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Two Span Continuous

Deep Beam with Two


Point Loading

Module 3
Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams
Introduction Minimum thickness -Steps of Designing Deep beams design by IS 456 - Detailing of Deep beams.
1. Deep Beam Definition - IS 456 2. Deep Beam Application
A deep beam is having a depth comparable to the span RC deep beams have useful applications in
tall buildings,
offshore structures and foundations

TRANSFER GIRDER

RIBBED MAT FOUNDATION

3. Deep Beam Types


Simply Supported or Continuous
Rectangular or Flanged Beams
Top or Bottom or Side Loaded
with or without openings
4. Behaviour of Deep Beams

The elementary theory of bending for simple beams may not be applicable to deep beams even
under the linear elastic assumption.

A deep beam is in fact a vertical plate subjected to loading in its own plane. The strain or stress
distribution across the depth is no longer a straight line, and the variation is mainly dependent on
the aspect ratio of the beam.

The analysis of a deep beam should therefore be treated as a two dimensional plane stress
problem, and two-dimensional stress analysis methods should be used in order to obtain a realistic
stress distribution in deep beams even for a linear elastic solution.
FE RESULTS

COMPRESSION

2m

TENSION

4m

4m COMPRESSION

TENSION
4m
Following approximations are suggested for design
purposes to compute the lever arm Z
Z
L/D 2

L/D < 1
Z
5. Compressive force path concept
The load-carrying capacity of an RC structural member is
associated with the strength of concrete in the region of the
paths along which compressive forces are transmitted to the
supports.

The path of a compressive force may be visualized as a flow


of compressive stresses with varying sections perpendicular
to the path direction and with the compressive force,
representing the stress resultant at each section.
Failure is considered to be related to the development of
tensile stresses in the region of the path that may develop
due to a number of causes, the main ones being ;

Changes in the path direction


Varying intensity of compressive stress field along
path Stress increase at the tip of inclined cracks
Bond failure
6. Arch and tie action
Mode of failure is not associated with beam
action.
The variation in bending moment along the
beam span is mainly effected by a change of
the lever arm rather than the magnitude of the
internal horizontal actions.

Such behaviour has been found to result from


the fact that the force sustained by the tension
reinforcement of a deep beam at its ultimate
limit state is constant throughout the beam
span.
RC deep beam at its ultimate limit state cannot
rely on beam action to sustain the shear
forces, it would have to behave as a tied arch.
COMPRESSION

TENSION

COMPRESSION

TENSION
7. Deep beam behaviour at ultimate limit state

Behaviour of a deep RC beam with a rectangular cross section and without shear
reinforcement may be divided into two types of behaviour depending on
either a/d, for beams subjected to two-point loading,
or L/d, for beams under UDL
Case 1:Deep beam without web reinforcement subjected to two-point loading with a / d=1.5

The Figure indicates that the mode of failure is


characterized by a deep inclined crack which
appears to have formed within the shear span
independently of the flexural cracks.
The inclined crack initiates at the bottom face of the
beam close to the support, extends towards the top
face of the beam in the region of the load point.
Eventually causes failure of the compressive zone in the middle zone of the beam.
The causes of failure should therefore be sought within the middle, rather than the shear
span of such beams
Failure is associated with a large reduction of the size of the compressive
zone of the cross-section coinciding with the tip of the main inclined crack.
This type of failure may be prevented either by providing transverse
reinforcement that would sustain the tensile stresses that cannot be
sustained by concrete alone, or by reducing the compressive stresses.
Transverse reinforcement only within the shear span can be equally effective.
Such reinforcement reduces the compressive stresses that develop in the
cross-section which coincides with the tip of the inclined crack, as it sustains
a portion of the bending moment developing in that section.
However, the presence of transverse reinforcement beyond the critical
section is essential, as with stirrups only to the critical section does not
safeguard against brittle failure.
This type of failure may be prevented by extending the transverse
reinforcement beyond the critical section to a distance approximately equal
to the depth of the compressive zone.
Case 2 ; Deep beam, without shear reinforcement, under two point loading with a/d = 1.0

This mode of failure is characterized by a deep inclined


crack which appears to have formed within the shear
span independently of the flexural cracks.
Inclined crack almost coincides with the line joining
the load point and the support.
It usually starts within the beam web, almost half way
between the loading and support points, at a load
level significantly lower than the beam load-carrying
capacity, and propagates simultaneously towards
these points with increasing load.
Eventually, collapse of the beam occurs owing to a Diagonal Splitting
sudden extension of the inclined crack towards the top
and bottom face of the beam in the regions of the load
point and support, respectively, within the shear span.
Such a mode of failure is usually referred to as
diagonal- splitting
Due to the large compressive forces carried by deep beams, it is unlikely
that, the presence of conventional web reinforcement in the form of
vertical stirrups considerably improves load-carrying capacity.
Such reinforcement may delay the cracking process but may give only a
small increase in load-carrying capacity.
Web reinforcement is provided in order to prevent splitting of the
inclined portion of the compressive force path (diagonal splitting).
8. Rebar Detailing

A. SS BEAMS
NOTE:
Anchorage of positive reinforcement may be achieved by bending of the bars in a horizontal
plane
B. CONTINUOUS BEAMS
C. Web Reinforcement in Deep Beams

CASE 1: TOP LOADED DEEP BEAMS


Failure
Pattern in
Load is resisted by ARCH action as it is stiffer than TOP LOADED
Truss action DEEP BEAMS
Stirrups are not necessary as they do not cross the
cracks
A minimum reinforcement placed in both vertical
and horizontal directions as in RC walls is adequate.
In continuous beams half
the flexural reinforcement
(horizontal) provided over
the supports may be part
of this

Near the supports,


additional bars of the
same size used for web
reinforcement should be
introduced as shown
CASE 2: BOTTOM LOADED DEEP BEAMS
Load is resisted mainly by vertical or inclined tension Failure
towards the supports Pattern in
To enable the compression arch to develop, the whole BOTTOM
LOADED
of the suspended load must be transferred by means DEEP BEAMS
of vertical reinforcement into the compression zone of
the beam.
Suspender Stirrups should completely surround the
bottom flexural reinforcement and extend into the
compression zone of the beam.
Spacing should not exceed 150 mm
Example 1 Simply Supported Deep Beam

A transfer girder 5.25 m length supports two columns located at 1.75 m from each end.
Column loads = 3750 kN . Total depth of the beam = 4.2m and width of support = 520mm.
Concrete Grade = M40, Fe 415 steel.
Design and Detail the girder.

Leff
1. C/C distance between supports
2. 1.15 x clear span whichever is less
Step 1: Check for bearing capacity at support
Let B = Beam width
Allowable stress = 0.45 x 40 = 18MPa
Support width = 520 mm
Effective width of support = 0.2x Clear Span
= 0.2x(5250 - 2x520) = 842 mm
Adopt 520 mm
18 = 1.5 x 3750 x 103 / (520 x B); B = 600 mm
Leff = 5250 - 520 = 4730 mm or 1.15 x (5250 2 x520) = 4841 mm ; Leff = 4730 mm CL 29.2
D/b < 25 or L/b < 50 : 4200/600 = 7 ; 4730/600 = 7.88
L/D = 4730/4200 = 1.13 > 1 and < 2 ; Deep Beam category CL 29.1
Step 2 : Factored Moments, Ast
Mu = 1. 5 x ( 3750 x 1.49) = 8382 kNm
Lever arm Z = 0.2 (Leff + 2D) = 0.2 x (4730 + 2 x 4200) = 2626mm CL 29.2 (a)
Ast = Mu/(0.87fy Z) = 8382 x106 /(0.87 x 415 x 2626) = 8841 mm2
Ast min = 0.85 x b x D /415 = 0.85 x 600 x 4200 /415 = 5161 mm2 cl 26.5.1.1
Adopt 18 - #25 , Ast = 8836 mm2
Step 3: Detailing of Rebars
CL 29.3.1
Tension Zone Depth = 0.25 D 0.05Leff = 0.25 x 4200
0.05 x 4730 = 814 mm 814

Assume Clear bottom and side cover = 40 mm 155


39
Arrange bars in 6 rows in a depth = 814 mm 600
Step 4: Detailing of Vertical Rebars: CL 32.5
Ast min / m length = 0.0012 x 600 x 1000 = 720 mm2/m
Provide on each face : 360 mm2/m
Spacing of #12 rebars = 1000 x 113/360= 313 mm < 450 mm
Adopt #12@300 mm c/c
Step 5: Detailing of Horizontal Rebars
29.3.4 Side Face Reinforcement
Side face reinforcement shall comply with requirements of minimum
reinforcement of walls
Ast min / m length = 0.002 x 600 x 1000 = 1200 mm2/m
Provide on each face : 600 mm2/m
Spacing of #16 rebars = 1000 x 201/600 = 335 mm < 450 mm
Adopt #16@300 mm c/c
End Anchorage as per CL 29.3.1(b)
Anchorage value
Ld 0.8Ld
Dia 50 Dia With 900 Bend With 1800 Hook
8dia* 16 dia** * ** * **

25 1250 -200 -400 1050 850 840 680


16 800 -128 -256 672 544 540 435

For #25 - middle bars Corner bars

325

600 (Beam Width)


485 40
5dia 1
40 (125) 355 2
355
40 5dia
(125)
1
40
2
520
520 Support Face

ELEVATION PLAN
#12@300 ; cl 32.5 (a)

#16@300; cl 32.5 (c)


Vertical Stirrups
Compression Zone
3386 mm

#12@300
TYP Vertical additional rebars
2100
near support CL 32.5 (a)

Tension Zone
814 CL 29.3.1

1260
18-#25 in
6 Rows
#16@300 additional rebars near support (horizontal)
520 adequately anchored as per CL 32.5(c)
5250
Example 2 Simply Supported Deep Beam ; M20, Fe415

Step 1: Check for bearing capacity at support


Allowable stress = 0.45 x 20 = 9MPa
Support width = 500 mm
Effective width of support = 0.2x Clear Span
= 0.2 x 5000 = 1000 mm
Adopt 500 mm
Total Load W = 0.25 x 3.5 x 6 x 25 + 200 x 6 = 1332 kN
Reaction at each support = W/2 =666 kN
Bearing Pressure = 1.5 x 666 x 103 / (500 x 250) = 8 MPa < 9 MPa OK
Leff = 5500 mm or 1.15 x 5000 = 5750 mm ; Leff = 5500 mm CL 29.2
D/b = 14 ; < 25 or L/b=22; < 50
L/D = 5500/3500 = 1.57 > 1 and < 2 ; Deep Beam category CL 29.1
Step 2 : Factored Moments, Ast
w(kN/m) = 1332/6 = 222 kN/m
Mu = 1. 5 x 222 x 5.52/8 = 1260 kNm
Lever arm Z = 0.2 (Leff+ 2D) = 0.2 x (5500 + 2 x 3500) = 2500mm CL 29.2 (a)
Ast = Mu/(0.87fy Z) = 1260 x 106 /(0.87 x 415 x 2500) = 1396 mm2
Ast min = 0.85 x b x D /415 = 0.85 x 250 x 3500 /415 = 1792 mm2 CL 26.5.1.1
Adopt 10 - #16 , Ast = 2010 mm2

Step 3: Detailing of Rebars


CL 29.3.1
Tension Zone Depth = 0.25 D 0.05Leff = 0.25 x 3500 0.05 x 5500 = 600 mm
Assume Clear bottom and side cover = 40 mm 140

Arrange bars in 5 rows in a depth = 600 mm 140


140 600
140
40

250
Step 4: Detailing of Vertical Rebars: CL 32.5

Ast min / m length = 0.0012 x 250 x 1000 = 300 mm2/m


Provide on each face : 150 mm2/m
Spacing of #10 rebars = 1000 x 78.5/150= 523 mm > 450 mm
Adopt #10@450 mm c/c

Step 5: Detailing of Horizontal Rebars

29.3.4 Side Face Reinforcement


Side face reinforcement shall comply with requirements of minimum
reinforcement of walls
Ast min / m length = 0.002 x 250 x 1000 = 500 mm2/m
Provide on each face : 250 mm2/m
Spacing of #12 rebars = 1000 x 113/250 = 452 mm > 450 mm
Adopt #12@450 mm c/c
End Anchorage as per CL 29.3.1(b)

With 1800 Bend


Dia 50 Dia Anchorage Ld 0.8Ld
value = 16dia
12 600 -192 408 326
16 800 -256 544 435
For #16 in all rows

64 (min = 4dia)
250 (Beam Width)

40
1
2
380
40 5dia
(80)
1
40
2 Rebars are embedded into the support by extending it to
a maximum possible length and then providing 1800
500 Support Face hook which project along the width of the beam
PLAN
#10@450 ; cl 32.5 (a)
Vertical Stirrups Compression Zone
2900 mm

#12@ 450
cl 32.5 (c)
#10@450
Vertical additional rebars
TYP near support CL 32.5 (a)
1750

Tension Zone
600 CL 29.2.1

1050 1050
10 -#16 in
5 Rows
#12@450 additional rebars near support (horizontal)
500 adequately anchored as per CL 32.5(c)

6000
Example 3 : Fixed ends and continuous Deep Beam
Step 1: Check for bearing capacity at support
Concrete Grade = M35
Allowable stress = 0.45 x 35 = 15.75 MPa CL 34.4
Support width = 500 mm
Effective width of support = 0.2x Clear Span
= 0.2 x 5000 = 1000 mm
Adopt 500 mm
Total Load W = 0.25 x 3 x 11.5 x 25 + 200 x11.5 = 2515.625 kN
Reaction at Interior support = W = 2515.625/2 =1257.81 kN
Bearing Pressure = 1.5 x 1257.81 x 103 / (500 x 250)
= 15 MPa < 15.75 MPa OK
Leff = 5500 mm or 1.15 x 5000 = 5750 mm
Adopt Leff = 5500 mm CL 29.2
D/b = 12 < 25 or L/b=22; < 50
L/D = 5500/3000 = 1.83 > 1 and < 2.5
Deep Beam category CL 29.1
Step 2 : Factored Moments, Ast

w(kN/m) = 2515.625 /11.5 = 218.75 kN/m

Span Moment
Mu = 1. 5 x 218.75 x 5.52/24 = 413.6 kNm
Lever arm Z = 0.2 (Leff + 1.5D) = 0.2 x (5500 + 1.5 x 3000) = 2000mm CL 29.2 (b)
Ast = Mu/(0.87fy Z) = 413.6 x 106 /(0.87 x 415 x 2000) = 573 mm2
Ast min = 0.85 x b x D /415 = 0.85 x 250 x 3000 /415 = 1536 mm2 CL 26.5.1.1
Adopt 8 - #16 , Ast = 1608 mm2

Support Moment
Mu = 1. 5 x 218.75 x 5.52/12 = 827 kNm
Lever arm Z = 0.2 (Leff + 1.5D) = 0.2 x (5500 + 1.5 x 3000) = 2000mm CL 29.2 (b)
Ast = Mu/(0.87fy Z) = 827 x 106 /(0.87 x 415 x 2000) = 1145 mm2
Ast min = 0.85 x b x D /415 = 0.85 x 250 x 3000 /415 = 1536 mm2 CL 26.5.1.1
Adopt Ast = 1536 mm2
Step 3: Detailing of Rebars in Span region

CL 29.3.1
Tension Zone Depth = 0.25 D 0.05Leff = 0.25 x 3000 0.05 x 5500 = 475 mm
Assume Clear bottom and side cover = 40 mm 145
145
Arrange bars in 4 rows in a depth = 475 mm 475
145
40

250
Step 4: Detailing of Rebars in Support region CL 29.3.2

Clear Span / D = 5000 / 3000 = 1.67 > 1 and < 2.5


Rebars are placed in two zones CL 29.3.2 (b)
Ast = 1536 mm2
Zone1
Depth = 0.2D = 0.2 x 3000 = 600 mm
Ast1 = 1536 x 0.5 x (1.67 0.5) = 900 mm2
Adopt 6 - #16 1206 mm2 in three rows
Zone2
Depth = 0.3D = 0.3 x 3000 = 900 mm on both sides of mid depth
Ast1 = (1536 900) = 636 mm2
Adopt 6 - #12 678 mm2 in three rows
Step 5: Detailing of Vertical Rebars: CL 32.5

Ast min / m length = 0.0012 x 250 x 1000 = 300 mm2/m


Provide on each face : 150 mm2/m
Spacing of #10 rebars = 1000 x 78.5/150= 523 mm > 450 mm
Adopt #10@450 mm c/c (stirrups)

Step 6: Detailing of Horizontal Rebars

29.3.4 Side Face Reinforcement


Side face reinforcement shall comply with requirements of minimum
reinforcement of walls
Ast min / m length = 0.002 x 250 x 1000 = 500 mm2/m
Provide on each face : 250 mm2/m
Spacing of #12 rebars = 1000 x 113/250 = 452 mm > 450 mm
Adopt #12@450 mm c/c
End Anchorage as per CL 29.3.1(b)

With 1800 Bend


Dia 50 Dia Anchorage Ld 0.8Ld
value = 16dia
12 600 -192 408 326
16 800 -256 544 435
For #16 in all rows

64 (min = 4dia)
250 (Beam Width)

40
1
2
380
40 5dia
(80)
1
40
2 Rebars are embedded into the support by extending it to
a maximum possible length and then providing 1800
500 Support Face hook which project along the width of the beam
PLAN
6 - #16 in 3 Rows (Zone 1)
* Curtailment position measured
from support face
1500* 1500* 1500* 1500*

(0.2D) 600 6 - #16 in


3 Rows (Zone 1)
#10@450
(0.6D) 6 - #12 in
3000
1800 3 Rows (Zone2)
(0.5D)
1500 8 - #16 in
475 4 Rows

#12 @450 0.3D 250


900 900 900
CL 32.5 (c) 900
8 - #16 in B
A 4 Rows C
6 - #12 in #10@450 ; cl 32.5 (a)
3 Rows Vertical Stirrups
(Zone2)
Additional Rebars in Support
Regions (A,B,C) on both faces

5500 5500 #10@450 (vertical)


+
#12 @450 (Horizontal)
Example 4 : Fixed ends and continuous Deep Beam

A reinforced girder 4.5 m deep is continuous over two spans 9 m c/c, resting on column supports 900 mm
width is to be designed to support a total load of 200 kN/m including its own weight. M20 and Fe415
Step 1: Check for bearing capacity at support

Concrete Grade = M20; Allowable stress = 0.45 x 20 = 9 MPa CL 34.4


Support width = 900 mm; Effective width of support = 0.2x Clear Span = 0.2 x 8100 = 1620 mm
Adopt 900 mm
Total Load W = 200 x 18.9 = 3780 kN
Reaction at Interior support = W = 3780/2 =1890 kN
1.5 x 1890 x 103 / (900 x B) = 9 ; B = 350 mm
Leff = 9000 mm or 1.15 x 8100 = 9315 mm
Adopt Leff = 9000 mm CL 29.2
D/b = 12.8 < 25 or L/b=25.7 < 50
L/D = 9000/4500 = 2 > 1 and < 2.5
Deep Beam category CL 29.1
Step 2 : Factored Moments, Ast

Span Moment
Mu = 1. 5 x 200 x 92/24 = 1012.5 kNm
Lever arm Z = 0.2 (Leff + 1.5D) = 0.2 x (9000 + 1.5 x 4500) = 3150mm CL 29.2 (b)
Ast = Mu/(0.87fy Z) = 1012.5 x 106 /(0.87 x 415 x 3150) = 890 mm2
Ast min = 0.85 x b x D /415 = 0.85 x 350 x 4500 /415 = 3226 mm2 CL 26.5.1.1
Adopt 8 - #25 in 4 rows

Support Moment
Mu = 1. 5 x 200 x 92/12 = 2025 kNm
Ast = Mu/(0.87fy Z) = 2025 x 106 /(0.87 x 415 x 3150) = 1780 mm2
Ast min = 3226 mm2 CL 26.5.1.1
Adopt Ast = 3226 mm2
Step 3: Detailing of Rebars in Span region

CL 29.3.1
Tension Zone Depth = 0.25 D 0.05Leff = 0.25 x 4500 0.05 x 9000 = 675 mm
Assume Clear bottom and side cover = 40 mm 210
210
Arrange bars in 4 rows in a depth = 675 mm 675
210
45

350
Step 4: Detailing of Rebars in Support region CL 29.3.2

Clear Span / D = 8100/ 4500 = 1.8 > 1 and < 2.5


Rebars are placed in two zones CL 29.3.2 (b)
Ast = 3226 mm2
Zone1
Depth = 0.2D = 0.2 x 4500 = 900 mm
Ast1 = 3226 x 0.5 x (1.8 0.5) = 2097 mm2
Adopt 8 - #20 2512 mm2 in Four rows
Zone2
Depth = 0.3D = 0.3 x 4500 = 1350 mm on both sides of mid depth
Ast1 = (3226 2097) = 1129 mm2
Adopt 6 - #16 1206 mm2 in three rows
Step 4: Detailing of Vertical Rebars: CL 32.5

Ast min / m length = 0.0012 x 350 x 1000 = 420 mm2/m


Provide on each face : 210 mm2/m
Spacing of #10 rebars = 1000 x 78.5/210= 373 mm < 450 mm
Adopt #10@300 mm c/c (stirrups)

Step 5: Detailing of Horizontal Rebars

29.3.4 Side Face Reinforcement


Side face reinforcement shall comply with requirements of minimum
reinforcement of walls
Ast min / m length = 0.002 x 350 x 1000 = 700 mm2/m
Provide on each face : 350 mm2/m
Spacing of #12 rebars = 1000 x 113/350 = 322 mm < 450 mm
Adopt #12@300 mm c/c
End Anchorage as per CL 29.3.1(b) With 1800 hook
Dia 50 Dia Anchorage Ld 0.8Ld
value = 16 dia
12 600 -192 408 326
16 800 -256 544 435
For # 25 bars
20 1000 -320 680 544
100 (min = 4dia) 25 1250 -400 850 680
350 (Beam Width)

40
1
2 Rebars are embedded into the support by extending it to
735
40 5dia a maximum possible length and then providing 1800
(125)
hook which project along the width of the beam
1
40
2

900 Support Face


PLAN
8 - #20 in 4 Rows (Zone 1)
*0.5D - Curtailment position
measured from support face
2250* 2250* 2250* 2250*

(0.2D) 900

(0.6D)
4500
2700
(0.5D)
2250
675

A B C
#12 @300
1350 CL 32.5 (c) 1350 1350 0.3D
1350
8 - #25 in Additional Rebars in Support
4 Rows Regions (A,B,C) on both faces
6 - #16 in #10@300 ; cl 32.5 (a)
3 Rows Vertical Stirrups
(Zone2) #10@300 (vertical)
+
#12 @300 (Horizontal)
9000 9000