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1.

Introducing and Greeting People

Greeting People
Hello. / Hi.
Good morning.
Good afternoon.
Good evening.

Introducing People
What's your name?
My name is
I am
May I introduce myself.
Let me introduce you to Mr Smith.
Haven't we met (before)?
Yes, I think we have.
No, I don't think we have.
I think we've already met.
I don't think we've met (before).
This is
Meet
Have you met?
Yes, I have.
No, I haven't.
Yes, I think I have.
No, I don't think I have.
Hello, (name)
Nice to meet you. (informal)
Pleased to meet you.
How do you do? (formal)
Nice to see you.
Nice to see you again.
Welcome.

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Say Goodbye
(It was) nice meeting you.
Good bye.
Bye. / See you.
See you later.
See you soon.
See you tomorrow.
See you next week.
Good night.
Have a nice day. / evening.

Health
How are you?
How are you today?
Fine, thank you/thanks.
Not too bad.
Very well.
I'm OK / all right.
Not too well, actually.
What's wrong with you?
What's the matter with you?
Are you all right?
I'm tired.
I'm exhausted .
I've got a cold.

Other
Here you are.
You're welcome.
Sit down.
Take a sit.
Stand up.
I'll see you to the door.
What can I do for you?

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Exercises:
Translate into English:

1. - Buna ziua!
- Buna ziua! Intrati, va rog! Eu sunt dl. John. Cu ce va pot ajuta?
- Am nevoie de o pereche de ochelari de soare.
- Poftiti!
- Multumesc!
- Cu placere!
- La revedere!
- O zi placuta!

2. - Buna!
- Buna! Ce mai faci?
- Bine, multumesc! Cum te cheama?
- Ma cheama Ana.
- Cati ani ai?
- Am 22 de ani.
- Trebuie sa plec, am o programare la optometrist.
- Imi pare bine de cunostinta!
- Si mie!

2. The noun ( Substantivul )

Substantivele formeaza pluralul astfel:


(s):
book - books carte - cri
boy - boys biat - biei

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(es):ch,sh,ss,x,o,z:

bench - benches banc - bnci

brush - brushes perie - perii

box - boxes cutie cutii

lens lenses lentila - lentile

but : tomato tomatoes rosie - rosii

consoana + y i+es

country - countries ar - ri
lady - ladies doamn - doamne

f (e) v+es

wife - wives soie - soii


wolf - wolves lup - lupi
shelf - shelves raft - rafturi
life - lives via - viei
knife - kinves cuit - cuite

Exista insa si substantive cu plural neregulat:

Example: man men


woman women
child children
policeman policemen

substantive numai cu form de singular care se acord cu verbul numai la singular: sugar,
tea, water, coffe, oil, meat, money, homework, information, knowledge, furniture, music,
advice, love, friendship, courage.
Exemple: The money is in the wallet. Banii sunt in portofel.

substantive numai cu form de plural care se acord numai cu verbul la plural: glasses,
sunglasses, scissors, trousers, jeans, shorts, scales (cntar), pyjamas, glasses /spectacles,
spectacles, tongs (clete), nail clippers (unghier), savings (economii), chemicals, goods
(bunuri), binocular.

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substantive cu form numai de plural care se acord cu verbul numai la singular: news,
mumps (oreion), measles (pojar), cards (cri), billiards, ninepins (popice).

Exemple: Mumps is contagious. Oreionul este contagios.

Alte substantive au plural de origine straina:


Example: stimulus ( stimul ) - stimuli ( stimuli )
analysis ( analiza ) - analyses ( analize )

diagnosis ( diagnostic ) - diagnoses ( diagnostice )

Exercises:
I. Form the plural of the following nouns and translate them:
frame, fireman, appointment, office.
II. Translate into English:
1. Vreau o pereche de rame aurii.
2. Lentilele pot fi sferice (sperical ), cilindrice ( cylindrical ) si bifocale ( bifocal ).
3. Aceste lentile sunt din sticla fotocromatica ( photochromatic glass ) si nu din sticla organica
( organic glass ).
4. Indicele de refractie ( refraction index ) este foarte mare la acest tip de lentile.
5. Este ceva in neregula cu ochiul meu stang.

3. The adjective ( Adjectivul)

In limba engleza, adjectivul se aseaza intotdeauna in fata substantivului.


Exemple: a good doctor
In ceea ce priveste formarea gradelor de comparatie, adjectivele se impart in doua categorii:
scurte ( formate din cel mult doua silabe - fast ) si lungi ( beautiful ).
1. Adjective scurte: tall ( inalt )
pozitiv: tall
comparativ de inferioritate (mai putin...): less taller than
comparativ de egalitate (la fel de...): as tall as ; ( negativ nu la fel... : not as tall as )
comparativ de superioritate (mai...): taller than
superlativ relativ (cel mai...): the tallest
superlativ absolut ( foarte... ): very tall

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2. Adjective lungi: expensive ( scump )
pozitiv: expensive
comparativ de inferioritate (mai putin...): less expensive than ;
comparativ de egalitate (la fel de...): as expensive as ; ( negativ nu la fel... : not as
expensive as )
comparativ de superioritate (mai...): more expensive than
superlativ relativ (cel mai...): the most expensive
superlativ absolut ( foarte... ): very expensive

3. Adjective neregulate (Irregular Adjectives):


good ( bun) - better - the best
bad /ill ( rau/bolnav ) - worse - the worst
little (putin ) - less - the least
much / many (mult ) - more - the most
* many se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile : water, information, sand, work
far ( departe - in spatiu) - farther - the farthest (n spaiu)
old (in varsta ) - elder - the eldest (despre membri ai aceleiai familii: his elder brother)

Adjectivul demonstrativ:
this (acest, aceasta) these (aceti, aceste)
that (acel, acea) those (acei, acele)
example: These frames / rims fit my face perfectly and comfortably.

Adjectivyl posesiv:
my (meu, mea, mei, mele)
your (tu, ta, ti, tale)
his (lui, su, sa, si, sale)
her (ei, su, sa, si, sale)
its (lui, ei, su, sa, si, sale)
our (nostru, noastr, notri, noastre)
your (vostru, voastr, votri, voastre)
their (lor)

but : This is your spectacle case. ( Acesta este tocul tau de ochelari ).

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This is yours. ( Este al tau. )

Example: Take off your sunglasses,please! I can't see your eyes.

Exercises:
I. Choose the correct form ( Alegeti forma corecta):
1. From these two frames the cheaper is ( the best, better ).
2. These glasses are ( expensive, more expensive ) than the others.
3. That optician fitter ( optician montator )is ( as good as, as good than) the one we
already see.
II. Put the adjectives in brackets into the right form ( Puneti adjectivele din paranteze la forma
corecta):
1. Summer is ( good ) season of the year.
2. In summer the days are ( long ) and the nights are ( short ) than in spring.
3. Football is ( popular ) game in Romania.
4. I think this rim is as ( beautiful ) as his.
5. Those contact lenses are not as ( advanced ) as these ones.
6. Zeiss is a ( good ) firm than Essilor.
7. Progressive lenses are ( good ).

III. Form the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives ( Formati gradele de comparatie ale
urmatoarelor adjective):
thin ( subtire ) cheap ( ieftin )
thick ( gros ) easy ( usor)
big ( mare ) elegant ( elegant )
small ( mic ) pleasant ( placut )

IV. Translate into English:


1. Firma noastra va poate oferi cele mai bune lentile de contact.
2. Daca le cumparati de aici, ele sunt mai ieftine.
3. La acel magazin, acest tip de lentile cu strat antireflex ( antireflex layer ) este extrem de
scump.
4. - Acestia sunt ochelarii mei.
- Nu, de fapt sunt ai mei. Ai tai sunt acolo.

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5. In prezent avem multi clienti importanti, Ei sunt clientii nostri obisnuiti ( regular ).
6. Aceste rame sunt mai subtiri. Sunt mai elegante decat cele groase.
7. Dl. Smith este ultimul client in aceasta zi.
8. Nu ai nevoie de programare ca sa mergi la optometrist!
9. Multi dintre noi nu cunosc diferenta dintre lentilele cilindrice si cele sferice.
10. Stratul antireflex nu este important daca nu lucrati intr-un spatiu cu ilminare artificiala (
artificial illumination ).
11. Acestea sunt dioptriile mele (diopters ).
12. Am reteta ( prescription) for my sunglasses.

The main colors ( Principalele culori):


white blue
black red
grey brown
yellow violet
pink dark blue
orange light blue
green silvery

The days of the week ( Zilele saptamanii ):


Sunday duminica Wednesday - miercuri
Monday luni Thursday joi
Tuesday marti Friday vineri

Months of the year ( Lunile anului ):


January July
February August
March September
April October
May November
June December

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The seasons ( Anotimpurile ):
spring - primavara autumn - toamna
summer vara winter - iarna

Exercises:

I. Translate into English:


1. Am programare la doctor pentru luni dimineata, la ora 7.
2. Sunt nascuta in mai, nu in iunie.
3. Vara este anotimpul meu preferat.
4. Iti place rosul? Nu. Sunt innebunita ( crazy about ) dupa galben foarte deschis.
5. Lui ii sta bine cu ramele acelea albastre.
6. Nu-i aminti ca nu am fost nicaieri vara trecuta.
7. Nu-mi place iarna. Este prea frig pentru mine.
8. Lui nu-i vine sa creada ca este miercuri si nu a invatat nimic.
9. 21 iunie este cea mai lunga zi a anului, iti vine sa crezi?
10. Nu-mi amintesc ziua lui de nastere.
11. Este innebunita dupa lunile de vara.
12. Pot sa ma duc la tehnicianul optometrist numai luni.

II. Complete the text with one of the following words:

nephew, quite, nieces, better, already, thinner, pension, the best, age

1. She is plump and short for her , but she hopes she will get .
2. Her brother, Mike, is at sports. He is at Maths in his class.
3. Richard's parents have retired on a .
4. He is also an uncle and he has a and two .

III. Answer the following questions:

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Use the following words or others : warm, cloudy, rainy, sunny, cold, brightly, blizzard, hot,
misty, fogy, dust, stormy, etc.

1. How many seasons are there in a year?


2. In what season do you see flowers and birds?
3. What is the weather like during the summer?
4. How is the weather in autumn?
5. What sort of weather is it in winter?
6. What does a spring day look like?

IV. Match the noun with the corresponding verb:

winter falls
the wind thunders
the rain lightens
the snow blows
the sun get red
the thunder shines
the lightening comes
the leaves sets in

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4. The numeral (Numeralul):

Numeralul cardinal Numeralul Ordinal

1 - one the 1st / first = primul


2 - two the 2nd / second = al doilea
3 - three the 3rd / third = al treilea
4 - four the 4th / fourth = al patrulea
5 - five the 5th / fifth = al cincilea
6 - six the 6th sixth = al saselea
7 - seven the 7th / seventh = al saptelea
8 - eight the 8th / eighth = al optulea
9 - nine the 9th / nineth = al noualea
10 - ten the 10th / tenth = al zecelea
11 - eleven the 11th / eleventh = al unsprezecelea
12 - twelve the 12th / twelfth = al doisprezecelea
13 - thirteen the 13th / thirteenth = al treisprezecelea
14 - fourteen the 14th / fourteenth = al patrusprezecelea
15 - fifteen the 15th / fifteenth = al cincisprezecelea
16 - sixteen the 16th / sixteenth = al saisprezecelea
17 - seventeen the 17th / seventeenth = al saptesprezecelea
18 - eighteen
the 18th / eighteenth = al optusprezecelea
19 - nineteen the 19th / nineteenth = al nouasprezecelea
20 - twenty the 20th / twentieth = al douazecilea

the 21st / twenty-first = al douazecilea


21 - twenty-one
the 22nd / twenty-second = al douazecisiunulea
22 - twenty-two
the 23rd / twenty-third = al douazecisidoilea
23 - twenty-three
the 24th / twenty-fourth = al douazecisipatrulea
24 - twenty-four

the 30th / thirtieth = al treizecilea


30 - thirty
the 50th / fiftieth = al cincizecilea
40 - forty

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50 - fifty
60 - sixty
70 - seventy
80 - eighty
90 - ninety

the 100th / hundredth = al o sutalea


100 - a/one hundred
101 - one hundred and one
127 - one hundred an twenty-seven
1,000 - a/one thousand
1,000,000 - a/one million

Expressing time ( Exprimarea timpului):

Watch

Exista doua posibilitati de a exprima timpul:

Formal but easier way:


Say the hours first and then the minutes.

Example: 7:45 - seven forty-five

For minutes 01 through 09, you can pronounce the '0' as oh.

Example: 11:06 - eleven (oh) six

Or:

Say the minutes first and then the hours. Use past and the preceding hour for minutes 01 through
30. Use to and the forthcoming hour for minutes 31 through 59, but .

Example: 7.15 - fifteen minutes /a quarter past seven

Example: 7.45 - fifteen minutes / a quarter to eight

Example: 7.30 thirty minutes to eight / half past seven

1
00:00 midnight am

12:00 - midday or noon pm

Examples:

7.00 It's five o'clock in the morning- dimineata / It's 7 a.m. / evening seara / It's 7 pm.

7.15 It's a quarter past seven.

7.30 It's a half past seven.

7.29 It's twenty-nine past seven.

7.31 It's twenty-nine ti eight.

7.45 It's a quarter to eight.

Fractional numbers and arthimetical operations:


one/ a half
1 one and a half
1/3 one / a third
2/3 two thirds
one forth, one / a quarter
1/5 one / a fifth

0,5 point five


3,14 three point fourteenth
2+2=4 ^ two and two equals four
4-2=2 ^ four minus two equals two
2*2=4 ^ two multiplied by two equals four
4/2=2 ^ four divided by two equals two

Exercises:

I. What's the time? Express the time!


8.20, 15.05; 20.30; 21.45; 6.10; 7.40; 9.45; 10.15.

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II. Translate into English:
1. Il astept de un sfert de ora.
2. Este 13.30 si ea inca nu a sosit.
3. Aceste rame cantaresc 20 de grame.
4. Acest exercitiu este notat cu 0,25.
5. la ochiul stang este nevoie de o lentila mai subtire.
6. Iti poti imagina aceasta lentila cu 75% mai usoara?
7. Este al doilea din clasa.
8. Acesta este al 41-lea concurs la care participam cu acest proiect si am fost
intotdeauna castigatori.
9. Doar primul primeste un premiu.
10. Este destul de greu, dar nu imposibil.

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5. The Verb - English Tenses ( Timpurile in limba engleza )

Tense Affirmative/Negative/Question Use Signal words


Simple present A:He speaks. action in the present taking place once, never or always, every, never, normally,
N:He does not speak. several times often, seldom, sometimes, usually
Q:Does he speak? facts if sentences type I (If I talk,)
actions taking place one after another
action set by a timetable or schedule
Present continuous A: He is speaking. action taking place in the moment of speaking at the moment, just, just now, Listen!,
N:He is not speaking. action taking place only for a limited period of Look!, now, right now
Q:Is he speaking? time
action arranged for the future
Simple past A: He spoke. action in the past taking place once, never or yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the
N: He did not speak. several times other day, last Friday
Q: Did he speak? actions taking place one after another if sentence type II (If I talked,)
action taking place in the middle of another action
Past continuous A: He was speaking. action going on at a certain time in the past when, while, as long as
N: He was not speaking. actions taking place at the same time
Q: Was he speaking? action in the past that is interrupted by another
action
Present perfect simple A: He has spoken. putting emphasis on the result already, ever, just, never, not yet, so
N: He has not spoken. action that is still going on far, till now, up to now
Q: Has he spoken? action that stopped recently
finished action that has an influence on the
present
action that has taken place once, never or several
times before the moment of speaking
Present perfect A: He has been speaking. putting emphasis on the course or duration (not all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how
continuous N: He has not been speaking. the result) long?, the whole week
Q: Has he been speaking? action that recently stopped or is still going on
finished action that influenced the present
Past perfect simple A: He had spoken. 6. action taking place before a certain time in the already, just, never, not yet, once,
N: He had not spoken. past until that day
Q: Had he spoken? 7. sometimes interchangeable with past perfect if sentence type III (If I had
progressive talked,)
8. putting emphasis only on the fact (not the
duration)
Past perfect A: He had been speaking. action taking place before a certain time in the for, since, the whole day, all day
continuous N: He had not been speaking. past
Q: Had he been speaking? sometimes interchangeable with past perfect
simple
putting emphasis on the duration or course of an
action
Future simple A: He will speak. 3. action in the future that cannot be influenced in a year, next, tomorrow
N: He will not speak. 4. spontaneous decision if sentences type I (If you ask her,
Q: Will he speak? 5. assumption with regard to the future she will help you.)
assumption: I think, probably,
perhaps
Future continuous A: He will be speaking. action that is going on at a certain time in the in one year, next week, tomorrow
N: He will not be speaking. future
Q: Will he be speaking? action that is sure to happen in the near future

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Irregular verbs ( Verbele neregulate )

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE TRADUCERE


(to) be was/were been a fi
(to) begin began begun a incepe
(to) bet bet bet a paria
(to) blow blew blown a sufla
(to) break broke broken a sparge
(to) bring brought brought a aduce
(to) build built built a construi
(to) buy bought bought a cumpara
(to) choose chose chosen a alege
(to) come came come a veni
(to) cost cost cost a costa
(to) cut cut cut a taia
(to) do did done a face
(to) draw drew drawn a desena
(to) drink drank drunk a bea
(to) drive drove driven a conduce
(to) eat ate eaten a manca
(to) fall fell fallen a cadea
(to) feed fed fed a hrani
(to) feet felt felt a (se) simti
(to) find found found a gasi
(to) fly flew flown a zbura
(to) forget forgot forgotten a uita
(to) get got got a obtine
(to) give gave given a da
(to) go went gone a merge
(to) have had had a avea
(to) hear heard heard a auzi
(to) hit hit hit a lovi,a nimeri
(to)hold held held a tine
(to) hulrt hurt hurt a rani,durea
(to) keep kept kept a tine,a pastra
(to) know knew known a cunoasta, a sti
(to) leave left left a pleca
(to) light lit lit a aprinde
(to) lose lost lost a pierde
(to) make made made a face
(to) mean meant meant a insemna,a
intelege
(to) meet met met a intalni
(to) pay paid paid a plati
(to) put put put a pune
(to) read read read a citi
(to) retell retold retold a reda, a relata
(to) ride a bike rode ridden a calatori, a merge
cu bicicleta
(to) ring rang rung a suna
(to) run ran run a alerga
(to) say said said a supune
(to) see saw seen a vedea
(to) send sent sent a trimite
(to) shake shook shaken a scutura,a tremura
(to) show showed shown a arata
(to) sing sang sung a canta
(to) sink sank sunk a (se) scufunda
(to) sit sat sat a sta, a se aseza
(to) sleep slept slept a dormi
(to) speak spoke spoken a vorbi
(to) stand stood stood a sta
(to) steal stole stolen a fura
(to) stick stuck stuck a lipi
(to) sting stung stung a intepa
(to) swim swam swum a inota
(to) take took taken a lua
(to) teach taught taught a invata(pe cineva)
(to) tell told told a spune, a povesti
(to) think thought thought a gandi,a crede
(to) throw threw thrown a arunca
(to) understand understood understood a intelege
(to) wake up woke up woke up a (se) trezi
(to) wear wore worn a purta
(to) win won won a castiga
(to) write wrote written a scrie

Exercises:

I. Transform the sentences into affirmative ones and translate them into Romanian. ( Transformati
propozitiile in unele afirmative si apoi traduceti-le in romana ):
1. I did not sleep well.
2. They didn't leave the town.
3. The student did not bring his book.
4. You didn't hear him speak.
5. My friend didn't think about it.
6. The Prime Minister didn't come.
7. She did not drive to Mr. John.
8. They didn't lose their key.
9. I didn't fly to Madrid.
10. The young actor didn't sing yesterday.
11. He didn't sell the ring.
12. Charlie did not wake at 8 yesterday.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Perfect Simple:


1. I don't know what (come) over me.
2. We never (sit) for a moment.
3. You (bring) your children?
4. Yes, I (bring) both my twins.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Perfect Simple:


1. John (write) to his friend.
2. The boy (put) his right hand up.
3. She (win) the game.
4. They (swim) to that rock?
5. What (happen) ?

IV. Complete the empty spaces with SINCE or FOR:


! FOR - arata perioada in intregime
SINCE arata inceputul perioadei
Exemple:
I have lived here FOR 20 years. ( Am locuit aici timp de 20 de ani. )
I have lived here SINCE 1979. ( Locuiesc aici din 1979. )

1. I have been standing ..... 20 minutes.


2. She hasn't work ..... 2004.
3. my child has been studying ...... 3 years.
4. We haven't discussed this matter ..... the meeting began.
5. They have written ..... six o'clock.
6. He has been waiting to see her ..... a very long time.

6. SICKNESS AND HEALTH VOCABULARY

sickness boala, indispozitie, suferinta


health sanatate
service serviciu
staff personal
to cure a vinedeca
illness boala
to afflict a chinui, a face sa sufere
contagious contagios
surgery operatie
to prevent a preveni
concern grija, preocupare
rest odihna
treatment tratament
to heal a vindeca ( pe cale naturala, de la sine )
patient pacient
up-to-date modern
NTE ( nose, throat, ears ) - ORL ( nas, gat, urechi )
emergency hospital spital de urgenta
to be run down a fi daramat, surmenat
stitch fir de operatie
to remove a indeparta
medical ward salon de spital, rezerva
stressful stresant
nurse infirmiera
disease boala
skin piele
injured ranit
training antrenament, exercitii repetate
muscle muschi
breathless fara respiratie
chest piept
wheezy astmatic, ragusit
cough tuse
nervous breakdown epuizare nervoasa
to indulge physical exercise a suporta exercitiul fizic
chest tightness apasare pe piept, sufocare

I. Translate the following paragraph:

Vision problems are conditions which you should address as soon as symptoms show up.
When you suddenly discover that you find the ad signs in the streets becoming blurry or when you
are beginning to force your eyes to see the finer prints on the newspaper, it is time that you make a
visit to an eye specialist. The optometrist is an eye care professional that you should go into
whenever vision problems plague your organs of sight.
When you go looking for an optometrist to treat your blurry vision, you will find that there are
many of them practicing in the field. With plenty of professionals out there, it becomes difficult to
select the one that is deemed the best. This leads many people to question - how do you find the
best optometrist for you?
For some, the best optometrists are those who can relate and make a good connection with
their patients. The professionals should work respectfully for their clients and even build a good
rapport. A friendlier optometrist makes people feel relaxed and be able to let them discuss and ask
more questions regarding their conditions. To find someone like this, you will have to rely on
personal experiences and encounters of others. Ask your friends whom they can recommend and
their reasons why. You may also do this and ask recommendations from other people using the
Internet.
The best optometrist is also someone who is equipped with the latest technology. No matter
how personally-charming the optometrist can be, but, if he or she does not possess the right tools
and equipment, there is no guarantee that the diagnosis of your condition was correctly made. A
comprehensive examination can only be done with help of modern eye examination machines. Your
eye care professional should be fully-equipped with these latest optometry tools.

II. Fill in the gaps with Past Perfect Simple ( Completati spatiile cu Past Perfect Simple ):
1. After ________ some tea, I sat down.
2. When ________ all the letters, we went out to lunch.
3. When Alice ________ the furniture, Bill brought in the paint.
4. He _________ the office when he has knocked down by a bus.

III. Put the verbs in brackets in Simple or Continuous Past and translate them:

1.Even patients who (have) recent attacks had to indulge in physical exercises. 2. Patients
who (have) a relatively minor operation had to stay in bed. 3. When I met him he (work) in the
hospital for three years. 4. When the nurse came in the ward john (sleep) for some hours. 5. The
doctor (prepare) himself for the operation since he came to the hospital. 6. We (take) medical
exercise for a week when we we were told to cease them. 7. When the hospital staying was over, I
(stay) there for eight days. 8. You (attend) treatment since you became a patient. 9. John (be) away
from the hospital for two days when his friend learned about it. 10. By the end of the month they
(visit) a lot of specialized hospitals. 11. The doctor told me that he (be) confident the disease could
be controlled.

IV. Translate into English:


1. Dupa ce s-a internat doctorul l-a consultat.
2. Era in spital de cateva ore cand au venit prietenii sa-l viziteze.
3. Facuse tratamentul prescris de medic cand a simtit o sufocare puternica.
4. Facuse multe exercitii medicale ci apoi incepuse sa practice ciclismul.
5. A trebuit sa fie spalat, barbierit si hranit dupa ce a fost operat.
6. Se simtea rau, il dureau capul si spatele cand ei au observat ca era palid.
7. Iarna asta avusese de doua ori gripa.
8. A facut temperatura mare, a simtit o durere puternica de cap, dureri la inghitit si nu putea
dormi.
9. Medicul l-a consultat si i-a dat tratamentul si repaus la pat.
10. Plimbarile pe jos in aer liber sunt foarte sanatoase.
11. Odihna, miscarea, hrana rationala si activitatea bine dozata, fara stres, acestea sunt secretele
unei sanatati permanente.

V. Translate into English:


A. 1. Dupa ce s-a internat l-a consultat doctorul. 2. Era in spital de cateva zile cand au venit
prietenii sa-l viziteze. 3. Facuse tratamentul prescris de medic cand a simtit o sufocare puternica. 4.
Facuse multe exercitii medicale si apoi a inceput sa practice jogging. 5. Se simtea rau, il durea capul
si spatele cand ei au observat ca era palid.

B. 1. Iarna aceasta a avut de doua ori gripa puternica. 2. A facut temperatura mare, a simtit o
durere de cap, dureri la inghitit si nu putea dormi. 3. Medicul l-a consultat si i-a dat tratamentul si
repaus la pat. 4. Plimbarile pe jos in aer liber sunt foarte sanatoase. Sanatatea e un bun de pret si
trebuie sa o pazim cu multa grija. 5. Odihna, miscarea, hrana rationala si activitatea bine dozata,
fara stres, acestea sunt secretele unei sanatati permanente.

Modal verbs ( Verbele modale )

- Nu au forma cu "-ing" si nici participiu;


- Au aceeasi forma pentru toate persoanele (nu au "-s", "-es" la persoana a 3-a singular);
- La forma negativa se foloseseste NOT ;
- Formeaza interogativul prin inversiune ( Can he ? )
- Au numai infinitiv scurt (nu au particula "to"). Exceptii:
to be able to ( a fi capabil, a putea ) - I am able to become a better optometrist.
to have to ( trebuie )- I have to learn more.
to be allowed to ( a-i fi permis ) I am allowed to leave.

CAN - exprima capacitatea fizica sau intelectuala; pentru a exprima imposibilitatea sau
neincrederea; pentru a exprima permisiunea in limbajul neoficial; pentru a exprima continuitatea
verbelor de perceptie. * COULD este forma de trecut a verbului CAN.
MAY / MIGHT - cand se cere permisiunea in mod oficial, politicos; exprima posibilitatea;
exprima o dorinta.
MUST - and se exprima o obligatie interna (subiectiva, personala); pentru a exprima o
deductie logica, o concluzie.
OUGHT TO / SHOULD - se foloseste cu precadere pentru a exprima o recomandare.
SHALL - pentru a exprima solicitarea unui sfat, o ofert sau o sugestie ( Folosit cu persoana
I, interogativ ); pentru a exprima o promisiune, o obligaie sau o ameninare care provin de la cel
care vorbete; ( Folosit cu persoanele II i III) ; pentru a exprima o hotarare; pentru a exprima o
interdictie in acte oficiale.
WILL / WOULD - arata un ordin; exprima vointa; o promisine; o invitatie; o cerere
politicoasa ( would ). *Dar: WOULD present conditional: I would dance. ( As dansa. ) si past
conditional: I would have written. ( Eu as fi scris. )
NEED / NOT NEED - este folosit pentru a exprima necesitatea sau lipsa acesteia.
USED TO - este folosit doar la Past Tense, pentru a exprima o actiune repetata, un obicei
trecut, care nu mai este precticat in prezent; o actiune repetata, un obicei trecut, care mai este
practicat si in prezent.
DARE - se foloseste cu sensul de "a indrazni", in special in propozitii interogative si
negative.

Exercises:

I. Use one of the following modals to complete sentences:


1. Even if I were angry, I ..... never speak to anyone like this.
2. The homework I'm setting you today ..... be handed in until Monday.
3. She hates the theater here but she ..... go once in a while. It ..... help her learn the
language.
4. This report is urgent . You ..... finish it by four o'clock.
5. ..... I help you with the begs?
6. You ..... phone back, just write a letter confirming our telephone conversation this
afternoon.
7. It's difficult to stay whether they'll accept the offer. They ..... , they ..... not.
8. Tom ..... be caught in a traffic jam. He's never been as late as this before.
7. Conditional clauses
( Propozitiile conditionale )

In limba engleza exista 3 tipuri de conditionale, in functie de tipul actiunii indicate: reala,
pozibila sau imposibila.

Type Main clause if Secondary clause


( Propozitia principala ) ( daca ) ( Propozitia secundara )
I. PREZENT if PREZENT
I buy apples. - Eu cumpar mere daca I want an apple pie. - vreau placinta
cu mere.
VIITOR if PREZENT
I shall buy apples - Eu voi cumpara daca I want an apple pie. - voi vrea placinta
mere cu mere.
IMPERATIV if PREZENT
Buy apples - Cumpara mere daca you want an apple pie! - vrei placinta
cu mere!
II. CONDITIONAL PREZENT if PAST TENSE
I would buy apples - Eu as cumpara daca I wanted a pie. - as vrea placinta.
mere
III. CONDITIONAL TRECUT if PAST PERFECT
I would have bought apples - Eu as fi daca I had wanted a pie. - as fi vrut
cumparat mere placinta.

Exercises:
I. Traduceti in Engleza:
1. El iti va scrie daca tu ii vei scrie.
2. El ti-ar scrie daca tu i-ai scrie.
3. El ti-ar fi scris daca tu i-ai fi scris.
4. Noi alergam daca vrem sa slabim.
5. Noi am alerga daca am vrea sa slabim.
6. Noi am fi alergat daca am fi vrut sa slabim.
7. Tu inveti daca vrei sa stii.
8. Tu ai invata daca ai vrea sa stii.
9. Tu ai fi invatat daca ai fi vrut sa stii.
8. The human eye

One of the most important parts of our body is the eye. The eyesight is a particular kind of
sensitivity, adapted to perceive and analyze electromagnetic waves width between 323nm and 594.
The eyesight plays a special part in life of superior life forms due to the huge amount of
information received from the exterior world. This information interferes with cortical diffuse
activity and thus it contributes to their adaptation to environment, to spatial orientation and to keep
the balancing of the body.
The optical system of the eye is part of the eyeball and it is made up of for refractive media:
cornea, watery humor, crystalline lens and vitreous body. These have, due to cornea and crystalline
lens, a positive convergence that makes it possible for images to be projected on the retina.
The eyeball is placed in the eye socket. It's shape is almost spherical and the fore part is less
curved. It is made up of three stratified membranes:
Sclerotic at exterior; at the anterior eye pole it is transparent and it is called cornea.
Choroid, which is the obscure room of the eye; it contains a pigmented ring the iris. In the
middle of the iris there is the pupil orifice. The colour of the eye is given by the irian
pigment with shades from brown to black. Crystalline lens is biconvex and transparent.
Retina, the third membrane, has a complex structure.

Vocabulary:
eyesight vedere
sensitivity sensibilitate
to perceive a percepe
waves understand
with waves width between cu lungimea de unda cuprinsa intre
balancing of the body echilibrul corpului
to be made up of - a fi alcatuit din
eyeball glob ocular
eye socket orbita
crystalline lens cristalin
choroid coroida
curved curbat
watery humour umoarea apoasa
vitreous body corpul vitros
pupil orifice orificiul pupilar
fore part partea anterioara
shades - nuante

Exercises:

I. Translate the text.

II. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate adjectives at different comparison degrees:
1. As soon as she gets those glasses she will certainly say: Look now! My glasses
have the ( beautiful ) ..... rims in the whole world. I am the ( happy ) .....
person.! Don't you think so? And he will be obliged to say: Yes, of course. These
glasses are for sure ( good ) ..... than mine.
2. What is the ( last ) ..... information you've got?
3. Contact lenses are ( expensive ) ..... than the usual lenses but they are ( aesthetic ).
4. She had the ( blue ) ..... eyes and the ( ugly ) spectacles I have ever seen.
5. They can't learn about the ( last ) ..... news in optometry unless they buy the (
good ) ..... magazines.
6. Binocular vision is one of the ( much ) ..... researched aspects of optometry.

III. Translate into English:


Cand sunt alese ramele ochelarilor ( spectacles rims ), trebuie acordata atentie deosebita
formei fetei ( to the shape of the face ). Pentru o fata ovala ( oval ), bine echilibrata ( well balanced
), poate fi aleasa orice forme de rame atata timp cat ( as long as ) proportia ( the harmony ) se va
pastra. Sunt preferate ramele nu mai late ( wide ) decat capul.
Ramele dreptunghiulare sunt recomandate fetei rotunde, cu frunte lata ( wide forehead ) si
barbie ( chin ) rotunda.
Pentru fata patrata ( square face ) sunt alese rame rotunde, cu elemente deosebite de design.
Cine are fata triunghiulara ( triangular face ), are nevoie de rame ochi de pisica ( cat-eyes shaped
rims ) sau de rame dreptunghiulare ( dreptangular rims ) foarte colorate ( brightly coloured ).
9. Vision therapy

Not all vision problems can be corrected by spectacles or contact lenses. Some people,
including many children, have difficulty in co-coordinating their two eyes.
In order to see something clearly, both eyes must be aimed accurately at the object and focused at
the right distance. Any problem with the aiming or focusing of the eyes can cause a variety of
symptoms, including intermittent double vision, blurred vision, headaches and feeling of eyestrain.
Children with these problems often do not complain about them, but may simply avoid tasks
such as reading that are difficult or cause discomfort.
Vision is the process of deriving meaning from what is seen. It involves more than visual
acuity (the ability to distinguish fine details). Vision involves fixation and eye movement abilities,
accommodation (focusing), convergence (eye aiming), binocularity (eye teaming), eye-hand
coordination and visual form perception. Vision is not entirely innate but continues to develop after
birth and is influenced by the visual environment and the individual's experience. If a person's
visual system has not developed to its optimal level, visually demanding activities may lead to
inefficient or uncomfortable vision.
Vision therapy (also referred to as visual training) is a program aimed at remediating and
enhancing an individual's visual abilities. Its function is to :
Treat existing visual problems such as amblyopia (lazy eye), eye alignment problems, eye
coordination problems, poorly sustained near focus, inadequate eye-hand coordination and
immature perceptual development
Enhance the efficiency and comfort of visual function
Help prevent some visual problems

Vocabulary:
in order to pentru a, ca sa
to aim a tinti, a indrepta
to focus a focaliza
blur obscuritate, lipsa de claritate
blurred vision imagine neclara
strain tensiune, incordare
eyestrain tensiune oculara
to complain about a se plange de
task sarcina
entirely in intregime
to demand a cere
to enhance a imbogati
alignment indreptare
poorly slab
focusing focalizare
visual form perception perceptia formei vizuale
aimed at cu scopul de a

Exercises:

I. Translate the text.


II. Which is the main idea of the following text?

You ought to know what to do to help a person who is choking, how to give first aid. First,
you stand behind the choking victim and put your arms around her or his waist. Second, you make a
fist and place the thumb side against the person stomach. Third, grasp your fist with your other hand
and press into the victims abdomen. Repeat this action if necessary.

Vocabulary:
ought to trebuie
to choke a se ineca cu ( mancare )
behind - in spatele
waist piept
fist pumn
to grasp a apuca
first aid primul ajutor

III. Translate into English:


1. Lentilele pentru ochelarii de corectare ( corrective glasses ) sunt destinate pentru corectarea
viciilor de refractie ale ochiului ( refraction errors of the eye ).
2. Ele sunt confectionate din ( to be made out of ) sticla sau materiale plastice transparente.
3. Exista mai multe tipuri de lentile pentru ochelari.
4. Lentilele pentru ochelarii de corectie pot fi sferice, asferice ( aspherical ), combinate ( combined
), bifocale, prismatice ( prismatic ) si de contact.
5. Lentilele sferice se impart ( are divided into ) doua grupe: lentile convergente sau convexe (
convergent or convex ) si lentile divergente sau concave ( divergent or concave ).

10. Optometrists

In many countries, Optometrists are health specialists trained to examine the human visual
system for eye disease, general health problems and other defects. ( Are you short or long sighted?
Do you have eye-movement problems or cataracts? Are you colour blind? ).
They carry out full eye examinations and prescribe and dispense corrective lenses, including
contact lenses.
The practice of Optometry requires an intimate knowledge of vision and while some of the
functions depend just on the non-neural components of the eye, the neural retina itself is actually
part of the brain. By processing retinal information in this way, it is possible to perceive and make
sense of the world around us and Neuroscience helps us understand this process. Thus the work of
neuroscientists and optometrists is complementary, each strengthening the research efforts of the
other.

Vocabulary:
to train a instrui
short-sighted miop
long-sighted presbit
colour-blind persoana care sufera de daltonism
to carry out a face, a indeplini
to dispense a prescrie
full eye examination examen ocular complet
to require a necesita ( aici ), a cere
intimate knowledge cunoastere profunda
non-neural components componente non-neurale
actually de fapt
to process a procesa, a analiza
to make sense of a da inteles
to strengthen a intari

Exercises:

I. Translate the text.

II. Imagine a short dialogue between the patient and the optometrist ( Imaginati-va un scurt dialog
intre pacient si optometrist ) :

III. Translate into English:


1. Acomodarea ( accommodation ) este o functie foarte de importanta a ochiului, un act reflex
( a reflex gesture ) foarte rapid. Prin el, aparatul optic ( the optical system ) trece de la
vederea de departe ( distance sight ) la cea de aproape ( near sight ) si invers ( reverse ).
2. Acomodarea se produce ( is the result of ) unei actiuni armonioase ( harmonious act ) la care
ia parte musculatura intrinseca ( intrinsec muscles ).
3. Acomodarea are cativa parametrii caracteristici ( characteristic parameters ):
- punctul cel mai indepartat de ochi
- punctul cel mai apropiat.
4. Acomodarea confera ( to give ) ochiului puterea de adaptare la diferite conditii de mediu (
environment conditions ).
11. Contact lenses or eyeglasses

Despite the popularity of contact lenses and vision corrective surgeries, eyeglasses are still
popular among most people. Eyeglasses with different kinds of frame styles coming from highly
profiled designers are always in high demand. And with the advent of the latest types of metals and
plastics, eye glasses still continue to evolve with time.

When looking for the right materials for safety glasses, consider the ones that are made of
tough plastics such as polycarbonate. However, if you have skin allergies, you may want to opt for
metals such as the popular titanium or stainless steel. To reduce the likelihood of breakage, certain
frames are now made with metal alloys that are extremely flexible. And for added durability, spring
hinges are a great choice when choosing an eye-wear for your children.

One reason why eyeglasses remain popular is that it can be used as a great accessory for
fashion. Eyeglasses now come in different styles and colors to mix and match all kinds of
wardrobes. Also, popular frame styles are now made of different kinds of colored inlays, designer
emblems, composite materials, and various insets of expensive stones for frame enhancement.
Rimless styles are also popular among eyeglass wearers. The rimless styles can be a wearers
understated way of wearing eyeglasses without showing it frame. This involves metal and/or plastic
temples attached directly to the lenses rather than attached to a frame.

Now for the lenses, there are many options to choose from for your ideal glasses. The
aspheric, high index, polycarbonate, photochromic, polarized, and anti-reflective coating lenses are
among of the most popular lens types that offer good options. Aspheric lenses are more attractive
than other lenses since it has a slimmer profile and eliminates the bug-eye look from prescription
lenses. High index lenses are made of new materials which allow the lenses to appear lighter and
thinner than its regular plastic lens counterpart. Polycarbonate lenses are impressively 10 times
more resistant to impacts compared to a regular plastic lens. These lenses also appear thinner,
lighter and are great option for safety glasses, eye-wear for children, and for everybody who prefers
lightweight and durable lenses. The photochromic lenses are designed for individuals with eyes that
are sensitive to sunlight. The lenses quickly turn dark in response to bright conditions and returns
just as quickly to a clear lens with ordinary lighting. Polarized lenses are designed to reduce glare
caused by reflective surfaces like water and also for reduction of fatigued eye. And for eye lens add-
ons, the anti-reflective coating for lenses have the ability to dramatically enhance comfort and
appearance of glasses by minimizing the lights reflection off the lens surface which also functions
to reduce glare and tired eyes.

Exercises:
I. Put down the main ideas of the text.
II. Make up sentences using the underlined words.
III. Speak about the advantage of wearing contact lenses.
IV. Translate the text.