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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

INDEX

1 Abstract

2 Introduction

3 Mainpartsofclutch

4 Assemblyofclutch

5 Typesofclutch

6 Parts of the project

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

ABSTACT

Aclutchisadeviceusedtomakeandbrakecontactfromthetransmission.W
henitengages,thenpoweristransferredfromenginetogearboxandwheni
tdisengage,powerflowisstop,henceitiscalledfreerunningofengine.Ther
eisaninnovationdoneinautomobileindustry,calledelectromagneticclut
ch,whichisrecentlyusedbyRenaultCarCompany,whichusesthebasicpri
ncipleofelectricalenergyaswellasmagneticforces.

Thisprojectrevelsthemanufacturingofelectromagneticclutch.Inplaceof
Engine,shaftisdirectlyattachedtovariance(variablemotor)andclutchdis
caswellaspressureplateisused,inbetweenthemfrictionmaterialcalledA
sbestosusedtogripbetweenthepressureplateandclutchplate.Thisproj
ectshows,experimentalanalysisofElectromagneticclutch,andatlastatw
hichspeedclutchengageaswellas disengageis measuredand when
clutch disengage,at that time speed of flywheelisalsomeasured.

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

INTRODUCTION

Definitionofclutch:
Theclutchisanimportantpartinthetransmissionsystemofautomobiles.It
transmitspowerfromtheenginetogearboxatvariousspeeds.Noshockisc
ausedduringthistransmissionofpower.

Purpose:
Thefunctionoftheclutchistotemporarilydisconnecttheenginefromtheg
earboxunit.Whenthegearhastobechangedfromthefirsttothesecond,its
houldbedoneafterdisconnectingtheenginefromthegearbox.Ifthisisnot
done,thegearteeth mightbreak.Theclutchisthushelpful whenstarting,
shiftinggearsandidling.

Principleof operation:
Theclutchworksontheprinciplesoffriction.Whentwofriction surfacesare
broughtincontactwitheachotherandpressedtheyareunitedduetothefric
tionbetweenthem.Ifnowoneisresolved,theotherwillalsorevolve.Thefric
tionbetweenthetwosurfacesdependsupontheareaofthesurfaces,press
ureapplieduponthemandco-
efficientoffrictionofthesurfacematerials.Thetwosurfacescanbeseparat
edandbroughtintocontactwhenrequired.Thedrivingmemberiskeptrota
ting.Whenthedrivenmemberisbroughtincontactwiththedrivingmembe
r,italsostartsrotating.Whenthedrivenmemberisseparatedfromthedrivi
ngmemberit doesnotrevolve.Thisis
theprincipleonwhichaclutchoperates. 14
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ORGINALVIEWOFPROJECT:

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

Requirementofaclutch:

1. Torque transmission: -Theclutchshouldbeableto


transmitmaximumtorque oftheengine.
2. Gradualengagement:- Theclutch
shouldengagegraduallytoavoidsudden jerks.
3. Heatdissipation:-
Theclutchshouldbeabletodissipatelargeamountofheatwhichisgene
ratedduringtheclutch operationduetofriction.
4. Dynamicbalancing:-
Theclutchshouldbedynamicallybalanced.This
isparticularlyrequired inthecaseofhighspeedengineclutches.
5. Vibratingdamping:-
Theclutchshouldhavesuitablemechanismtodampvibrationsandtoel
iminatenoiseproducedduring thepower transmission.
6. Size:-
Theclutchshouldbeassmallaspossibleinsizesothatitwilloccupymini
mumspace.
7. Freepedalplay:-
Theclutchshouldhavefreepedalplayinordertoreduceeffectiveclampi
ng loadonthecarbonthrustbearingandwearonit.
8. Easyinoperation:-
Theclutchshouldbeeasytooperaterequiringaslittleexertion
aspossible onthepartofthedriver.
9. Lightness:-
Thedrivenmemberoftheclutchshouldbemadeaslightaspossiblesoth
atitwillnotcontinuetorotateforanylengthoftimeaftertheclutchhasbe
endisengaged.

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

Mainparts of theclutch:-
Themain partsofclutch aredivided intothreegroups:
1. Drivingmembers..
Thedrivingmembersconsistof a flywheelmountedon
theenginecrankshaft.

(Figure 2-flywheelcouplewithclutch)

2. Driven members.
Thedrivenmemberconsistsofthediscorplate,calledtheclutch plate.

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(Figure 3-Pressure plate andClutch plate) g
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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

3. Operatingmembers..
Theoperating membersconsistof a footpedal,linkage,release
orthrowoutbearing,releaseleversandsprings.

(Figure 4:-Pedal,Bearingandspring)

(Figure 5:- Layoutofwholeclutch assembly)

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

ASSEMBLYOFCLUTCH:

EXPLODED VIEW OFCLUTCHASSEMBLY:

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

Typesoffrictionmaterial:-
Thefrictionmaterialsoftheclutchplatearegenerallyofthreetypes:

1. Millboardtype.

2. Mouldedtype.

3. Woventype.

Millboardtypefrictionmaterialsmainlyincludeasbestossheetstr
eatedwithdifferenttypeofimpregnates.

Mouldedtypefrictionmaterialsaremadefromamatrixofasbestos
fiberandstarchoranyother suitablebindingmaterials.

Woventype facingmaterialsaremade
byimpregnatingaclothwithcertainbindersorbywearingthreadsof
brassorcopperwirescoveredwithlongfiberasbestosandcotton.

Thewoventypefrictionmaterialsarefurtherclassifiedintotypes-
laminatedtypeandsolidwoventype.

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

Properties ofgood frictionlining:-


1. Goodwearingproperties.

2. Highco-efficientoffriction.

3. Highresistancetoheat.

4. Goodbinderin it.

5. Cheapandeasytomanufacture.

Typesofclutches:-
Differenttypesofclutchesareasfollows:

1. Frictionclutch:

(a) Singleplateclutch.

(b)Multiplateclutch:

(1)Wetclutch.

(2)Dryclutch.

(c) Coneclutch.

(1)Externalclutch.

(2)Internalclutch.

2. Centrifugalclutch.

3. Semi-centrifugalclutch.

4. Diaphragmclutch.

(a) Taperedfingertype.

(b)Crownspringtype.

5. Positiveclutch.

(a) DogandSplineclutch.

6. Hydraulicclutch. 22
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7. Electro-magneticclutch. a
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8. Vacuumclutch.

9. Overrunningclutch orfree-wheelunit.
ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH:
Figershowsan electromagneticclutch.

Inthis type ofclutch,the flywheelconsistsofwinding from


thebatteryordynamo.
Whenthecurrentpassesthroughthewinding.itproducedanelectroma
gneticfieldwhich attractsthepressureplate.
Therebyengagingtheclutch.

Whenthesupplyiscut-offtheclutch isdisengaged.

Thegearlever consistsof a clutchreleaseswitch.

Whenthedriverholdsthegearlevertochangethegear,theswitchisope
ratedcuttingoffthe
currenttothewindingwhichcausestheclutchdisengaged.
Atlowspeed whenthedynamo output islow,
theclutchisnotfirmlyengaged.
Therefore,threespringsarealsoprovidedonthepressureplatewhichh
elpstheclutchengagedfirmly atlowspeedalso.
Thistypeofclutchisused insomeRenultcars.

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(Figure-18-Electro MagneticClutch) g
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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

COMPLETEDELAILSOFTHEELECTROMAGNETICCLU
TCH:-

Whywe used ElectromagneticClutch?

Functionofclutchistoengageordisengagetheenginefromthetransmissi
onsystem.Henceitisinsertedbetweentheflywheelaswellasgearbox.Itis
consistsofmainimportantpartslikeclutchplate,pressureplate,frictiondi
sc,operatingleveretc.Inclutchengageaswellasdisengageareveryimpo
rtant,becauseduetowhichclutchisused.Butwhenclutchisappliedatthat
time,someclearanceisthereintheclutchpedalcalledclutchpedalplayan
dduetowhich,properdisengageofclutch isnot achieve and
clutchwillslip ordragged.
Thereisaneedtousesomesystemincorporatedinclutchsystem,topreven
tabovesituation.Hence,ifweshiftgearandatthattimeclutchwilldisenga
gehence,itisverysimplefordriverandforcerequiretoengageaswellasdis
engagetheclutchisalsoneglected,hence anewtype of clutch usedin
automobilevehiclescalledRenaultCarcalledelectromagneticclutch.
Inthisclutchsystem,whengearshiftlever isappliedatthattime,
duetoMMF
clutchwilldisengageandwhenreleaselever,clutchwillengage.

Basicoperationofelectromagneticclutch:-
Theclutchhasfourmainparts:field,rotor,armature,andhub(output)
(Figure-
22).Whenvoltageisappliedthestationarymagneticfieldgeneratesthelin
es offluxthatpassintotherotor.
(Therotorisnormallyconnectedtothepartthatisalwaysmovinginthemac 24
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hine.)Theflux(magneticattraction)pullsthearmatureincontactwithther a
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otor(thearmatureisconnectedtothecomponentthatrequirestheacceler
ation),asthearmatureandtheoutputstarttoaccelerate.Slippingbetween
therotorfaceandthearmaturefacecontinuesuntiltheinputandoutputspe
edisthesame (100%lockup).Theactualtimefor thisis quite
short,between1/200th of asecond and1second.
ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

Disengagementisverysimple.Oncethefieldstartstodegrade,fluxfallsra
pidlyandthe armatureseparates.Oneor moresprings
holdthearmatureaway from therotoratapredeterminedairgap.

Voltage/current-and themagneticfield

(Figure-21)

(Figure-22)

Ifapieceofcopperwirewaswound,aroundthenailandthenconnectedtoab
attery,itwouldcreateanelectromagnet.Themagneticfieldthatisgenerat
edinthewire,fromthecurrent,isknown asthe righthand thumbrule.
(FIGURE-
21)Thestrengthofthemagneticfieldcanbechangedbychangingbothwire
sizeandtheamountofwire(turns).EMclutchesaresimilar;theyuseacoppe
rwirecoil(sometimesaluminum)tocreateamagneticfield.

ThefieldsofEMclutchcanbemadetooperateatalmostanyDCvoltage,and
thetorqueproducedbytheclutchorbrakewillbethesame,aslongasthecor
rectoperatingvoltageandcurrentisusedwiththecorrectclutch.Ifa90Vclu
tch,a48Vclutchanda24
Vclutch,allbeingpoweredwiththeirrespectivevoltagesandcurrent,all
wouldproduce the same amount oftorque.However, if a90Vclutch
had48Vappliedtoit,thiswouldgetabouthalfofthecorrecttorqueoutputoft
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ectromagneticclutches.
ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

Aconstantpowersupplyisidealifaccurateormaximumtorqueisrequiredfr
omaclutch.If a nonregulatedpower supplyisused,the magneticfluxwill
degrade,astheresistanceofthecoilgoesup.Basically,thehotterthecoilge
tsthelower thetorquewillbe,byabout anaverage of 8%forevery20C.If
the
temperatureisfairlyconstant,buttheremaynotbeenoughservicefactori
nyourdesignforminortemperaturefluctuation.Over-
sizing,theclutchwouldcompensateforminorflux.Thiswillallowtheuseare
ctifiedpowersupplywhichisfarlessexpensivethanaconstantcurrentsup
ply.

BasedonV=IR,asresistanceincreasesavailablecurrentfalls.Anincreas
einresistance,oftenresultsfromrisingtemperatureasthecoilheatsup,ac
cordingto:Rf=Ri[1+Cu(Tf-
Ti)]WhereRf=finalresistance,Ri=initialresistance,Cu=copperwireste
mperaturecoefficientofresistance,0.0039C-
1,Tf=finaltemperature,andTi=initialtemperature.

EngagementTime:

Thereareactuallytwoengagementtimestoconsiderinanelectromagneticclutc
h.Thefirstoneisthetimeittakesforacoiltodevelopamagneticfield,strongenoug
htopullinanarmature.Withinthis,therearetwofactorstoconsider.Thefirstoneis
theamountofampereturnsinacoil,whichwilldeterminethestrengthofamagnet
icfield.Thesecondoneisairgap,whichisthespacebetweenthearmatureandther
otor.Magneticlinesoffluxdiminishquicklyintheair.Thefurtherawaytheattract
ivepieceisfromthecoil,thelongeritwilltakeforthatpiecetoactuallydevelopeno
ughmagneticforcetobeattractedandpullintoovercometheairgap.Forveryhigh
cycleapplications,floatingarmaturescanbeusedthatrestlightlyagainsttheroto
r.Inthiscase,theairgapiszero;but,moreimportantlytheresponsetimeisverycon 26
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speciallywithafixedarmaturedesignbecauseastheunit
ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

wearsovermanycyclesofengagementthearmatureandtherotorwillcreatealarg
erairgapwhichwillchangetheengagementtimeoftheclutch.Inhighcycleapplic
ations,whereregistrationisimportant,eventhe difference of 10-
15millisecondscanmake a difference,
inregistrationofamachine.Eveninanormalcycleapplication,thisisimportantb
ecauseanewmachinethathasaccuratetimingcaneventuallyseeadrift
initsaccuracyas the machine getsolder.

Thesecondfactorinfiguringoutresponsetimeofaclutchisactuallymuchmorei
mportantthanthemagnetwireortheairgap.Itinvolvescalculatingtheamountofi
nertiathattheclutchneedstoaccelerate.Thisisreferredtoastimetospeed.Inre
ality,thisiswhattheend-
userismostconcernedwith.Onceitisknownhowmuchinertiaispresentforthecl
utchtostartthenthetorquecanbecalculatedandtheappropriatesize of
clutchcanbe chosen.

MostCADsystemscanautomaticallycalculatecomponentinertia,butthekeyto
sizingaclutchiscalculatinghowmuchinertialisreflectedbacktotheclutchorbra
ke.Todothis,engineersusetheformula:T=(WK2N)/
(308t)WhereT=requiredtorqueinlb-ft,WK2=totalinertiainlb-
ft2,N=changeintherotationalspeedinrpm,andt=timeduringwhichthe
accelerationor decelerationmusttake place.

Therearealsoonlinesitesthatcanhelpconfirmhowmuchtorqueisrequiredtoacc
elerateagivenamountofinertiaoveraspecifictime.Remembertomakesurethatt
hetorquechosen,fortheclutch,shouldbeafterthe clutchhasbeenburnished.

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ELECTROMAGNETICCLUTCH

DETAILS OFPROJECT MADE BYUS:-

Originalview ofourproject:-
PART
1. Wiper Motor

2. Magnetic Clutch

3. Regulator

4. Ply Board
5.Timer chain Garari

6. 9 Inch Wheel