine output kW 6,720 7,840 8,960 10,080 11,200

Temperature basis

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet 38 C (Setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil inlet engine 65

Cooling water fuel nozzles inlet 60

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air C 56 55 56 55 56


cooler outlet

Air flow rate3) m3/h 40,820 47,620 54,420 61,220 68,030

t/h 44.7 52.1 59.6 67.0 74.5

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.65

Air required to dissipate heat radiation m/h 77,070 89,920 102,760 115,610 126,840
(engine) (t2t1 = 10 C)

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger m3/h 81,230 94,830 108,250 121,850 135,440
outlet)5)

Mass flow t/h 46.0 53.7 61.3 69.0 76.7

Temperature at turbine outlet C 342

Heat content (190 C) kW 2,090 2,440 2,790 3,140 3,490

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar < 30


after turbocharger

Table 2-28 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V32/44CR
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2)
For design see "Section 5.3.2: Cooling water system description, page 5-51".
3) Under above mentioned reference conditions.

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 89


Engine and operation
2.9.5 Load specific values at tropical conditions L/V32/44CR

4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
5)
Under below mentioned temperature at turbine outlet and pressure according above mentioned reference conditions.

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.

2.9.5 Load specific values at tropical conditions L/V32/44CR


560 kW/cyl., 720 rpm or 560 kW/cyl., 750 rpm

Reference conditions: Tropics

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 50

Engine output % 100 85 75 50

kW/cyl. 560 476 420 280

Speed rpm 720/750

Heat to be dissipated1)

Cooling water cylinder kJ/kWh 430 440 450 565

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT2) 1,090 1,000 945 575

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT2) 525 530 535 480

Lube oil cooler + separator3) 435 460 470 645

Cooling water fuel nozzles 14 -

Heat radiation engine


L-engine 130 135 145 180
V-engine 130 135 145 180

Air data

Temperature of charge air C


after compressor 263 236 222 163
at charge air cooler outlet 56 53 51 45

Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.65 7.05 7.30 7.40

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.65 4.15 3.78 2.57

Exhaust gas data4)


0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Mass flow kg/kWh 6.85 7.25 7.50 7.60

Table 2-29 Load specific values at tropical conditions Engine L/V32/44CR (1 of 2)

Page 2 - 90 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.5 Load specific values at tropical conditions L/V32/44CR

Reference conditions: Tropics

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 50

Engine output % 100 85 75 50

kW/cyl. 560 476 420 280

Speed rpm 720/750

Temperature at turbine outlet C 342 327 329 364

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,120 1,060 1,115 1,425

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after mbar < 30 -


turbocharger (maximum)

Tolerances refer to 100 % load

Table 2-29 Load specific values at tropical conditions Engine L/V32/44CR (2 of 2)


1) Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2) The
values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 20V32/44CR.
3) Including separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4) Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 91


Engine and operation
2.9.6 Load specific values at ISO-conditions L/V32/44CR

2.9.6 Load specific values at ISO-conditions L/V32/44CR

Reference conditions: ISO

Air temperature C 25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25

Air pressure bar 1

Relative humidity % 30

Engine output % 100 85 75 50

kW/cyl. 560 476 420 280

Speed rpm 720/750

Heat to be dissipated1)

Cooling water cylinder kJ/kWh 370 380 390 485

Charge air cooler; cooling water HT2) 945 850 795 425

Charge air cooler; cooling water LT2) 485 490 495 470

Lube oil cooler + separator3) 405 430 440 600

Cooling water fuel nozzles 14 -

Heat radiation engine


L-engine 165 180 190 230
V-engine 165 180 190 230

Air data

Temperature of charge air C


after compressor 237 212 198 142
at charge air cooler outlet 37 35 33 29

Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.00 7.40 7.65 7.75

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.77 4.25 3.88 2.63

Exhaust gas data4)

Mass flow kg/kWh 7.15 7.55 7.85 7.95

Temperature at turbine outlet C 309 295 297 330

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 915 850 895 1,195

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger mbar < 30 -


(maximum)

Tolerances refer to 100 % load

Table 2-30 Load specific values at ISO-conditions Engine L/V 32/44CR


0210-0000MQcr2.fm

1) Tolerance:+10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.


2) Thevalues of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 20V32/44CR.

Page 2 - 92 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.6 Load specific values at ISO-conditions L/V32/44CR

3)
Including separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 93


Engine and operation
2.9.7 Filling volumes and flow resistances

2.9.7 Filling volumes and flow resistances

Water and oil volume Turbocharger at counter coupling side

No. of cylinders 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

HT cooling litre 234 269 303 337 371 469 539 606 675 742
water1) approx.

LT cooling 71 76 76 78 78 142 152 152 156 156


water2) approx.

Lube oil dry oil sump

Water and oil volume Turbocharger at coupling side

HT cooling litre 273 312 349 388 425 546 624 698 776 851
water1) approx.

LT cooling 52 57 57 59 59 104 114 114 118 118


water2) approx.

Lube oil dry oil sump

Table 2-31 Water and oil volume of engine


1) HT-water volume engine: HT-part of charge air cooler, cylinder unit, piping
2) LT-water
volume engine: LT-part of charge air cooler, piping

Service tanks Installa- Minimum effective capacity


tion1)
height

m m

No. of cylinders - 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Cooling water cyl- 6 ... 9 0.5 0.7


inder

Lube oil
in Baseframe2) - 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10
in Baseframe3) - 5.0 6.0 6.5 7.5 8.0 9.5 11.0 12.0 13.5 14.5

Table 2-32 Service tanks capacity


1) Installation
height refers to tank bottom and crankshaft centre line.
2) Marine
engines with attached lube oil pump.
3) Marine engines with free-standing lube oil pump; capacity of the run-down lube oil tank included.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 94 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.8 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Flow resistance bar

Charge air cooler (HT stage) 0.35 per cooler

Charge air cooler (LT stage) 0.40 per cooler

Cylinder (HT cooling water) 1.01)

Fuel nozzles (HT cooling water) 1.5

Table 2-33 Flow resistance


1) Adjustable
orifice installed in HT cooling water circuit for
adjusting the volume flow

2.9.8 Operating/service temperatures and pressures1


Operating temperatures

Air Air before compressor 5 C, max. 45 C1)


Charge Air Charge air before cylinder 45...58 C2)

Coolant Engine coolant after engine 90 C3), max. 95 C

Engine coolant preheated before start 60 C


Coolant before charge air cooler LT stage 32 C3), load reduction 38 C1)

Coolant nozzle cooling 55...60 C

Lubricating oil Lubricating oil before engine/before turbocharger 65 C3), Alarm/Stop 70 C

Lubricating oil preheated before start 40 C


Fuel MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO (DMB) according 45 C and Viscosity before engine: minimum
ISO 8217-2010 1.9 cSt, maximum 14 cSt4)

HFO according ISO 8217-2010 150 C and Viscosity before engine: minimum
1.9 cSt, maximum 14 cSt, recommended: 12
14 cSt

Preheating (HFO in day tank) 75 C


Table 2-34 Operating temperatures
1) )
In accordance with power definition. A reduction in power is required at higher temperatures/lower pressures.
2)
Aim for a higher value in conditions of high air humidity (condensed water production).
3) Regulated temperature.
4) See "Section 4.7: Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram), page 4-33".

Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

1
Valid for nominal output and nominal speed.

E-BC 32/44CR Page 2 - 95


Engine and operation
2.9.8 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Operating pressures

Intake Air Air before turbocharger (negative pressure) max. 20 mbar

Starting air/Control air Starting air min. approx. 15, max. 30 bar

Pilot air 8, min. 5.5 bar

Cylinder Nominal ignition pressure, combustion chamber 230 bar

Safety valve (opening pressure) 300 +7 bar

Crankcase Crankcase pressure max. 3 mbar

Crankcase pressure (with suction) Vacuum, max. 2.5 mbar

Safety valve (opening pressure) 50...70 mbar

Exhaust Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger (static) max. 30 mbar1)

Coolant Engine coolant and charge air cooler HT 3...4 bar

Nozzle coolant 3...5 bar

Charge air cooler LT 2...4 bar

Nozzle cooling water before fuel valves


open system 2...3 bar
closed system 3...5 bar

Lubricating oil Lubrication oil Prelubrication before engine 0.3...0.6 bar2)

Lubricating oil before engine 4...5 bar

Lubricating oil before turbocharger 1.3 bar

Fuel Fuel before high pressure pumps 11...12 bar

Fuel before high pressure pumps in case of black out min. 4 bar
(only engine start idling)

Differential pressure (engine feed/engine return) 5 bar


Maximum pressure variation in front of engine 0.5 bar

Fuel injection valve (Opening pressure) 440 +10 bar

Fuel injection valve (Opening pressure for new springs) 460 bar

Safety valve/pressure limiting valve in CR system (Opening 1,850 +100 bar


pressure)

Shutoff valve (Opening pressure) 100 3 bar

Note!
Variations of the mandatory values can cause rating reduction of the engine rather affect the operation of the
engine negative.

Table 2-35 Operating pressures


0210-0000MQcr2.fm

1)
At a total exhaust gas back pressure of the designed exhaust gas line of more than 30 mbar the available engine perform-
ance needs to be recalculated.
2)
Note! Oil pressure > 0.3 bar must be ensured also for lube oil temperatures up to 80 C

Page 2 - 96 32/44CR E-BC


Engine and operation
2.9.8 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Exhaust gas back pressure


An increased exhaust gas back pressure
(static > 30 mbar) raises the temperature level of
the engine and will be considered when calculat-
ing a required derating by adding 2.5 K to the am-
bient air temperature for every 10 mbar of the
increased exhaust gas back pressure after tur-
bine.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pres-
sure.
0210-0000MQcr2.fm

E-BC 32/44CR Page 2 - 97


Engine and operation
2.9.9 Internal media systems

2.9.9 Internal media systems


Internal fuel system

0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-25 Internal fuel system

Page 2 - 98 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.9 Internal media systems

Internal cooling water system


0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-26 Internal cooling water system

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 99


Engine and operation
2.9.9 Internal media systems

Internal lube oil system

0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-27 Internal lube oil system

Page 2 - 100 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.9 Internal media systems

Internal starting air system


0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-28 Internal starting air system

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 101


Engine and operation
2.9.9 Internal media systems

0210-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 102 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.9.10 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger

2.9.10 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger


As described under the "Section: Crankcase vent and
tank vent" it is needed to ventilate the engine crank-
case and the turbocharger. For layout of the venti-
lation system following statement should serve as
a guide:
Due to normal blow by of the piston ring package
small amounts of gases of the combustion cham-
ber get into the crankcase and carry along oil dust.
The amount of crankcase vent gases is approx.
0.1 % of the engines air flow rate.
The temperature of the crankcase vent gases is
approx. 5 K higher than the oil temperature at
the engines oil inlet.
The density of crankcase vent gases is
1.0 kg/m (assumption for calculation).
Sealing air of the turbocharger additionally needs
to be vented.
The amount of turbocharger sealing air is ap-
prox. 0.2 % of the engines air flow rate.
The temperature of turbocharger sealing air is
approx. 5 K higher than the oil temperature at
the engines oil inlet.
The density of turbocharger sealing air is
1.0 kg/m (assumption for calculation).
0210-0100MA2.fm

J-BB Page 2 - 103


Engine and operation
2.9.10 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger

0210-0100MA2.fm

Page 2 - 104 J-BB


Engine and operation
2.10.1 Maximum allowed emission value NOx IMO Tier II

2.10 Exhaust gas emission

2.10.1 Maximum allowed emission value NOx IMO Tier II


IMO Tier II: Engine in standard version1
Engine L+V32/44CR

Rated output kW/cyl. 560 560


Rated speed rpm 720 750

NOx 1) 2) 3) g/kWh 9.684) 9.594)


IMO Tier II cycle D2/E2/E3

Note!
The engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits will be carried out during factory acceptance test, FAT
as a single or a group certification.

Table 2-39 Maximum allowable emission value NOx Engine L+V32/44CR


1) Cyclevalues as per ISO 8178-4: 2007, operating on ISO 8217 DM grade fuel (marine distillate fuel: MGO or MDO).
2) Calculated
as NO2.
D2: Test cycle for "constant-speed auxiliary engine application".
E2: Test cycle for "constant-speed main propulsion application" including diesel-electric drive and all
controllable-pitch propeller installations).
E3: Test cycle for "propeller-law-operated main and propeller-law operated auxiliary engine application.
3) Contingent to a charge air cooling water temperature of. max. 32 C at 25 C sea water temperature.
4) Maximum allowed NO emissions for marine diesel engines according to IMO Tier II:
x
130 n 2,000 44 * n0.23 g/kWh (n = rated engine speed in rpm).

2.10.2 Smoke emission index (FSN)


Smoke index FSN for engine loads 10 % load
well below limit of visibility (0.4 FSN).
Valid for all specified fuels and for normal engine
operation.
0211-0000MQcr2.fm

1
Marine engines are guaranteed to meet the revised International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships, "Revised MARPOL Annex VI (Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships), Regulation 13.4
(Tier II)" as adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 105


Engine and operation
2.10.2 Smoke emission index (FSN)

0211-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 106 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.10.2 Smoke emission index (FSN)

0211-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 106 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.10.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines

2.10.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines


The exhaust gas is composed of numerous con- For the typical exhaust gas composition of a MAN
stituents which are formed either from the com- Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engine without any ex-
bustion air, the fuel and lube oil used or see "Table haust gas treatment devices see "Table 2-37: Ex-
2-37: Exhaust gas constituents (only for guidance)" haust gas constituents (only for guidance)".
which are chemical reaction products formed dur-
ing the combustion process. Only some of these
are to be considered as harmful substances.

Main exhaust gas constituents approx. [% by volume] approx. [g/kWh]

Nitrogen N2 74.0 76.0 5,020 5,160

Oxygen O2 11.6 13.2 900 1,030

Carbon dioxide CO2 5.2 5.8 560 620

Steam H2O 5.9 8.6 260 370

Inert gases Ar, Ne, He... 0.9 75

Total > 99.75 7,000

Additional gaseous exhaust gas approx. [% by volume] approx. [g/kWh]


constituents considered as pollut-
ants

Sulphur oxides SOx1) 0.07 10.0

Nitrogen oxides NOx2) 0.07 0.15 8.0 16.0

Carbon monoxide CO3) 0.006 0.011 0.4 0.8

Hydrocarbons HC4) 0.1 0.04 0.4 1.2

Total < 0.25 26

Additionally suspended exhaust gas approx. [mg/Nm3] approx. [g/kWh]


constituents, PM5)

operating on operating on
6) 7) 6)
MGO HFO MGO HFO7)

Soot (elemental carbon)8) 50 50 0.3 0.3

Fuel ash 4 40 0.03 0.25

Lube oil ash 3 8 0.02 0.04

Note!
At rated power and without exhaust gas treatment.

Table 2-37 Exhaust gas constituents (only for guidance)


1)
SOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 6C, with a sulphur content in the fuel oil of 2.5 % by weight.
0211-0200MA2.fm

2)
NOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 7E, total NOx emission calculated as NO2.
3) CO according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 10.

I-BB Page 2 - 107


Engine and operation
2.10.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines

4)
HC according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 25 A.
5)
PM according to VDI-2066, EN-13284, ISO-9096 or US EPA method 17; in-stack filtration.
6) Marine gas oil DM-A grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.01 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 1.5 %.
7) Heavy fuel oil RM-B grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.1 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 4.0 %.
8)
Pure soot, without ash or any other particle-borne constituents.

Carbon dioxide CO2 Hydrocarbons HC


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a product of combustion The hydrocarbons (HC) contained in the exhaust
of all fossil fuels. gas are composed of a multitude of various organ-
ic compounds as a result of incomplete combus-
Among all internal combustion engines the diesel
tion.
engine has the lowest specific CO2 emission
based on the same fuel quality, due to its superior Due to the efficient combustion process, the HC
efficiency. content of exhaust gas of MAN Diesel & Turbo
four-stroke diesel engines is at a very low level.
Sulphur oxides SOx
Particulate matter PM
Sulphur oxides (SOx) are formed by the combus-
tion of the sulphur contained in the fuel. Particulate matter (PM) consists of soot (elemental
carbon) and ash.
Among all systems the diesel process results in
the lowest specific SOx emission based on the
same fuel quality, due to its superior efficiency.

Nitrogen oxides NOx (NO + NO2)


The high temperatures prevailing in the combus-
tion chamber of an internal combustion engine
causes the chemical reaction of nitrogen (con-
tained in the combustion air as well as in some fuel
grades) and oxygen (contained in the combustion
air) to nitrogen oxides (NOx).

Carbon monoxide CO
Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed during incom-
plete combustion.
In MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke diesel engines,
optimisation of mixture formation and turbocharg-
ing process successfully reduces the CO content
of the exhaust gas to a very low
level.
0211-0200MA2.fm

Page 2 - 108 I-BB


Engine and operation
2.11.1 Engine noise

2.11 Noise

2.11.1 Engine noise


Engine L32/44CR
Output 560 kW/cyl., speed = 720/750 rpm
Sound pressure level Lp: . . . . approx. 109 dB(A)
Measuring points
A total of 19 measuring points at 1 meter dis-
tance from the engine surface are distributed
evenly around the engine according to ISO
6798. The noise at the exhaust outlet is not in-
cluded.
Octave level diagram
In the octave level diagram below, the maxi-
mum averaged octave levels of all measuring
points have been linked by graphs for compa-
rable engines. The data will change depending
on the acoustical properties of the environ-
ment.
0212-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-29 Octave level diagram L32/44CR Sound pressure level Lp Air borne noise

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 109


Engine and operation
2.11.1 Engine noise

Engine V32/44CR
Output 560 kW/cyl., speed = 720/750 rpm
Sound pressure level Lp: . . . . approx. 108 dB(A)
Measuring points
A total of 19 measuring points at 1 meter dis-
tance from the engine surface are distributed
evenly around the engine according to ISO
6798. The noise at the exhaust outlet is not in-
cluded.
Octave level diagram
In the octave level diagram below, the maxi-
mum averaged octave levels of all measuring
points have been linked by graphs for compa-
rable engines. The data will change depending
on the acoustical properties of the environ-
ment.

Figure 2-30 Octave level diagram V32/44CR Sound pressure level Lp Air borne noise
0212-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 110 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.11.2 Intake noise

2.11.2 Intake noise


Engine L32/44CR This data is required and valid only for ducted air
intake systems. The data is not valid if the stand-
Sound power level Lw: . . . approx. 143 dB(A)
ard air filter silencer is attached to the turbocharg-
Measurements er.
The intake noise of the turbocharger is meas-
ured at turbocharger test bed with open (unsi-
lenced) air intake. For determination of sound
power level a hypothetical hemispherical sur-
face is assumed. In the lower frequency range
the typical engine intake noise is added based
on measurements in the intake pipe.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced in-
take noise in the intake pipe is approximately
143 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram be-
low. The maximum averaged octave levels of all
measuring points have been linked by graphs
for comparable engines. The data will change
depending on the acoustical properties at the
measurement points.
0212-0200MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-31 Octave level diagram L32/44CR Sound power level Lw Unsilenced intake noise

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 111


Engine and operation
2.11.2 Intake noise

Engine V32/44CR This data is required and valid only for ducted air
intake systems. The data is not valid if the stand-
Sound power level Lw: . . . approx. 146 dB(A)
ard air filter silencer is attached to the turbocharg-
Measurements er.
The intake noise of the turbocharger is meas-
ured at turbocharger test bed with open (unsi-
lenced) air intake. For determination of sound
power level a hypothetical hemispherical sur-
face is assumed. In the lower frequency range
the typical engine intake noise is added based
on measurements in the intake pipe.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced in-
take noise in the intake pipe is approximately
146 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram be-
low. The maximum averaged octave levels of all
measuring points have been linked by graphs
for compara-ble engines. The data will change
depending on the acoustical properties at the
measurement points.

Figure 2-32 Octave level diagram V32/44CR Sound power level Lw Unsilenced intake noise
0212-0200MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 112 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.11.3 Exhaust gas noise

2.11.3 Exhaust gas noise


Engine L32/44CR
Sound power level Lw:. . . . approx. 145 dB(A)
Measurements
The unsilenced exhaust gas noise is measured
according to internal MAN guidelines at several
positions in the exhaust pipe.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced ex-
haust noise in the exhaust pipe is approximate-
ly 145 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram be-
low. The maximum averaged octave levels of all
measuring points have been linked by graphs
for comparable engines. The data will change
depending on the acoustical properties at the
measurement points.

Figure 2-33 Octave level diagram L32/44CR Sound power level Lw Unsilenced exhaust noise
0212-0300MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 113


Engine and operation
2.11.3 Exhaust gas noise

Engine V32/44CR
Sound power level Lw:. . . . approx. 142 dB(A)
Measurements
The unsilenced exhaust gas noise is measured
according to internal MAN guidelines at several
positions in the exhaust pipe.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced ex-
haust noise in the exhaust pipe is approximate-
ly 142 dB(A) at rated output. The octave level of
the sound power is shown in the diagram be-
low. The maximum averaged octave levels of all
measuring points have been linked by graphs
for comparable engines. The data will change
depending on the acoustical properties at the
measurement points.

Figure 2-34 Octave level diagram V32/44CR Sound power level Lw Unsilenced exhaust noise
0212-0300MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 114 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.12.1 Torsional vibrations

2.12 Vibration

2.12.1 Torsional vibrations


Data required for torsional vibration calculation Engine
MAN Diesel & Turbo calculates the torsional vibra- Rated output, rated speed
tions behaviour for each individual engine plant of
Kind of engine load (fixed-pitch propeller, con-
their supply to determine the location and severity
trollable-pitch propeller, combinator curve, op-
of resonance points. If necessary, appropriate
eration with reduced speed at excessive load)
measures will be taken to avoid excessive stresses
due to torsional vibration. These investigations Operational speed range
cover the ideal normal operation of the engine (all Kind of mounting of the engine (can influence
cylinders are firing equally) as well as the simulated the determination of the flexible coupling)
emergency operation (misfiring of the cylinder ex-
erting the greatest influence on vibrations, acting Flexible coupling
against compression). Besides the natural fre-
quencies and the modes also the dynamic re- Make, size and type
sponse will be calculated, normally under Rated torque (Nm)
consideration of the 1st to 24th harmonic of the gas
and mass forces of the engine. Beyond that also Possible application factor
further exciting sources such as propeller, pumps Maximum speed (rpm)
etc. can be considered if the respective manufac-
turer is able to make the corresponding data avail- Permissible maximum torque for passing
able to MAN Diesel & Turbo. through resonance (Nm)

If necessary, a torsional vibration calculation will be Permissible shock torque for short-term loads
worked out which can be submitted for approval (Nm)
to a classification society or a legal authority. Permanently permissible alternating torque
To carry out the torsional vibration calculation fol- (Nm) including influencing factors (frequency,
lowing particulars and/or documents are required. temperature, mean torque)

General Permanently permissible power loss (W) includ-


ing influencing factors (frequency, temperature)
Type of (GenSet, diesel-mechanic, diesel-elec-
tric) Dynamic torsional stiffness (Nm/rad) including
influencing factors (load, frequency, tempera-
Arrangement of the whole system including all ture), if applicable
engine-driven equipment
Relative damping () including influencing fac-
Definition of the operating modes tors (load, frequency, temperature), if applicable
Maximum power consumption of the individual Moment of inertia (kgm) for all parts of the cou-
working machines pling
0213-0000MA2.fm

J-AI Page 2 - 115


Engine and operation
2.12.1 Torsional vibrations

Dynamic stiffness in radial, axial and angular di- Shaft line


rection
Drawing including all information about length
Permissible relative motions in radial, axial and and diameter of the shaft sections as well as
angular direction, permanent and maximum the material
Maximum permissible torque which can be Alternatively torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
transferred through a get-you-home-de-
vice/torque limiter if foreseen Propeller
Kind of propeller (fixed-pitch or controllable-
Clutch coupling
pitch propeller
Make, size and type
Moment of inertia in air (kgm)
Rated torque (Nm)
Moment of inertia in water (kgm); for controlla-
Permissible maximum torque (Nm) ble-pitch propellers also in dependence on
pitch; for twin-engine plants separately for sin-
Permanently permissible alternating torque
gle- and twin-engine operation
(Nm) including influencing factors (frequency,
temperature, mean torque) Relation between load and pitch
Dynamic torsional stiffness (Nm/rad) Number of blades
Damping factor Diameter (mm)
Moments of inertia for the operation conditions, Possible torsional excitation in % of the rated
clutched and declutched torque for the 1st and the 2nd blade-pass fre-
quency
Course of torque versus time during clutching
in
Pump
Permissible slip time (s)
Kind of pump (e. g. dredging pump)
Slip torque (Nm)
Drawing of the pump shaft with all lengths and
Maximum permissible engagement speed diameters
(rpm)
Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Gearbox Moment of inertia in air (kgm)
Make and type Moment of inertia in operation (kgm) under
consideration of the conveyed medium
Torsional multi mass system including the mo-
ments of inertia and the torsional stiffness, pref- Number of blades
erably related to the individual speed; in case of
Possible torsional excitation in % of the rated
related figures, specification of the relation
torque for the 1st and the 2nd blade-pass fre-
speed is needed
quency
Gear ratios (number of teeth, speeds)
Power consumption curve
Possible operating conditions (different gear ra-
tios, clutch couplings)
Permissible alternating torques in the gear
meshes
0213-0000MA2.fm

Page 2 - 116 J-AI


Engine and operation
2.12.1 Torsional vibrations

Alternator for diesel-electric plants Secondary power take-off


Drawing of the alternator shaft with all lengths Kind of working machine
and diameters
Kind of drive
Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Operational mode, operation speed range
Moment of inertia of the parts mounted to the
Power consumption
shaft (kgm)
Drawing of the shafts with all lengths and diam-
Electrical output (kVA) including power factor
eters
cos and efficiency
Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Or mechanical output (kW)
Moments of inertia (kgm)
Complex synchronizing coefficients for idling
and full load in dependence on frequency, ref- Possible torsional excitation in size and fre-
erence torque quency in dependence on load and speed
Island or parallel mode
Load profile (e. g. load steps)
Frequency fluctuation of the net

Alternator for diesel-mechanical parts (e. g. PTO/PTH)


Drawing of the alternator shaft with all lengths
and diameters
Torsional stiffness, if available
Moments of inertia of the parts mounted to the
shaft (kgm)
Electrical output (kVA) including power factor
cos and efficiency
Or mechanical output (kW)
Complex synchronizing coefficients for idling
and full load in dependence on frequency, in-
cluding the reference torque
0213-0000MA2.fm

J-AI Page 2 - 117


Engine and operation
2.12.1 Torsional vibrations

0213-0000MA2.fm

Page 2 - 118 J-AI


Engine and operation
2.13 Requirement for power drive connection (static)

2.13 Requirement for power drive connection (static)

Limit values of masses to be coupled after the engine


Evaluation of permissible theoretical bearing loads

Engine 32/44CR

Figure 2-35 Case A: overhung arrangement Figure 2-36 Case B: rigid coupling

Mmax = F * a = F3 * x3 + F4 * x4 F1 = (F3 * x2 + F5 * x1)/l

F1 Theoretical bearing force at the external engine bearing

F2 Theoretical bearing force at the alternator bearing

F3 Flywheel weight

F4 Coupling weight acting on the engine, including reset forces

F5 Rotor weight of the alternator

a Distance between end of coupling flange and centre of outer crankshaft bearing

l Distance between centre of outer crankshaft bearing and alternator bearing


0214-0000MQcr2.fm

J-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 119


Engine and operation
2.13 Requirement for power drive connection (static)

Distance a Case A Case B

Engine Mmax = F * a F1 max

mm kNm kN
1)
L32/44CR 335 17 65

V32/44CR 335 30 -

Table 2-38 Example calculation case A and B


1)
Inclusive of couples resulting from restoring forces of the coupling.

Distance between engine seating surface and


crankshaft centre line:
L32/44CR: 530 mm
V32/44CR: 580 mm

Note!
Changes may be necessary as a result of the
torsional vibration calculation or special serv-
ice conditions.

General effective note!


Masses which are connected downstream of
the engine in the case of an overhung or rigidly
coupled, arrangement result in additional
crankshaft bending stress, which is mirrored in
a measured web deflection during engine in-
stallation.
Provided the limit values for the masses to be
coupled downstream of the engine (permissi-
ble values for Mmax and F1max) are complied
with, the permitted web deflections will not be
exceeded during assembly.
Observing these values ensures a sufficiently
long operating time before a realignment of the
0214-0000MQcr2.fm

crankshaft has to be carried out.

Page 2 - 120 32/44CR J-BB


Engine and operation
2.14.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel

2.14 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)

2.14.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel


Engine 32/44CR

Propeller operation

Marine main engines

Engine Needed Plant


minimum
Engine Maximum Moment of Moment of Mass of fly- total Required
continous inertia inertia wheel moment of minimum
rating engine + fylwheel inertia1) additional
damper moment of
inertia after
flywheel2)

- [kW] [kgm2] [kgm2] [kg] [kgm2] [kgm2]

n = 720 rpm

6L32/44CR 3,360 519 612 1,718 740 -

7L32/44CR 3,920 688 870

8L32/44CR 4,480 763 990

9L32/44CR 5,040 688 1,110

10L32/44CR 5,600 746 1,240

12V32/44CR 6,720 1,311 737 1,913 1,480 -

14V32/44CR 7,840 1,453 1,730

16V32/44CR 8,960 1,595 1,980

18V32/44CR 10,080 1,737 2,220

20V32/44CR 11,200 1,739 2,470

Table 2-39 Moments of inertia/flywheels for marine main engines 32/44CR (1 of 2)


0215-0000MQcr2.fm

J-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 121


Engine and operation
2.14.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel

Marine main engines

Engine Needed Plant


minimum
Engine Maximum Moment of Moment of Mass of fly- total Required
continous inertia inertia wheel moment of minimum
rating engine + fylwheel inertia1) additional
damper moment of
inertia after
flywheel2)

- [kW] [kgm2] [kgm2] [kg] [kgm2] [kgm2]

n = 750 rpm

6L32/44CR 3,360 519 612 1,718 690 -

7L32/44CR 3,920 688 800

8L32/44CR 4,480 763 910

9L32/44CR 5,040 688 1,030

10L32/44CR 5,600 746 1,140

12V32/44CR 6,720 1,311 737 1,913 1,370 -

14V32/44CR 7,840 1,453 1,590

16V32/44CR 8,960 1,595 1,820

18V32/44CR 10,080 1,737 2,050

20V32/44CR 11,200 1,739 2,270

Table 2-39 Moments of inertia/flywheels for marine main engines 32/44CR (2 of 2)


1)
Needed minimum moment of inertia of engine, flywheel and arrangement after flywheel in total.
2) Required additional moment of inertia after flywheel to achieve the needed minimum total moment of inertia.

For flywheels dimensions see "Section 2.15: Power


transmission, page 2-135".
0215-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 122 32/44CR J-BB


Engine and operation
2.14.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel

Engine 32/44CR

560 kW/cyl.; 720/750 rpm

Constant speed

Marine main engine

Engine Needed Plant


minimum
Engine Maxi- Moment Moment Mass of Cyclic total Required
mum of inertia of inertia fly- irregular- moment minimum
conti- engine + flywheel wheel ity of iner- addi-
nous rat- damper tia1) tional
ing moment
of inertia
after fly-
wheel2)

- [kW] [kgm2] [kgm2] [kg] - [kgm2] [kgm2]

n = 720 rpm

6L32/44CR 3,360 519 897 2,515 366 1,690 274

7L32/44CR 3,920 688 218 1,980 395

8L32/44CR 4,480 763 320 2,260 600

9L32/44CR 5,040 688 413 2,540 955

10L32/44CR 5,600 146 555 2,820 1,177

12V32/44CR 6,720 1,311 1,147 3,002 816 3,380 922

14V32/44CR 7,840 1,453 929 3,950 1,350

16V32/44CR 8,960 1,555 3,434 4,510 1,768

18V32/44CR 10,080 1,737 1,955 5,070 2,186

20V32/44CR 11,200 1,739 1,466 5,630 2,744

Table 2-40 Moments of inertia/flywheels for diesel-electric plants engines 32/44CR (1 of 2)


0215-0000MQcr2.fm

J-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 123


Engine and operation
2.14.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel

Marine main engine

Engine Needed Plant


minimum
Engine Maxi- Moment Moment Mass of Cyclic total Required
mum of inertia of inertia fly- irregular- moment minimum
conti- engine + flywheel wheel ity of iner- addi-
nous rat- damper tia1) tional
ing moment
of inertia
after fly-
wheel2)

- [kW] [kgm2] [kgm2] [kg] - [kgm2] [kgm2]

n = 750 rpm

6L32/44CR 3,360 519 897 2,515 435 1,560 144

7L32/44CR 3,920 688 225 1,820 235

8L32/44CR 4,480 763 332 2,080 420

9L32/44CR 5,040 688 424 2,340 755

10L32/44CR 5,600 746 568 2,600 957

12V32/44CR 6,720 1,311 1,147 3,002 910 3,120 662

14V32/44CR 7,840 1,453 947 3,640 1,040

16V32/44CR 8,960 1,595 3,318 4,160 1,418

18V32/44CR 10,080 1,737 1,975 4,670 1,789

20V32/44CR 11,200 1,739 1,496 5,190 2,304

Table 2-40 Moments of inertia/flywheels for diesel-electric plants engines 32/44CR (2 of 2)


1)
Needed minimum moment of inertia of engine, flywheel and arrangement after flywheel in total.
2) Required additional moment of inertia after flywheel to achieve the needed minimum total moment of inertia.

For flywheels dimensions see "Section 2.15: Power


transmission, page 2-135".
0215-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 124 32/44CR J-BB


Engine and operation
2.14.2 Balancing of masses Firing order

2.14.2 Balancing of masses Firing order

Engine L32/44CR
Rotating crank balance...........................................100 %
Static reduced rotating mass per
crank including counterweights and
rotating portion of connecting rod . . . . .0.81 kg
(for a crank radius r = 220 mm)
Oscillating mass per cylinder . . . . . . . . . 195 kg
Connecting rod ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.219
Distance between cylinder
centrelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 mm

Engine Firing order Residual external couples

Mrot [kNm] + Mosc 1st order [kNm] Mosc 2nd order [kNm]

Engine speed [rpm] 750

vertical horizontal

6L32/44CR A 0 0

7L32/44CR A 18.7 18.7 30.9

8L32/44CR B 0 0

9L32/44CR B 8.9 8.9 48.4

10L32/44CR B 0 0

Engine speed (rpm) 720

vertical horizontal

6L32/44CR A 0 0

7L32/44CR A 17.3 17.3 28.5

8L32/44CR B 0 0

9L32/44CR B 8.2 8.2 44.6

10L32/44CR B 0 0

Table 2-41 Residual external couples Engine L32/44CR


0215-0200MQcr2.fm

For engines of type 32/44CR the external mass forces are equal to zero.
Mrot is eliminated by means of balancing weights on resiliently mounted engines.

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 125


Engine and operation
2.14.2 Balancing of masses Firing order

Firing order: counted from coupling side

No. of Firing order Clockwise rotation Counter clockwise rotation


cylinders

6 A 1-3-5-6-4-2 1-2-4-6-5-3

7 A 1-2-4-6-7-5-3 1-3-5-7-6-4-2

8 B 1-4-7-6-8-5-2-3 1-3-2-5-8-6-7-4

9 B 1-6-3-2-8-7-4-9-5 1-5-9-4-7-8-2-3-6

10 B 1-4-3-2-6-10-7-8-9-5 1-5-9-8-7-10-6-2-3-4

Table 2-42 Firing order Engine L32/44CR

0215-0200MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 126 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.14.2 Balancing of masses Firing order

Engine V32/44CR
Rotating crank balancing 1220V.............................90 %
Static reduced rotating mass per crank including
counterweights and rotating portion of connecting
rod (for a crank radius r = 220 mm)
1220V = 68 kg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillating mass per cylinder . . . . . . . 195.5 kg
Connecting rod ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.219
Distance between cyl. centrelines . . . . 630 mm
Vee angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Engine Firing Residual external couples


order
Mrot (kNm) + Mosc 1st order (kNm) Mosc 2nd order (kNm)

Engine speed (rpm) 750

vertical horizontal vertical horizontal

12V32/44CR A 0 0

14V32/44CR A 31.6 31.6 48.1 19.9

16V32/44CR B 0 0

18V32/44CR A 22.9 22.9 26.2 10.9

20V32/44CR - 0 0

Engine speed (rpm) 720

12V32/44CR A 0 0

14V32/44CR A 29.1 29.1 44.3 18.4

16V32/44CR B 0 0

18V32/44CR A 21.1 21.1 24.1 10.0

20V32/44CR - 0 0

Table 2-43 Residual external couples Engine V32/44CR

For engines of type 32/44CR the external mass forces are equal to zero.
Mrot is eliminated by means of balancing weights on resiliently mounted engines.
0215-0200MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 127


Engine and operation
2.14.2 Balancing of masses Firing order

Firing order: counted from coupling side

No. of Firing order Clockwise rotation Counter clockwise rotation


cylinders

12 A A1-B1-A3-B3-A5-B5-A6-B6-A4-B4-A2- A1-B2-A2-B4-A4-B6-A6-B5-A5-B3-A3-
B2 B1

14 A A1-B1-A2-B2-A4-B4-A6-B6-A7-B7-A5- A1-B3-A3-B5-A5-B7-A7-B6-A6-B4-A4-
B5-A3-B3 B2-A2-B1

16 B A1-B1-A4-B4-A7-B7-A6-B6-A8-B8-A5- A1-B3-A3-B2-A2-B5-A5-B8-A8-B6-A6-
B5-A2-B2-A3-B3 B7-A7-B4-A4-B1

18 A A1-B1-A3-B3-A5-B5-A7-B7-A9-B9-A8- A1-B2-A2-B4-A4-B6-A6-B8-A8-B9-A9-
B8-A6-B6-A4-B4-A2-B2 B7-A7-B5-A5-B3-A3-B1

20 B A1-B1-A4-B4-A2-B2-A8-B8-A6-B6-A10- -
B10- A7B7-A9-B9-A3-B3-A5-B5

Table 2-44 Firing order Engine V32/44CR

0215-0200MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 128 32/44CR L-BB


Engine and operation
2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation

2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation


General
The static torque fluctuation is the summation-
taking into account the correct phase-angles of
the torques acting at all cranks around the crank-
shaft axis. These torques are created by the gas
and mass forces acting at the crankpins, with the
crank radius being used as the lever see "Para-
graph: Static torque fluctuation and exciting frquencies" in
this section. An absolutely rigid crankshaft is as-
sumed. The values Tmax and Tmin listed in the ta-
bles represent a measure for the reaction forces
occurring at the foundation of the engine see "Fig-
ure 2-37: Static torque fluctuation". The static values
listed in the table below in each individual case a
dynamic magnification which is dependent upon
the characteristics of the foundation (design and
material thicknesses in way of the foundation, type
of chocking).
The reaction forces generated by the torque fluc-
tuation are the most important excitations trans-
Figure 2-37 Static torque fluctuation
mitted into the foundation in the case of a rigidly or
semi-resiliently mounted engine. Their frequency is
Tmax Tmin
dependent upon speed and cylinder number, and FD L z
is also listed in the table of the examples. 2
In order to avoid local vibration excitations in the z Number of cylinders
vessel, it must be ensured that the natural fre-
quencies of important part structures (e. g. panels, L Distance between foundation bolts
bulkheads, tank walls and decks, equipment and
its foundation, pipe systems) have a sufficient
safety margin (if possible 30 %) in relation to this
main excitation frequency.
0215-030aMA2.fm

J-BA Page 2 - 129


Engine and operation
2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation

0215-030aMA2.fm

Page 2 - 130 J-BA


Engine and operation
2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation

Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequencies


Example to declare abbreviations

Example to declare abbreviations Engine L32/44CR


0215-030bMQcr2.fm

B-KA 32/44CR Page 2 - 131


Engine and operation
2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation

Engine L32/44CR

Engine Out- Speed Tn Tmax Tmin Main exciting components


put
Order Fre- T
quency1)

kW rpm kNm kNm kNm - Hz kNm

6L32/44CR 3,360 720 44.6 112.5 12.2 3.0 36.0 49.1


6.0 72.0 29.3

7L32/44CR 3,920 52.0 161.8 37.4 3.5 42.0 101.2


7.0 84.0 20.3

8L32/44CR 4,480 59.4 154.8 19.7 4.0 48.0 89.1


8.0 96.0 12.6

9L32/44CR 5,040 66.8 157.4 9.3 4.5 54.0 86.4


9.0 108.0 6.9

10L32/44CR 5,600 74.3 156.0 4.3 5.0 60.0 79.1


10.0 120.0 3.4

6L32/44CR 3,360 750 42.8 102.8 8.2 3.0 37.5 40.7


6.0 75.0 29.1

7L32/44CR 3,920 49.9 156.3 36.3 3.5 43.75 97.6


7.0 87.5 20.6

8L32/44CR 4,480 57.0 148.9 18.9 4.0 50.0 85.7


8.0 100.0 13.3

9L32/44CR 5,040 64.2 151.9 9.7 4.5 56.25 84.0


9.0 112.5 7.8

10L32/44CR 5,600 74.3 150.5 3.3 5.0 62.5 77.4


10.0 125.0 4.3

Table 2-45 Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequencies Engine L32/44CR
1) Exciting frequency of the main harmonic components
0215-030bMQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 132 32/44CR B-KA


Engine and operation
2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation

Example to declare abbreviations

Example to declare abbreviation Engine V32/44CR


0215-030bMQcr2.fm

B-KA 32/44CR Page 2 - 133


Engine and operation
2.14.3 Static torque fluctuation

Engine V32/44CR

Engine Output Speed Tn Tmax Tmin Main exciting components

Order Fre- T
quency1)

kW rpm kNm kNm kNm rpm Hz kNm

12V32/44CR 6,720 720 89.1 157.9 28.6 3.0 36.0 36.5


6.0 72.0 38.2

14V32/44CR 7,840 104.0 163.8 38.9 3.5 42.0 38.1


7.0 84.0 33.7

16V32/44CR 8,960 118.8 140.5 97.2 4.0 48.0 0


8.0 96.0 21.7

18V32/44CR 10,080 133.7 164.0 92.5 4.5 54.0 32.0


9.0 108.0 10.5

20V32/44CR 11,200 148.5 201.5 87.5 5.0 60.0 57.0


10.0 120.0 4.0

12V32/44CR 6,720 3.0 37.5 30.4


85.6 150.2 31.1
6.0 75.0 38.4

14V32/44CR 7,840 3.5 43.75 37.0


99.8 160.0 35.2
7.0 87.50 34.9

16V32/44CR 8,960 4.0 50.0 0


750 114.1 137.8 90.5
8.0 100.0 23.7

18V32/44CR 10,080 4.5 56.25 31.3


128.3 159.8 86.0
9.0 112.50 12.6

20V32/44CR 11,200 5.0 62.5 56.2


142.6 194.1 89.3
10.0 125.0 5.3

Table 2-46 Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequencies Engine V32/44CR
1) Exciting frequency of the main harmonic components
0215-030bMQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 134 32/44CR B-KA


Engine and operation
2.15.1 Flywheel arrangement

2.15 Power transmission

2.15.1 Flywheel arrangement

Flywheel with flexible coupling

Figure 2-38 Flywheel with flexible coupling L-engine


0216-0000MQcr2.fm

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 135


Engine and operation
2.15.1 Flywheel arrangement

Legend

Engine A1) A2) E1) E2) Fmin Fmax No. of No. of fitted
through bolts
mm bolts

6L32/44CR Dimensions will result from clarification of technical details of 18 -


propulsion drive
7L32/44CR 22

8L32/44CR 24

9L32/44CR

10L32/44CR

Note!
Use for project purposes only. Final dimensions of flywheel and flexible coupling will result from clarification of
technical details of drive and from the result of the torsional vibration calculation. Flywheel diameter must not be
changed.
1) ) Without torsional limit device.
2)
With torsional limit device.

0216-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-39 Flywheel with flexible coupling V-engine

Page 2 - 136 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.15.1 Flywheel arrangement

Legend

Engine A1) A2) E1) E2) Fmin Fmax No. of No. of


throug fitted
mm h bolts bolts

12V32/44CR Dimensions will result from clarification of technical details of propulsion 24 -


drive
14V32/44CR 18 2

16V32/44CR 26 -

18V32/44CR 26 -

20V32/44CR 24 2

Note!
Use for project purposes only. Final dimensions of flywheel and flexible coupling will result from clarification of
technical details of drive and from the result of the torsional vibration calculation. Flywheel diameter must not be
changed.
1) ) Without torsional limit device.
2)
With torsional limit device.

Arrangement of flywheel, coupling and gearbox

Figure 2-40 Example: Arrangement of flywheel, coupling and gearbox


0216-0000MQcr2.fm

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 137


Engine and operation
2.15.1 Flywheel arrangement

Arrangement of flywheel, coupling and alternator

Figure 2-41 Example: Arrangement of flywheel, coupling and alternator

0216-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 138 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.16 Arrangement of attached pumps

2.16 Arrangement of attached pumps

Figure 2-42 Attached pumps L32/44CR

Note!
The final arrangement of the L.O. and cooling
water pumps will be made due to the inquiry or
order.
0217-0000MQcr2.fm

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 139


Engine and operation
2.16 Arrangement of attached pumps

Figure 2-43 Attached pumps V32/44CR

Note!
The final arrangement of the L.O. and cooling
water pumps will be made due to the inquiry or
order.

0217-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 140 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.17.1 General requirements for engine foundation

2.17 Foundation

2.17.1 General requirements for engine foundation


Plate thicknesses
The stated material dimensions are recommenda-
tions, calculated for steel plates. Thicknesses
smaller than these should not be allowed. When
using other materials (e.g. aluminium), a sufficient
margin has to be added.

Top plates
Before or after having been welded in place, the
bearing surfaces should be machined and freed
from rolling scale. Surface finish corresponding to
Ra 3.2 peak-to-valley roughness in the area of the
chocks.
The thickness given is the finished size after ma-
chining.
Downward inclination outwards, not exceeding
0.7 %.
Prior to fitting the chocks, clean the bearing sur-
faces from dirt and rust that may have formed: Af-
ter the drilling of the foundation bolt holes,
spotface the lower contact face normal to the bolt
hole.

Foundation girders
The distance of the inner girders must be ob-
served. We recommend that the distance of the
outer girders (only required for larger types) also be
observed.
The girders must be aligned exactly above and un-
derneath the tank top.

Floor plates
No manholes are permitted in the floor plates in
the area of the box-shaped foundation. Welding is
to be carried out through the manholes in the out-
er girders.

Top plate supporting


0218-0000MA2.fm

Provide support in the area of the frames from the


nearest girder below.

L-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 Page 2 - 141
Engine and operation
2.17.1 General requirements for engine foundation

0218-0000MA2.fm

Page 2 - 142 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 L-BB
Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

2.17.2 Rigid seating


Engine L32/44CR
Recommended configuration of foundation
0218-0300MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-44 Recommended configuration of foundation L32/44CR

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 143


Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

Recommended configuration of foundation

Figure 2-45 Recommended configuration of foundation L32/44CR Number of bolts

Legend

Number of bolts

No. of cylinders 6 7 8 9 10

Fitted bolts 2 2 2 2 2

Undercut bolts 16 18 20 22 24

Jack bolts 16 18 20 22 24
0218-0300MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 144 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

Arrangement of foundation bolt holes

Figure 2-46 Arrangement of foundation bolt holes L32/44CR

Two fitted bolts have to be provided either on star- for clockwise rotating engines on port side
0218-0300MQcr2.fm

board side or portside depending on the engines


for counter clockwise rotating engines on star-
rotation direction:
board side

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 145


Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

In any case they have to be positioned on the cou- Number and position of the stoppers have to be
pling side provided according to the figure above.

Engine V32/44CR
Recommended configuration of foundation

Figure 2-47 Recommended configuration of foundation V32/44CR


0218-0300MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 146 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

Recommended configuration of foundation Number of bolts

Figure 2-48 Recommended configuration of foundation V32/44CR Number of bolts

Legend

Number of bolts

No. of cylinders 12 14 16 18 20

Fitted bolts 2 2 2 2 2

Undercut bolts 30 34 38 42 46

Jack bolts 16 18 20 22 24

q~=OJQT
0218-0300MQcr2.fm

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 147


Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

Arrangement of foundation bolt holes

Figure 2-49 Arrangement of foundation bolt holes V32/44CR

Two fitted bolts have to be provided either on star- for clockwise rotating engines on port side
0218-0300MQcr2.fm

board side or portside depending on the engines


for counter clockwise rotating engines on star-
rotation direction:
board side

Page 2 - 148 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

In any case they have to be positioned on the cou-


pling side
Number and position of the stoppers have to be
provided according to the figure above.
0218-0300MQcr2.fm

I-BB 32/44CR Page 2 - 149


Engine and operation
2.17.2 Rigid seating

0218-0300MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 150 32/44CR I-BB


Engine and operation
2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin

2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin


Engine 32/44CR
Most classification societies permit the use of the
following synthetic resins for chocking Diesel en-
gines:
Chockfast Orange
(Philadelphia Resins Corp. U.S.A)
Epocast 36
(H.A. Springer, Kiel)
MAN Diesel & Turbo accepts engines being
chocked with synthetic resin provided
processing is done by authorized agents of the
above companies
the classification society responsible has ap-
proved the synthetic resin to be used for a unit
pressure (engine weight + foundation bolt
preloading) of 450 N/cm2 and a chock temper-
ature of at least 80 C.
The loaded area of the chocks must be dimen-
sioned in a way, that the pressure effected by the
engines dead weight does not exceed
70 N/cm2 (requirement of some classification so-
cieties).
The pre-tensioning force of the foundation bolts
was chosen so that the permissible total surface
area load of 450 N/cm2 is not exceeded. This will
ensure that the horizontal thrust resulting from the
mass forces is safely transmitted by the chocks.
The shipyard is responsible for the execution and
must also grant the warranty.
Tightening of the foundation bolts only permissible
with hydraulic tensioning device. The point of ap-
plication of force is the end of the thread with a
length of 85 mm. Nuts definitely must not be tight-
ened with hook spanner and hammer, even for lat-
er inspections.
0218-0400MQcr2.fm

D-BA 32/44CR Page 2 - 151


Engine and operation
2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin

Tightening of foundation bolts

Figure 2-50 Hydraulic tension device

Hydraulic tension device

Tool number - 009.346


030.205
030.258

Piston area cm 40.46cm

Maximum pump pressure bar 1,000

Table 2-48 Hydraulic tension device


The tensioning tool with tensioning nut and pres-
sure sleeve are included in the standard scope of
supply of tools for the engine

Pretensioning force L32/44CR

Pre-tensioning forcer kN 261

Table 2-49 Pretensioning force


0218-0400MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 152 32/44CR D-BA


Engine and operation
2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin

Pretensioning force L32/44CR

Pump pressure required bar 775

Setting allowance % 20

Calculated screw elongation mm 0.54

Utilization of yield point % 61

Table 2-49 Pretensioning force


0218-0400MQcr2.fm

D-BA 32/44CR Page 2 - 153


Engine and operation
2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin

0218-0400MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-51 Chocking with synthetic resin L32/44CR

Page 2 - 154 32/44CR D-BA


Engine and operation
2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
0218-0400MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-52 Chocking with synthetic resin V32/44CR

D-BA 32/44CR Page 2 - 155


Engine and operation
2.17.3 Chocking with synthetic resin

0218-0400MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 156 32/44CR D-BA


Engine and operation
2.17.4 Resilient seating

2.17.4 Resilient seating


General Where resilient mounting is applied, the following
has to be taken into consideration when designing
The engines cause dynamic effects on the founda-
a diesel-electric plant:
tion. These effects are attributed to the pulsating
reaction forces due to the irregular torque, addi- Between the resiliently mounted engine and the
tionally in engines with certain cylinder numbers rigidly mounted gearbox or alternator, a flexible
these effects are increased by unbalanced forces coupling with minimum axial and radial elastic
and couples brought about by rotating or recipro- forces and large axial and radial displacement
cating masses which considering their vector capacities must be provided.
sum-do not equate to zero.
The pipes to and from the engine must be of
The direct resilient support makes it possible to highly flexible type.
keep the foundation practically free from the dy-
In order to achieve a good structure-borne-
namic forces, which are generated by every recip-
sound isolation, the lower brackets used to
rocating engine and may have harmful effects on
connect the supporting elements with the
the environment of the engines under adverse
ship's foundation are to be fitted at sufficiently
conditions.
rigid points of the foundation. Influences of the
Therefore MAN Diesel & Turbo offers the resilient foundation's stiffness on the natural frequen-
mounting to increase the comfort. cies of the resilient support will not be consid-
ered.
Conical mounting system
The yard must specify with which inclination re-
The conical mounting system is a special design
lated to the plane keel the engine will be in-
for merchant ships.
stalled in the ship. When calculating the resilient
The mounting system is characterised by natural mounting system, it has to be checked whether
frequencies of the resiliently supported engine be- the desired inclination can be realised without
ing lower than approx. 18 Hz, so that they are be- special measures. Additional measures always
low those of the pulsating disturbing variables. result in additional costs.
The appropriate design of the resilient support will
be selected in accordance with the demands of
the customer, i.e. it will be adjusted to the special
requirements of each plant.
The supporting elements will be connected direct-
ly to the engine feet by special brackets. The
number, rubber hardness and distribution of the
supporting elements depend on:
the weight of the engine
the centre of gravity of the engine
the desired natural frequencies
0218-0500MBQTdf2.fm

G-BB 32/40, 32/44, 35/44DF Page 2 - 157


Engine and operation
2.17.4 Resilient seating

0218-0500MBQTdf2.fm

Page 2 - 158 32/40, 32/44, 35/44DF G-BB


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Engine mounting

Engine L32/44CR
0218-0600MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-53 Recommended configuration of foundation L32/44CR Resilient seating 1

D-BA 32/44CR Page 2 - 159


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Engine mounting

Engine L32/44CR

Figure 2-54 Recommended configuration of foundation L32/44CR Resilient seating 2

0218-0600MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 160 32/44CR D-BA


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Engine Mounting

Engine L32/44CR
0218-0600MQcr2.fm

Figure 2-55 Recommended configuration of foundation L32/44CR Resilient seating 3

D-BA 32/44CR Page 2 - 161


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Engine Mounting

Engine L32/44CR

Figure 2-56 Recommended configuration of foundation L32/44CR Resilient seating 4


0218-0600MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 162 32/44CR D-BA


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Figure 2-57 Recommended configuration of foundation V32/44CR Resilient seating


0218-0600MQcr2.fm

D-BA 32/44CR Page 2 - 163


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Engine mounting using conical mountings

Figure 2-58 Recommended configuration of foundation L32/44CR Resilient seating (conical mountings)
0218-0600MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 164 32/44CR D-BA


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Figure 2-59 Recommended configuration of foundation V32/44CR Resilient seating (conical mountings) 1
0218-0600MQcr2.fm

D-BA 32/44CR Page 2 - 165


Engine and operation
2.17.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Figure 2-60 Recommended configuration of foundation V32/44CR Resilient seating (conical mountings) 2
0218-0600MQcr2.fm

Page 2 - 166 32/44CR D-BA


Engine and operation
2.17.6 Engine alignment

2.17.6 Engine alignment


The alignment of the engine to the attached power
train is crucial for troublefree operation.
Dependent on the plant installation influencing fac-
tors on the alignment might be:
Thermal expansion of the foundations
Thermal expansion of the engine, alternator or
the gearbox
Thermal expansion of the rubber elements in
the case of resilient mounting
The settling behaviour of the resilient mounting
Shaft misalignment under pressure
Necessary axial pre-tensioning of the flex-cou-
pling
Therefore take care that a special alignment calcu-
lation, resulting in alignment tolerance limits will be
carried out.
Follow the relevant working instructions of this
specific engine type. Alignment tolerance limits
must not be exceeded.
0218-0700AA2.fm

F-BA Page 2 - 167


Engine and operation
2.17.6 Engine alignment

0218-0700AA2.fm

Page 2 - 168 F-BA


======

3 Engine automation
Kapiteltitel 3 M2.fm

Page 3 - 1
Page 3 - 2
Kapiteltitel 3 M2.fm
b=~~
PKN=p~`pone===

3.1 SaCoSone =

Figure 3-1 SaCoSone system overview

Legend

1 Control Unit

2 Injection Unit (for CR-engines)

3 System Bus

4 Local Operating Panel

5 Interface Cabinet

6 Remote Operating Panel (Optional)


MPMNJMMMMjnOK

E-AJ POLQQ`o= ==m~=P=J=P


b=~~
PKN=p~`pone===

The monitoring and safety system SaCoSone SaCoSone Injection unit


serves for complete engine operation, alarming
The injection unit is attached to the engine cush-
and control. All sensors and operating devices are
ioned against any vibration. Depending on the us-
wired to the engine-attached units. The wire con-
age of the engine, it includes one or two identical,
nection of the plant is done by means of an Inter-
highly integrated Injection Modules.
face Cabinet.
The Injection Module is used for speed control and
During engine installation, only the bus connec-
for the actuation of the injection valves. For en-
tions and the power supply and safety related ca-
gines supplied with two modules, the second one
bles between the control unit and the
serves as backup and takes over the speed con-
interface/auxiliary cabinet are to be laid, as well as
trol and the control of the injection valves without
connections to external modules and parts on
interruption in case of an error in the first module.
site.
The SaCoSone design is based on high reliable and
approved components as well as modules spe-
cially designed for installation on medium speed
engines . The used components are harmonised
to an homogenously system.
The system has already been tested and parame-
terised in the factory.

SaCoSone Control unit


The control unit is attached to the engine cush-
ioned against any vibration. It includes two identi-
cal, highly integrated Control Modules: one for
safety functions and the other one for engine con- Figure 3-3 SaCoSone Injection Unit
trol and alarming.
The modules work independently of each other
and collect engine measuring data by means of
separate sensors.

MPMNJMMMMjnOK

Figure 3-2 SaCoSone Control Unit

=m~=P=J=Q POLQQ`o E-AJ


b=~~
PKN=p~`pone===

SaCoSone system Bus


The SaCoSone system bus connects all system SaCoSone is connected to the plant by the Gate-
modules. This redundant field bus system pro- way Module. This module is equipped with decen-
vides the basis of data exchange between the tral input and output channels as well as with
modules and allows the takeover of redundant different interfaces for connection to the plant/ship
measuring values from other modules in case of a automation, the Remote Operating Panel and the
sensor failure. online service.

Figure 3-4 SaCoSone System Bus


MPMNJMMMMjnOK

E-AJ POLQQ`o= ==m~=P=J=R


b=~~
PKN=p~`pone===

Local Operating Panel Interface Cabinet


The engine is equipped with a Local Operating The Interface Cabinet is the interface between the
Panel cushioned against any vibration. This panel engine electronics and the plant control. It is the
is equipped with one or two TFT displays for visu- central connecting point for electric power supply
alisation of all engine's operating and measuring to the engine from the plant/vessels power distri-
data. At the Local Operating Panel, the engine can bution.
be fully operated. Additional hardwired switches
Besides, it connects the engine control system
are available for relevant functions.
with the power management, the propulsion con-
Propulsion engines are equipped with a backup trol system and other periphery parts.
display as shown on top of the local panel.
The supply of the SaCoSone subsystems is done
by the Interface Cabinet.
The Interface Cabinet also includes the starter for
the engine-attached cylinder lube oil pump, the
valve seat lube oil pump and the temperature con-
trol valves.

Figure 3-5 Local Operating Panel

Figure 3-6 Interface Cabinet


MPMNJMMMMjnOK

=m~=P=J=S POLQQ`o E-AJ


b=~~
PKN=p~`pone===

Remote Operating Panel (optional)


The Remote Operating Panel serves for engine
operation from a control room. The Remote Oper-
ating Panel has the same functionality as the Local
Operating Panel.
From this operating device it is possible to transfer
the engine operation functions to a superior auto-
matic system (propulsion control system, power
management).
In plants with integrated automation systems, this
panel can be replaced by IAS.
The panel can be delivered as loose supply for in-
stallation in the control room desk or integrated in
the front door of the Interface Cabinet.

Figure 3-7 Remote Operating Panel (optional)


MPMNJMMMMjnOK

E-AJ POLQQ`o= ==m~=P=J=T


b=~~
PKN=p~`pone===

MPMNJMMMMjnOK

=m~=P=J=U POLQQ`o E-AJ


Engine automation
3.2 Power supply and distribution

3.2 Power supply and distribution

The plant has to provide electric power for the au- by two individual supply networks. According to
tomation and monitoring system. In general an un- classification requirements it must be designed to
interrupted 24 V DC power supply is required for guarantee the power supply to the connected sys-
SaCoSone. tems for a sufficiently long period if both supply
networks fail.
For marine main engines, an uninterrupted power
supply (UPS) is required which must be provided

Figure 3-8 Supply diagramm


0302-0000MQcr2.fm

B-AJ 32/44CR Page 3 - 9


Engine automation
3.2 Power supply and distribution

Required power supplies

Voltage Consumer Notes

24 V DC SaCoSone All SaCoSone components in the Interface Cab-


inet and on the engine.

230 V 50/60 Hz SaCoSone Interface cabinet Temperature control valves, cabinet illumina-
tion, socket, anticondensation heater

440 V 50/60 Hz Consumers on engine Power supply for consumers on engine (e.g.
cylinder lubricator.

Table 3-1 Required power supplies

0302-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 10 32/44CR B-AJ


Engine automation
3.3 Operation

3.3 Operation

Control Station Changeover


The operation and control can be done from both automatic system. A handshake is therefore nec-
operating panels. Selection and activation of the essary. For applications with integrated automa-
control stations is possible at the Local Operating tion systems (IAS) also the functionality of the
Panel. The operating rights can be handed over Remote Operating Panel can be taken over by the
from the Remote Operating Panel to another Re- IAS.
mote Operating Panel or to an external

Figure 3-9 Control station changeover

On the screen displays, all the measuring points Operating modes


acquired by means of SaCoSone can be shown in
For alternator applications:
clearly arranged drawings and figures. It is not
necessary to install additional speed indicators Droop (5-percent speed increase between
separately. nominal load and no load)
For propulsion engines:
Speed setting
Isochronous
In case of operating with one of the SaCoSone pan-
els, the engine speed setting is carried out manu- Master-Slave operation for operation of two en-
ally by a decrease/increase switch button. If the gines on one gear box
operation is controlled by an external system, the The operating mode is pre-selected via the
speed setting can be done either by means of bi- SaCoSone interface and has to be defined during
nary contacts (e.g. for synchronisation) or by an the application period.
active 420 mA analogue signal alternatively. The
signal type for this is to be defined in the project Details regarding special operating modes on re-
planning period. quest.
0303-0000MQcr2.fm

C-AI 32/44CR Page 3 - 11


Engine automation
3.3 Operation

0303-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 12 32/44CR C-AI


Engine automation
3.4 Functionality

3.4 Functionality

Safety functions Emergency stop


The safety system monitors all operating data of Emergency stop is an engine shutdown initiated
the engine and initiates the required actions, i.e. by an operators manual action like pressing an
load reduction or engine shut-down, in case the emergency stop button.
limit values are exceeded. The safety system is
Override
split in Control Module and Gateway Module. The
Control Module supervises the engine, the Gate- During operation, safety actions can be sup-
way Module examines all functions relevant for se- pressed by the override function for the most pa-
curity of the connected plant components. rameters. The override has to be activated
preventively. The scope of parameters prepared
The system is designed so as to ensure that the
for override are different and depend to the chosen
functions are achieved in accordance with the
classification society. The availability of the over-
classification societies' requirements for marine
ride function depends on the application.
main engines.
The safety system directly influences the emer- Alarming
gency shut-down and the speed control. The alarm function of SaCoSone supervises all nec-
In addition to the provisions made to permit the in- essary parameters and generates alarms to indi-
ternal initiation of demands, binary and analogue cate discrepancies when required. The alarm
channels have been provided for the initiation of functions are likewise split in Control Module and
safety functions by external systems. Gateway Module. In the Gateway Module the su-
pervision of the connected external systems oc-
Load reduction
curs. The alarm functions are processed in an area
After the exceeding of certain parameters the clas- completely independent of the safety system area
sification societies demand a load reduction to in the Gateway Module.
60%. The safety system supervises these param-
eters and requests a load reduction, if necessary. Self-monitoring
The load reduction has to be carried out by an ex- SaCoSone carries out independent self-monitoring
ternal system (IAS, PMS, PCS). For safety rea- functions. Thus, for example the connected sen-
sons, SaCoSone will not reduce the load by itself. sors are checked constantly on function and wire
Auto shutdown break. In case of a fault SaCoSone reports the oc-
curred malfunctions in single system components
Auto shutdown is an engine shutdown initiated by
via system alarms.
any automatic supervision of either engine internal
parameters or above mentioned external control Speed control
systems. If an engine shutdown is triggered by the
safety system, the emergency stop signal has an The engine speed control is realized by software
immediate effect on the emergency shut-down functions of the Control Module and the Injection
device, and the speed control. At the same time Modules. Engine speed and crankshaft turn angle
the emergency stop is triggered, SaCoSone issues indication is carried out by means of redundant
a signal resulting in the alternator switch to be pick ups at the camshaft.
opened.
0304-0000MQcr2.fm

I-AI 32/44CR Page 3 - 13


Engine automation
3.4 Functionality

Load distribution Multi engine and master slave plants Control


With electronic governors, the load distribution is SaCoSone controls all engine-internal functions as
carried by speed droop, isochronously by load- well as external components, for example:
sharing lines or master/slave operation.
Start/stop sequences
Shut-down
- Demands regarding lube oil and cooling wa-
With electronic governors, the shut-down is ef- ter pumps.
fected by an electrical contact.
- Monitoring of the prelubrication and post-
Load limit curves cooling period.
Start fuel limiter - Monitoring of the acceleration period.
Charge-air pressure dependent fuel limiter Fuel changeover
Torque limiter - Control of the switch-over from one type of
fuel to another.
Jump-rate limiter
- Fuel injection flow is effected by the speed
Note!
governor.
In the case of controllable-pitch propeller units
Control station switch-over
with combinator mode, the combinator curves
must be sent to MAN Diesel & Turbo in the de- Switch-over from local operation in the engine
sign stage for assessment. If load control sys- room to remote control from the engine control
tems of the C.P. propeller supplier are used, room.
the load control curve is to be sent to MAN
External functions:
Diesel & Turbo in order to check whether it is
below the load limit curve of the engine. - Electrical lubricating oil pump
- Electrical driven HT cooling water pump
Overspeed protection
- Electrical driven LT cooling water pump
The engine speed is monitored in both Control
Modules independently. In case of overspeed - Nozzle cooling water module
each Control Module actuates the shutdown de- - HT preheating unit
vice by a separate hardware channel.
- Clutches
Shutdown The scope of control functions depends on plant
The engine shutdown, initiated by safety functions configuration and must be coordinated during the
and manual emergency stops, is carried out via project engineering phase.
solenoid valves and a pneumatic fuel shut off for
common rail pilot fuel, the block and bleed gas Starters
valves and the conventional jerk pumps. For engine attached pumps and motors the start-
ers are installed in the auxiliary cabinet. Starters for
external pumps and consumers are not included
in the SaCoSone scope of supply in general.
0304-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 14 32/44CR I-AI


Engine automation
3.4 Functionality

Media Temperature Control


Various media flows must be controlled to ensure
trouble-free engine operation.
The temperature controllers are available as soft-
ware functions inside the Gateway Module of Sa-
CoSone. The temperature controllers are operated
by the displays at the operating panels as far as it
is necessary. From the Interface Cabinet the relays
actuate the control valves.
- The cylinder cooling water (HT) temperature
control is equipped with performance-relat-
ed feed forward control, in order to guaran-
tee the best control accuracy possible
(please refer also "Section 6.3.1: Cooling water
system, page 6-35").
- The low temperature (LT) cooling water tem-
perature control is prepared analogue to the
HT cooling water temperature control and
can be used if the LT cooling water system
is designed as individual cooling water sys-
tem per each engine.
In case that several engines are operated
with a combined LT cooling water system, it
is necessary to use a external temperature
controller.
This external controller must be mounted at
the engine control room desk and is to be
wired to the temperature control valve
(please refer also "Section 6.3.1: Cooling water
system, page 6-35").
- The charge-air temperature control is identi-
cally designed as the HT cooling water tem-
perature control.
The cooling water quantity in the LT part of
the charge-air cooler is regulated by the
charge air temperature control valve (please
refer also "Section 6.3.1: Cooling water system,
page 6-35").
- The design of the lube oil temperature con-
trol depends on the engine type. It is de-
signed either as a thermostatic valve (wax-
cartridge type) or an electric driven control
valve with electronic control analogue to the
0304-0000MQcr2.fm

HT temperature controller will be used.


Please refer also "Section 6.2.1: Lube oil system
description, page 6-5").

I-AI 32/44CR Page 3 - 15


Engine automation
3.4 Functionality

0304-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 16 32/44CR I-AI


Engine automation
3.5 Interfaces

3.5 Interfaces

Data Bus Interface (Machinery Alarm System) All measuring values acquired by SaCoSone are
available for transfer.

Alternator Control
Hardwired interface, used for example for syn-
chronisation, load indication, etc.

Power Management
Hardwired interface, for remote start/stop, load
setting, etc.

Propulsion Control System


Standardized hardwired interface including all sig-
nals for control and safety actions between Sa-
CoSone and the propulsion control system.

Others
In addition, interfaces to auxiliary systems are
available, such as to:
- nozzle cooling module
- HT preheating unit
- Electric driven pumps for lube oil, HT and LT
cooling water
Figure 3-10 Interface Cabinet
- clutches
This interface serves for data exchange to ship - gearbox
alarm systems, integrated automation systems
(IAS) or superior power plant operating systems. - propulsion control system
The interface is actuated with MODBUS protocol On request additional hard wired interfaces can be
and is available as: provided for special applications.
- Ethernet interface (MODBUS over TCP) or Cables Scope of supply
as
The bus cables between engine and interface are
- serial interface (MODBUS RTU) scope of the MAN Diesel & Turbo supply.
RS422/RS485, Standard 5 wire with electri-
cal isolation (cable length 100 m). The control cables and power cables are not in-
cluded in the scope of the MAN Diesel & Turbo
Only if the Ethernet interface is used, the transfer supply. This cabling has to be carried out by the
of data can be handled with timestamps from Sa- customer.
CoSone.
0305-0000MQcr2.fm

The status messages, alarms and safety actions,


which are generated in the system, can be trans-
ferred.

I-AI 32/44CR Page 3 - 17


Engine automation
3.5 Interfaces

0305-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 18 32/44CR I-AI


Engine automation
3.6 Technical Data

3.6 Technical Data

Interface Cabinet Remote Operating Panel (optional)


Design: Design:
Floor-standing cabinet Panel for control desk installation with 3 m ca-
ble to terminal bar for installation inside control
Cable entries from below through cabinet base
desk
Accessible by front doors
Front color: white aluminium (RAL9006)
Doors with locks
Weight: 15 kg
Opening angle: 90
Dimensions: 370 x 480 x 150 mm*
MAN Diesel & Turbo Standard color light grey * width x height x depth (including base)
(RAL7035)
Degree of protection: IP23.
Weight: approx. 300 kg
Environmental Conditions:
Dimensions: 1200 x 2100 x 400 mm*
Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C
* width x height x depth (including base)
Relative humidity: < 96 %
Degree of protection: IP54.
Vibrations: < 0.7 g.
Environmental Conditions:
Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C
Relative humidity: < 96 %
Vibrations < 0.7 g.

Electrical own consumption

Consumer Supply system Notes

Pn Ub F Phase Fuse/
(kVA) (V) (Hz) Starte
r by
yard

SaCoSone 0.8 24 DC +/ 40A Power supply from ship bat-


tery distribution (two line
redundant power supply)

SaCoSone Interface Cabinet 0.45 400 50/60 3 6A Power supply for consumers
440 on engine

SaCoSone temperature 0.07* 230 50/60 2 10A Cabinet illumination, socket,


controllers anticondensation heater *tem-
perature controller incl. regu-
lating valve drive, for each
temperature control system
0306-0000MQcr2.fm

Table 3-2 Electrical own consumption

C-AI 32/44CR Page 3 - 19


Engine automation
3.6 Technical Data

0306-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 20 32/44CR C-AI


Engine automation
3.7 Installation requirements

3.7 Installation requirements

Location All cabling between the Interface Cabinet and the


controlled device is scope of yard supply.
The Interface Cabinet is designed for installation in
non-hazardous areas. The cabinets is equipped with spring loaded termi-
nal clamps. All wiring to external systems should
The maximum cable length between the engine
be carried out without conductor sleeves.
and the Interface Cabinet is 60 meters.
The redundant CAN cables are MAN Diesel & Tur-
The cabinet must be installed at a location suitable
bo scope of supply. If the customer provides these
for service inspection.
cables, the cable must have a characteristic im-
Do not install the cabinet close to heat-generating pedance of 120 .
devices.
Maximum cable length
In case of installation at walls, the distance be-
tween cabinet and wall has to be at least 100 mm
in order to allow air convection. Connection max. cable length

Regarding the installation in engine rooms, the Cables between engine and 60 m
Interface Cabinet
cabinet should be supplied with fresh air by the
engine room ventilation through a dedicated venti- MODBUS cable between Inter- 100 m
lation air pipe near the engine. face Cabinet and ship alarm sys-
tem
Note!
Cable between Interface Cabinet 100 m
If the restrictions for ambient temperature can and Remote Operating Panel
not be kept, the cabinet must be ordered with
Table 3-3 Maximum cable length
an optional air condition system.
Installation Works

Ambient air conditions During the installation period the yard has to pro-
tect the cabinet against water, dust and fire. It is
For restrictions of ambient conditions, please refer not allowed to do any welding near the cabinets.
to the "Section 3.6: Technical Data, page 3-19". The cabinets have to be fixed to the floor by
screws.
Cabling
If it is inevitable to do welding near the cabinet, the
The interconnection cables between the engine cabinet and panels have to be protected against
and the Interface Cabinet have to be installed ac- heat, electric current and electromagnetic influ-
cording to the rules of electromagnetic compatibil- ences. To guarantee protection against current, all
ity. Control cables and power cables have to be of the cabling must be disconnected from the af-
routed in separate cable ducts. fected components.
The cables for the connection of sensors and ac- The installation of additional components inside
tuators which are not mounted on the engine are the cabinets is only allowed after approval by the
not included in the scope of MAN Diesel & Turbo responsible project manager of MAN Diesel & Tur-
supply. Shielded cables must be used for the ca- bo only.
bling of sensors. For electrical noise protection, an
0307-0000MQcr2.fm

electric ground connection must be made from


the cabinet to the hull of the ship.

C-AI 32/44CR Page 3 - 21


Engine automation
3.7 Installation requirements

0307-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 22 32/44CR C-AI


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

Examplary list for project planning


Engine type: 20V32/44CR Tier II

No Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Con- Depend-


. Point Range nected to ing on
option

speed pickups

1. 1SE1004A/ speed pickup indication, supervi- - turbo- Control -


B*) turbocharger sion charger Module
speed /safety

2. 1SE1005 speed pickup camshaft speed 0900 rpm camshaft Control -


engine speed and position input 01,800 Hz drive Module
for CR wheel /alarm

3. 2SE1005 speed pickup camshaft speed 0900 rpm/ camshaft Control -


engine speed and position input 01,800 Hz drive Module
for CR wheel /safety

start and stop of engine

4. 1SSV1011 solenoid valve actuated during - engine Control -


engine start engine start and Module
slowturn /alarm

5. 1SSV1075 solenoid valve actuated during - engine Control -


engine start engine start and Module
slowturn /alarm

6. 1HOZ1012 push button local emergency stop - Local gateway -


emergency stop from local control Operating module
station Panel

7. 1SZV1012 solenoid valve manual and auto- - engine Control -


engine shutdown emergency shut- Module
down /safety

8. 1PS1012 pressure switch feedback emer- 010 bar emer- Control -


emergency stop gency stop, start- gency Module /
air blocking active stop air safety
pipe on
engine

Variable Valve Timing

9. 1EM1024A/ electric motor Variable Valve Tim- - engine VVT cabi- -


B*) VVT setting row ing net
A
0308-0000MQcr2.fm

Table 3-4 List for engine-located measuring and control devices (1 of 7)

J-AJ 32/44CR Page 3 - 23


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

No Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Con- Depend-


. Point Range nected to ing on
option

10. 1GOS1024 limit switch VVT feedback VVT part - engine VVT cabi- -
A/B*) part load posi- load position net
tion row A reached

11. 2GOS1024 limit switch VVT feedback VVT full - engine VVT cabi- -
A/B*) full load position load position net
row A reached

12. 3GOS1024 limit switch VVT feedback VVT part - engine VVT cabi- -
A/B*) part load posi- load position net
tion row A reached

13. 4GOS1024 limit switch VVT feedback VVT full - engine VVT cabi- -
A/B*) full load position load position net
row A reached

charge air bypass

14. 1XSV1030 solenoid valve blow by while part- - engine Control charge air
charge air load or low speed Module bypass
bypass flap /alarm

charge air blow-off

15. 1XSV1031 solenoid valve charge air blow off - engine Control charge air
A/B*) charge air blow at low suction air Module blow off
off flap A/B temperature /alarm

main bearings

16. xTE1064 double temp indication, alarm, 0120 C engine Control main bear-
sensors, main engine protection Modules ing temp
bearings monitoring

turning gear

17. 1GOS1070 limit switch turn- indication and start - engine Control -
ing gear engaged blocking Module
/alarm

jet assist

18. 1SSV1080 solenoid valve for turbocharger - engine Control jet assist
jet assist acceleration by jet Module
assist /alarm

lube oil system

19. 1PT2170 pressure trans- alarm at low lube 010 bar engine Control -
mitter, lube oil oil pressure Module
pressure engine /alarm
0308-0000MQcr2.fm

inlet

Table 3-4 List for engine-located measuring and control devices (2 of 7)

Page 3 - 24 32/44CR J-AJ


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

No Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Con- Depend-


. Point Range nected to ing on
option

20. 2PT2170 pressure trans- auto shutdown at 010 bar Local Control -
mitter, lube oil low pressure Operating Module
pressure engine Panel /safety
inlet

21. 1TE2170 double temp alarm at high temp 0120 C engine Control -
sensor, lube oil Modules
temp engine inlet

22. 1EM2470 electric motor cylinder lubrication - engine Interface -


cylinder lubrica- Cabinet
tion

23. 1FE2470A/ limit switch cylin- function control of 0.11 Hz engine Control -
B*) ders lubricator cylinder lubricator Module
line A/B line A /alarm

24. 1PT2570A/ pressure trans- alarm at low lube 06 bar engine Control -
B*) mitter, lube oil oil pressure Module
pressure turbo- /alarm
charger inlet

25. 2PT2570A/ pressure trans- auto shutdown at 06 bar engine Control -


B*) mitter, lube oil low lube oil pres- Module
pressure turbo- sure /safety
charger inlet

26. 1TE2580A/ double temp alarm at high temp 0120 C engine Control -
B*) sensor, lube oil Modules
temp turbo-
charger drain

oil mist detection

27. 1QTIA2870 oilmist detector, oilmist supervision - engine - oil mist


oilmist concen- detection
tration in crank-
case

splash oil

28. xTE2880 double temp splash oil supervi- 0120 C engine Control -
sensors, sion Modules
splashoil temp
rod bearings

cooling water systems

29. 1TE3168 double temp for EDS visualisa- 0120 C engine Control -
sensor HT water tion and control of Module
temp charge air preheater valve /alarm
0308-0000MQcr2.fm

cooler inlet

Table 3-4 List for engine-located measuring and control devices (3 of 7)

J-AJ 32/44CR Page 3 - 25


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

No Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Con- Depend-


. Point Range nected to ing on
option

30. 1PT3170 pressure trans- alarm at low pres- 06 bar engine Control -
mitter, HT cooling sure Module
water pressure /alarm
engine inlet

31. 2PT3170 pressure trans- detection of low 06 bar engine Control -


mitter, HT cooling cooling water Module
water pressure pressure /safety
engine inlet

32. 1TE3170 double temp alarm, indication 0120 C engine Control -


sensor, HTCW Modules
temp engine inlet

33. 1TE3180 temp sensor, HT - 0120 C engine Control -


water temp Modules
engine outlet

34. 1PT3470 pressure trans- alarm at low cool- 010 bar engine Control -
mitter, nozzle ing water pressure Module
cooling water /alarm
pressure engine
inlet

35. 2PT3470 pressure trans- alarm at low cool- 010 bar engine Control -
mitter, nozzle ing water pressure Module
cooling water /safety
pressure engine
inlet

36. 1TE3470 double temp alarm at high cool- 0120 C engine Control -
sensor, nozzle ing water temp Modules
cooling water
temp engine inlet

37. 1PT4170 pressure trans- alarm at low cool- 06 bar engine Control -
mitter, LT water ing water pressure Module
pressure charge /alarm
air cooler inlet

38. 2PT4170 pressure trans- alarm at low cool- 06 bar engine Control -
mitter, LT water ing water pressure Unit
pressure charge
air cooler inlet

39. 1TE4170 double temp alarm, indication 0120 C LT pipe Control -


sensor, LT water charge air Modules
temp charge air cooler inlet
cooler inlet

fuel system
0308-0000MQcr2.fm

Table 3-4 List for engine-located measuring and control devices (4 of 7)

Page 3 - 26 32/44CR J-AJ


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

No Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Con- Depend-


. Point Range nected to ing on
option

40. 1PT5070 pressure trans- remote indication 016 bar engine Control -
mitter, fuel pres- and alarm Module
sure engine inlet /alarm

41. 2PT5070 pressure trans- remote indication 016 bar engine Control -
mitter, fuel pres- and alarm Module
sure engine inlet /safety

42. 1TE5070 double temp alarm at high temp 0200 C engine Control -
sensor, fuel temp in MDO-mode and Modules
engine inlet for EDS use

43. xFCV5075A suction throttle volume control of - engine Injection -


/B*) valves row A/B low pressure fuel Module
/CR

44. 1LS5076A/ level switch fuel high pressure fuel 02,000 bar engine Control -
B*) pipe break leak- system leakage Unit
age detection

45. xLS5077A/ level switch rail rail leakage detec- - engine Leakage -
B*) segment 1-5A/B tion Monitor-
ing Unit

46. 2PT5076A/ rail pressure sen- pressure of high 02,000 bar engine Injection -
B*) sors 2 row A/B pressure fuel sys- Module
tem common rail /CR

47. xLS5077A/ level switch rail rail leakage detec- - engine Leakage -
B*) segment tion Monitor-
15A/B ing Unit

48. xFSV5078A valve group for fuel injection - engine Injection -


/B*) fuel injection Module
/CR

49. 1FSV5080A flushing valve unloading of com- - engine emer- -


/B*) mon rail high pres- gency
sure fuel system A stop valve
1SZV1012

50. 1LS5080A/ level switch alarm at high level - fuel leak- Control -
B*) pump- and noz- age moni- Module
zle leakage row toring tank /alarm
A/B FSH-001

51. 2LS5080A/ level switch dirty alarm at high level - pump Leakage -
B*) oil leakage pump bank leak- Monitor-
bank CS row A/B age moni- ing Unit
toring CS

Table 3-4 List for engine-located measuring and control devices (5 of 7)


0308-0000MQcr2.fm

J-AJ 32/44CR Page 3 - 27


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

No Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Con- Depend-


. Point Range nected to ing on
option

52. 3LS5080A/ level switch dirty alarm at high level - pump Leakage -
B*) oil leakage pump bank leak- Monitor-
bank CCS row age moni- ing Unit
A/B toring
CCS

53. 4LS5080A/ level switch dirty alarm at high level - pump Leakage -
B*) oil leakage pump bank leak- Monitor-
bank CCS row age moni- ing Unit
A/B toring
CCS

54. 1TE5080A/ double temp remote indication 0200 C engine Leakage -


B*) sensor, fuel temp and alarm Monitor-
after flushing ing Unit
valve, row A/B

55. 1TE5081A/ double temp remote indication 0200 C engine Leakage -


B*) sensor, fuel temp and alarm Monitor-
after safety valve, ing Unit
row A/B

56. 1PZV5081 pressure relief mechanical limita- - engine - -


valve tion of rail pressure

charge air system

57. 1PT6100 pressure trans- for EDS visualisa- 20...+20 intake air Control -
mitter, intake air tion mbar duct after Module
pressure filter /alarm

58. 1TE6100 double temp temp input for 0120 C intake air Control -
sensor, intake air charge air blow-off duct after Module
temp and EDS visualisa- filter /alarm
tion

59. 1TE6170A/ double temp for EDS visualisa- 0300 C engine Control -
B*) sensor, charge tion Modules
air temp charge
air cooler A/B
inlet

60. 1PT6180A/ pressure trans- engine control 06 bar engine Control -


B*) mitter, charge air Module
pressure before /alarm
cylinders row A/B

61. 2PT6180A/ pressure trans- - 06 bar engine Control -


B*) mitter, charge air Module
pressure before /safety
cylinders row A/B
0308-0000MQcr2.fm

Table 3-4 List for engine-located measuring and control devices (6 of 7)

Page 3 - 28 32/44CR J-AJ


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

No Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Con- Depend-


. Point Range nected to ing on
option

62. 1TE6180A/ double temp alarm at high temp 0120 C engine Control -
B*) sensor, charge Modules
air temp after
charge air cooler
A/B

exhaust system

63. xTE6570A/ double thermo- indication, alarm, 0800 C engine Control -


B*) couples, exhaust engine protection Modules
gas temp cylin-
ders A/B

64. 1TE6575A/ double thermo- indication, alarm, 0800 C engine Control -


B*) couples, exhaust engine protection Modules
gas temp before
turbocharger A/B

65. 1TE6580A/ double thermo- indication 0800 C engine Control -


B*) couples, exhaust Modules
gas temp after
turbocharger A/B

control air, start air, stop air

66. 1PT7170 pressure trans- engine control, 040 bar engine Control -
mitter, starting air remote indication Mod-
pressure ule/alarm

67. 2PT7170 pressure trans- engine control, 040 bar engine Control -
mitter, starting air remote indication Mod-
pressure ule/safety

68. 1PT7180 pressure trans- alarm at low air 040 bar engine Control -
mitter, emer- pressure Mod-
gency stop air ule/alarm
pressure

69. 2PT7180 pressure trans- alarm at low air 040 bar engine Control -
mitter, emer- pressure Mod-
gency stop air ule/safety
pressure

70. 1PT7400 pressure trans- remote indication 010 bar engine Control -
mitter, control air Mod-
pressure ule/alarm

71. 2PT7400 pressure trans- remote indication 010 bar engine Control -
mitter, control air Mod-
pressure ule/safety
*)
0308-0000MQcr2.fm

A-sensors: all engines; B-sensors: V-engines only.

Table 3-4 List for engine-located measuring and control devices (7 of 7)

J-AJ 32/44CR Page 3 - 29


Engine automation
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

0308-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 3 - 30 32/44CR J-AJ


======

4 Specification for engine supplies


Kapiteltitel 4 M2.fm

Page 4 - 1
Page 4 - 2
Kapiteltitel 4 M2.fm
p~===
4.1.1 Lubricating oil

4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies

Temperatures and pressures stated in "Section: B) Long-term (> 72h) or continuous operation
Planning data" must be considered.
For long-term (> 72h) or continuous operation with
MGO (DMA, DMZ), viscosity 2 cst at 40 C, spe-
4.1.1 Lubricating oil cial engine- and plant-related planning prerequi-
sites must be set and special actions are
Selection of the lubricating oil must be in accord- necessary during operation.
ance with the relevant chapters.
Following features are required on engine side:
The lubricating oil must always match the worst
Inlet valve lubrication with possibility to be
fuel oil quality. A base number (BN) that is too low
turned off and on manually
is critical.
In case of conventional injection system, injec-
A base number that is too high is, however, not
tion pumps with sealing oil system, which can
optimum (costs, sedimentation), but is not consid-
be activated and cut off manually, are neces-
ered critical.
sary
Following features are required on plant side:
4.1.2 Fuel
Layout of fuel system to be adapted for low-vis-
The engine is designed for operation with HFO, cosity fuel (capacity and design of fuel supply
MDO (DMB) and MGO (DMA, DMZ) according to and booster pump)
ISO8217-2010 of the qualities quoted in the rele- Cooler layout in fuel system for a fuel oil tem-
vant chapters. perature before engine of 45 C
The following notes concerning this must al- Nozzle cooling system with possibility to be
ways be observed: turned off and on during engine operation
Engine operation MGO (DMA, DMZ) according to ISO Boundary conditions for operation:
8217-2010, viscosity 2 cst at 40 C Fuel in accordance with MGO (DMA, DMZ) and
A) Short-term operation, max. 72 hours a viscosity of 2 cSt at 40 C
Engines that are normally operated with heavy fu- Fuel oil cooler activated and fuel oil temperature
el, can also be operated with MGO (DMA, DMZ) before engine 45 C
for short periods. Inlet valve lubrication turned on
Boundary conditions: In case of conventional injection system, seal-
Fuel in accordance with MGO (DMA, DMZ) and ing oil of injection pumps activated
a viscosity of 2 cSt at 40 C Nozzle cooling system switched off
MGO-operation maximum 72 hours within a Continuous operation with MGO (DMA, DMZ):
two week period (cumulative with distribution
as required) Lube oil for diesel operation (BN10-BN16) has
to be used
Fuel oil cooler switched on and fuel oil temper-
ature before engine 45 C
0203-0000MA2.fm

L-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 58/64 Page 4 - 3


Specification for engine supplies
4.1.3 Engine cooling water

Operation with heavy fuel oil of a (low) sulphur con-


tent of < 1.5 %
Previous experience with stationary engines using
heavy fuel of a sulphur content of < 1 % or even
0.2 % does not show any restriction in the utilisa-
tion of these fuels, provided that the combustion
properties are not affected negatively.
This may well change if in the future new methods
are developed to produce low sulphur-containing
heavy fuels.
If it is intended to run continuously with low sul-
phur-containing heavy fuel, lube oil with a low BN
(BN30) has to be used. This is needed, in spite of
experiences that engines have been proven to be
very robust regarding to the continuous usage of
the standard lubrication oil (BN40) for this pur-
pose.
Instruction for minimum admissible fuel tem-
perature:
In general the minimum viscosity before engine
of 1.9 cSt must not be undershoot.
The fuel specific characteristic values pour
point and cold filter plugging point have to be
observed to ensure pumpability respectively fil-
terability of the fuel oil.
Fuel temperatures of approximately minus
10 C and less are to be avoided, due to tem-
porarily embrittlement of seals used in the en-
gines fuel oil system and as a result their
possibly loss of function.

4.1.3 Engine cooling water


The quality of the engine cooling water required in
relevant section has to be ensured.

4.1.4 Intake air


The quality of the intake air as stated in the rele-
vant sections has to be ensured.
0203-0000MA2.fm

Page 4 - 4 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 58/64 L-BB


Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels

4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil,
diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels

General Only lubricating oils that have been approved by


MAN Diesel & Turbo may be used (see "Table 4-3:
The specific output achieved by modern diesel en-
Lubricating oils approved for use in MAN Diesel & Turbo
gines combined with the use of fuels that satisfy
four-stroke diesel engines that run on gas oil and diesel
the quality requirements more and more frequently
fuel").
increase the demands on the performance of the
lubricating oil which must therefore be carefully se-
Specifications
lected.
Base oil
Doped lubricating oils (HD oils) have a proven
track record as lubricants for the drive, cylinder, The base oil (doped lubricating oil = base oil + ad-
turbocharger and cooling the piston. Doped lubri- ditives) must have a narrow distillation range and
cating oils contain additives that, among other be refined using modern methods. If it contains
things, ensure dirt holding capability, clean the en- paraffins, they must not impair the thermal stability
gine and the neutralise the acidic products of or oxidation stability.
combustion. The base oil must comply with the following limit
values, particularly in terms of its resistance to
ageing.

Properties/characteristics Unit Test method Limit value

Make-up - - Ideally paraffin based

Low-temperature behaviour, still C ASTM D 2500 15


flowable

Flash point (Cleveland) ASTM D 92 > 200

Ash content (oxide ash) Weight % ASTM D 482 < 0.02

Coke residue (according to Con- ASTM D 189 < 0.50


radson)

Ageing tendency following 100 - MAN ageing oven1) -


hours of heating up to 135 C

Insoluble n-heptane Weight % ASTM D 4055 < 0.2


or DIN 51592

Evaporation loss - < 2

Spot test (filter paper) - MAN Diesel & Precipitation of resins or asphalt-like age-
Turbo test ing products must not be identifiable.

Table 4-1 Base oils Target values


1)
Works' own method.
0401-0000MAcr2.fm

E-BB Page 4 - 5
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels

Doped lubricating oils (HD oils) Additional requirements


The base oil to which the additives have been add- The lubricating oil must not contain viscosity index
ed (doped lubricating oil) must have the following improver. Fresh oil must not contain water or other
properties: contaminants.

Additives Lube oil selection


The additives must be dissolved in the oil and their
composition must ensure that as little ash as pos- Engine SAE class
sible remains following combustion. 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 28/32S, 32/40, 40
The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite is not 32/44, 40/54, 48/60, 58/64, 51/60DF
met, it is likely the rate of deposition in the com- Table 4-2 Viscosity (SAE class) of lubricating oils
bustion chamber will be higher, particularly at the
exhaust valves and at the turbocharger inlet cas- Doped oil quality
ing. Hard additive ash promotes pitting of the valve We recommend doped lubricating oils (HD oils)
seats and causes the valves to burn out, it also in- according to international specifications MIL-L
creases mechanical wear of the cylinder liners. 2104 or API-CD with a base number of BN
Additives must not increase the rate at which the 10 16 mg KOH/g. Military specification O-278
filter elements in the active or used condition are lubricating oils can be used.
blocked. The operating conditions of the engine and the
quality of the fuel determine which additive frac-
Washing ability tions the lubricating oil contains. If marine diesel oil
The washing ability must be high enough to pre- with a sulphur content of up to 2.0 % by weight
vent the accumulation of tar and coke residue as according to ISO-F-DMC and coke residues of up
a result of fuel combustion. to 2.5 % by weight is used, you should choose a
base number of roughly 20. However, the operat-
Dispersibility ing results that ensure the most efficient engine
operation ultimately decide the additive content.
The selected dispersibility must be such that com-
mercially-available lubricating oil cleaning systems Cylinder lubricating oil
can remove harmful contaminants from the oil
In engines with separate cylinder lubrication, the
used, i. e. the oil must possess good filtering prop-
pistons and cylinder liners are supplied with lubri-
erties and separability.
cating oil via a separate lubricating oil pump. The
quantity of lubricating oil is set at the factory ac-
Neutralisation capability
cording to the quality of the fuel to be used and the
The neutralisation capability (ASTM D2896) must anticipated operating conditions.
be high enough to neutralise the acidic products
Use a lubricating oil for the cylinder and lubricating
produced during combustion. The reaction time of
circuit as specified above.
the additive must be harmonised with the process
in the combustion chamber. Speed controller
Multigrade oil 5W40 should ideally be used in me-
Evaporation tendency
chanical-hydraulic controllers with a separate oil
The evaporation tendency must be as low as pos- sump. If this oil is not available when filling, 15W40
sible as otherwise the oil consumption will be ad- oil can be used instead in exceptional cases. In
0401-0000MAcr2.fm

versely affected. this case, it makes no difference whether synthetic


or mineral-based oils are used.
The military specification for these oils is O-236.

Page 4 - 6 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels

Experience with the L27/38 engine has shown Temporary operation with gas oil
that the operating temperature of the Woodward
Due to current and future emission regulations,
controller OG10MAS and corresponding actuator
heavy fuel oil cannot be used in designated re-
for UG723+ can be higher than 93 C. In these
gions. Low-sulphur diesel fuel must be used in
cases we recommend using a synthetic oil such as
these regions instead.
Castrol Alphasyn HG150. Engines supplied after
March 2005 are already filled with this oil. If the engine is operated with low-sulphur diesel
fuel for less than 1000 h, a lubricating oil which is
Lubricating oil additives
suitable for HFO operation (BN 30 55 mg
The use of other additives with the lubricating oil, KOH/g) can be used during this period.
or the mixing of different brands (oils by different
If the engine is operated provisionally with low-sul-
manufacturers), is not permitted as this may impair
phur diesel fuel for more than 1000 h and is sub-
the performance of the existing additives which
sequently operated once again with HFO, a
have been carefully harmonised with each another
lubricating oil with a BN of 20 must be used. If the
and also specifically tailored to the base oil.
BN 20 lubricating oil by the same manufacturer as
Selection of lubricating oils/warranty the lubricating oil used for HFO operation with
higher BN (40 or 50), an oil change will not be re-
The majority of mineral oil companies are in close
quired when effecting the changeover. It will be
regular contact with engine manufacturers and
sufficient to use BN 20 oil when replenishing the
can therefore provide information on which oil in
used lubricating oil.
their specific product range has been approved by
the engine manufacturer for the particular applica- If you wish to operate the engine with HFO once
tion. Irrespective of the above, lubricating oil man- again, it will be necessary to change over in good
ufacturers are liable in any case for the quality and time to a lubricating oil with a higher BN (30 55).
characteristics of their products. If you have any If the lubricating oil with higher BN is by the same
questions, we will be happy to provide you with manufacturer as the BN 20 lubricating oil, the
further information. changeover can also be effected without an oil
change. In doing so, the lubricating oil with higher
Oil during operation BN (30 55) must be used to replenish the used
There are no prescribed oil change intervals for lubricating oil roughly 2 weeks prior to resuming
MAN Diesel & Turbo medium speed engines. The HFO operation.
oil properties must be regularly analysed. The oil
Test
can be used for as long as the oil properties re-
main within the defined limit values (see "Table 4-4: We can analyse heavy fuel oil for customers at our
Limit values for used lubricating oil"). An oil sample laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
must be analysed every 1 3 months (see mainte-
Improper handling of fuels
nance schedule). An oil sample must be analysed
every 1 3 months (see maintenance schedule). If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
The quality of the oil can only be maintained if it is danger to health, safety and the environment. The
cleaned using suitable equipment (e. g. a separa- relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
tor or filter). must be observed.
0401-0000MAcr2.fm

E-BB Page 4 - 7
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels

Approved lubricating oils SAE 40

Manufacturer Base number


10 161) [mgKOH/g]
AGIP Cladium 120-SAE 40
Sigma S SAE 402)

BP Energol DS 3-154

CASTROL Castrol MLC 40


Castrol MHP 154
Seamax Extra 40

CHEVRON Texaco Taro 12 XD 40


(Texaco, Caltex) Delo 1000 Marine SAE 40
Delo SHP 40

EXXON MOBIL Exxmar 12 TP 40


Mobilgard 412/MG 1SHC
Mobilgard ADL 402)
Delvac 1640

PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-410

Q8 Mozart DP40

REPSOL Neptuno NT 1540

SHELL Gadinia 40
Gadinia AL40
Sirius FB402)
Sirius/Rimula X402)

STATOIL MarWay 1540


MarWay 1040

TOTAL LUBMARINE Disola M4015

Table 4-3 Lubricating oils approved for use in MAN


Diesel & Turbo four-stroke diesel engines that
run on gas oil and diesel fuel
1) If marine diesel oil with a low quality (ISO-F-DMC) is used,
a base number (BN) of roughly 20 should be used.
2) With a sulphur content of less than 1 %.

Note!
MAN Diesel & Turbo SE does not assume lia-
bility for problems that occur when using these
oils.
0401-0000MAcr2.fm

Page 4 - 8 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels

Limit value Method

Viscosity at 40 C 110 220 mm2/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D445

Base number (BN) min. 50 % of fresh oil ISO 3771

Flash Point (PM) min. 185 C ISO 2719

Water content max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for a brief periods) ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744

n-heptan insoluble max. 1.5 % DIN 51592 or IP 316

Metal content depends on engine type and operating conditions -

Guide value only


Fe max. 50 ppm -
Cr max. 10 ppm
Cu max. 15 ppm
Pb max. 20 ppm
Sn max. 10 ppm
Al max. 20 ppm

When operating with max. 12% FT-IR


biofuels:
biofuel fraction

Table 4-4 Limit values for used lubricating oil


0401-0000MAcr2.fm

E-BB Page 4 - 9
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil (MGO/MDO) and biofuels

0401-0000MAcr2.fm

Page 4 - 10 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO)

4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy
fuel oil (HFO)

General Only lubricating oils that have been approved by


MAN Diesel & Turbo may be used (see "Table 4-9:
The specific output achieved by modern diesel en-
Approved lubricating oils for heavy fuel oil-operated MAN
gines combined with the use of fuels that satisfy
Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines").
the quality requirements more and more frequently
increase the demands on the performance of the
Specifications
lubricating oil which must therefore be carefully se-
lected. Base oil
Medium alkalinity lubricating oils have a proven The base oil (doped lubricating oil = base oil + ad-
track record as lubricants for the moving parts and ditives) must have a narrow distillation range and
turbocharger cylinder and for cooling the pistons. be refined using modern methods. If it contains
Lubricating oils of medium alkalinity contain addi- paraffins, they must not impair the thermal stability
tives that, in addition to other properties, ensure a or oxidation stability.
higher neutralisation reserve than with fully doped The base oil must comply with the limit values (see
engine oils (HD oils). "Table 4-5: Base oils Target values"), particularly in
International specifications do not exist for medi- terms of its resistance to ageing.
um alkalinity lubricating oils. A test operation is
therefore necessary for a corresponding period in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Properties/characteristics Unit Test method Limit values

Make-up - - Ideally paraffin based

Low-temperature behaviour, still C ASTM D 2500 15


flowable

Flash point (Cleveland) ASTM D 92 > 200

Ash content (oxidised ash) Weight % ASTM D 482 < 0.02

Coke residue (according to Con- ASTM D 189 < 0.50


radson)

Ageing tendency following 100 - MAN ageing -


hours of heating up to 135 C oven1)

Insoluble n-heptane Weight % ASTM D 4055 or < 0.2


DIN 51592

Evaporation loss - <2

Spot test (filter paper) - MAN Diesel & Precipitation of resins or asphalt-like ageing
Turbo test products must not be identifiable.

Table 4-5 Base oils Target values


1)
Works' own method.
0401-0000AA2.fm

E-BB Page 4 - 11
Specification for engine supplies
4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Medium alkalinity lubricating oil Evaporation tendency


The prepared oil (base oil with additives) must The evaporation tendency must be as low as pos-
have the following properties: sible as otherwise the oil consumption will be ad-
versely affected.
Additives
Additional requirements
The additives must be dissolved in the oil and their
composition must ensure that as little ash as pos- The lubricating oil must not contain viscosity index
sible is left over, even if the engine is provisionally improver. Fresh oil must not contain water or other
operated with distillate oil. contaminants.
The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite is not
Lube oil selection
met, it is likely the rate of deposition in the com-
bustion chamber will be higher, particularly at the
exhaust valves and at the turbocharger inlet cas- Engine SAE
class
ing. Hard additive ash promotes pitting of the valve
seats and causes the valves to burn out, it also in- 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 28/32S, 32/40, 40
creases mechanical wear of the cylinder liners. 32/44, 40/54, 48/60, 58/64, 51/60DF

Additives must not increase the rate at which the Table 4-6 Viscosity (SAE class) of lubricating oils
filter elements in the active or used condition are
blocked. Neutralisation properties (BN)
Lubricating oils with medium alkalinity and a range
Washing ability of neutralisation capabilities (BN) are available on
The washing ability must be high enough to pre- the market. According to current knowledge, a re-
vent the accumulation of tar and coke residue as lationship can be established between the antici-
a result of fuel combustion. The lubricating oil must pated operating conditions and the BN number
not absorb the deposits produced by the fuel. (see "Table 4-7: Base number to be used for various op-
erating conditions"). However, the operating results
Dispersibility are still the overriding factor in determining which
BN number produces the most efficient engine
The selected dispersibility must be such that com- operation.
mercially-available lubricating oil cleaning systems
can remove harmful contaminants from the oil
used, i. e. the oil must possess good filtering prop-
erties and separability.

Neutralisation capability
The neutralisation capability (ASTM D2896) must
be high enough to neutralise the acidic products
produced during combustion. The reaction time of
the additive must be harmonised with the process
in the combustion chamber.
For tips on selecting the base number see "Table
4-7: Base number to be used for various operating condi-
tions".
0401-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 12 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Approx. BN of fresh Engines/Operating conditions


oil (mg KOH/g oil)

20 Marine diesel oil (MDO) with a lower quality (ISO-F-DMC) or heavy fuel oil with a sulphur content of
less than 0.5 %.

30 Generally 23/30H and 28/32H. 23/30A, 28/32A and 28/32S under normal operating conditions.
For engines 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60 as well as 58/64 and 51/60DF
with exclusive HFO operation only with sulphur content < 1.5 %.

40 With unfavourable operating conditions 23/30A, 28/32A and 28/32S and also where correspond-
ing requirements in relation to the oil service life and washing ability exist.
In general 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60 as well as 58/64 and 51/60DF with
exclusive HFO operation providing the sulphur content is greater than 1.5 %.

50 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60 and 58/64, if the oil service life or engine cleanliness is insufficient
with a BN number of 40 (high sulphur content of fuel, extremely low lubricating oil consumption).

Table 4-7 Base number to be used for various operating conditions

Operation with low-sulphur fuel oil can be used instead in exceptional cases. In
this case, it makes no difference whether synthetic
To comply with the emissions regulations, the sul-
or mineral-based oils are used.
phur content of fuels used nowadays varies. Fuels
with a low-sulphur content must be used in envi- The military specification for these oils is O-236.
ronmentally-sensitive areas (SECA). Fuels with a
Lubricating oil additives
high sulphur content may be used outside SECA
zones. In this case, the BN number of the lubricat- The use of other additives with the lubricating oil,
ing oil selected must satisfy the requirements for or the mixing of different brands (oils by different
operation using fuel with a high-sulphur content. A manufacturers), is not permitted as this may impair
lubricating oil with low BN number may only be se- the performance of the existing additives which
lected if fuel with a low-sulphur content is used ex- have been carefully harmonised with each another
clusively during operation. and also specifically tailored to the base oil.
However, the results obtained in practise that Selection of lubricating oils/warranty
demonstrate the most efficient engine operation The majority of mineral oil companies are in close
are the factor that ultimately decides which addi- regular contact with engine manufacturers and
tive fraction is permitted. can therefore provide information on which oil in
Cylinder lubricating oil their specific product range has been approved by
the engine manufacturer for the particular applica-
In engines with separate cylinder lubrication, the
tion. Irrespective of the above, lubricating oil man-
pistons and cylinder liners are supplied with lubri-
ufacturers are liable in any case for the quality and
cating oil via a separate lubricating oil pump. The
characteristics of their products. If you have any
quantity of lubricating oil is set at the factory ac-
questions, we will be happy to provide you with
cording to the quality of the fuel to be used and the
further information.
anticipated operating conditions.
Use a lubricating oil for the cylinder and lubricating Oil during operation
circuit as specified above. There are no prescribed oil change intervals for
Speed controller MAN Diesel & Turbo medium speed engines. The
oil properties must be regularly analysed. The oil
0401-0000AA2.fm

Multigrade oil 5W40 should ideally be used in me-


can be used for as long as the oil properties re-
chanical-hydraulic controllers with a separate oil
main within the defined limit values (see "Table 4-8:
sump. If this oil is not available when filling, 15W40

E-BB Page 4 - 13
Specification for engine supplies
4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Limit values for used lubricating oil"). An oil sample sequently operated once again with HFO, a
must be analysed every 1 3 months (see mainte- lubricating oil with a BN of 20 must be used. If the
nance schedule). An oil sample must be analysed BN 20 lubricating oil by the same manufacturer as
every 1 3 months (see maintenance schedule). the lubricating oil used for HFO operation with
The quality of the oil can only be maintained if it is higher BN (40 or 50), an oil change will not be re-
cleaned using suitable equipment (e.g. a separator quired when effecting the changeover. It will be
or filter). sufficient to use BN 20 oil when replenishing the
used lubricating oil.
Temporary operation with gas oil
If you wish to operate the engine with HFO once
Due to current and future emission regulations,
again, it will be necessary to change over in good
heavy fuel oil cannot be used in designated re-
time to a lubricating oil with a higher BN (30 55).
gions. Low-sulphur diesel fuel must be used in
If the lubricating oil with higher BN is by the same
these regions instead.
manufacturer as the BN 20 lubricating oil, the
If the engine is operated with low-sulphur diesel changeover can also be effected without an oil
fuel for less than 1,000 h, a lubricating oil which is change. In doing so, the lubricating oil with higher
suitable for HFO operation (BN 30 55 mg BN (30 55) must be used to replenish the used
KOH/g) can be used during this period. lubricating oil roughly 2 weeks prior to resuming
If the engine is operated provisionally with low-sul- HFO operation.
phur diesel fuel for more than 1,000 h and is sub-

Limit value Method

Viscosity at 40 C 110 220 mm2/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D 445

Base number (BN) min. 50 % of fresh oil ISO 3771

Flash Point (PM) min. 185 C ISO 2719

Water content max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for brief periods) ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744

n-heptan insoluble max. 1.5 % DIN 51592 or IP 316

Metal content Dependent on engine type and operating con- -


dition

Only for guidance -


Fe max. 50 ppm
Cr max. 10 ppm
Cu max. 15 ppm
Pb max. 20 ppm
Sn max. 10 ppm
Al max. 20 ppm

Table 4-8 Limit values for used lubricating oil


0401-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 14 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Tests
We can analyse heavy fuel oil for customers at our
laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

Manufacturer Base number [mgKOH/g]

20 30 40 50

AGIP - Cladium 300 Cladium 400 -

BP Energol IC-HFX 204 Energol IC-HFX 304 Energol IC-HFX 404 Energol IC-HFX 504

CASTROL TLX Plus 204 TLX Plus 304 TLX Plus 404 TLX Plus 504

CEPSA - Troncoil 3040 Plus Troncoil 4040 Plus Troncoil 5040 Plus

CHEVRON Taro 20DP40 Taro 30DP40 Taro 40XL40 Taro 50XL40


(Texaco, Caltex) Taro 20DP40X Taro 30DP40X Taro 40XL40X Taro 50XL40X

EXXON MOBIL - Mobilgard M430 Mobilgard M440 Mobilgard M50


Exxmar 30 TP 40 Exxmar 40 TP 40

PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-420 Marbrax CCD-430 Marbrax CCD-440 -

REPSOL Neptuno NT 2040 Neptuno NT 3040 Neptuno NT 4040 -

SHELL Argina S 40 Argina T 40 Argina X 40 Argina XL 40


Argina XX 40

TOTAL LUBMARINE - Aurelia TI 4030 Aurelia TI 4040 Aurelia TI 4055

Note!
MAN Diesel & Turbo SE does not assume liability for problems that occur when using these oils.

Table 4-9 Approved lubricating oils for heavy fuel oil-operated MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines
0401-0000AA2.fm

E-BB Page 4 - 15
Specification for engine supplies
4.3 Specification for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO)

0401-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 16 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

Diesel oil
Other designations
Gas oil, marine gas oil (MGO), diesel oil
Gas oil is a crude oil medium distillate and must
therefore not contain any residual materials.

Military specification
Diesel oils that satisfy specification F-75 or F-76
may be used.

Specification
The suitability of the fuel depends on whether it
has the properties defined in this specification
(based on its composition in the as-delivered
state).
The DIN EN 590 and ISO 8217-2010 (Class DMA
or Class DMZ) and standards have been exten-
sively used as the basis when defining these prop-
erties. The properties correspond to the test
procedures stated.

Properties Unit Test procedure Typical value


3
Density at 15 C kg/m ISO 3675 820.0
890.0

Kinematic viscosity at 40 C mm2/s (cSt) ISO 3104 2


6.0

Filterability1) C DIN EN 116


in summer and 0
in winter 12

Flash point in closed cup ISO 2719 60

Sediment content (extraction method) weight % ISO 3735 0.01

Water content volume % ISO 3733 0.05

Sulphur content weight % ISO 8754 1.5

Ash ISO 6245 0.01

Coke residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 0.10

Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 <2


0409-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-10 Diesel fuel (MGO) Properties that must be complied with (1 of 2)

E-BB Page 4 - 17
Specification for engine supplies
4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

Properties Unit Test procedure Typical value

Total acid number mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5

Oxidation stability g/m3 ISO 12205 < 25

Lubricity m ISO 12156-1 < 520


(wear scar diameter)

Cetane number or cetane index - ISO 5165 40

Copper strip test - ISO 2160 1

Other specifications:

British Standard BS MA 100-1987 - - M1

ASTM D 975 - - 1D/2D

Table 4-10 Diesel fuel (MGO) Properties that must be complied with (2 of 2)
1) The process for determining the filterability in accordance with DIN EN 116 is similar to the process for determining the cloud
point in accordance with ISO 3015.

Additional information bricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not ex-


ceed 520 m.
Use of diesel oil
You can ensure that these conditions will be met
If distillate intended for use as heating oil is used
by using motor vehicle diesel fuel in accordance
with stationary engines instead of diesel oil (EL
with EN 590 as this characteristic value is an inte-
heating oil according to DIN 51603 or Fuel no. 1 or
gral part of the specification.
no. 2 according to ASTM D 396), the ignition be-
haviour, stability and behaviour at low tempera-
Improper handling of fuels
tures must be ensured; in other words the
requirements for the filterability and cetane If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
number must be satisfied. danger to health, safety and the environment. The
relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
Viscosity
must be observed.
To ensure sufficient lubrication, a minimum viscos-
ity must be ensured at the fuel delivery pump. The Analyses
maximum temperature required to ensure that a We can analyse fuel for customers at our laborato-
viscosity of more than 1.9 mm2/s is maintained ry. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
upstream of the fuel delivery pump depends on
the viscosity of the fuel. In any case the tempera-
ture of the fuel upstream of the injection pump
must not exceed 45 C.
Lubricity
The lubricity of diesel fuel is normally sufficient. The
desulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lu-
bricity. If the sulphur content is extremely low
(< 500 ppm or 0.05 %), the lubricity may no longer
0409-0000AA2.fm

be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sul-


phur content, you should therefore ensure that
their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if the lu-

Page 4 - 18 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)

4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)

Marine diesel oil Specification


Other designations The suitability of fuel depends on the design of the
engine and the available cleaning options, as well
Marine diesel oil, marine diesel fuel
as compliance with the properties in the following
Origin table that refer to the as-delivered condition of the
Marine diesel oil (MDO) is supplied as heavy distil- fuel.
late (designation ISO-F-DMB) exclusively for ma- The properties are essentially defined using the
rine applications. MDO is manufactured from ISO 8217-2010 standard as the basis. The prop-
crude oil and must be free of organic acids and erties have been specified using the stated test
non-mineral oil products. procedures.

Properties Unit Test method Designation


ISO-F specification - - DMB
3
Density at 15 C kg/m ISO 3675 900
Kinematic viscosity at 40 C mm2/s = cSt ISO 3104 > 2.0
< 11
Pour point (winter quality) C ISO 3016 <0
Pour point (summer quality) <6
Flash point (Pensky Martens) ISO 2719 > 60
Total sediment content % by weight ISO CD 10307 0.10
Water content % by volume ISO 3733 < 0.3
Sulphur content % by weight ISO 8754 < 2.0
Ash content ISO 6245 < 0.01
Carbon residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 < 0.30
Cetane number or cetane index - ISO 5165 > 35
Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 <2
Acid value mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5
Oxidation resistance g/m3 ISO 12205 < 25
Lubricity m ISO 12156-1 < 520
(wear scar diameter)
Copper strip test - ISO 2160 <1

Other specifications:
British Standard BS MA 100-1987 - - Class M2
ASTM D 975 - - 2D
ASTM D 396 - - No. 2
0407-0000AA2.fm

Table 4-11 Marine diesel oil (MDO) Characteristic values to be adhered to

J-BA Page 4 - 19
Specification for engine supplies
4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)

Additional information A minimum viscosity must be observed to ensure


sufficient lubrication in the fuel injection pumps.
During transshipment and transfer, MDO is han-
The temperature of the fuel must therefore not ex-
dled in the same manner as residual oil. This
ceed 45 C.
means that it is possible for the oil to be mixed with
high-viscosity fuel or heavy fuel oil with the rem- Seawater causes the fuel system to corrode and
nants of these types of fuels in the bunker ship, for also leads to hot corrosion of the exhaust valves
example that could significantly impair the prop- and turbocharger. Seawater also causes insuffi-
erties of the oil. cient atomisation and therefore poor mixture for-
mation accompanied by a high proportion of
Lubricity
combustion residues.
Normally, the lubricating ability of diesel fuel oil is
Solid foreign matter increase mechanical wear and
sufficient to operate the fuel injection pump. Des-
formation of ash in the cylinder space.
ulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lubric-
ity. If the sulphur content is extremely low We recommend the installation of a separator up-
(< 500 ppm or 0.05 %), the lubricity may no longer stream of the fuel filter. Separation temperature
be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sul- 40 50 C. Most solid particles (sand, rust and
phur content, you should therefore ensure that catalyst particles) and water can be removed, and
their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if the lu- the cleaning intervals of the filter elements can be
bricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not ex- extended considerably.
ceed 520 m.
Improper handling of fuels
The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO (used
lubricating oil, old oil)). Fuel is considered as con- If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can
taminated with lubricating oil when the following pose a danger to health, safety and the environ-
concentrations occur: ment. The relevant safety information by the sup-
plier of operating fluids must be observed.
Ca > 30 ppm and Zn > 15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm
and P > 15 ppm. Analyses
The pour point specifies the temperature at which We can analyse fuel for customers at our laborato-
the oil no longer flows. The lowest temperature of ry. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
the fuel in the system should be roughly 10 C
above the pour point to ensure that the required
pumping characteristics are maintained.
0407-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 20 J-BA
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Prerequisites The entries in the last column of "Table 4-12: The fuel
specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy
MAN four-stroke diesel engines can be operated
fuel oil" provide important background information
with any heavy fuel oil obtained from crude oil that
and must therefore be observed.
also satisfies the requirements in "Table 4-12: The
fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for Different international specifications exist for heavy
heavy fuel oil" providing the engine and fuel fuel oils. The most important specifications are ISO
processing system have been designed accord- 8217-2010 and CIMAC-2003, which are more or
ingly. To ensure that the relationship between the less identical. The ISO 8217 specification is shown
fuel, spare parts and repair/maintenance costs re- in "Figure 4-1: ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel
mains favourable at all times, the following points oil" and "Figure 4-2: ISO 8217-2010 specification for
should be observed. heavy fuel oil (continued)". All qualities in these spec-
ifications up to K700 can be used, providing the
Heavy fuel oil (HFO) fuel preparation system has been designed ac-
Origin/Refinery process cordingly. To use any fuels, which do not comply
with these specifications (e.g. crude oil), consulta-
The quality of the heavy fuel oil largely depends on tion with Technical Service of MAN Diesel &
the quality of crude oil and on the refining process Turbo SE in Augsburg is required. Heavy fuel oils
used. This is why the properties of heavy fuel oils with a maximum density of 1,010 kg/m3 may only
with the same viscosity may vary considerably de- be used if up-to-date separators are installed.
pending on the bunker positions. Heavy fuel oil is
normally a mixture of residual oil and distillates. Important
The components of the mixture are normally ob- Even though the fuel properties specified in "Table
tained from modern refinery processes, such as 4-12: The fuel specifications and corresponding charac-
Catcracker or Visbreaker. These processes can teristics for heavy fuel oil" satisfy the above require-
adversely affect the stability of the fuel as well as ments, they probably do not adequately define the
its ignition and combustion properties. The ignition and combustion properties and the stabil-
processing of the heavy fuel oil and the operating ity of the fuel. This means that the operating be-
result of the engine also depend heavily on these haviour of the engine can depend on properties
factors. that are not defined in the specification. This par-
Bunker positions with standardised heavy fuel oil ticularly applies to the oil property that causes for-
qualities should preferably be used. If oils need to mation of deposits in the combustion chamber,
be purchased from independent dealers, also en- injection system, gas ducts and exhaust gas sys-
sure that these also comply with the international tem. A number of fuels have a tendency towards
specifications. The engine operator is responsible incompatibility with lubricating oil which leads to
for ensuring that suitable heavy fuel oils are cho- deposits being formed in the fuel delivery pump
sen. that can block the pumps. It may therefore be nec-
essary to exclude specific fuels that could cause
Specifications problems.
Fuels intended for use in an engine must satisfy Blends
the specifications to ensure sufficient quality. The
limit values for heavy fuel oils are specified in "Table The addition of engine oils (old lubricating oil,
4-12: The fuel specifications and corresponding charac- ULO used lubricating oil) and additives that are
not manufactured from mineral oils, (coal-tar oil,
0406-0000AA2.fm

teristics for heavy fuel oil".


for example), and residual products of chemical or
other processes such as solvents (polymers or

J-BB Page 4 - 21
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

chemical waste) is not permitted. Some of the rea- experience (and this has also been the experience
sons for this are as follows: abrasive and corrosive of other manufacturers), this can severely damage
effects, unfavourable combustion characteristics, the engine and turbocharger components.
poor compatibility with mineral oils and, last but
The addition of chemical waste products (sol-
not least, adverse effects on the environment. The
vents, for example) to the fuel is prohibited for en-
order for the fuel must expressly state what is not
vironmental protection reasons according to the
permitted as the fuel specifications that generally
resolution of the IMO Marine Environment Protec-
apply do not include this limitation.
tion Committee passed on 1st January 1992.
If engine oils (old lubricating oil, ULO used lubri-
Leaked oil collector
cating oil) are added to fuel, this poses a particular
danger as the additives in the lubricating oil act as Leak oil collectors that act as receptacles for leak
emulsifiers that cause dirt, water and catfines to oil, and also return and overflow pipes in the lube
be transported as fine suspension. They therefore oil system, must not be connected to the fuel tank.
prevent the necessary cleaning of the fuel. In our Leak oil lines should be emptied into sludge tanks.

Viscosity mm2/s max. 700 See "Paragraph: Viscosity/injection viscosity, page 4-26"
(at 50 C) (cSt)

Viscosity 55 See "Paragraph: Viscosity/injection viscosity, page 4-26"


(at 100 C)

Density g/ml 1.010 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"
(at 15 C)

Flash point C max. 60 See "Paragraph: Flash point (ASTM D 93), page 4-28"

Pour point max. 30 See "Paragraph: Low temperature behaviour


(summer) (ASTM D 97), page 4-28", "Paragraph: Pump characteris-
tics, page 4-28"
Pour point (winter) 30 See "Paragraph: Low temperature behaviour
(ASTM D 97), page 4-28", "Paragraph: Pump characteris-
tics, page 4-28"
Carbon residues Weight max. 20 See "Paragraph: Combustion properties, page 4-29"
(Conradson) %

Sulphur content 5 or See "Paragraph: Sulphuric acid corrosion, page 4-31"


legal requirements

Ash 0.15 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"
content

Vanadium content mg/kg 450 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"

Water Vol- 0.5 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"
content ume%

Sediment (potential) Weight 0.1 -


%

Table 4-12 The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil (1 of 2)
0406-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 22 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Aluminium and sili- mg/kg max. 60 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"
cium content (total)

Total acid number mg 2.5 -


KOH/g

Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg 2 -

Used lubricating oil mg/kg - The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO (used
(ULO) lubricating oil, old oil)). Fuel is considered as con-
taminated with lubricating oil when the following
concentrations occur: Ca > 30 ppm and Zn >
15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm and P > 15 ppm.

Asphalt content Weight 2/3 of carbon res- See "Paragraph: Combustion properties, page 4-29"
% idue (according to
Conradson)

Sodium content mg/kg Sodium< 1/3 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-26"
vanadium,
sodium< 100

The fuel must be free of admixtures that cannot be obtained from mineral oils, such as vegetable or coal-tar oils.
It must also be free of tar oil and lubricating oil (old oil), and also chemical waste products such as solvents or
polymers.

Table 4-12 The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil (2 of 2)
0406-0000AA2.fm

J-BB Page 4 - 23
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

0406-0000AA2.fm

Figure 4-1 ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel oil

Page 4 - 24 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
0406-0000AA2.fm

Figure 4-2 ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel oil (continued)

J-BB Page 4 - 25
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Additional information Heavy fuel oil processing


The purpose of the following information is to Whether or not problems occur when the engine
show the relationship between the quality of heavy is in operation depends on how carefully the heavy
fuel oil, heavy fuel oil processing, engine operation fuel oil has been processed. Particular care should
and operating results more clearly. be taken to ensure that highly-abrasive inorganic
foreign matter (catalyst particles, rust, sand) are ef-
Selection of heavy fuel oil
fectively removed. Experience in practise has
Economic operation with heavy fuel oil within the shown that wear as a result of abrasion in the en-
limit values (see "Table 4-12: The fuel specifications gine increases considerably if the aluminium and
and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil") is silicium content is higher than 15 mg/kg.
possible under normal operating conditions, pro-
Viscosity and density influence the cleaning effect.
vided the system is working properly and regular
This must be taken into account when designing
maintenance is carried out. If these requirements
and making adjustments to the cleaning system.
are not satisfied, shorter maintenance intervals,
higher wear and a greater need for spare parts is Settling tank
to be expected. The required maintenance inter-
The heavy fuel oil is pre-cleaned in the settling
vals and operating results determine which quality
tank. The longer the fuel remains in the tank and
of heavy fuel oil should be used.
the lower the viscosity of the heavy fuel oil is, the
It is an established fact that the price advantage more effective the pre-cleaning process will be
decreases as viscosity increases. It is therefore not (maximum preheating temperature of 75 C to
always economical to use the fuel with the highest prevent asphalt forming in the heavy fuel oil). A set-
viscosity as in many cases the quality of this fuel tling tank is sufficient for heavy fuel oils with a vis-
will not be the best. cosity of less than 380 mm2/s at 50 C. If the
heavy fuel oil has a high concentration of foreign
Viscosity/injection viscosity
matter or if fuels in accordance with
Heavy fuel oils with a high viscosity may be of an ISO-F-RMG 380/500/700 or RMK 380/500/700
inferior quality. The maximum permissible viscosity are to be used, two settling tanks will be required
depends on the preheating system installed and one of which must be sized for 24-hour operation.
the capacity (flow rate) of the separator. Before the content is moved to the service tank,
The prescribed injection viscosity of water and sludge must be drained from the set-
12 14 mm2/s (for GenSets, 23/30H and tling tank.
28/32H: 12 8 cSt) and corresponding fuel tem- Separators
perature upstream of the engine must be ob-
A separator is particularly suitable for separating
served. This is the only way to ensure efficient
material with a higher specific density water, for-
atomisation and mixture formation and therefore
eign matter and sludge, for example. The separa-
low-residue combustion. This also prevents me-
tors must be self-cleaning (i. e. the cleaning
chanical overloading of the injection system. For
intervals must be triggered automatically). Only
the prescribed injection viscosity and/or required
separators in the new generation may be used.
fuel oil temperature upstream of the engine, refer
They are extremely effective throughout a wide
to the viscosity temperature diagram.
density range with no changeover required and
can separate water from heavy fuel oils with a den-
sity of up to 1.01 g/ml at 15 C.
0406-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 26 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

For the prerequisites that must be met by the sep-


arator see "Table 4-13: Obtainable contents of foreign
matter and water (after separation)". These limit values
are used by manufacturers as the basis for dimen-
sioning the separator and ensure compliance.
The manufacturer's specifications must be com-
plied with to maximise the cleaning effect.

Application in ships and station-


ary use: parallel installation
1 Separator for 100 % flow rate
1 Separator (reserve) for 100 %
flow rate

Figure 4-3 Heavy fuel oil cleaning/separator arrangement

The separators must be arranged according to the eign matter and water (after separation)") for inorganic
manufacturers' current recommendations (Alpha- foreign matter and water in the heavy fuel oil will be
Laval and Westfalia). The density and viscosity of achieved at the engine inlet.
the heavy fuel oil in particular must be taken into
Results obtained during operation in practise
account. If separators by other manufacturers are
show that the wear the occurs as a result of abra-
used, MAN Diesel & Turbo should be consulted.
sion in the injection system and the engine will re-
If processing is carried out in accordance with the main within acceptable limits if these values are
MAN Diesel & Turbo specifications and the correct complied with. In addition, optimum lubricating oil
separators are chosen, it may be assumed that treatment must be ensured.
the results (see "Table 4-13: Obtainable contents of for-

Definition Particle size Quantity

Inorganic foreign matter <5 m < 20 mg/kg


including catalyst particles

Al+Si content - < 15 mg/kg

Water content - < 0.2 % by volume %

Table 4-13 Obtainable contents of foreign matter and water (after separation)
0406-0000AA2.fm

J-BB Page 4 - 27
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Water Ash
It is particularly important to ensure that the water Fuel ash consists for the greater part of vanadium
separation process is as thorough as possible as oxide and nickel sulphate (see "Paragraph: Vanadi-
the water is present in the form of large droplets, um/sodium, page 4-28"). Heavy fuel oils that produce
and not as a finely distributed emulsion. In this a high quantity of ash in the form of foreign matter,
form, water also promotes corrosion and sludge e. g. sand, corrosion compounds and catalyst
formation in the fuel system and therefore impairs particles, accelerate mechanical wear in the en-
the supply, atomisation and combustion of the gine. Catalyst particles produced as a result of the
heavy fuel oil. If the water absorbed in the fuel is catalytic cracking process may be present in
seawater, harmful sodium chloride and other salts heavy fuel oils. In most cases, these are aluminium
dissolved in this water will enter the engine. silicate particles that cause a high degree of wear
in the injection system and the engine. The alumin-
The sludge containing water must be removed
ium content determined, multiplied by a factor of
from the settling tank before the separation proc-
between 5 and 8 (depending on the catalytic
ess starts, and must also be removed from the
bond), is roughly the same as the proportion of
service tank at regular intervals. The tank's ventila-
catalyst remnants in the heavy fuel oil.
tion system must be designed in such a way that
condensate cannot flow back into the tank. Homogeniser
If a homogeniser is used, it must never be installed
Vanadium/sodium
between the settling tank and separator as other-
If the vanadium/sodium ratio is unfavourable, the wise it will not be possible to ensure satisfactory
melting point of the heavy fuel oil ash may fall in the separation of harmful contaminants, particularly
operating range of the exhaust-gas valve which seawater.
can lead to high-temperature corrosion. Most of
Flash point (ASTM D 93)
the water and water-soluble sodium compounds it
contains can be removed by pre-cleaning the National and international transportation and stor-
heavy fuel oil in the settling tank and in the separa- age regulations governing the use of fuels must be
tors. complied with in relation to the flash point. In gen-
eral, a flash point of above 60 C is prescribed for
The risk of high-temperature corrosion is low if the
diesel engine fuels.
sodium content is one third of the vanadium con-
tent or less. It must also be ensured that sodium Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D 97)
does not enter the engine in the form of seawater
The pour point is the temperature at which the fuel
in the intake air.
is no longer flowable (pumpable). As the pour
If the sodium content is higher than 100 mg/kg, point of many low-viscosity heavy fuel oils is higher
this is likely to result in a higher quantity of salt de- than 0 C, the bunker facility must be preheated,
posits in the combustion chamber and exhaust unless fuel in accordance with RMA or RMB is
gas system. This will impair the function of the en- used. The entire bunker facility must be designed
gine (including the suction function of the turbo- in such a way that the heavy fuel oil can be pre-
charger). heated to around 10 C above the pour point.
Under certain conditions, high-temperature corro- Pump characteristics
sion can be prevented by using a fuel additive that
If the viscosity of the fuel is higher than
increases the melting point of the heavy fuel oil ash
1,000 mm2/s (cST), or the temperature is not at
(see "Paragraph: Additives to heavy fuel oils, page
least 10 C above the pour point, pumping prob-
4-31").
lems will occur. For further information see "Para-
0406-0000AA2.fm

graph: Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D 97), page


4-28".

Page 4 - 28 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Combustion properties The ignition quality is one of the most decisive


properties of the fuel. This value does not appear
If the proportion of asphalt is more than two thirds
in the international specifications because a
of the coke residue (Conradson), combustion may
standardised testing method has only recently be-
be delayed which in turn may increase the forma-
come available and not enough experience has
tion of combustion residues, leading to such as
been gathered at this point to determine limit val-
deposits on and in the injection nozzles, large
ues. The parameters, such as the calculated car-
amounts of smoke, low output, increased fuel
bon aromaticity index (CCAI), are therefore aids
consumption and a rapid rise in ignition pressure
derived from quantifiable fuel properties. We have
as well as combustion close to the cylinder wall
established that this method is suitable for deter-
(thermal overloading of lubricating oil film). If the ra-
mining the approximate ignition quality of the
tio of asphalt to coke residues reaches the limit
heavy fuel oil used.
0.66, and if the asphalt content exceeds 8 %, the
risk of deposits forming in the combustion cham- A testing instrument has been developed based
ber and injection system is higher. These problems on the constant volume combustion method (fuel
can also occur when using unstable heavy fuel combustion analyser FCA) and is currently being
oils, or if incompatible heavy fuel oils are mixed. tested by a series of testing laboratories. The in-
This would lead to an increased deposition of as- strument measures the ignition delay to determine
phalt (see "Paragraph: Compatibility, page 4-31"). the ignition quality of a fuel and the measurement
obtained is converted into an instrument specific
Ignition quality
cetane number (FIA-CN or EC). It has been estab-
Nowadays, to achieve the prescribed reference lished that in some cases heavy fuel oils with a low
viscosity, cracking-process products are used as FIA cetane number or ECN number can cause op-
the low viscosity ingredients of heavy fuel oils al- erating problems.
though the ignition characteristics of these oils
As the liquid components of the heavy fuel oil de-
may also be poor. The cetane number of these
cisively influence its ignition quality, flow properties
compounds should be < 35. If the proportion of
and combustion quality, the bunker operator is re-
aromatic hydrocarbons is high (more than 35 %),
sponsible for ensuring that the quality of heavy fuel
this also adversely affects the ignition quality.
oil delivered is suitable for the diesel engine (see
The ignition delay in heavy fuel oils with poor igni- "Figure 4-4: Nomogram for the determination of CCAI
tion characteristics is longer and combustion is Assignment of CCAI ranges to engine types").
also delayed which can lead to thermal overload-
ing of the oil film at the cylinder liner and also high
cylinder pressures. The ignition delay and accom-
panying increase in pressure in the cylinder are
also influenced by the end temperature and com-
pression pressure, i. e. by the compression ratio,
the charge-air pressure and charge-air tempera-
ture.
The disadvantages of using fuels with poor ignition
characteristics can be limited by preheating the
charge air in partial load operation and reducing
the output for a limited period. However, a more
effective solution is a high compression ratio and
operational adjustment of the injection system to
the ignition characteristics of the fuel used, as is
0406-0000AA2.fm

the case with MAN Diesel & Turbo piston engines.

J-BB Page 4 - 29
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Figure 4-4 Nomogram for the determination of CCAI Assignment of CCAI ranges to engine types

Legend

V Viscosity mm/s (cSt) at 50 C

D Density [kg/m] at 15 C

CCAI Calculated carbon aromaticity index

A Normal operating conditions

B Ignition properties may be poor that adjustment of engine or engine or engine operating conditions are required

C Problems that have been identified may lead to engine damage, even after a short period of operation.

1 Engine type

2 The CCAI is obtained from the straight line through the density and viscosity of the heavy fuel oils.
0406-0000AA2.fm

The CCAI can be calculated using the following formula:


CCAI = D 141 log log (V + 0.85) 81

Page 4 - 30 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Sulphuric acid corrosion The use of heavy fuel oil additives during the war-
ranty period must be avoided as a basic principle.
The engine should be operated at the cooling wa-
ter temperatures prescribed in the operating Additives that are currently used for diesel en-
handbook for the relevant load. If the temperature gines, as well as their probable effects on the en-
of the components that are exposed to acidic gine's operation, are summarised in the "Table 4-
combustion products is below the acid dew point, 14: Additives to heavy fuel oils Classification/ effects",
acid corrosion can no longer be effectively pre- together with their supposed effect on engine op-
vented, even if alkaline lubricating oil is used. eration.
The BN values specified in "Section: Specification for
Precombustion Dispersing agents/stabilisers
lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy fuel oil additives Emulsion breakers
(HFO)" are sufficient, providing the quality of lubri-
Biocides
cating oil and engine's cooling system satisfy the
requirements. Combustion addi- Combustion catalysts (fuel savings,
tives emissions)
Compatibility
Post-combustion Ash modifier (hot corrosion)
The supplier must guarantee that the heavy fuel oil additives Soot removers (exhaust-gas sys-
is homogeneous and remains stable, even once tem)
the standard storage period has elapsed. If differ-
ent bunker oils are mixed, this can lead to separa- Table 4-14 Additives to heavy fuel oils Classification/
tion and associated sludge formation in the fuel effects
system during which large quantities of sludge ac- Heavy fuel oils with low sulphur content
cumulate in the separator that block filters, prevent
atomisation and a large amount of residue as a re- From the point of view of an engine manufacturer,
sult of combustion. a lower limit for the sulphur content of heavy fuel
oils does not exist. We have not identified any
This is due to incompatibility or instability of the problems attributable to sulphur content in the
oils. As much of the heavy fuel oil in the storage low-sulphur heavy fuel oils currently available on
tank as possible should therefore be removed be- the market. This situation may change in future if
fore bunkering again to prevent incompatibility. new methods are used for the production of low-
Blending heavy fuel oil sulphur heavy fuel oil (desulphurisation, new
blending components). MAN Diesel & Turbo will
If heavy fuel oil for the main engine is blended with monitor developments and inform its customers if
gas oil (MGO) to obtain the required quality or vis- required.
cosity of heavy fuel oil, it is extremely important
that the components of these oils are compatible If the engine is not always operated with low-sul-
(see "Paragraph: Compatibility, page 4-31"). phur heavy fuel oil, a corresponding lubricating oil
for the fuel with the highest sulphur content must
Additives to heavy fuel oils be selected.
MAN Diesel & Turbo engines can be operated Improper handling of fuels
economically without additives. It is up to the cus-
tomer to decide whether or not the use of addi- If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
tives is beneficial. The supplier of the additive must danger to health, safety and the environment. The
guarantee that the engine operation will not be im- relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
paired by using the product. must be observed.
0406-0000AA2.fm

J-BB Page 4 - 31
Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Tests
Sampling
To check whether the specification provided
and/or the necessary delivery conditions are com-
plied with, we recommend you retain at least one
sample of every bunker oil (at least for the duration
of the engine's warranty period). To ensure that
representative samples are taken of the bunker oil,
a sample should be taken from the transfer line
when starting up, halfway through the operating
period and at the end of the bunker period. Sam-
ple Tec" by MarTec in Hamburg is a suitable test-
ing instrument which can be used to take samples
on a regular basis during bunkering.
Analysis of samples
Our department for fuels and lubricating oils
(Augsburg factory, EQC department) will be
pleased to provide further information on request.
We can analyse fuel for customers at our laborato-
ry. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

0406-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 32 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)

4.7 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)


Explanations of viscosity-temperature diagram

Figure 4-5 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)

In the diagram, the fuel temperatures are shown


on the horizontal axis and the viscosity is shown
on the vertical axis.
The diagonal lines correspond to viscosity-tem-
perature curves of fuels with different reference
viscosities. The vertical viscosity axis in
mm2/s (cSt) applies for 40 and 50 C.
0413-0000AA2.fm

E-BB Page 4 - 33
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)

Determining the viscosity-temperature curve and the low for the heavy fuel oil to be heated up to a tem-
required preheating temperature perature which is roughly 10 C higher than the
pour point.
Example: Heavy fuel oil of 180 mm2/s at 50 C.
Note!
Prescribed injection vis- Required temperature The viscosity of gas oil or diesel fuel (marine
cosity in mm2/s of heavy fuel oil at
diesel oil) upstream of the engine must be at
engine inlet1) in C
least 1.9 mm2/s. If the viscosity is too low, this
12 126 (line c) may cause seizing of the pump plunger or noz-
14 119 (line d)
zle needle valves as a result of insufficient lu-
brication.
Table 4-15 Determination of the viscosity-temperature
curve and the preheating temperature This can be avoided by monitoring the tempera-
1) The ture of the fuel. Although the maximum permissi-
drop in temperature between the last preheating appli-
ance and the fuel injection pump is not taken into account
ble temperature depends on the viscosity of the
in these figures. fuel, it must never exceed the following values:
45 C at the most with DMA and DMB
A heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of 180 mm2/s at
50 C can reach a viscosity of 1,000 mm2/s at 60 C at the most with RMA
24 C (line e) this is the maximum permissible
A fuel cooler must therefore be installed.
viscosity at which the pump can still deliver the fu-
el. For operation with special fuels (not according to
ISO8217-2010) like "Arctic Diesel" or "DMX" con-
When the last preheating appliance is a state-of-
sult the technical service of MAN Diesel & Turbo in
the-art appliance with 8 bar saturated steam, this
Augsburg. In this case, please provide exact fuel
achieves a heavy fuel oil temperature of 152 C. At
specification.
high temperatures there is a danger of deposits
forming in the preheating system that could re-
duce the heating output and lead to thermal over-
loading of the heavy fuel oil. In this case asphalt
forms, i. e. quality is adversely affected.
The heavy fuel oil lines between the outlet of the
last preheating system and the injection valve
must be suitably insulated to limit the maximum
drop in temperature to 4 C. This is the only way
to achieve the necessary injection viscosity of
14 mm2/s for heavy fuel oils with a reference vis-
cosity of 700 mm2/s at 50 C (the maximum vis-
cosity as defined in the international specifications
such as ISO CIMAC or British Standard). If the
heavy fuel oil being used has a lower reference vis-
cosity, the injection viscosity should ideally be
12 mm2/s to improve the atomisation of heavy fuel
oil and in turn reduce combustion residues.
The delivery pump must be designed to handle a
heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of up to
1,000 mm2/s. The pour point of the heavy fuel oil
0413-0000AA2.fm

determines whether or not it can be pumped. The


engineering design of the bunker system must al-

Page 4 - 34 E-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

4.8 Specification for engine cooling water


Preliminary notes Testing equipment
As is also the case with the fuel and lubricating oil, The MAN Diesel & Turbo water testing equipment
the engine cooling water must be carefully select- incorporates devices that determine the water
ed, handled and checked. If this is not the case, properties referred to above in a straightforward
corrosion, erosion and cavitation may occur at the manner. The manufacturers of anticorrosive
walls of the cooling system in contact with water agents also supply user-friendly testing equip-
and deposits may form. Deposits obstruct the ment. For information on monitoring cooling water,
transfer of heat and can cause thermal overload- see "Section 4.9: Cooling water inspecting, page 4-43".
ing of the cooled parts. The system must be treat-
ed with an anticorrosive agent before bringing it Additional information
into operation for the first time. The concentrations Distillate
prescribed by the engine manufacturer must al-
ways be observed during subsequent operation. If distilled water (from a freshwater generator, for
The above especially applies if a chemical additive example) or fully desalinated water (from ion ex-
is added. change or reverse osmosis) is available, this
should ideally be used as the engine cooling water.
Requirements These waters are free of lime and salts which
means that deposits that could interfere with the
Limit values
transfer of heat to the cooling water, and therefore
The properties of untreated cooling water must also reduce the cooling effect, cannot form. How-
correspond to the following limit values: ever, these waters are more corrosive than normal
hard water as the thin film of lime scale that would
Properties/ Properties Unit otherwise provide temporary corrosion protection
characteristic does not form on the walls. This is why distilled
water must be handled particularly carefully and
Water type Distillate or freshwater, free -
of foreign matter.
the concentration of the additive must be regularly
checked.
The following are prohibited:
Seawater, brackish water, Hardness
river water, brines, industrial
waste water and rainwater. The total hardness of the water is the combined
effect of the temporary and permanent hardness.
Total hardness max. 10 dH1)
The proportion of calcium and magnesium salts is
pH value 6.5 8 - of overriding importance. The temporary hardness
is determined by the carbonate content of the cal-
Chloride ion max. 50 mg/l2)
content cium and magnesium salts. The permanent hard-
ness is determined by the amount of remaining
Table 4-16 Cooling water Properties to be observed calcium and magnesium salts (sulphates). The
1) 1dH (German hardness): temporary (carbonate) hardness is the critical fac-
10 mg CaO in 1 litre of water tor that determines the extent of limescale deposit
17.9 mg CaCO3/l in the cooling system.
0.357 mval/l
0.179 mmol/l Water with a total hardness of > 10dGH must be
2) 1 mg/l = 1 ppm mixed with distilled water or softened. Subsequent
hardening of extremely soft water is only neces-
0402-0000AA2.fm

sary to prevent foaming if emulsifiable slushing oils


are used.

J-BB Page 4 - 35
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

Damage to the cooling water system Emulsifiable slushing oils are used less and less
frequently as their use has been considerably re-
Corrosion
stricted by environmental protection regulations,
Corrosion is an electrochemical process that can and because they are rarely available from suppli-
widely be avoided by selecting the correct water ers for this and other reasons.
quality and by carefully handling the water in the
Treatment prior to initial commissioning of engine
engine cooling system.
Treatment with an anticorrosive agent should be
Flow cavitation
carried out before the engine is brought into oper-
Flow cavitation can occur in areas in which high ation for the first time to prevent irreparable initial
flow velocities and high turbulence is present. If damage.
the steam pressure is reached, steam bubbles
Warning!
form and subsequently collapse in high pressure
zones which causes the destruction of materials in The engine must not be brought into operation
constricted areas. without treating the cooling water first.
Erosion
Additives for cooling water
Erosion is a mechanical process accompanied by
Only the additives approved by MAN Diesel &
material abrasion and the destruction of protective
Turbo and listed in "Table 4-17: Nitrite-containing
films by solids that have been drawn in, particularly
chemical additives" up to "Table 4-20: Anti-freeze solu-
in areas with high flow velocities or strong turbu-
tions with slushing properties" may be used.
lence.
Required approval
Stress corrosion cracking
A cooling water additive may only be permitted for
Stress corrosion cracking is a failure mechanism
use if tested and approved as per the latest direc-
that occurs as a result of simultaneous dynamic
tives of the ICE Research Association (FVV) "Suit-
and corrosive stress. This may lead to cracking
ability test of internal combustion engine cooling
and rapid crack propagation in water-cooled, me-
fluid additives. The test report must be obtainable
chanically-loaded components if the cooling water
on request. The relevant tests can be carried out
has not been treated correctly.
on request in Germany at the staatliche Material-
prfanstalt (Federal Institute for Materials Re-
Processing of engine cooling water
search and Testing), Abteilung Oberflchentechnik
Formation of a protective film (Surface Technology Division), Grafenstrae 2 in
The purpose of treating the engine cooling water D-64283 Darmstadt.
using anticorrosive agents is to produce a contin- Once the cooling water additive has been tested
uous protective film on the walls of cooling surfac- by the FVV, the engine must be tested in the sec-
es and therefore prevent the damage referred to ond step before the final approval is granted.
above. In order for an anticorrosive agent to be
Only in closed circuits
100 % effective, it is extremely important that un-
treated water satisfies the requirements in "Para- Additives may only be used in closed circuits
graph: Requirements, page 4-35". where no significant consumption occurs, apart
from leaks or evaporation losses.
Protective films can be formed by treating the
cooling water with an anticorrosive chemical or an
emulsifiable slushing oil.
0402-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 36 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

Chemical additives anti-freeze solution used is lower due to less strin-


gent frost protection requirements and does not
Sodium nitrite and sodium borate based additives
provide an appropriate level of corrosion protec-
etc. have a proven track record. Galvanised iron
tion. For information on the compatibility of the
pipes or zinc sacrificial anodes must not be used
anti-freeze solution with the anticorrosive agent
in cooling systems. This corrosion protection is not
and the required concentrations, contact the man-
required due to the prescribed cooling water treat-
ufacturer. As regards the chemical additives indi-
ment and electrochemical potential reversal can
cated in "Table 4-17: Nitrite-containing chemical
occur due to the cooling water temperatures
additives", their compatibility with ethylene glycol-
which are normally present in engines nowadays.
based antifreezes has been proved. Anti-freeze
If necessary, the pipes must be deplated.
solutions may only be mixed with one another with
Slushing oil the consent of the manufacturer, even if these so-
lutions have the same composition.
This additive is an emulsifiable mineral oil with add-
ed slushing ingredients. A thin film of oil forms on Before an anti-freeze solution is used, the cooling
the walls of the cooling system. This prevents cor- system must be thoroughly cleaned.
rosion without interfering with the transfer of heat If the cooling water contains an emulsifiable slush-
and also prevents limescale deposits on the walls ing oil, anti-freeze solution must not be added as
of the cooling system. otherwise the emulsion would break up and oil
The significance of emulsifiable corrosion-slushing sludge would form in the cooling system.
oils is fading. Oil-based emulsions are rarely used Observe the applicable environmental protection
nowadays for environmental protection reasons regulations when disposing of cooling water con-
and also because stability problems are known to taining additives. For more information, consult the
occur in emulsions. additive supplier.

Anti-freeze agents Biocides


If temperatures below the freezing point of water in If you cannot avoid using a biocide because the
the engine cannot be excluded, an anti-freeze so- cooling water has been contaminated by bacteria,
lution that also prevents corrosion must be added observe the following steps:
to the cooling system or corresponding parts.
You must ensure that the biocide to be used is
Otherwise, the entire system must be heated. (Mil-
suitable for the specific application.
itary specification: Sy-7025).
The biocide must be compatible with the seal-
Sufficient corrosion protection can be provided by
ing materials used in the cooling water system
adding the products listed in "Table 4-20: Anti-freeze
and must not react with these.
solutions with slushing properties" while observing the
prescribed concentration. This concentration pre- The biocide and its decomposition products
vents freezing at temperatures down to 22 C. must not contain corrosion-promoting compo-
However, the quantity of anti-freeze solution actu- nents. Biocides whose decomposition prod-
ally required always depends on the lowest tem- ucts contain chloride or sulphate ions are not
peratures that are to be expected at the place of permitted.
use.
Biocides that cause foaming of the cooling wa-
Anti-freezes are generally based on ethylene gly- ter are not permitted.
col. A suitable chemical anticorrosive agent must
be added if the concentration of the anti-freeze so-
lution prescribed by the user for a specific applica-
0402-0000AA2.fm

tion does not provide an appropriate level of


corrosion protection, or if the concentration of

J-BB Page 4 - 37
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

Prerequisite for effective use of a rust inhibitor Note!


Clean cooling system The chemical additive concentrations shall not
be less than the minimum concentrations indi-
As contamination significantly reduces the effec-
cated in "Table 4-17: Nitrite-containing chemical addi-
tiveness of the additive, the tanks, pipes, coolers
tives".
and other parts outside the engine must be free of
rust and other deposits before the engine is start- Excessively low concentrations can promote cor-
ed up for the first time and after repairs are carried rosion and must be avoided. If the concentration
out on the pipe system. The entire system must is slightly above the recommended concentration
therefore be cleaned with the engine switched off this will not result in damage. Concentrations that
using a suitable cleaning agent (see "Section 4.10: are more than twice the recommended concentra-
Cooling water system cleaning, page 4-45"). tion should be avoided.
Loose solid matter in particular must be removed Every 2 to 6 months send a cooling water sample
by flushing the system thoroughly as otherwise to an independent laboratory or to the engine
erosion may occur in locations where the flow ve- manufacturer for integrated analysis.
locity is high.
Emulsifiable anticorrosive agents must generally
The cleaning agents must not corrode the seals be replaced after abt. 12 months according to the
and materials of the cooling system. In most cas- supplier's instructions. When carrying this out, the
es, the supplier of the cooling water additive will be entire cooling system must be flushed and, if nec-
able to carry out this work and, if this is not possi- essary, cleaned. Once filled into the system, fresh-
ble, will at least be able to provide suitable prod- water must be treated immediately.
ucts to do this. If this work is carried out by the
If chemical additives or anti-freeze solutions are
engine operator, he should use the services of a
used, cooling water should be replaced after 3
specialist supplier of cleaning agents. The cooling
years at the latest.
system must be flushed thoroughly following
cleaning. Once this has been done, the engine If there is a high concentration of solids (rust) in the
cooling water must be treated immediately with system, the water must be completely replaced
anticorrosive agent. Once the engine has been and entire system carefully cleaned.
brought back into operation, the cleaned system Deposits in the cooling system may be caused by
must be checked for leaks. fluids that enter the cooling water, or the break up
Regular checks of the cooling water condition and cooling of emulsion, corrosion in the system and limescale
water system deposits if the water is very hard. If the concentra-
tion of chloride ions has increased, this generally
Treated cooling water may become contaminated
indicates that seawater has entered the system.
when the engine is in operation, which causes the
The maximum specified concentration of 50 mg
additive to loose some of its effectiveness. It is
chloride ions per kg must not be exceeded as oth-
therefore advisable to regularly check the cooling
erwise the risk of corrosion is too high. If exhaust
system and the cooling water condition. To deter-
gas enters the cooling water, this may lead to a
mine leakages in the lube oil system, it is advisable
sudden drop in the pH value or to an increase in
to carry out regular checks of water in the com-
the sulphate content.
pensating tank. Indications of oil content in water
are, e.g. discolouration or a visible oil film on the Water losses must be compensated for by filling
surface of the water sample. with untreated water that meets the quality re-
quirements specified in "Paragraph: Requirements,
The additive concentration must be checked at
page 4-35". The concentration of the anticorrosive
least once a week using the test kits specified by
0402-0000AA2.fm

agent must subsequently be checked and adjust-


the manufacturer. The results must be document-
ed if necessary.
ed.

Page 4 - 38 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

Subsequent checks of cooling water are especial-


ly required if the cooling water had to be drained
off in order to carry out repairs or maintenance.

Protective measures
Anticorrosive agents contain chemical com-
pounds that can pose a risk to health or the envi-
ronment if incorrectly used. Comply with the
directions in the manufacturer's material safety
data sheets.
Avoid prolonged direct contact with the skin.
Wash hands thoroughly after use. If larger quanti-
ties spray and/or soak into clothing, remove and
wash clothing before wearing it again.
If chemicals come into contact with your eyes,
rinse them immediately with plenty of water and
seek medical advice.
Anticorrosive agents are generally harmful to the
water cycle. Observe the relevant statutory re-
quirements for disposal.

Auxiliary engines
If the same cooling water system used in a MAN
Diesel & Turbo two-stroke main engine is used in
a marine engine of type 16/24, 21/31, 23/30H,
27/38 or 28/32H, the cooling water recommenda-
tions for the main engine must be observed.
Analysis
We analyse cooling water for our customers in our
chemical laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for
the test.
0402-0000AA2.fm

J-BB Page 4 - 39
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

Permissible cooling water additives

Nitrite-containing chemical additives

Manufacturer Product designa- Initial Minimum concentration ppm


tion dose per
1,000 l Product Nitrite Na-
(NO2) Nitrite
(NaNO2)

Drew Marine Liquidewt 15 l 15,000 700 1,050


One Drew Plaza Maxigard 40 l 40,000 1,330 2,000
Boonton
New Jersey 07005
USA

Wilhelmsen (Unitor) Rocor NB Liquid 21.5 l 21,500 2,400 3,600


KJEMI-Service A.S. Dieselguard 4.8 kg 4,800 2,400 3,600
P.O.Box 49/Norway
3140 Borgheim

Nalfleet Marine Nalfleet EWT Liq 3l 3,000 1,000 1,500


Chemicals (9-108) 10 l 10,000 1,000 1,500
30 l 30,000 1,000 1,500
P.O.Box 11 Nalfleet EWT 9-111
Northwich Nalcool 2000
Cheshire CW8DX, U.K.

Maritech AB Marisol CW 12 l 12,000 2,000 3,000


P.O.Box 143
S-29122 Kristianstad

Uniservice N.C.L.T. 12 l 12,000 2,000 3,000


Via al Santuario di N.S. Colorcooling 24 l 24,000 2,000 3,000
della Guardia 58/A
16162 Genova, Italy

Marichem Marigases D.C.W.T 48 l 48,000 2,400 -


64 Sfaktirias Street Non-Chromate
18545 Piraeus, Greece

Marine Care Caretreat 2 16 l 16,000 4,000 6,000


3144 NA Maasluis
The Netherlands

Vecom Cool Treat NCLT 16 l 16,000 4,000 6,000


Schlenzigstrae 7
21107 Hamburg
Germany

Table 4-17 Nitrite-containing chemical additives


0402-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 40 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

Nitrite-free additives (chemical additives)

Manufacturer Product designation Initial dosing Minimum concen-


per 1,000 l tration

Arteco Havoline 75 l 7.5 %


Technologiepark XLI
Zwinaarde 2
B-9052 Gent, Belgium

Total Lubricants WT Supra 75 l 7.5 %


Paris, France

Q8 Oils Q8 Corrosion Inhibitor 75 l 7.5 %


Long-Life

Table 4-18 Chemical additives Nitrite free

Emulsifiable slushing oils

Manufacturer Product
(Designation)

BP Marine, Breakspear Way, Diatsol M


Hemel Hempstead, Fedaro M
Herts HP2 4UL

Castrol Int. Solvex WT 3


Pipers Way
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK

Deutsche Shell AG Oil 9156


berseering 35
22284 Hamburg, Germany

Table 4-19 Emulsifiable slushing oils


0402-0000AA2.fm

J-BB Page 4 - 41
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Specification for engine cooling water

Anti-freeze solutions with slushing properties

Manufacturer Product Minimum


(Designation) concentration

BASF Glysantin G 48 35 %
Carl-Bosch-Str. Glysantin 9313
67063 Ludwigshafen, Rhein Glysantin G 05
Germany

Castrol Int. Antifreeze NF, SF


Pipers Way
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK

BP, Britannic Tower Anti-frost X 2270A


Moor Lane
London EC2Y 9B, UK

Deutsche Shell AG Glycoshell


berseering 35
22284 Hamburg
Germany

Mobil Oil AG Antifreeze agent 500


Steinstrae 5
20095 Hamburg
Germany

Arteco/Technologiepark Havoline XLC


Zwijnaarde 2
B-9052 Gent
Belgium

Total Lubricants Glacelf Auto Supra


Paris, France Total Organifreeze

Table 4-20 Anti-freeze solutions with slushing properties

0402-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 42 J-BB
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Cooling water inspecting

4.9 Cooling water inspecting

Summary Testing the typical values of water


Acquire and check typical values of the operating Short specification
media to prevent or limit damage.
The freshwater used to fill the cooling water cir- Typical Water for filling Circulating
value/property and refilling water
cuits must satisfy the specifications. The cooling
(without addi- (with addi-
water in the system must be checked regularly in tive) tive)
accordance with the maintenance schedule.
Water type Freshwater, free Treated cool-
The following work/steps is/are necessary: of foreign matter ing water
Acquisition of typical values for the operating fluid, Total hardness 10 dGH1) 10 dGH1)
evaluation of the operating fluid and checking the
concentration of the anticorrosive agent. pH value 6.5 8 at 20 C 7.5 at 20 C

Chloride ion 50 mg/l 50 mg/l2)


Tools/equipment required content
Equipment for checking the freshwater quality Table 4-21 Quality specifications for cooling water
(abbreviated version)
The following equipment can be used:
1) dH = German hardness
The MAN Diesel & Turbo water testing kit, or 1 dH = 10 mg/l CaO
similar testing kit, with all necessary instru- = 17.9 mg/l CaCO
ments and chemicals that determine the water =0.179 mmol/l
hardness, pH value and chloride content (ob- 2) 1 mg/l = 1 ppm

tainable from MAN Diesel & Turbo or Mar-Tec


Marine, Hamburg). Testing the concentration of anticorrosive agents
Equipment for testing the concentration of additives Short specification
When using chemical additives:
Anticorro- Concentration
Testing equipment in accordance with the sup- sive agent
plier's recommendations. Testing kits from the
Chemical According to the quality specification, see
supplier also include equipment that can be additives "Section 4.8: Specification for engine cooling
used to determine the freshwater quality. water, page 4-35".
Anti-freeze According to the quality specification, see
agents "Section 4.8: Specification for engine cooling
water, page 4-35".
Table 4-22 Concentration of the cooling water additive
0403-0000AA2.fm

gJ__ Page 4 - 43
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Cooling water inspecting

Testing the concentration of chemical additives


The concentration should be tested every week,
and/or according to the maintenance schedule,
using the testing instruments, reagents and in-
structions of the relevant supplier.
Chemical slushing oils can only provide effective
protection if the right concentration is precisely
maintained. This is why the concentrations recom-
mended by MAN Diesel & Turbo (quality specifica-
tions in "Section 4.8: Specification for engine cooling
water, page 4-35") must be complied with in all cas-
es. These recommended concentrations may be
other than those specified by the manufacturer.
Testing the concentration of anti-freeze agents
The concentration must be checked in accord-
ance with the manufacturer's instructions or the
test can be outsourced to a suitable laboratory. If
in doubt, consult MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Regular water samplings
Small quantities of lubricating oil in cooling water
can be found by visual check during regular water
sampling from the expansion tank.
Testing
We test cooling water for customers in our labora-
tory. To carry out the test, we will need a represent-
ative sample of abt. 0.5 l.

0403-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 44 JJ__
Specification for engine supplies
4.10 Cooling water system cleaning

4.10 Cooling water system cleaning

Summary who can provide the right cleaning agents for the
type of deposits and materials in the cooling cir-
Remove contamination/residue from operating flu-
cuit. The cleaning should only be carried out by
id systems, ensure/reestablish operating reliability.
the engine operator if this cannot be done by a
Cooling water systems containing deposits or specialist.
contamination prevent effective cooling of parts.
Oil sludge
Contamination and deposits must be regularly
eliminated. Oil sludge from lubricating oil that has entered the
cooling system or a high concentration of anticor-
This comprises the following:
rosive agents can be removed by flushing the sys-
Cleaning the system and, if required, removal of tem with freshwater to which some cleaning agent
limescale deposits, flushing the system. has been added. Suitable cleaning agents are list-
ed alphabetically in "Table 4-23: Cleaning agents for
Cleaning removing oil sludge". Products by other manufactur-
The cooling water system must be checked for ers can be used providing they have similar prop-
contamination at regular intervals. Cleaning is re- erties. The manufacturer's instructions for use
quired if the degree of contamination is high. This must be strictly observed.
work should ideally be carried out by a specialist

Manufacturer Product Concentration Duration of cleaning proce-


dure/temperature

Drew HDE-777 4 5% 4 h at 50 60 C

Nalfleet MaxiClean 2 25% 4 h at 60 C

Unitor Aquabreak 0.05 0.5 % 4 h at ambient temperature

Vecom Ultrasonic 4% 12 h at 50 60 C
Multi Cleaner

Table 4-23 Cleaning agents for removing oil sludge

Lime and rust deposits hardness, this forms what is known as ferrous
sludge which tends to gather in areas where the
Lime and rust deposits can form if the water is es-
flow velocity is low.
pecially hard or if the concentration of the anticor-
rosive agent is too low. A thin lime scale layer can Products that remove limescale deposits are gen-
be left on the surface as experience has shown erally suitable for removing rust. Suitable cleaning
that this protects against corrosion. However, agents are listed alphabetically in "Table 4-24: Clean-
limescale deposits with a thickness of more than ing agents for removing limescale and rust deposits".
0.5 mm obstruct the transfer of heat and cause Products by other manufacturers can be used
thermal overloading of the components being providing they have similar properties. The manu-
cooled. facturer's instructions for use must be strictly ob-
served. Prior to cleaning, check whether the
Rust that has been flushed out may have an abra-
cleaning agent is suitable for the materials to be
sive effect on other parts of the system, such as
0404-0000AA2.fm

cleaned.
the sealing elements of the water pumps. Together
with the elements that are responsible for water

gJ__ Page 4 - 45
Specification for engine supplies
4.10 Cooling water system cleaning

The products listed in "Table 4-24: Cleaning agents for


removing limescale and rust deposits" are also suitable
for stainless steel.

Manufacturer Product Concentration Duration of cleaning proce-


dure/temperature

Drew SAF-Acid 5 10 % 4 h at 60 70 C
Descale-IT 5 10 % 4 h at 60 70 C
Ferroclean 10 % 4 24 h at 60 70 C

Nalfleet Nalfleet 9 068 5% 4 h at 60 75 C

Unitor Descalex 5 10 % 4 6 h at approx. 60 C

Vecom Descalant F 3 10 % Approx. 4 h at 50 60 C

Table 4-24 Cleaning agents for removing limescale and rust deposits

In emergencies only orientation in "Table 4-23: Cleaning agents for removing


oil sludge".
Hydrochloric acid diluted in water or aminosul-
phonic acid may only be used in exceptional cases Following cleaning
if a special cleaning agent that removes limescale
The cooling system must be flushed several times
deposits without causing problems is not availa-
once it has been cleaned using cleaning agents.
ble. Observe the following during application:
Replace the water during this process. If acids are
Stainless steel heat exchangers must never be used to carry out the cleaning, neutralise the cool-
treated using diluted hydrochloric acid. ing system afterwards with suitable chemicals
then flush. The system can then be refilled with
Cooling systems containing non-ferrous metals
water that has been prepared accordingly.
(aluminium, red bronze, brass, etc.) must be
treated with deactivated aminosulphonic acid. Attention!
This acid should be added to water in a con-
Start the cleaning operation only when the en-
centration of 3 5 %. The temperature of the
gine has cooled down. Hot engine compo-
solution should be 40 50 C.
nents must not come into contact with cold
Diluted hydrochloric acid may only be used to water. Open the venting pipes before refilling
clean steel pipes. If hydrochloric acid is used as the cooling water system. Blocked venting
the cleaning agent, there is always a danger pipes prevent air from escaping which can
that acid will remain in the system, even when lead to thermal overloading of the engine.
the system has been neutralised and flushed.
Safety/environmental protection
This residual acid promotes pitting. We there-
fore recommend you have the cleaning carried The products to be used can endanger health and
out by a specialist. may be harmful to the environment.
The carbon dioxide bubbles that form when limes- Follow the manufacturer's handling instructions
cale deposits are dissolved can prevent the clean- without fail.
ing agent from reaching boiler scale. It is therefore The applicable regulations governing the disposal
absolutely necessary to circulate the water with of cleaning agents or acids must be observed.
the cleaning agent to flush away the gas bubbles
and allow them to escape. The length of the clean-
0404-0000AA2.fm

ing process depends on the thickness and com-


position of the deposits. Values are provided for

Page 4 - 46 gJ__
Specification for engine supplies
4.11 Specification for intake air (combustion air)

4.11 Specification for intake air (combustion air)

General
The quality and condition of intake air (combustion
air) have a significant effect on the power output of
the engine. In this regard, not only are the atmos-
pheric conditions extremely important, but also
contamination by solid and gaseous foreign mat-
ter.
Mineral dust in the intake air increases wear.
Chemicals and gases promote corrosion.
This is why effective cleaning of intake air (com-
bustion air) and regular maintenance/cleaning of
the air filter are required.
When designing the intake air system, the maxi-
mum permissible overall pressure drop (filter, si-
lencer, pipe line) of 20 mbar must be taken into
consideration.

Requirements
Intake air (combustion air) has to be cleaned as
minimum by an air filter of filter class G3 (in accord-
ance to EN779). The concentrations downstream
of the air filter and/or upstream of the turbocharger
inlet must not exceed the following limit values:

Properties Typical value Unit1)

Dust (sand, cement, CaO, Al2O3 etc.) max. 5 mg/m3 (SPC)

Chlorine max. 1.5

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) max. 1.25

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) max. 15

Salt (NaCl) max. 1

Table 4-25 Intake air (combustion air) Typical values to be observed


1)
m3 (SPC) Cubic metres at standard temperature and standard pressure.

Note!
Intake air shall not contain any flammable gas-
es. Make sure that the combustion air is not
explosive.
0411-0000AA2.fm

hJ__ Page 4 - 47
Specification for engine supplies
4.11 Specification for intake air (combustion air)

0411-0000AA2.fm

Page 4 - 48 KJ__
======

5 Engine supply systems


Kapiteltitel 5 M2.fm

Page 5 - 1
Page 5 - 2
Kapiteltitel 5 M2.fm
Engine supply systems
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions

5.1 Basic principles for pipe selection

5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions


The external piping systems are to be installed and
connected to the engine by the shipyard. Piping
systems are to be designed in order to maintain
the pressure losses at a reasonable level. To
achieve this with justifiable costs, it is recommend-
ed to maintain the flow rates as indicated below.
Nevertheless, depending on specific conditions of
piping systems, it may be necessary in some cas-
es to adopt even lower flow rates. Generally it is
not recommended to adopt higher flow rates.

Recommended flow rates (m/s)

Suction side Delivery side Kind of system

Freshwater (cooling water) 1.5 2.5 1.5 2.5 closed

Lube oil 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.5 open

Sea Water 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.5 open

Diesel fuel oil 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 open

Heavy fuel oil 0.3 0.8 0.8 1.2 open/closed


(pressurised system)

Exhaust gas 40 open

Table 5-1 Recommended flow rates


0501-0000MA2.fm

K-AF Page 5 - 3
Engine supply systems
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions

0501-0000MA2.fm

Page 5 - 4 K-AF
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines

5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines

Arrangement of hoses on resiliently mounted engine


Flexible pipe connections become necessary to
connect resilient mounted engines with external
piping systems. They are used to compensate the
dynamic movements of the engine in relation to
the external piping system. For information about
the origin of the dynamic engine movements, their
direction and identity in principle see "Table 5-2: Ex-
cursions of the in-line engines" and "Table 5-3: Excur-
sions of the V-engines".

Engine rotations unit Coupling displacements Exhaust flange


unit (at the turbocharger)

mm mm

Axial Cross Vertical Axial Cross Vertical Axial Cross Vertical


direction direction direction
RX RY RZ X Y Z X Y Z

Pitching 0.0 0.026 0.0 0.95 0.0 1.13 2.4 0.0 1.1
Origin of static/dynamic movements

Rolling 0.22 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 0.35 0.3 16.2 4.25

Engine torque 0.045 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.35 (to 0.0 0.0 2.9 (to 0.9
(CCW) Cntrl. Side) Cntrl. Side)

Vibration during (0.003) ~0.0 ~0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.12 0.08
normal operation

Run out 0.053 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.64 0.0 0.0 3.9 1.1
resonance

Table 5-2 Excursions of the in-line engines

Note!
The above entries are approximate values
(10 %); they are valid for the standard design
of the mounting.
Assumed sea way movements: Pitching 7.5/
rolling 22.5.
0501-0400MA2.fm

E-BA Page 5 - 5
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines

Engine rotations unit Coupling displacements unit Exhaust flange


(at the turbocharger)

mm mm

Axial Cross Vertical Axial Cross Vertical Axial Cross Vertical


direction direction direction
Rx Ry Rz X Y Z X Y Z

Pitching 0.0 0.066 0.0 1.7 0.0 3.4 5.0 0.0 2.6
Origin of static/dynamic movements

Rolling 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.54 0.0 21.2 5.8

Engine 0.07 0.0 0.0 0.0 +0.59 0.0 0.0 +4.2 1.37
torque (to A bank) (to A bank) (A-TC)

Vibration
during
(0.004) ~0.0 ~0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.04 0.11 0.1
normal
operation

Run out
reso- 0.052 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.64 0.0 0.1 3.6 1.0
nance

Table 5-3 Excursions of the V-engines

Note!
The above entries are approximate values
(10 %); they are valid for the standard design
of the mounting.
Assumed sea way movements: Pitching 7.5/
rolling 22.5.
The conical mounts (RD214B/X) are fitted with
internal stoppers (clearances: lat = 3 mm,
vert = 4 mm); these clearances will not be
completely utilized by the above loading cas-
es.
0501-0400MA2.fm

Page 5 - 6 E-BA
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines

Figure 5-1 Coordinate system

Generally flexible pipes (rubber hoses with steel in- Arrangement of the external piping system
let, metal hoses, PTFE-corrugated hose-lines,
Shipyard's pipe system must be exactly arranged
rubber bellows with steel inlet, steel bellows, steel
so that the flanges or screw connections do fit
compensators) are nearly unable to compensate
without lateral or angular offset. Therefore it is rec-
twisting movements. Therefore the installation di-
ommended to adjust the final position of the pipe
rection of flexible pipes must be vertically (in Z-di-
connections after engine alignment is completed.
rection) if ever possible. An installation in
horizontal-axial direction (in X-direction) is not per-
mitted; an installation in horizontal-lateral (Y-direc-
tion) is not recommended.

Flange and screw connections


Flexible pipes delivered loosely by MAN Diesel &
Turbo are fitted with flange connections, for sizes
with DN32 upwards. Smaller sizes are fitted with
screw connections. Each flexible pipe is delivered
complete with counterflanges or, those smaller
than DN32, with weld-on sockets.

Figure 5-2 Arrangement of pipes in system


0501-0400MA2.fm

E-BA Page 5 - 7
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines

Installation of hoses Angular compensator for fuel oil


In the case of straight-line-vertical installation, a The fuel oil compensator, to be used for resilient
suitable distance between the hose connections mounted engines, can be an angular system com-
has to be chosen, so that the hose is installed with posed of three compensators with different char-
a sag. The hose must not be in tension during op- acteristics. Please observe the installation
eration. To satisfy correct sag in a straight-line-ver- instruction indicated on the specific drawing.
tically installed hose, the distance between the
hose connections (hose installed, engine stopped) Supports of pipes
has to be approx. 5 % shorter than the same dis- The flexible pipe must be installed as near as pos-
tance of the unconnected hose (without sag). sible to the engine connection.
In case it is unavoidable (this is not recommended) On the shipside, directly after the flexible pipe, the
to connect the hose in lateral-horizontal direction pipe is to be fixed with a sturdy pipe anchor of
(Y-direction) the hose must be installed preferably higher than normal quality. This anchor must be
with a 90 arc. The minimum bending radii, speci- capable to absorb the reaction forces of the flexi-
fied in our drawings, are to be observed. ble pipe, the hydraulic force of the fluid and the dy-
Never twist the hoses during installation. Turnable namic force
lapped flanges on the hoses avoid this. Example for the axial force of a compensator to be
Where screw connections are used, steady the absorbed by the pipe anchor:
hexagon on the hose with a wrench while fitting Hydraulic force
the nut. = (Cross section area of the compensator) x
Comply with all installation instructions of the hose (Pressure of the fluid inside)
manufacturer. Reaction force
Depending on the required application rubber = (Spring rate of the compensator) x (Displace-
hoses with steel inlet, metal hoses or PTFE-corru- ment of the comp.)
gated hose lines are used. Axial force
= (Hydraulic force) + (Reaction force)
Installation of steel compensators
Additionally a sufficient margin has to be included
Steel compensators are used for hot media, e. g.
to account for pressure peaks and vibrations.
exhaust gas. They can compensate movements in
line and transversal to their centre line, but they are
absolutely unable to compensate twisting move-
ments. Compensators are very stiff against tor-
sion. For this reason all kind of steel compensators
installed on resilient mounted engines are to be in-
stalled in vertical direction.
Note!
Exhaust gas compensators are also used to
compensate thermal expansion. Therefore ex-
haust gas compensators are required for all
type of engine mountings, also for semi-resil-
ient or rigid mounted engines. But in these
cases the compensators are quite shorter, they
0501-0400MA2.fm

are designed only to compensate the thermal


expansions and vibrations, but not other dy-
namic engine movements.

Page 5 - 8 E-BA
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines

Figure 5-3 Installation of hoses


0501-0400MA2.fm

E-BA Page 5 - 9
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines

0501-0400MA2.fm

Page 5 - 10 E-BA
Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

Water vapour content of the air


[g water / kg air]
100

Intake air Charge air


90

pressure above
80 atmosphere

70

60

50 Relative
max. water content air humidity
of atmosphere (1 bar)
40

30 40%
A
B 30%
20
II
I
10
III

0
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Ambient air temperature [C] Charge air temperature [C]
Figure 5-4 Diagram condensate amount

The amount of condensate precipitated from the ning data for emission standard IMO Tier II" is shown in
air can be quite large, particularly in the tropics. It absolute pressure.
depends on the condition of the intake air (temper-
At both points of intersection read out the values
ature, relative air humidity) in comparison to the
[g water/kg air] on the vertically axis.
charge air after charge air cooler (pressure, tem-
perature). The intake air water content I minus the charge air
water content II is the condensate amount A which
Determining the amount of condensate:
will precipitate. If the calculations result is negative
First determine the point I of intersection in the left no condensate will occur.
side of the diagram (intake air) between the corre-
For an example see "Figure 5-4: Diagram condensate
sponding relative air humidity curve and the ambi-
amount": Intake air water content 30 g/kg minus
ent air temperature.
26 g/kg = 4 g of water/kg of air will precipitate.
Secondly determine the point II of intersection in
To calculate the condensate amount during filling
the right side of the diagram (charge air) between
of the starting air vessel just use the 30 bar curve
0501-0300MA2.fm

the corresponding charge air pressure curve and


in a similar procedure.
the charge air temperature. Please note, that
charge air pressure as mentioned in "Section: Plan-

fJ__ Page 5 - 11
Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

Example to determine the amount of water accumulating in the charge-air pipe

Parameter Unit Value

Engine output (P) kW 9,000

Specific air flow (le) kg/kWh 6.9

Ambient air condition (I):Ambient air temperature C 35


Relative air humidity % 80

Charge air condition (II):Charge air temperature after cooler C 56


Charge air pressure (overpressure) bar 3.0

Solution acc. to above diagram: Unit Value

Water content of air according to point of intersection (I) kg of water/kg of air 0.030

Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (II) kg of water/kg of air 0.026

The difference between (I) and (II) is the condensed water amount (A)
A= I II = 0.030 0.026 = 0.004 kg of water/kg of air

Total amount of condensate QA:


QA= A x le x P
QA= 0.004 x 6.9 x 9,000 = 248 kg/h

Table 5-4 Determining the condensate amount in the charge air pipe

Example to determine the condensate amount in the compressed air vessel

Parameter Unit Value

Volumetric capacity of tank (V) litre 3,500


m3 3.5

Temperature of air in starting air vessel (T) C 40


K 313

Air pressure in starting air vessel (p above atmosphere) bar 30


Air pressure in starting air vessel (p absolute) bar 31
N-
------ 31 x 105
2
m

Gas constant for air (R) Nm -


-------------
kgxK 287

Ambient air temperature C 35

Relative air humidity % 80

Weight of air in the starting air vessel is calculated as follows:


5
pV 31 10 3 5
m = ------------- = ------------------------------------ = 121 kg
0501-0300MA2.fm

RT 287 313

Table 5-5 Determining the condensate amount in the compressed air vessel (1 of 2)

Page 5 - 12 fJ__
Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

Parameter Unit Value

Solution acc. to above diagram:

Water content of air according to point of intersection (I) kg of water/kg of air 0.030

Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (III) kg of water/kg of air 0.002

The difference between (I) and (III) is the condensed water amount (B)
B = I III
B= 0.030 0.002 = 0.028 kg of water/kg of air

Total amount of condensate in the vessel QB:


QB = m x B
QB = 121 * 0.028 = 3.39 kg

Table 5-5 Determining the condensate amount in the compressed air vessel (2 of 2)
0501-0300MA2.fm

fJ__ Page 5 - 13
Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels

0501-0300MA2.fm

Page 5 - 14 fJ__
Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

5.2 Lube oil system

5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram


Please see overleaf!
0502-000bMQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 15


Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

0502-000bMQcr2.fm

Figure 5-5 Lube oil system Service pump attached

Page 5 - 16 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

Legend

CF-001 Separator P-074 Stand by pump electrically driven

CF-003 MDO separator P-075 Cylinder lube oil pump

FIL-001 Automatic filter PCV-007 Pressure relief valve

1, 2 FIL-004 Suction filter PSV-004 Safety valve

H-002 Preheater T-001 Service tank

HE-002 Cooler T-006 Leakage oil collecting tank

NRF-001 Non return flap T-021 Sludge tank

P-001 Service pump attached TCV-001 Temperature control valve

P-012 Transfer pump 1, 2, 3 TR-001 Condensate trap

General definition of engine lube oil connections. For project related connections please see installation drawings:

2101 Engine oil inlet 2841, 2843 Oil mist pipe from engine and turbo-
charger

2102 Engine oil inlet reserve 7711 Control oil from PCV-007

2116 Optional connection flushing pipe 9141, 9142 Leakage from crankcase CCS

2121, 2122 Oil pump inlet right/left 9143, 9144 Leakage from crankcase CS

2131, 2132 Oil pump outlet right/left 9151, 9152 Leakage from crankcase foot CCS

2111, 2112, Drain from oil pan CCS 9153, 9154 Leakage from crankcase foot CS
2115

2113, 2114 Drain from oil pan CS

TC = turbocharger
0502-000bMQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 17


Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram

0502-000bMQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 18 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

5.2.2 Lube oil system description


The diagrams represent the standard design of ex-
ternal lube oil service systems, with a combination
of engine mounted and detached, freestanding,
lube oil pump(s). Alternatively, all main lube oil
pumps can be electrically driven, when special re-
quirements are fulfilled.
The internal lubrication of the engine and the tur-
bocharger is provided with a force-feed lubrication
system.
The lubrication of the cylinder liners is designed as
a separate system attached to the engine but
served by the inner lubrication system. In multi-en-
gine plants, for each engine a separate lube oil
system is required.
For dual-fuel engines (gas-diesel engines) a sup-
plement will explain additional specific require-
ments.

Lube oil viscosity/quality


The lube oil specified for the diesel engine opera-
tion has to be carefully selected.
The selection is mainly affected by the used fuel
grade.

Main fuel Lube oil type Viscosity Base No. (BN)


class

Gas Doped (HD) + additives SAE 40 6 12 mg KOH/g Depends on


(+MDO/MGO for ignition only) sulphur con-
tent
MGO (class DMA or MDZ) 12 20 mg KOH/g
MDO (ISO-F-DMB) 12 20 mg KOH/g
HFO Medium-alkaline + addi- 30 40 mg KOH/g
tives

Table 5-6 Main fuel/lube oil type

For details see "Section 4.2: Specification for lubricating


oil (SAE 40) for operation with gas oil, diesel oil
(MGO/MDO) and biofuels, page 4-5", "Section 4.3: Speci-
fication for lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation on heavy
fuel oil (HFO), page 4-11" and when available "Section:
Specification for lubricating oil Dual-fuel engines".
0502-000aMA2.fm

L-BB Page 5 - 19
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

T-001/Service tank P-001/P-074/Lube oil pumps


The main purpose for the service tank is to sepa- For ships with a single main engine drive it is pref-
rate air and particles from the lube oil, before being erable to design the lube oil system with a combi-
pumped back to the engine. For the design of the nation of an engine driven lube oil pump
service tank the class requirements have to be (P-001) and an electrically driven stand-by pump
taken in consideration. For design requirements of (P-074) (100 % capacity).
MAN Diesel & Turbo see "Section 5.2.5: Lube oil serv-
For ships with more than one main engine the
ice tank, page 5-35".
electrically driven pump can be dimensioned
smaller, to be used as a priming pump only.
H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine
As long as the installed stand-by pump is provid-
The lube oil in the service tank and the system
ing 100 % capacity of the operating pump, the
shall be heated up to 40 C prior to the engine
class requirement to have an operating pump in
start. A constant circulation of the lube oil with the
spare on board, is fulfilled.
stand-by pump is not recommended.
The main advantages for an engine-driven lube oil
H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant pump are:
The lube oil in the tank and the system shall be Reduced power demand for GenSet/PTO for
heated up to 40 C during stand-by mode of one normal operation.
engine. A constant circulation through the sepa-
Continuous lube oil supply during blackout and
rate heater is recommended with a small priming
emergency stop for engine run-out.
pump.
In general additional installations are to be consid-
Suction pipes ered for different pump arrangements:
Suction pipes must be installed with a steady To comply with the rules of classification socie-
slope and dimensioned for the total resistance (in- ties.
cl. pressure drop for suction filter) not exceeding
To ensure continuous lube oil supply during
the pump suction head. A non-return flap must be
blackout and emergency stop for engine run-
installed close to the lube oil tank in order to pre-
out.
vent the lube oil backflow when the engine has
been shut off. For engine mounted pumps this For required pump capacities see "Section: Planning
non-return flap must be by-passed by a relief valve data for emission standard IMO Tier II".
(PSV-004, DN50) to protect the pump seals
In case of blackout with engine stop the post lubri-
against high pressure because of counter rotation
cation must be started within 50 min after the en-
(during shut down).
gine has stopped and must persist for minimum
10 min.
FIL-004/Suction strainer
This is required to cool down the bearings of T.C.
The suction strainer protect the lube oil pumps
and hot inner engine components.
against larger dirt particles that may have accumu-
lated in the tank. It is recommended to use a cone
type strainer with a mesh size of 1.5 mm. Two ma-
nometer installed before and after the strainer indi-
cate when manual cleaning of filter becomes
necessary, which should preferably be done in
port.
0502-000aMA2.fm

Page 5 - 20 L-BB
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

HE-002/Lube oil cooler


Dimensioning
Heat data, flow rates and tolerances are indicated
in "Section: Planning data for emission standard
IMO Tier II".
Additional contamination margin in terms of a
10 % heat transfer coefficient redundancy is to be
considered.
On the lube oil side the pressure drop shall not ex-
ceed 1.1 bar.
Design/Outfitting
The cooler installation must be designed for easy
venting and draining.

TCV-001/Temperature control valve


The valve is to regulate the inlet oil temperature of
the engine. The control valve can be executed with
wax-type thermostats.

Type of Engine Set point Type of temperature Control range


lube oil inlet temperature control valve lube oil inlet temperature

32/40 65 C Wax thermostat Set point minus 10K


(recommended)
32/44CR

48/60B, 48/60CR 55 C

51/60DF

58/64

Table 5-7 Temperature control valve

Lube oil cleaning


The cleaning of the circulating lube oil can be di- The system integrated filters protect the diesel en-
vided into two major functions: gine in the main circuit retaining all residues that
will harm the engine. Depending on the filter de-
Removal of contaminations to keep up the lube
sign, the collected residues are to be removed
oil performance.
from the filter mesh by automatic back flushing,
Retention of dirt to protect the engine. manual cleaning or changing the filter cartridge.
The removal of combustion residues, water and The retention capacity of the installed filter should
other mechanical contaminations is the major task be as high as possible.
of separators/centrifuges (CF-001) installed in by- For selection of an applicable filter arrangement,
pass to the main lube oil service system of the en- the customer request for operation and mainte-
0502-000aMA2.fm

gine. The installation of a separator per engine is nance, as well as the class requirements, have to
recommended to ensure a continuous separation be taken in consideration.
during engine operation.

L-BB Page 5 - 21
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

Arrangement principles for lube oil filters


FIL-001/FIL-002
Depending on engine type, the number of installed
main engines in one plant and on the safety stand-
ard wanted by the customer, different arrange-
ment principles for the filters
FIL-001/FIL-002 are possible:

Number of main Engine types Automatic filter Second stage at Indicator filter
engines installed in FIL-001 automatic filter (duplex filter)
one plant FIL-001 FIL-002

Plants with one or 32/40, 48/60B, Automatic filter with Required, when no Required, when no
more main engines 48/60CR, 51/60DF, by-pass indicator filter second barrier at
58/64 FIL-002 installed FIL-001
Mounted inside Installed close to the
automatic filter engine
FIL-001 Additionally possible,
depending on cus-
tomers request

Plants with more than 32/40 only Automatic filter with- Recommended, Not required but addi-
one main engine out by-pass when no indicator fil- tionally possible
Filter design has to ter FIL-002 installed Installed close to the
be approved by Mounted inside engine
MAN Diesel & automatic filter
Turbo FIL-001
Installed close to the
engine

Plants with one or 32/44CR only Automatic filter with- Required Not possible
more main engine out by-pass Mounted on engine,
mounted on the inside automatic filter
engine FIL-001

Table 5-8 Arrangement principles for lube oil filters


0502-000aMA2.fm

Page 5 - 22 L-BB
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

FIL-001/Automatic filter
The automatic back washing filter is to be installed separator suction pipe in a divided compartment
as a main filter. The back washing/flushing of the of the service tank, which provides an efficient final
filter elements has to be arranged in a way that removal of deposits by the separator (see "Section
lube oil flow and pressure will not be affected. The 5.2.5: Lube oil service tank, page 5-35").
flushing discharge (oil/sludge mixture) is led to the

Type of Engine Lube oil automatic filter FIL-001

32/44CR 32/40 32/40, 40/54,


48/60B, 48/60CR,
51/60DF, 58/64

Application Single-main-engine-plant Multi-main-engine-plant Single-main-engine-plant


Multi-main-engine-plant Multi-main-engine-plant

Location of the filter Mounted on the engine To be installed in the To be installed in the
external piping system external piping system
close to the engine

Max. mesh width (absolute, 0.034 mm first stage / 0.080 mm second stage
sphere-passing mesh)

Filter surface load According to filter manufacturer

Supply Included Optional Optional

Table 5-9 Automatic filter

As state-of-the-art, automatic filter types are rec- ging condition of the filter. A high differential pres-
ommended to be equipped with an integrated sure has to be indicated as an alarm.
second filtration stage. This second stage protects
For filter mesh sizes and surface loads see "Table
the engine from particles which may pass the first
5-9: Automatic filter".
stage filter elements in case of any malfunction. If
the lube oil system is equipped with a two-stage V-001/Shut-off cock
automatic filter, additional indicator filter FIL-002 This shut-off cock is only to be provided for single-
can be avoided. In case of an automatic filter engine plants. The cock is closed during normal
mounted on engine, an indicator filter cannot be operation. In case the lube oil automatic filter
installed, so the second filter stage inside auto- FIL-001 has to be taken out of operation, the cock
matic filter is essential. As far as the automatic filter can be opened and the automatic filter shut off.
is installed without any additional filters down- Consequently, the automatic filter is by-passed.
stream, before the engine inlet, the filter has to be The lube oil indicator filter FIL-002 temporarily
installed as close as possible to the engine (see takes over the task of the automatic filter. In case
"Table 5-8: Arrangement principles for lube oil filters"). In of a two-stage automatic filter without a following
that case the pipe section between filter and en- indicator filter, there is no by-pass required. Engine
gine inlet must be closely inspected before instal- can run for max. 72 hours with the second filter
lation. This pipe section must be divided and stage, but has to be stopped after. This measure
flanges have to be fitted so that all bends and ensures that disturbances in backwashing do not
welding seams can be inspected and cleaned pri- result in a complete failure of filtering and that the
or to final installation.
0502-000aMA2.fm

main stream filter can be cleaned without inter-


Differential pressure gauges have to be installed, rupting filtering.
to protect the filter cartridges and to indicate clog-

L-BB Page 5 - 23
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

FIL-002/Indicator filter welding seams can be inspected and cleaned pri-


or to final installation.
The indicator filter is a duplex filter, which must be
cleaned manually. It must be installed down- In case of a two-stage automatic filter, the installa-
stream of the automatic filter, as close as possible tion of an indicator filter can be avoided. Custom-
to the engine. The pipe section between filter and ers who want to fulfil a higher safety level, are free
engine inlet must be closely inspected before in- to mount an additional duplex filter close to the en-
stallation. This pipe section must be divided and gine.
flanges have to be fitted so that all bends and

Type of Engine Lube oil indicator filter FIL-002

32/44CR 32/40 32/40, 40/54,


48/60B, 48/60CR,
51/60DF, 58/64

Application Single-main-engine-plant Multi-main-engine-plant Single-main-engine-plant


Multi- main-engine-plant Multi-main-engine-plant

Location of the filter Indicator filter not Indicator filter not To be installed in the
required required external piping system
close to the engine

Max. mesh width (absolute, 0.06 mm


sphere-passing mesh)

Filter surface load According filter manufac-


turer

Supply - - Optional

Table 5-10 Indicator filter

The indicator filter protects the engine also in case The drain connections equipped with shut-off fit-
of malfunctions of the automatic filter. The moni- tings in the two chambers of the indicator filter re-
toring system of the automatic filter generates an turns into the leak oil tank (T-006). Draining will
alarm signal to alert the operating personnel. A remove the dirt accumulated in the casing and
maintenance of the automatic filter becomes nec- prevents contamination of the clean oil side of the
essary. For this purpose the lube oil flow thought filter. For filter mesh sizes and surface loads see
the automatic filter has to be stopped. Single- "Table 5-10: Indicator filter".
main-engine-plants can continue to stay in opera-
tion by by-passing the automatic filter. Lube oil can
still be filtrated sufficiently in this situation by only
using the indicator filter.
In multi-engine-plants, where it is not possible to
by-pass the automatic filter without loss of lube oil
filtration, the affected engine has to be stopped in
this situation.
The design of the indicator filter must ensure that
no parts of the filter can become loose and enter
0502-000aMA2.fm

the engine.

Page 5 - 24 L-BB
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

Indication and alarm of filters


The automatic filter FIL-001, the indicator duplex pressure switches. The switches are used for pre-
filter FIL-002 and the suction strainer alarm and main alarm. The alarms of the automatic
FIL-004 are equipped with local visual differential filter and indicator/duplex filter are processed in
pressure indicators. The filter FIL-001 and the filter the engine control and safety system and are avail-
FIL-002 are additionally equipped with differential able for the ship alarm system.

Differential pressure between filter inlet and outlet (dp)

dp switch with lower set point is active dp switch with higher


set point is active

Automatic fil- Intermittent flush- This dp switch has to be installed twice if an intermittent The dp main alarm "filter fail-
ter FIL-001 ing type flushing filter is used. The first switch is used for the filter ure" is generated immedi-
(e. g. B & K 6.61) control; it will start the automatic flushing procedure. ately. If the main alarm is still
The second switch is adjusted at the identical set point active after 30 min, the
as the first. Once the second switch is activated, and engine output power will be
after a time delay of approx. 3 min, the dp pre-alarm "fil- reduced automatically.
ter is polluted" is generated. The time delay becomes
necessary to effect the automatic flushing procedure
before and to evaluate its effect.

Continuous flush- The dp pre-alarm: "Filter is polluted" is generated imme-


ing type diately
(e. g. B & K 6.46)

Duplex/Indi- (e. g. B & K 2.05)


cator filter
FIL-002

Table 5-11 Indication and alarm of filters

CF-001/Separator
The lube oil is intensively cleaned by separation in The formula for determining the separator flow
the by-pass thus relieving the filters and allowing rate (Q) is:
an economical design.
The separator (clarifier) should be of the self- 1,0 P n
cleaning type. The design is to be based on a lube Q
oil quantity of 1.0 l/kW. This lube oil quantity 24
should be cleaned within 24 hours at:
Q Separator flow rate l/h
HFO-operation 6 7 times
P Total engine output kW
MDO-operation 4 5 times
n HFO= 7, MDO= 5, MGO= 5, Gas(+MDO/MGO for
Dual-fuelengines operating on gas ignition only) = 5
(+MDO/MGO for ignition only) 4 5 times
0502-000aMA2.fm

L-BB Page 5 - 25
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator PCV-007/Pressure control valve
has to be selected according to the evaluation ta-
By use of the pressure control valve, a constant
ble of the manufacturer. MAN Diesel & Turbo
lube oil pressure before the engine is adjusted.
strictly recommend to use evaluation tables ac-
cording to a "certified flow rate" (CFR). The sepa- The pressure control valve is installed upstream of
rator rating stated by the manufacturer should be the lube oil cooler. The installation position is to be
higher than the flow rate (Q) calculated according observed. By spilling off exceeding lube oil quanti-
to the above formula. ties upstream of the major components these
components can be sized smaller. The return pipe
Separator equipment
(spilling pipe) from the pressure control valve re-
The preheater H-002 must be able to heat the oil turns into the lube oil service tank.
to 95 C and the size is to be selected accordingly.
The measurement point of the pressure control
In addition to a PI-temperature control, which
pipe is connected directly to the engine in order to
avoids a thermal overloading of the oil, silting of
measure the lube oil pressure at the engine. In this
the preheater must be prevented by high turbu-
way the pressure losses of filters, pipes and cooler
lence of the oil in the preheater.
are compensated automatically (see "Section: Lube
Control accuracy 1 C. oil system Pressure control valve."
Cruise ships in arctic waters require larger pre-
TR-001/Condensate trap
heaters. In this case the size of the preheater must
be calculated with a t of 60 K. The condensate traps required for the vent pipes
of the turbocharger, the engine crankcase and the
The freshwater supplied must be treated as spec-
service tank must be installed as close as possible
ified by the separator supplier.
to the vent connections. This will prevent conden-
The supply pumps shall be of the free-standing sate water, which has formed on the cold venting
type, i.e. not mounted on the separator and are to pipes, to enter the engine or service tank.
be installed in the immediate vicinity of the lube oil
See "Section: Lube oil system Crankcase vent and tank
service tank.
vent".
This arrangement has three advantages:
T-006/Leakage oil tank
Suction of lube oil without causing cavitation.
Leaked fuel and the dirty oil drained from the lube
The lube oil separator need not be installed in
oil filter casings is collected in this tank. It is to be
the vicinity of the service tank but can be
emptied into the sludge tank. The content must
mounted in the separator room together with
not be added to the fuel. It is not permitted to add
the fuel oil separators.
lube oil to the fuel.
Better matching of the capacity to the required
Alternatively, separate leakage oil tanks for fuel
separator throughput.
and lube oil can be installed.
As a reserve for the lube oil separator, the use of
the MDO separator is admissible. For reserve op- P-012 Transfer pump
eration the MDO separator must be converted ac- The transfer pump supplies fresh oil from the lube
cordingly. This includes the pipe connection to the oil storage tank to the operating tank. Starting and
lube oil system which must not be implemented stopping of the pump should preferably be done
with valves or spectacle flanges. The connection is automatically by float switches fitted in the tank.
to be executed by removable change-over joints
that will definitely prevent MDO from getting into
0502-000aMA2.fm

the lube oil circuit. See also rules and regulations


of classification societies.

Page 5 - 26 L-BB
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

P-075/Cylinder lube oil pump


The pump fitted to the engine is driven by an elec-
tric motor (asynchronous motor
380 420 V/50 Hz or 380 460 V/60 Hz three-
phase AC with pole changing).
For the cylinder lubrication MAN Diesel & Turbo
will supply a Control Unit inclusive a pump contac-
tor, with a power consumption of about 0.5 kW for
pump, control and heating.
This value must be doubled for V-engines, as two
Control Units (one for each row) are supplied in
one cabinet.

Withdrawal points for samples


Points for drawing lube oil samples are to be pro-
vided upstream and downstream of the filters and
the separator, to verify the effectiveness of these
system components.

Piping system
It is recommended to use pipes according to the
pressure class PN 10.
0502-000aMA2.fm

L-BB Page 5 - 27
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description

0502-000aMA2.fm

Page 5 - 28 L-BB
Engine supply systems
5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication

5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication
Prelubrication
The prelubrication oil pump must be switched on
at least 5 minutes before engine start. The prelu-
brication oil pump serves to assist the engine at-
tached main lube oil pump, until this can provide a
sufficient flow rate.
Pressure before engine . . . . . . . . 0.3 0.6 bar
Oil temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . min. 40 C
Note!
Above mentioned pressure must be ensured
also up to the highest possible lube oil temper-
ature before the engine.

Engine Prelubrication/postlubrication pumps Minimum needed delivery rates (m3/h)


type Note!
Oil pressure > 0.3 bar must be ensured also for lube oil temperatures up to 80 C. Consider additional exter-
nal automatic lube oil filter by adding to minimum delivery rates 1/2 of its nominal flushing amount.

No. of cylinders

6L 7L 8L 9L 10L 12V 14V 16V 18V 20V

32/40 24 26 29 31 - 36 40 44 49 -

32/44CR 26 29 31 34 36 37 41 46 50 54

32/44K 26 29 31 34 36 - - - - -

35/44DF 18 20 23 25 28 30 35 40 45 50

48/60B, 35 41 47 53 - 70 82 93 105 -
48/60CR - -
48/60TS

51/60DF 35 41 47 53 - 70 82 93 105 -

58/64 41 48 55 61 - - - - - -

Table 5-8 Delivery rates of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps

Postlubrication
The prelubrication oil pumps are also to be used
for postlubrication when the engine is stopped.
Postlubrication is effected for a period of 15 min.
0502-0300MA2.fm

A-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF, 58/64 Page 5 - 29
Engine supply systems
5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication

0502-0300MA2.fm

Page 5 - 30 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

5.2.4 Lube oil outlets


Lube oil drain
Two connections for oil drain pipes are located on
both ends of the engine oil sump, except for
L48/60 and L40/54 with flexible engine
mounting with one drain arranged in the middle
of each side.
For an engine installed in the horizontal position,
two oil drain pipes are required, one at the cou-
pling end and one at the free end.
If the engine is installed in an inclined position,
three oil drain pipes are required, two at the lower
end and one at the higher end of the engine oil
sump.
The drain pipes must be kept short. The slanted
pipe ends must be immersed in the oil, so as to
create a liquid seal between crankcase and tank.

Expansion joints
At the connection of the oil drain pipes to the serv-
ice tank, expansion joints are required.

Shut-off butterfly valves


If for lack of space, no cofferdam can be provided
underneath the service tank, it is necessary to in-
stall shut-off butterfly valves in the drain pipes. If
the ship should touch ground, these butterfly
valves can be shut via linkages to prevent the in-
gress of seawater through the engine.
Drain pipes, shut-off butterfly valves with linkages,
expansion joints, etc. are not supplied by the en-
gine builder.
0502-0500MA2.fm

D-AF 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60 DF, 58/64 Page 5 - 31
Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

0502-0500MA2.fm

Page 5 - 32 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60 DF, 58/64 D-AF
Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

Lube oil outlets Drawings

Rigidly mounted engines


0502-0501MQcr2.fm

Figure 5-6 Lube oil outlets engine L32/44CR

J-AJ 32/44CR Page 5 - 33


Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets

0502-0501MQcr2.fm

Figure 5-7 Lube oil outlets engine V32/44CR

Page 5 - 34 32/44CR J-AJ


Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

5.2.5 Lube oil service tank


The lube oil service tank is to be arranged over the Lube oil preheating
entire area below the engine, in order to ensure
Preheating the lube oil to 40 C is effected by the
uniform vertical thermal expansion of the whole
preheater of the separator via the free-standing
engine foundation.
pump. The preheater must be enlarged in size if
To provide for adequate degassing, a minimum necessary, so that it can heat the content of the
distance is required between tank top and the service tank to 40 C, within 4 hours.
highest operating level. The low oil level should still
permit the lube oil to be drawn in free of air if the
ship is pitching severely
5 longitudinal inclination for
ship's lengths 100 m
7.5 longitudinal inclination for
ship's lengths < 100 m
A well for the suction pipes of the lube oil pumps
is the preferred solution.
The minimum quantity of lube oil for the engine is
1.0 litre/kW. This is a theoretical factor for perma-
nent lube-oil-quality control and the decisive factor
for the design of the by-pass cleaning. The lube oil
quantity, which is actually required during opera-
tion, depends on the tank geometry and the vol-
ume of the system (piping, system components),
and may exceed the theoretical minimum quantity
to be topped up. The low-level alarm in the service
tank is to be adjusted to a height, which ensures
that the pumps can draw in oil, free of air, at the
longitudinal inclinations given above. The position
of the oil drain pipes extending from the engine oil
sump and the oil flow in the tank are to be selected
so as to ensure that the oil will remain in the service
tank for the longest possible time for degassing.
Draining oil must not be sucked in at once.
The man holes in the floor plates inside the service
tank are to be arranged so as to ensure sufficient
flow to the suction pipe of the pump also at low
lube oil service level.
The tank has to be vented at both ends, according
to "Section: Engine supply systems Crankcase vent and
tank vent".
0502-0600MA2.fm

I-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 Page 5 - 35


Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

0502-0600MA2.fm

Figure 5-8 Lube oil service tank_1

Page 5 - 36 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 I-BB


Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

Figure 5-9 Lube oil service tank_2


0502-0600MA2.fm

I-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 Page 5 - 37


Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank

0502-0600MA2.fm

Page 5 - 38 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 I-BB


Engine related service systems
5.2.6 Pressure control valve

5.2.6 Pressure control valve


0502-1000MQcr2.fm

Figure 5-10 Pressure control valve

B-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 39


Engine related service systems
5.2.6 Pressure control valve

0502-1000MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 40 32/44CR B-BB


Engine supply systems
5.2.7 Lube oil automatic filter

5.2.7 Lube oil automatic filter

Figure 5-11 Example: Lube oil automatic filter


0502-0700MQcr2.fm

E-BA 32/44CR Page 5 - 41


Engine supply systems
5.2.7 Lube oil automatic filter

0502-0700MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 42 32/44CR E-BA


Engine supply systems
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent

5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent

Vent pipes
The vent pipes from the lube oil service tank, en- pipes are to be found in the legend following the
gine crankcase and turbocharger are to be ar- diagram. It is forbidden to connect vent pipe with
ranged according to the following diagram. The other engine!
required nominal pipe diameters ND of the vent

Figure 5-12 Crankcase vent and tank vent

Legend

1 Condensate trap, continuously open

2 Connection crankcase vent

3 Turbocharger venting

4 Lubricating oil service tank

Legend

Engine Nominal Diameter ND (mm)

A B D F
0502-0800MQcr2.fm

L32/44CR 100 80 125 125

V32/44CR 100 125 125 125

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 43


Engine supply systems
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent

0502-0800MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 44 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

5.3 Water systems

5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram


Please see overleaf!
0503-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 45


Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

0503-0000MQcr2.fm

Figure 5-13 Cooling water system diagram Single engine plant

Page 5 - 46 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Legend

Components

1,2D-003 Auxiliary engine HE-034 Cooler for compressor wheel casing

1,2FIL-019 Sea water filter MOV-002 HT cooling water temperature control


valve

1,2FIL-021 Strainer of commissioning MOV-003 Charge air temperature (CHATCO)

H-020 Preheater main engine MOD-004 Preheating module

H-027 Preheater aux. engine MOD-005 Nozzle cooling module

HE-002 Lube oil cooler MOV-016 LT cooling water temperature control


valve

HE-003 Cooler for HT cooling water 1P-002 Pump for HT cooling water (engine driven)

HE-005 Nozzle cooling water cooler 2P-002 Optional pump for HT cooling water (elec-
trical driven)

HE-007 Diesel oil cooler 1,2P-062 Sea water pump

HE-008 Charge air cooler (stage 2) 1,2P-076 Pump for LT cooling water

HE-010 Charge air cooler (stage 1) 1,2POF-001 Shut of flap for charge air preheating
(depending on plant)

HE-023 Gearbox lube oil cooler POF-002 Shut off flap for charge air preheating
(depending on plant)

HE-024 Cooler for LT cooling water T-002 HT cooling water expansion tank

HE-026 Fresh water generator T-075 LT cooling water expansion tank

Major cooling water engine connections

3121 HT cooling water inlet 3401/3411 Inlet/outlet nozzle cooling

3102 Reserve (for el. driven HT pump) 3201/3211 Inlet/outlet charge air cooler (stage 2)

3103/3113 Charge air preheating 3215 Outlet for compressor wheel cooling

3111 Outlet HT cooling water Drains and venting are not shown.

Connections to the nozzle cooling water module

N1, N2 Return/feeding of engine nozzle cool-


ing water

N3, N4 Inlet/outlet LT cooling water


0503-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 47


Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Figure 5-14 Cooling water system diagram Twin engine plant (part 1)
0503-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 48 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Figure 5-15 Cooling water system diagram Twin engine plant (part 2)
0503-0000MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 49


Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

0503-0000MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 50 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Cooling water system description

5.3.2 Cooling water system description


The diagrams showing cooling water systems for LT cooling water system
main engines comprising the possibility of heat uti-
In general the LT cooling water passes through the
lisation in a fresh water generator and equipment
following components:
for preheating of the charge air in a two-stage
charge air cooler during part load operation. Stage 2 of the two-stage charge-air cooler (HE-
008)
Note!
Lube oil cooler (HE-002)
The arrangement of the cooling water system
shown here is only one of many possible solu- Nozzle cooling water cooler (HE-005)
tions. It is recommended to inform MAN Fuel oil cooler (HE-007)
Diesel & Turbo in advance in case other ar-
rangements should be desired. Gear lube oil cooler (HE-023) (or e. g. alternator
cooling in case of a diesel-electric plant)
For special applications, e. g. GenSets or dual-fuel
engines, supplements will explain specific neces- LT cooling water cooler (HE-024)
sities and deviations. Other components such as, e. g., auxiliary en-
For the design data of the system components gines (GenSets)
shown in the diagram see "Section: Planning data The system components of the LT cooling water
for emission standard IMO Tier II". circuit are designed for a max. LT cooling water
The cooling water is to be conditioned using a cor- temperature of 38 C with a corresponding sea-
rosion inhibitor, see "Section 4.8: Specification for en- water temperature of 32 C (tropical conditions).
gine cooling water, page 4-35". However, the capacity of the LT cooler (HE-024) is
LT = Low temperature determined by the temperature difference be-
tween seawater and LT cooling water. Due to this
HT = High temperature correlation an LT fresh water temperature of 32 C
Cooler dimensioning, general can be ensured at a seawater temperature of
25 C.
For coolers operated by seawater (not treated wa-
ter), lube oil or MDO/MGO on the primary side and To meet the IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II regulations the
treated fresh water on the secondary side, an ad- set point of the temperature regulator valve (MOV-
ditional safety margin of 10 % related to the heat 016) is to be adjusted to 32 C. However this tem-
transfer coefficient is to be considered. If treated perature will fluctuate and reach at most 38 C
water is applied on both sides, MAN Diesel & Tur- with a seawater temperature of 32 C (tropical
bo does not insist on this margin. conditions).
In case antifreeze is added to the cooling water, The charge air cooler stage 2 (HE-008) and the
the corresponding lower heat transfer is to be tak- lube oil cooler (HE-002) are installed in series to
en into consideration. obtain a low delivery rate of the LT cooling water
pump (P-076).
The cooler arrangement has to ensure venting and
draining facilities for the cooler. High performing turbochargers lead to a high tem-
perature at the compressor wheel. To limit these
temperatures, the compressor wheel casing (HE-
034) is cooled by a low LT water flow. The outlet
(4184) is to be connected separately to the LT ex-
0503-0100Mcr2.fm

pansion tank in a steady rise.

L-BB 32/44CR, 48/60CR Page 5 - 51


Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Cooling water system description

P-076/LT cooling water pump MOV-016/LT cooling water temperature regulator


The delivery rates of the service and standby This is a motor-actuated three-way regulating
pump are mainly determined by the cooling water valve with a linear characteristic. It is to be installed
required for the charge-air cooler stage 2 and the as a mixing valve. It maintains the LT cooling water
other coolers. at set-point temperature, which is 32 C.
For operating auxiliary engines (GenSets) in port, The three-way valve is to be designed for a pres-
the installation of an additional smaller pump is sure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar. It is to be equipped with
recommendable. an actuator with normal positioning speed (high
speed not required). The actuator must permit
MOV-003/Temperature control valve for charge air cooler
manual emergency adjustment.
This three-way valve is to be installed as a mixing
Caution!
valve.
For engine operation with reduced NOx emis-
It serves two purposes:
sion, according to IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II re-
1. In engine part load operation the charge air quirement, at 100 % engine load and a
cooler stage 2 (HE-008) is partially or com- seawater temperature of 25 C
pletely by-passed, so that a higher charge air (IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II reference temperature),
temperature is maintained. an LT cooling water temperature of 32 C be-
2. The valve reduces the accumulation of con- fore charge air cooler stage 2 (HE-008) is to be
densed water during engine operation under maintained.
tropical conditions by regulation of the charge Fil-021/Strainer
air temperature. Below a certain intake air tem-
In order to protect the engine and system compo-
perature the charge air temperature is kept
nents, several strainers are to be provided at the
constant. When the intake temperature rises,
places marked in the diagram before taking the
the charge air temperature will be increased ac-
engine into operation for the first time. The mesh
cordingly.
size is 1 mm.
The three-way valve is to be designed for a pres-
HE-005/Nozzle cooling water cooler
sure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar and is to be equipped
with an actuator with high positioning speed. The The nozzle cooling water system is a separate and
actuator must permit manual emergency adjust- closed cooling circuit. It is cooled down by LT
ment. cooling water via the nozzle cooling watercooler
(HE-005). For heat data, flow rates and tolerances
HE-002/Lube oil cooler
see "Section: Planning data for emission standard
For the description see "Section 5.2.2: Lube oil system IMO Tier II". For the description of the principal de-
description, page 5-19". For heat data, flow rates and sign criteria for coolers see "Paragraph: Cooler dimen-
tolerances see "Section: Planning data for emission sioning, general, page 5-51". For plants with two main
standard IMO Tier II". For the description of the engines only one nozzle cooling water cooler (HE-
principal design criteria see "Paragraph: Cooler di- 005) is needed. As an option a compact nozzle-
mensioning, general, page 5-51". cooling module (MOD-005) can be delivered, see
HE-024/LT cooling water cooler "Section: Water systems Nozzle cooling water
module". For plants with two main engines only
For heat data, flow rates and tolerances of the one nozzle-cooling module is required.
heat sources see "Section: Planning data for emis-
sion standard IMO Tier II". For the description of
0503-0100Mcr2.fm

the principal design criteria for coolers see "Para-


graph: Cooler dimensioning, general, page 5-51".

Page 5 - 52 32/44CR, 48/60CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Cooling water system description

HE-007/MDO/MGO cooler The HT cooling water pumps can be either of en-


gine-driven or electrically-driven type. The outlet
This cooler is required to dissipate the heat of the
temperature of the cylinder cooling water at the
fuel injection pumps during MDO/MGO operation.
engine is to be adjusted to 90 C.
For the description of the principal design criteria
for coolers see "Paragraph: Cooler dimensioning, gen- For HT cooling water systems, where more than
eral, page 5-51". For plants with more than one en- one main engine is integrated, each engine should
gine, connected to the same fuel oil system, only be provided with an individual engine driven HT
one MDO/MGO cooler is required. cooling water pump. Alternatively common electri-
cally-driven HT cooling water pumps may be used
T-075/LT cooling water expansion tank
for all engines. However, an individual HT temper-
The effective tank capacity should be high enough ature control valve is required for each engine. The
to keep approx. 2/3 of the tank content of T-002. total cooler and pump capacities are to be adapt-
In case of twin-engine plants with a common cool- ed accordingly.
ing water system, the tank capacity should be by
The shipyard is responsible for the correct cooling
approx. 50 % higher. The tanks T-075 and T-002
water distribution, ensuring that each engine will
should be arranged side by side to facilitate instal-
be supplied with cooling water at the flow rates re-
lation. In any case the tank bottom must be in-
quired by the individual engines, under all operat-
stalled above the highest point of the LT system at
ing conditions. To meet this requirement, e. g.,
any ship inclination.
orifices, flow regulation valves, by-pass systems
The expansion pipe shall connect the tank with the etc. are to be installed where necessary.
suction side of the pump(s), as close as possible.
H-001/Preheater
It is to be installed in a steady rise to the expansion
tank, without any air pockets. Minimum required Before starting a cold engine, it is necessary to
diameter is DN 32 for L-engines and DN 40 for V- preheat the waterjacket up to 60C.
engines.
For the total heating power required for preheating
For the recommended installation height see "Ta- the HT cooling water from 10 C to 60 C within 4
ble: Service tanks capacity in "Section: Planning hours see "Table 5-13: Heating power".
data for emission standard IMO Tier II" Filling
volumes and flow resistances". Engine type 32/40 48/60B 58/64
32/44CR 48/60CR
HT Cooling water circuit 51/60DF

General L+V L+V L


The HT cooling water system consists of the fol- Min. heating power
lowing coolers and heat exchangers: 6 14 18
(kW/cylinder)
Charge air cooler stage 1 (HE-010) Table 5-13 Heating power
Cylinder cooling These values include the radiation heat losses
HT cooler (HE-003) from the outer surface of the engine. Also a margin
of 20 % for heat losses of the cooling system has
Heat utilisation, e. g. fresh water generator (HE- been considered.
026)
HT cooling water preheater (H-020)
0503-0100Mcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR, 48/60CR Page 5 - 53


Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Cooling water system description

A secondary function of the preheater is to provide main engine. This depends on the number of aux-
heat capacity in the HT cooling water system dur- iliary engines in operation and their load. It is rec-
ing engine part load operation. This is required for ommended to install a separate preheater for the
marine propulsion plants with a high fresh water main engine, as the available heat from the auxilia-
requirement, e. g. on passenger vessels, where ry engines may be insufficient during operation in
frequent load changes are common. It is also re- the port.
quired for arrangements with an additional charge
As an option MAN Diesel & Turbo can supply a
air preheating by deviation of HT cooling water to
compact preheating module (MOD-004). One
the charge air cooler stage 2 (HE-008). In this case
module for each main engine is required.
the heat output of the preheater is to be increased
by approx. 50 %. HE-026/Fresh water generator
An electrically driven pump becomes necessary to The fresh water generator must be switched off
circulate the HT cooling water during preheating. automatically when the cooling water temperature
For the required minimum flow rate see "Table 5-14: at the engine outlet drops below 88 C.
Minimum flow rate during preheating and post-cooling". This will prevent operation of the engine at too low
temperatures.
Numbers of Minimum flow rate required during
cylinders preheating and post-cooling HE-003/HT cooling water cooler
For heat data, flow rates and tolerances of the
m3/h
heat sources see "Section: Planning data for emis-
32/40 48/60B 58/64 sion standard IMO Tier II". For the description of
32/44CR 48/60CR the principal design criteria for coolers see "Para-
51/60DF graph: Cooler dimensioning, general, page 5-51".
6L 7.2 14 17 HT temperature control
7L 8.4 16 20 The HT temperature control system consists of the
following components:
8L 9.6 18 23

9L 10.8 20 26
The temperature controllers are available as
software functions inside the Gateway Module
10L 12.0 - - of SaCoSone . The temperature controllers are
12V 14.4 28 -
operated by the displays at the operating pan-
els asfar as it is necessary. From the Interface
14V 16.8 30 - Cabinet the relays actuate the control valves.
16V 19.2 30 - 1 electrically activated three-way mixing valve
18V 21.6 30 - with linear characteristic curve (MOV- 002)

20V 24.0 - - 1 temperature sensor TE, directly downstream


of the three-way mixing valve in the supply pipe
Table 5-14 Minimum flow rate during preheating and to charge-air cooler stage 1 (for EDS visualisa-
post-cooling
tion and control of preheater valve)
The preheating of the main engine with cooling 1 temperature sensor TE, directly downstream
water from auxiliary engines is also possible, pro- of the engine outlet
vided that the cooling water is treated in the same
way. In that case, the expansion tanks of the two It serves to maintain the cylinder cooling water
cooling systems have to be installed at the same temperature constantly at 90 C at the engine
0503-0100Mcr2.fm

level. Furthermore, it must be checked whether outlet even in the case of frequent load
the available heat is sufficient for preheating the changes and to protect the engine from exces-
sive thermal load.

Page 5 - 54 32/44CR, 48/60CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Cooling water system description

For adjusting the outlet water temperature (con- P-002/HT cooling water pumps
stantly to 90 C) to engine load and speed, the
As an option the engine is available with an at-
cooling water inlet temperature is controlled. The
tached (engine driven) HT cooling water pump. Al-
electronic water temperature controller recognizes
ternatively also electrically driven HT cooling water
deviations by means of the sensor at the engine
pumps can be used.
outlet and afterwards corrects the reference value
accordingly. The standby pump has to be of the electrically
driven type.
The electronic temperature controller is installed in
the switch cabinet of the engine room. It is required to cool down the engine for a period
of 15 minutes after shut down. For this purpose
For a stable control mode, the following boundary
the standby pump can be used. In the case that
conditions must be observed when designing the
neither an electrically driven HT cooling water
HT fresh water system:
pump nor an electrically driven standby pump is
The temperature sensor is to be installed in the installed (e. g. multi-engine plants with engine driv-
supply pipe to stage 1 of the charge-air cooler. en HT cooling water pump without electrically driv-
To ensure instantaneous measurement of the en HT standby pump, if applicable by the
mixing temperature of the three-way mixing classification rules), it is possible to cool down the
valve, the distance to the valve should be 5 to engine by the separate small preheating pump,
10 times the pipe diameter. see "Table 5-14: Minimum flow rate during preheating
and post-cooling", or if the optional preheating unit
The three-way valve (MOV-002) is to be in-
(MOD-004) with integrated circulation pump is in-
stalled as a mixing valve. It is to be designed for
stalled, it is also possible to cool down the engine
a pressure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar. It is to be
with this small pump. However, the pump used to
equipped with an actuator of high positioning
cool down the engine, has to be electrically driven
speed. The actuator must permit manual emer-
and started automatically after engine shut down.
gency adjustment.
None of the cooling water pumps is a self-priming
The pipes within the system are to be kept as
centrifugal pump.
short as possible in order to reduce the dead
times of the system, especially the pipes be- Design flow rates should not be exceeded by
tween the three-way mixing valve and the inlet more than 15 % to avoid cavitation in the engine
of the charge-air cooler stage 1 which, are crit- and its systems. A throttling orifice is to be fitted
ical for the control. for adjusting the specified operating point.
The same system is required for each engine, also
for multi-engine installations with a common HT
fresh water system.
In case of a deviating system layout, MAN Diesel &
Turbo is to be consulted.
0503-0100Mcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR, 48/60CR Page 5 - 55


Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Cooling water system description

FSH-002/Condensate monitoring tank


(not indicated in the diagram)
Only for acceptance by Bureau Veritas:
The condensate deposition in the charge air cool-
er is drained via the condensate monitoring tank.
A level switch releases an alarm when condensate
is flooding the tank.
T-002/HT cooling water expansion tank
The expansion tank compensates changes in sys-
tem volume and losses due to leakages. It is to be
arranged in such a way, that the tank bottom is sit-
uated above the highest point of the system at any
ship inclination.
The expansion pipe shall connect the tank with the
suction side of the pump(s), as close as possible.
It is to be installed in a steady rise to the expansion
tank, without any air pockets. Minimum required
diameter is DN 32 for L-engines and DN 40 for V-
engines.
For the required volume of the tank and the rec-
ommended installation height see "Table: Service
tanks capacity in "Section: Planning data for emis-
sion standard IMO Tier II" Filling volumes and
flow resistances".
Tank equipment:
Sight glass for level monitoring
Low-level alarm switch
Overflow and filling connection
Inlet for corrosion inhibitor 0503-0100Mcr2.fm

Page 5 - 56 32/44CR, 48/60CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system

5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system


T-074/Cooling water collecting tank (not indicated in
the diagram)
The tank is to be dimensioned and arranged in
such a way that the cooling water content of the
circuits of the cylinder, turbocharger and nozzle
cooling systems can be drained into it for mainte-
nance purposes.
This is necessary to meet the requirements with
regard to environmental protection (water has
been treated with chemicals) and corrosion inhibi-
tion (re-use of conditioned cooling water).

P-031/Transfer pump (not indicated in the diagram)


The content of the collecting tank can be dis-
charged into the expansion tanks by a freshwater
transfer pump.
0503-0200MA2.fm

G-AJ 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 Page 5 - 57


Engine supply systems
5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system

0503-0200MA2.fm

Page 5 - 58 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 G-AJ


Engine supply systems
5.3.4 Miscellaneous items

5.3.4 Miscellaneous items


Piping For further information see the turbocharger
project guide. You can also find the latest updates
For piping, black steel pipe should be used. Treat-
on our website www.mandieselturbo.com
ment of the cooling water as specified by MAN
under:"Turbomachinery > Turbocharger > Axial
Diesel & Turbo will safely protect the inner pipe
Flow > TCA Series" and "Turbomachinery >
walls against corrosion.
Turbocharger > Radial Flow > TCR Series".
Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system as all additives contained in Sea water pump
the engine cooling water attack zinc.
A self-priming service and standby pump, and a
Moreover, there is the risk of the formation of local harbor pump for the diesel GenSets must be in-
electrolytic element couples where the zinc layer stalled. For calculating the delivery rate, the heat to
has been worn off, and the risk of aeration corro- be dissipated in the LT and HT circuit is to be taken
sion where the zinc layer is not properly bonded to in consideration.
the substrate.
Delivery Volume V:
Please see the instructions in our Work card 6682
000.16-01E for cleaning of steel pipes before fit-
ting. Q
V
Pipe branches must be fitted to discharge in the t2 t1 cp 1000
direction of flow in a flow-conducive manner. Vent-
ing is to be provided at the highest points of the
pipe system and drain openings at the lowest V Delivery volume m/h
points. Q Total heat to be dissipated kJ/h
Cooling water pipes are to be designed according t2 t1 Temperature difference C
to pressure class PN 6, flanges and engine con-
nections are often designed according to PN 10. cp specific heat 4.2 kJ/kg.K
The maximum permissible seawater temperature
Turbocharger washing equipment also depends on the type (plates or tubes) and the
The turbocharger of engines operating on heavy corrosion resistance of the coolers and has to be
fuel oil must be washed at regular intervals. This specified by the cooler manufacturer.
requires the installation of a freshwater supply line We recommend that a seawater outlet tempera-
from the sanitary system to the turbine washing ture of 48 C is not exceeded.
equipment and two dirty-water drain pipes via a
funnel (for visual inspection) to the sludge tank. Sea water filters
The lance must be removed after every washing It protects the system against rough dirt. For ves-
process. This is a precautionary measure, which sels with only one seawater box a reversible du-
serves to prevent an inadvertent admission of wa- plex filter is recommended. The mesh size should
ter to the turbocharger. be in a range of 2 4 mm. For dredges operating
The compressor washing equipment is completely predominantly in sandy waters, a mesh size of
mounted on the turbocharger and is supplied with 0.3 0.5 mm is recommended.
freshwater from a small tank.
0503-0300MA2.fm

G-BA 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 Page 5 - 59


Engine supply systems
5.3.4 Miscellaneous items

0503-0300MA2.fm

Page 5 - 60 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF, 58/64 G-BA


Engine supply systems
5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device

5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device


The cooler bundle can be cleaned without being
removed. Prior to filling with cleaning solvent, the Designation Manufacturer
charge air cooler and its adjacent housings must Aquabreak PX Unitor Ship Service AS
be isolated from the turbocharger and charge air Mastemyr
pipe using blind flanges. N-1410 Kolbotn/Norway
The casing must be filled and drained with a big Environclean Unitor Ship Service AS
firehose with shut-off valve (see P & I).
Mastemyr
All piping dimensions execute in DN 80.
N-1410 Kolbotn/Norway
If the cooler bundle is contaminated with oil, fill
Enviromate 2000 Drew Chemical Corp.
the charge air cooler casing with freshwater
Boonton
and a liquid washing-up additive.
New Jersey/USA
Input the sono pusher after addition of the
cleaning agent in default dosing portion. Eskaphor N6773 Haug Chemie GmbH
Breite Seite 14 16
Flushing with freshwater (Quantity: approx. 2x 74889 Sinsheim/Germany
to fill in and to drain).
Table 5-15 Recommended cleaning medium
The contaminated water must be cleaned after
every sequence and must be drained into the dirty
water collecting tank.

Increase in differential pressure1) Degree of fouling Cleaning period (guide value)

< 100 mm WC Hardly fouled Cleaning not required

100 200 mm WC Slightly fouled approx. 1 hour

200 300 mm WC Severely fouled approx. 1.5 hour

> 300 mm WC Extremely fouled approx. 2 hour

Table 5-16 Degree of fouling of the charge-air cooler


1) Increase
in differential pressure = actual condition New condition
(mm WC = mm water column).

Note! The temperature of these products has, (due to


the fact that some of them are inflammable), to
When using the cleaning agents:
be at 10 C lower than the respective flash
The instructions of the manufacturers must be point.
observed.
The waste disposal instructions of the manu-
Particular the data sheets with safety rele- facturers must be observed.
vance must be followed. Follow all terms and conditions of the Classifi-
cation Societies.
0503-1100MA2.fm

iJ__ Page 5 - 61
Engine supply systems
5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device

Figure 5-16 Principle layout

Legend

1 Installation ultrasonic cleaning

2 Firehose with sprag nozzle

3 Firehose

4 Dirty water collecting tank1)

5 Ventilation

A Isolation with blind flanges


1) Required size of dirty water collecting tank:
Volume at the least 4-multiple charge air cooler volume.
0503-1100MA2.fm

Page 5 - 62 LJ__
Engine supply systems
5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation

5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation


0503-1200MA2.fm

Figure 5-17 Cleaning turbine

L-AJ 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 58/64 Page 5 - 63


Engine supply systems
5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation

0503-1200MA2.fm

Page 5 - 64 32/40, 32/44CR, 40/54, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 58/64 L-AJ


Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system and diagram

5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system and diagram


General If there is not enough room to install the tank at the
prescribed height, an alternative pressure system
In HFO operation, the nozzles of the fuel injection
of modular design is available, permitting installa-
valves are cooled by freshwater circulation, there-
tion at the engine room floor level next to the en-
fore a nozzle cooling water system is required. It is
gine (see system drawing overleaf).
a separate and closed system re-cooled by the LT
cooling water system, but not directly in contact The system is to be closed with an over-/under-
with the LT cooling water. The nozzle cooling water pressure valve on tank top to prevent flashing to
is to be treated with corrosion inhibitor according steam.
to MAN Diesel & Turbo specification see "Section
4.8: Specification for engine cooling water, page 4-35". HE-005/Cooler
Note! The cooler is to be connected in the LT cooling
water circuit according to schematic diagram.
In diesel engines designed to operate preva-
Cooling of the nozzle cooling water is effected by
lently on HFO the injection valves are to be
the LT cooling water.
cooled during operation on HFO. In the case of
MGO or MDO operation exceeding 72 h, the If an antifreeze is added to the cooling water, the
nozzle cooling is to be switched off and the resulting lower heat transfer rate must be taken
supply line is to be closed. The return pipe, into consideration. The cooler is to be provided
however, has to remain open. with venting and draining facilities.
In diesel engines designed to operate exclu- TCV-005/Temperature control valve
sively on MGO or MDO (no HFO operation pos-
sible), nozzle cooling is not required. The The temperature control valve with thermal-ex-
nozzle cooling system is omitted. pansion elements regulates the flow through the
cooler to reach the required inlet temperature of
In dual-fuel engines (liquid fuel and gas) the the nozzle cooling water. It has a regulating range
nozzles are to be cooled according to the en- from approx. 50 C (valve begins to open the pipe
gine design. from the cooler) to 60 C (pipe from the cooler
completely open).
P-005/Cooling water pump
The centrifugal (non self-priming) pump discharg- FIL-021/Strainer
es the cooling water via cooler HE-005 and the To protect the nozzles for the first commissioning
strainer FIL-021 to the header pipe on the engine of the engine a strainer has to be provided. The
and then to the individual injection valves. From mesh size is 0.25 mm.
here, it is pumped through a manifold into the ex-
pansion tank from where it returns to the pump. TE/Temperature sensor
One system can be installed for two engines. The sensor is mounted upstream of the engine
and is delivered loose by MAN Diesel & Turbo.
T-076/Expansion tank Wiring to the common engine terminal box is
For the installation height above the crankshaft present.
centreline see "Section 2.9: Planning data for emission
standard: IMO Tier II, page 2-83".
0503-040aMQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 65


Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system and diagram

0503-040aMQcr2.fm

Figure 5-18 Nozzle cooling system

Page 5 - 66 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system and diagram

Legend

D-001 Diesel engine T-076 Nozzle cooling water expansion tank

FIL-021 Strainer, cooling water system, for com- TCV-005 Temperature control valve for nozzle cool-
missioning ing water

HE-005 Nozzle cooling water cooler FBV-020 Flow balancing valve

P-005 Nozzle cooling water pump 3401 Nozzle cooling water inlet

P-031 Filling pump 3451 Nozzle cooling water drain

T-039 Cooling water storage tank 3411 Nozzle cooling water outlet
0503-040aMQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 67


Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system and diagram

0503-040aMQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 68 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module

5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module


Purpose
The nozzle cooling water module serves for cool-
ing the fuel injection nozzles on the engine in a
closed nozzle cooling water circuit.

Design
The nozzle cooling water module consists of a
storage tank, on which all components required
for nozzle cooling are mounted.

Description
By means of a circulating pump, the nozzle cool-
ing water is pumped from the service tank through
a heat exchanger and to the fuel injection nozzles.
The return pipe is routed back to the service tank,
via a sight glass. Through the sight glass, the noz-
zle cooling water can be checked for contamina-
tion. The heat exchanger is integrated in the LT
cooling water system. By means of a temperature
control valve, the nozzle cooling water tempera-
ture upstream of the nozzles is kept constant. The
performance of the service pump is monitored
within the module by means of a flow switch. If re-
quired, the optional standby pump integrated in
the module, is started.
Throughput 0.8 10.0 m/h nozzle cooling water,
suitable for cooling of all number of cylinders of the
engine types 32/40 58/64 and single/ double
engine plants.
Required flow rates for the respective engine types
and number of cylinders see "Section 2.9: Planning
data for emission standard: IMO Tier II, page 2-83".
0503-0500MQcr2.fm

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 69


Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module

Figure 5-19 Example: Compact nozzle cooling water module


0503-0500MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 70 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module
0503-0500MQcr2.fm

Figure 5-20 Nozzle cooling water module

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 71


Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module

Legend

D-001 Diesel engine T-076 Nozzle cooling water expansion tank

FIL-021 Strainer for commissioning TCV-005 Temperature control valve for nozzle
cooling water

HE-005 Nozzle cooling water cooler 3401 Nozzle cooling water inlet

MOD-005 Nozzle cooling water module 3451 Nozzle cooling water drain

P-005 Nozzle cooling water pump 3411 Nozzle cooling water outlet

T-039 Cooling water storage tank

0503-0500MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 72 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.3.9 Preheating module

5.3.9 Preheating module

Figure 5-21 Example: Compact preheating cooling water module


0503-0800MA2.fm

E-BA Page 5 - 73
Engine supply systems
5.3.9 Preheating module

0503-0800MA2.fm

Page 5 - 74 E-BA
Engine supply systems
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system

5.4 Fuel oil system

5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system


0504-0000Mcr2.fm

Figure 5-22 MDO treatment system

D-BB 32/40CR, 32/44CR, 48/60CR Page 5 - 75


Engine supply systems
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system

Legend

CF-003 MDO separator P-073 MDO supply pump

H-019 MDO preheater T-015 MDO storage tank

MDO-008 Fuel module T-021 Sludge tank

P-008 Diesel oil supply pump 1, 2 T-003 MDO service tank

P-057 Diesel oil filling pump T-071 Clean leakage fuel tank

0504-0000Mcr2.fm

Page 5 - 76 32/40CR, 32/44CR, 48/60CR D-BB


Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines
0504-0200MQcr2.fm

Figure 5-23 Fuel supply (MDO) Single engine plant

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 77


Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

Legend

CF-003 MDO separator T-006 Leakage oil collecting tank

D-001 Diesel engine T-015 Diesel oil storage tank

FIL-003 Automatic filter, 10 ball passage T-021 Sludge tank

FIL-013 Duplex filter T-071 Clean leakage fuel tank

FSH-001 Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank 5201 MDO inlet

HE-007 MDO cooler 5241 Leakage fuel pipe from supervising

PCV-008 Pressure retaining valve 5243 Leakage fuel drain for re-use

1,2 P-008 Supply pumps 5211 MDO outlet

1,2 STR-010 Strainer 9141 Dirty oil drain from pump bank, free
end

1,2 T-003 MDO service tank 9143 Dirty oil drain from pump bank, cou-
pling side

0504-0200MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 78 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines
0504-0200MQcr2.fm

Figure 5-24 Fuel supply (MDO) Twin engine plant

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 79


Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines

Legend

CF-003 MDO separator 1,2 T-003 MDO service tank

1,2 D-001 Diesel engine T-006 Leakage oil collecting tank

1,2 FBV-010 Flow balancing valve T-015 MDO storage tank

FIL-003 Automatic filter, 10 ball passage T-021 Sludge tank

FIL-013 Fuel duplex filter T-071 Clean leakage fuel tank

1,2 FSH-001 Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank 5201 MDO inlet

HE-007 MDO cooler 5241 Leakage fuel pipe from supervising

PCV-008 Pressure retaining valve 5243 Clean leakage fuel drain for re-use

1,2 PCV-011 Spill valve 5211 MDO outlet

1,2 P-008 Supply pumps 9141 Dirty oil drain from pump bank, free
end

1,2 STR-010 Strainer 9143 Dirty oil drain from pump bank, cou-
pling side

0504-0200MQcr2.fm

Page 5 - 80 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system


A prerequisite for safe and reliable engine opera- Tank heating
tion with a minimum of servicing is a properly de-
The heating surfaces should be so dimensioned
signed and well-functioning fuel oil treatment
that the tank content can be evenly heated to
system.
75 C within 6 to 8 hours.
The schematic diagram shows the system com-
ponents required for fuel treatment for HFO. The supply of heat should be automatically con-
trolled, depending upon the fuel oil temperature.
Bunker
In order to avoid:
Fuel compatibility problems are avoidable if mixing
agitation of the sludge due to heating, the heat-
of newly bunkered fuel with remaining fuel can be
ing coils should be arranged at a sufficient dis-
prevented by a suitable number of bunkers.
tance from the tank bottom.
Heating coils in bunkers to be designed so that the
the formation of asphaltene, the fuel oil temper-
HFO in it is at a temperature of at least 10 C min-
ature should not be allowed to exceed 75 C.
imum above the pour point.
the formation of carbon deposits on the heating
P-038/Transfer pump surfaces, the heat transferred per unit surface
must not exceed 1.1 W/cm.
The transfer pump discharges fuel from the bun-
kers into the settling tanks. Being a screw pump, Design
it handles the fuel gently, thus prevent water being
The tank is to be fitted with baffle plates in longitu-
emulsified in the fuel. Its capacity must be sized so
dinal and transverse direction in order to reduce
that complete settling tank can be filled in
agitation of the fuel in the tank in rough seas as far
2 hours.
as possible. The suction pipe of the separator
must not reach into the sludge space. One or
T-016/Settling tank for HFO
more sludge drain valves, depending on the slant
Two settling tanks should be installed, in order to of the tank bottom (preferably 10), are to be pro-
obtain thorough pre-cleaning and to allow fuels of vided at the lowest point. Tanks reaching to the
different origin to be kept separate. ship hull must be heat loss protected by a coffer-
Size dam. The settling tank is to be insulated against
thermal losses.
Pre-cleaning by settling is the more effective the Sludge must be removed from the settling tank
longer the solid material is given time to settle. The before the separators draw fuel from it.
storage capacity of the settling tank should be de-
signed to hold at least a 24-hour supply of fuel at T-021/Sludge tank
full load operation, including sediments and water
If disposal by an incinerator plant is not planned,
the fuel contains.
the tank has to be dimensioned so that it is capa-
The minimum volume (V) to be provided is: ble to absorb all residues which accumulate dur-
ing the operation in the course of a maximum
duration of voyage. In order to render emptying of
5 7 m the tank possible, it has to be heated. The heating
s = -------------------
1000 is to be dimensioned so that the content of the
V Minimum volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m tank can be heated to approx. 60 C
P Engine rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW
0504-0300MU2.fm

D-BB 32/40CR, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60CR Page 5 - 81


Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

P-015/Heavy fuel supply pump Size


The supply pumps should preferably be of the The separators are dimensioned in accordance
free-standing type, i. e. not mounted on the sepa- with the separator manufacturers' guidelines.
rator, as the delivery volume can be matched bet-
The required flow rate (Q) can be roughly deter-
ter to the required throughput.
mined by the following equation:
H-008/Preheater for HFO
m
To reach the separating temperature a preheater n = ----------------
matched to the fuel viscosity has to be installed.

CF-002/Separator
Q Separator flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l/h
As a rule, poor quality, high viscosity fuel is used.
P Engine rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW
Two new generation separators must therefore be
installed. be Fuel consumption (see below) . . . . . . g/kWh
From Alfa Laval: Alcap, type SU Density at separating temp. approx. 0.93 kg/l
From Westfalia: Unitrol, type OSE With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator
has to be selected according to the evaluation ta-
Separators must always be provided in sets of 2 of
ble of the manufacturer. MAN Diesel & Turbo
the same type
strictly recommend to use evaluation tables ac-
1 service separator cording to a "certified flow rate" (CFR). The sepa-
1 stand-by separator rator rating stated by the manufacturer should be
higher than the flow rate (Q) calculated according
of self-cleaning type. to the above formula.
As a matter of principle, all separators are to be By means of the separator flow rate which was de-
equipped with an automatic programme control termined in this way, the separator type, depend-
for continuous desludging and monitoring. ing on the fuel viscosity, is selected from the lists
Mode of operation of the separator manufacturers.

The stand-by separator is always to be put into For determining the maximum fuel consumption
service, to achieve the best possible fuel cleaning (be), increase the specific table value by 15 %.
effect with the separator plant as installed. This increase takes into consideration:
The piping of both separators is to be arranged in
accordance with the makers advice, preferably for Tropical conditions
both parallel and series operation. The engine-mounted pumps
The discharge flow of the free-standing dirty oil The calorific value fluctuations
pump is to be split up equally between the two
The consumption tolerance
separators in parallel operation.
The fresh water supplied must be treated as spec-
Withdrawal points for samples
ified by the separator supplier.
Points for drawing fuel oil samples are to be pro-
vided upstream and downstream of each separa-
tor, to verify the effectiveness of these system
components.
0504-0300MU2.fm

Page 5 - 82 32/40CR, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60CR D-BB


Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system
0504-0300MU2.fm

Figure 5-25 HFO treatment system

D-BB 32/40CR, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60CR Page 5 - 83


Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system

Legend

1, 2 CF-002 Heavy fuel separator (1 service, 1 standby) 1, 2 T-016 Settling tank for heavy fuel oil

1, 2 H-008 Heavy fuel preheater T-021 Sludge tank

MOD-008 Fuel oil module 1, 2 T-022 Service tank for heavy fuel oil1 2 CF-002

1, 2 P-015 Heavy fuel oil supply pump T-071 Clean leakage fuel tank

1, 2 P-018 Heavy fuel transfer pump

0504-0300MU2.fm

Page 5 - 84 32/40CR, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60CR D-BB


Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system


To ensure that high-viscosity fuel oils achieve the A remedial measure is adopting a pressurised sys-
specified injection viscosity, a preheating tempera- tem in which the required system pressure is 1 bar
ture is necessary, which may cause degassing above the evaporation pressure of water.
problems in conventional, pressureless systems.

Fuel Injection Temperature after Evaporation Required system


viscosity1) final preheater pressure pressure

mm/50 C mm/s C bar bar

180 12 126 1.4 2.4

320 12 138 2.4 3.4

380 12 142 2.7 3.7

420 12 144 2.9 3.9

500 14 141 2.7 3.7

700 14 147 3.2 4.2

Table 5-17 Injection viscosity and temperature after final preheater


1)
For fuel viscosity depending on fuel temperature please see "Section 4.7: Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram), page 4-33".

The indicated pressures are minimum require- The sludge must be drained from the service tank
ments due to the fuel characteristic. Nevertheless, at regular intervals.
to meet the required fuel pressure at the engine in-
The heating coils are to be designed for a tank
let (see "Section: Planning data for emission standard
temperature of 75 C.
IMO Tier II"), the pressure in the mixing tank and
booster circuit becomes significant higher as indi- The rules and regulations for tanks issued by the
cated in this table. classification societies must be observed.

T-022/Heavy fuel oil service tank T-003/MDO/MGO service tank


The heavy fuel oil cleaned in the separator is The classification societies specify that at least
passed to the service tank, and as the separators two service tanks are to be installed on board. The
are in continuous operation, the tank is always minimum volume of each tank should, in addition
kept filled. To fulfil this requirement it is necessary to the MDO/MGO consumption of the generating
to fit the heavy fuel oil service tank sets, enable an eight-hour full load operation of the
T-022 with overflow pipes, which are connected main engine.
with the setting tanks T-016. The tank capacity is Cleaning of the MDO/MGO by an additional sepa-
to be designed for at least eight-hours' fuel supply rator should, in the first place, be designed to
at full load so as to provide for a sufficient period meet the requirements of the diesel alternator sets
of time for separator maintenance. The tank on board. The tank should be provided, like the
should have a sludge space with a tank bottom in- heavy fuel oil service tank, with a sludge space
clination of preferably 10, with sludge drain valves with sludge drain valve and with an overflow pipe
at the lowest point, and is to be equipped with from the MDO/MGO service tank
0504-0400MQcr2.fm

heating coils. T-003 to the MDO/MGO storage tank T-015.

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 85


Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

CK-002/Three way valve The delivery height of the supply pump shall be se-
lected according to the required system pressure
This valve is used for changing over from
(see "Table 5-17: Injection viscosity and temperature af-
MDO/MGO operation to heavy fuel operation and
ter final preheater") the required pressure in the mix-
vice versa. Normally it is operated manually, and it
ing tank and the resistance of the automatic filter,
is equipped with two limit switches for remote in-
flow meter and piping system.
dication and suppression of alarms from the vis-
cosity measuring and control system during
MDO/MGO operation.

STR-010/Y-type strainer
To protect the feed pumps, an approx. 0.5 mm
gauge (sphere-passing mesh) strainer is to be in-
stalled at the suction side of the pump.

P-018/Supply pump
The volumetric capacity must be at least 160 % of
max. fuel consumption.

QP1 = P1 x brISO x f4

Required supply pump delivery capac- QP1 l/h


ity with HFO at 90 C:

Engine output at 100 % MCR: P1 kW

Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO) g/k


at 100 % MCR brIS Wh
O

Factor for pump dimensioning f4 l/g


For diesel engines operating on main
fuel HFO:
f4 = 2.00 x 103
For diesel engines installed in
dredges operating on main fuel HFO:
f4 = 2.02 x 103

Note!
The factor f4 includes the following parameters:
- 160 % fuel flow
- Main fuel: HFO 380 mm2/50 C
- Attached lube oil and cooling water pumps
- Tropical conditions
- Realistic lower heating value
- Specific fuel weight at pumping temperature
- Tolerance
In case more than one engine is connected to the
0504-0400MQcr2.fm

same fuel system, the pump capacity has to be


increased accordingly.

Table 5-18 Simplified supply pump dimensioning

Page 5 - 86 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Common rail
injection system
32/44CR

Positive pressure at the fuel module inlet due to tank level above fuel module 0.10
level

Pressure loss of the pipes between fuel module inlet and mixing tank inlet + 0.20

Pressure loss of the automatic filter + 0.80

Pressure loss of the fuel flow measuring device + 0.10

Pressure in the mixing tank + 6.70

Operating delivery height of the supply pump = 7.70

Table 5-19 Example for the determination of the expected operating delivery height of the supply pump

It is recommended to install supply pumps de-


signed for the following pressures: Common rail
injection system
Engines with conventional fuel injection system: 32/44CR
Design delivery height 7.0 bar, design output pres-
Filter mesh width (mm) 0.010
sure 7.0 bar g.
Design pressure PN16
Engines common rail injection system: Design
delivery height 8.0 bar, design output pressure Table 5-20 Required filter mesh width (sphere passing
8.0 bar g. mesh)

Design criterion is the filter area load specified by


HE-025/Finned-tube cooler the filter manufacturer. The automatic filter has to
If no fuel is consumed in the system while the be installed in the plant (is not attached on the en-
pump is in operation, the finned-tube cooler pre- gine).
vents excessive heating of the fuel.
Its cooling surface must be adequate to dissipate T-011/Mixing tank
the heat that is produced by the pump to the am- The mixing tank compensates pressure surges
bient air. which occur in the pressurised part of the fuel sys-
tem. For this purpose, there has to be an air cush-
PCV-009/Pressure limiting valve ion in the tank. As this air cushion is exhausted
This valve is used for setting the required system during operation, compressed air (max. 10 bar)
pressure and keeping it constant. has to be refilled via the control air connection from
It returns in the case of time to time. Before prolonged shutdowns the
- engine shutdown 100 %, and of system is changed over to MDO/MGO operation.
- engine full load 37.5 % The tank volume shall be designed to achieve
of the quantity delivered by the supply pump back gradual temperature equalisation within 5 minutes
to the pump suction side. in the case of half-load consumption. The tank
shall be designed for the maximum possible serv-
Fil-003/Automatic filter ice pressure, usually approx. 10 bar and is to be
accepted by the classification society in question.
Only filters have to be used, which cause no pres-
0504-0400MQcr2.fm

sure drop in the system during flushing. The expected operating pressure in the mixing
tank depends on the required fuel oil pressure at
the inlet (see "Section 2.9: Planning data for emission

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 87


Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

standard: IMO Tier II, page 2-83" and the pressure


losses of the installed components and pipes).

Common rail injection


system 32/44CR

bar

Required max. fuel pressure at engine inlet + 12.00

Pressure difference between fuel inlet and outlet engine 5.00

Pressure loss of the fuel return pipe between engine outlet and mixing tank inlet, e. g. 0.30

Pressure loss of the flow balancing valve (to be installed only in multi-engine plants, 0.00
pressure loss approx. 0,5 bar)

Operating pressure in the mixing tank = 6.70

Table 5-21 Example for the determination of the expected operating pressure of the mixing tank

This example demonstrates, that the calculated P-003/Booster pumps


operating pressure in the mixing tank is (for all HFO
To cool the engine mounted high pressure injec-
viscosities) higher than the min. required fuel pres-
tion pumps, the capacity of the booster pumps
sure (see "Table 5-17: Injection viscosity and tempera-
has to be at least 300 % of maximum fuel oil con-
ture after final preheater").
sumption at injection viscosity.

QP2 = P1 x brISO x f5

Required booster pump delivery capacity with HFO at 145 C: QP2 l/h

Engine output at 100 % MCR: P1 kWh

Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO) at 100 % MCR brISO g/kWh

Factor for pump dimensioning f5 l/g


For diesel engines operating on main fuel HFO:
f5 = 3.90 x 103
For diesel engines installed in dredges operating on main fuel HFO:
f5 = 3.94 x 103

Note!
The factor f5 includes the following parameters:
- 300 % fuel flow at 100 % MCR
- Main fuel: HFO 380 mm2/50 C
- Attached lube oil and cooling water pumps
- Tropical conditions
- Realistic lower heating value
- Specific fuel weight at pumping temperature
- Tolerance
In case more than one engine is connected to the same fuel system, the pump capacity has to be increased
accordingly.
0504-0400MQcr2.fm

Table 5-22 Simplified booster pump dimensioning

The delivery head of the booster pump is to be ad- tem.


justed to the total resistance of the booster sys-

Page 5 - 88 32/44CR L-BB


Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

Common rail
injection system
32/44CR

bar

Pressure difference between fuel inlet and outlet engine + 5.00

Pressure loss of the flow balancing valve (to be installed only in multi-engine + 0.00
plants, pressure loss approx. 0.5 bar)

Pressure loss of the pipes, mixing tank engine mixing tank, e. g. + 0.50

Pressure loss of the final preheater max. + 0.80

Pressure loss of the indicator filter + 0.80

Operating delivery height of the booster pump = 7.10

Table 5-23 Example for the determination of the expected operating delivery height of the booster pump

It is recommended to install booster pumps de- fitted with a valve and a pipe to the sludge tank. If
signed for the following pressures: the filter elements are removed for cleaning, the fil-
ter chamber must be emptied. This prevents the
Engines with conventional fuel injection system:
dirt particles remaining in the filter casing from mi-
Design delivery height 7.0 bar, design output pres-
grating to the clean oil side of the filter.
sure 10.0 bar g.
Design criterion is the filter area load specified by
Engines common rail injection system: Design de-
the filter manufacturer.
livery height 10.0 bar, design output pressure
14.0 bar g.
Common rail
H-004/Final preheater injection system
32/44CR
The capacity of the final-preheater shall be deter-
Filter mesh width 0.025 filter engine mounted
mined on the basis of the injection temperature at (mm)
the nozzle, to which 4 K must be added to com-
pensate for heat losses in the piping. Design pressure PN16
The piping for both heaters shall be arranged for Required filter mesh width (sphere passing mesh).
separate and series operation.
Table 5-24 Required filter mesh width (sphere passing
Parallel operation with half the throughput must be mesh)
avoided due to the risk of sludge deposits.
Engine Type Attached on To be installed in
VI-001/Viscosity measuring and control device the engine the plant close
This device regulates automatically the heating of to the engine
the final-preheater depending on the viscosity of L32/44CR X -
the bunkered fuel oil, so that the fuel will reach the
nozzles with the viscosity required for injection. V32/44CR X -

Table 5-25 Position of the duplex filter


Fil-013/Duplex filter

0504-0400MQcr2.fm

This filter is to be installed upstream of the engine


and as close as possible to the engine.
The emptying port of each filter chamber is to be

L-BB 32/44CR Page 5 - 89


Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system

FBV-010/Flow balancing valve (throttle valve)


Engine Leakage fuel Leakage fuel moni-
The flow balancing valve at engine outlet is to be Type monitoring toring tanks to be
installed only (one per engine) in multi-engine ar- tanks installed in the plant
rangements connected to the same fuel system. It attached on close to the engine
is used to balance the fuel flow through the en- the engine
gines. Each engine has to be feed with its correct, L32/44CR X -
individual fuel flow.
V32/44CR X -
FSH-001/Leakage fuel monitoring tank Table 5-26 Position of the leakage fuel monitoring tank
High pressure pump overflow and escaping fuel T-006/Leakage oil collecting tank for fuel and lube oil
from burst control pipes is carried to the monitor-
ing tanks from which it is drained into the leakage Dirty leak fuel and leak oil are collected in the leak-
oil collecting tanks for clean and dirty leakage oil. age oil collecting tank. It must be emptied into the
The float switch mounted in the tanks must be sludge tank.
connected to the alarm system.
T-071 clean leakage fuel oil tank
All parts of the monitored leakage system (pipes
and monitoring tanks) have to be designed for a High pressure pump overflow and other, clean fuel
fuel rate of 6.7 l/(minxCyl.). The classification soci- oil that escapes from the common rail injection
eties require the installation of monitoring tanks for system is lead to an extra clean leakage fuel oil
unmanned engine rooms. Lloyd's Register specify collecting tank. From there it can be emptied into
monitoring tanks for manned engine rooms as to HFO setting tank. When the fuel oil system is
well. running in MDO-mode, clean leakage can be
pumped to the MDO storage tank.
MOV-017 controls the leakage flow.

Engine/cylinder Operating leakage (clean) [l/h] Max. leakage, in


case of pipe break
HFO MDO MGO (dity) [l/min] for
max. 1 min.

6/7L 4.3 19.2 14.4 39.6 19.8 49.2 36

8/9/10L 5.8 26.4 19.2 54 26.4 67.2 48

12/14V 8.6 38.4 28.8 79.2 39.6 98.4 72

16/18/20V 11.5 52.8 38.4 108 52.8 134.4 96

Table 5-27 Leakage rate 32/44CR engine

Clean leakage fuel from T-071 can be used again Leakage fuel flows pressure less (by gravity only)
after passing the separator. from the engine into this tank (to be installed below
the engine connections). Pipe cloggin