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INVESTOR How much do you really know

KNOWLEDGE about investing?

QUIZ
IIROC invites you to test your understanding of the basics of
investing. Take the Investor Knowledge Quiz - the questions
start on page three - read each question and select the answer
you think is correct.

A helpful guide to learning Table of Contents


more about investing IIROC and Investor Education...................................................................page 2
Quiz Questions.............................................................................................page 3
IIROC Investor Resources........................................................................ page 19
Quiz Answers............................................................................................. page 20
INVESTOR IIROC and Investor Education
The Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada is the national

KNOWLEDGE self-regulatory organization which oversees all investment dealers and trading
activity on debt and equity marketplaces in Canada. IIROC sets high-quality

QUIZ
regulatory and investment industry standards, protects investors and strengthens
market integrity while maintaining efficient and competitive capital markets.
We carry out our regulatory responsibilities through setting and enforcing rules
regarding the proficiency, business and financial conduct of nearly 200 dealer
firms and approximately 29,000 registered representatives, and through setting
and enforcing market integrity rules regarding trading activity on Canadian equity
markets.
A helpful guide to learning As part of the securities regulatory framework in Canada, IIROCs mandate
more about investing includes a strong focus on investor protection. IIROCs commitment to protect
investors goes beyond enforcing disciplinary actions and preventing harmful
activity. We believe that investor education and financial literacy are important
elements of investor protection. At IIROC, we focus on developing and promoting
free and easy-to-use investor education tools and resources to help investors make
informed choices and decisions, which in turn better
enables them to achieve their personal
savings and retirement goals.
IIROC thanks the Financial Industry Regulatory
2 Authority (FINRA) for allowing the use of some
of the information included in this quiz.
QUIZ 1
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

A helpful guide to learning


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If you buy a companys common shares


a) You own a part of the company

b) You have lent money to the company

c) You are liable for the companys debts


d) The company will return your original investment
to you with interest

e) Dont know/Not sure

GO TO NEXT QUESTION >

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QUIZ 2
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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If you buy a companys bond


a) You own a part of the company

b) You have lent money to the company

c) You are liable for the companys debts


d) You can vote on shareholder resolutions

e) Dont know/Not sure

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3
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
A helpful guide to learning
more about investing
Which type of bond is the safest?



a) Canada Savings Bond

b) Municipal bond

c) Corporate bond
d) Dont know/Not sure

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4
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
A helpful guide to learning
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In general, if interest rates go down, then bond prices



a) Go down

b) Go up

c) Are not affected


d) Dont know/Not sure

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QUIZ 5
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

A helpful guide to learning


more about investing
Which of the following is the best definition for a
junk bond?


a) A bond that is rated as below investment-grade
by rating agencies

b) A bond that has declined dramatically in value


c) A bond that has defaulted

d) A bond that is not regulated


e) Dont know/Not sure

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QUIZ 6
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

A helpful guide to learning


more about investing
A no-load mutual fund is one that


a) Carries no fees

b) Carries no sales charge

c) Does not contain high-risk securities


d) Has no limits on the period of time in which
it can be bought or sold

e) Dont know/Not sure

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INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
A helpful guide to learning
more about investing
In general, investments that are riskier tend to provide
higher returns over time than investments with less risk.



a) True

b) False
c) Dont know/Not sure

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QUIZ 8
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

A helpful guide to learning


more about investing
Which of the following organizations insures you against
your losses in the stock market?


a) CDIC (Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation)

b) IIROC (Investment Industry Regulatory


Organization of Canada)
c) CSA (Canadian Securities Administrators)

d) CIPF (Canadian Investor Protection Fund)

e) None of the above

f ) Dont know/Not sure

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QUIZ 9
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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If a company files for bankruptcy, which of the following
securities is most at risk of becoming virtually worthless?


a) The companys preferred stock

b) The companys common stock


c) The companys bonds

d) Dont know/Not sure

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QUIZ 10
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Which of the following investment products is classified as an
insurance product?


a) A mutual fund

b) A segregated fund
c) An exchange traded fund

d) None of the above

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QUIZ 11
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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You invest $500 to buy $1,000 worth of stock on margin.
The value of the stock drops by 50 percent. You sell it.
Approximately how much of your original $500 investment
are you left with in the end?


a) $500
b) $250

c) 0

d) Dont know/Not sure

< PREVIOUS QUESTION | NEXT QUESTION >

13
QUIZ 12
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

A helpful guide to learning


more about investing
Which is the best definition of selling short?


a) Selling shares of a company shortly after buying it

b) Selling shares of a company before the share price


has reached its peak
c) Selling shares of a company at a loss

d) Selling borrowed shares of a company

e) Dont know/Not sure

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13
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
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more about investing
Hedge funds are always subject to the same rules and
regulations as mutual funds.



a) True

b) False
c) Dont know/Not sure

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QUIZ 14
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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more about investing
The principal difference between front end load,
DSC (deferred sales charge) and F-class or F-series
mutual funds is:


a) The different investments each class makes

b) The different fees and expenses each class charges


c) The different investment advisers in charge
of managing each class

d) Dont know/Not sure

< PREVIOUS QUESTION | NEXT QUESTION >

16
QUIZ 15
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

A helpful guide to learning


more about investing
An RESP is a type of investment plan that is set up
to save for:


a) College or university

b) Retirement
c) Long-term health care

d) Dont know/Not sure

< PREVIOUS QUESTION

17
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
Thank you for taking the
Investor Knowledge quiz.
Regardless of your score, it is always important to be an
informed investor. For more information, visit www.iiroc.ca.
A helpful guide to learning
more about investing

18
INVESTOR IIROC Investor Resources
IIROC AdvisorReport Check the background, qualifications and disciplinary

KNOWLEDGE
history on current advisors at IIROC-regulated firms.
www.iiroc.ca/investors/knowyouradvisor/Pages/default.aspx

QUIZ
IIROCs Glossary of Financial Certifications
Sort through the large number of financial certifications used by advisors.
Learn what they mean and what is required to achieve them.
www.iiroc.ca/investors/UnderstandFinCert/Pages/default.aspx
IIROC Complaints & Inquiries Investors can bring their complaints to IIROC
so that we can take appropriate regulatory action to help ensure that rule infractions
do not continue. www.iiroc.ca/investors/makingacomplaint/Pages/default.aspx
Phone: 1-877-442-4322
*Some options to recover your money IIROC rules require all IIROC-regulated firms
A helpful guide to learning to participate in the ombudsman (OBSI) or arbitration when the investor chooses either
of those options.
more about investing Ombudsman for Banking Services and Investments (OBSI) is a free,
independent service for resolving investment disputes impartially. www.obsi.ca
Email: ombudsman@obsi.ca Phone: 1-888-451-4519
Arbitration IIROC has designated two independent arbitration organizations
for resolution of disputes between Dealer Members and clients.
ADR Chambers www.adrchambers.com Phone: 1-800-856-5154
Arbitration for clients resident in Qubec:
Canadian Commercial Arbitration Centre
www.ccac-adr.org Phone: (514) 448-5980
More Information: To view the latest Investor Bulletins visit www.iiroc.ca
19 * Not all services may be available in French.
1
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
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Thats correct!
1. If you buy a companys common shares


a) You own a part of the company
Common shares are known as equities because each share represents a
small percentage of ownership in the company, entitling the shareholder
to vote in the election of directors and on other matters taken up at
shareholder meetings or by proxy.

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20
QUIZ 2
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
2. If you buy a companys bond
b) You have lent money to the company


Bonds are loans that investors make to a corporation or a government
body in exchange for regular interest payments and the return of principal
at a future date.
Companies issue corporate bonds to raise money for capital expenditures,
operations and acquisitions. But unlike stockholders, bondholders dont
receive ownership rights in the corporation.

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21
3
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
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Thats correct!
3. Which type of bond is the safest?
a) Canada Savings Bond
Canada Savings Bonds are issued by the federal government.
Unlike corporate or municipal bonds, they are fully guaranteed by the
Government of Canada.

< PREVIOUS QUESTION | NEXT QUESTION >

22
QUIZ 4
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
4. In general, if interest rates go down, then bond prices


b) Go up
The cardinal rule of bonds: When interest rates fall, bond prices rise, and
when interest rates rise, bond prices fall. This is because as interest rates go
up, newer bonds come to market paying higher interest yields than older
bonds already in the hands of investors, making the older bonds worth
less.

< PREVIOUS QUESTION | NEXT QUESTION >

23
QUIZ 5
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
5. Which of the following is the best definition


for a junk bond?
a) A bond that is rated as below investment-grade
by rating agencies
Junk or high-yield bonds are issued by companies with poor credit
ratings, meaning that compared with better-rated investment-grade
bonds, the risk is greater that these companies will default on their interest
payments or even go bankrupt and be unable to redeem their bonds when
they mature. To attract investors, junk bonds pay higher yields than
higher-graded corporate bonds.

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6
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

QUIZ
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Thats correct!
6. A no-load mutual fund is one that


b) Carries no sales charge
Not all mutual funds charge sales loads. Called no-load funds, these funds
do not charge a front-end sales charge or a deferred sales charge.

< PREVIOUS QUESTION | NEXT QUESTION >

25
QUIZ 7
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
7. In general, investments that are riskier tend to provide



higher returns over time than investments with less risk.
a) True
The stock and bond markets tend to reward risk-taking over the long term.
This is called the risk-reward tradeoff. Over the short term, however,
high-risk investments such as small-company stocks can be extremely
volatile. The less willing you are to take that risk, the more you may want
to emphasize investments that provide a regular return with less volatility,
such as short-term bonds.

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QUIZ 8
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
8. Which of the following organizations insures you against


your losses in the stock market?
e) None of the above
When you invest in stocks, you accept the risk that your investment may
decline as well as rise in value. A primary role of securities regulators such
as IIROC and the Provincial Securities Commissions that form the CSA is
to ensure that securities laws and regulations are followed and to punish
violators.
The CDIC generally insures chequing, savings and other deposit accounts
when a CDIC member bank fails.
The mission of the Canadian Investor Protection Fund (CIPF) is to return
funds and securities to investors if the brokerage firm holding these assets
becomes insolvent.

< PREVIOUS QUESTION


27 NEXT QUESTION >
QUIZ 9
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

A helpful guide to learning


more about investing
Thats correct!
9. If a company files for bankruptcy, which of the following



securities is most at risk of becoming virtually worthless?
b) The companys common stock
Among those with claims to a bankrupt companys assets, shareholders
of common stock have the last claim on any assets, falling in line behind
secured creditors, bondholders and owners of preferred shares. Common
shareholders may not receive anything if the secured and unsecured
creditors claims are not fully repaid.

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28
QUIZ 10
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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more about investing
Thats correct!
10. Which of the following investment products is classified



as an insurance product?
b) A segregated fund
Segregated funds are issued by insurance companies and are purchased
under an insurance contract. They are referred to as segregated funds,
because insurance companies are required by law to hold the assets in the
funds separately from the companies other assets.

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QUIZ 11
INVESTOR
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Thats correct!
11. You invest $500 to buy $1,000 worth of stock



on margin. The value of the stock drops by 50 percent.
You sell it. Approximately how much of your original
$500 investment are you left with in the end?
c) 0
When you buy stock on margin, you risk losing your entire investment
or much more. In this example, an investor used $500 to buy $1,000
worth of stock, borrowing the additional $500 from a brokerage firm to
make the purchase. When the stock was sold after dropping 50 percent in
value, its remaining worth was only $500the same amount the investor
still owed to the brokerage firm for the margin loan.

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30
QUIZ 12
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
12. Which is the best definition of selling short?


d) Selling borrowed shares of a company
Short selling involves borrowing shares from a broker through a margin
account and selling it, with the understanding that it must later be
bought back and returned to the broker.
If the stock declines in value, as the short seller hopes, the investor will
profit since the value of the shares borrowed and sold would be higher
than the shares subsequently purchased and returned to the broker.
However, if the stock rises in value, the investor must pay the difference
to make good on the shares owed to the broker.

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31
QUIZ 13
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
13. Hedge funds are always subject to the same rules and



regulations as mutual funds.
b) False
Hedge funds are basically private investment pools. Hedge funds in
Canada are sold primarily in the exempt market under an exemption
from the prospectus requirements set out in securities legislation (e.g. the
minimum investment exemption, the accredited investor exemption,
or the offering memorandum exemption). Private hedge funds do not
provide many of the investor protections that apply to other investment
products, such as mutual funds.
For example, hedge funds generally are not subject to numerous mutual
fund rules, such as regulations requiring a certain degree of liquidity,
limiting how much can be invested in any one investment and protecting
against conflicts of interests.

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32 NEXT QUESTION >
QUIZ 14
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
14. The principal difference between front end load,
DSC(deferred sales charge) and F-class or F-series
mutual funds is:
b) The different fees and expenses each class charges


A single mutual fund, with one portfolio and one portfolio manager, may
offer more than one class or series of its shares to investors. Each class or
series represents a similar interest in the mutual funds portfolio.
The principal difference between the classes is that the mutual fund will
charge you different fees and expenses, depending on the class that you
choose. If you are thinking about choosing a mutual fund with more than
one class, it is important for you to understand the differences between
them.

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33 NEXT QUESTION >
QUIZ 15
INVESTOR
KNOWLEDGE

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Thats correct!
15. An RESP is a type of investment plan that is set up to



save for:
a) College or university
A Registered Education Savings Plan (RESP) is a type of investment
account set up to help people save for post-secondary education. The
money earned in an RESP isnt taxed until it is withdrawn. Individuals
may also qualify for grants from the federal government and some
provincial governments, based on the amount contributed.

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Investor Knowledge Quiz.
Visit IIROCs Investor Resources
34 to learn more.
INVESTOR
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