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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

School of Architecture, Industrial Design, and Built Environment

Proposed Disaster Ready Multi-Purpose Facility as a Solution for the Effects of Natural
Disasters in Oriental, Mindoro

The Philippines suffer an average of twenty (20)BYtyphoons annually, with it are devastating after
effects brought to the country and most especially the victims. Oriental Mindoro is the Capital
Province of Region IV-B MIMAROPAMAGBOO,in theKRYSSHA
Philippines. The province
APRIL B. is blooming in terms of
tourism and economic growth yet advancements are
2013122425 mostly hindered by natural disasters. The
province is ranked as the 9th province most susceptible to natural disasters specifically
flooding, according to Department of Environment and Natural Resources. That is why the
researcher sees fit to incorporate a disaster ready multi-purpose facility in the province.
Through the use of innovative ideas and resilient architectural concepts the researcher intends
to design a disaster ready multi-purpose facility. The facility that is the first of its kind in the
province aims to provide solution for the effects of natural disaster while benefiting the
province in tourism and economic growth.

ABSTRACT:

APPROVAL SHEET

This is to certify that I supervised and read the thesis of Kryssha April B. Magboo entitled Proposed
Disaster Ready Multi-Purpose Facility as a Solution for the Effects of Natural Disasters and
recommended it for acceptance and approval of the Thesis Evaluation Committee.

__________________________________________
Carlos P. Sauco
Thesis Adviser

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A Proposed Disaster Ready Multi-purpose Facility as a Solution for the Effects of Natural Disasters in Oriental
Mindoro.
MAGBOO, KRYSSHA APRIL B.
2013122425 4/10/2017

As member of the Thesis Evaluation Committee, we certify that we reviewed and examined this thesis and gave it an
evaluation of PASS/FAIL. We hereby recommend its acceptance as a partial fulfillment for the terminal design course
AR200-2 for the degree Bachelor of Science in Architecture.

__________________________________________
Firstname M.I. Lastname
Committee Chair

__________________________________________
Firstname M.I. Lastname
Panel Member 1

__________________________________________
Firstname M.I. Lastname
Panel Member 2

This thesis is hereby approved by the School of Architecture, Industrial Design, and the Built Environment in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Architecture.

__________________________________________
Gloria B. Teodoro
Dean, ARIDBE

1 general overview

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A Proposed Disaster Ready Multi-purpose Facility as a Solution for the Effects of Natural Disasters in Oriental
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1.1 Introduction

The Philippines is the most storm-exposed country on earth. Says Sophie Brown of time magazine in
November 2013.

Annually, there is an average of twenty (20) typhoons entering Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR). On the
last quarter of every year, typhoons become more frequent, in late September and early October of the year 2011,
back-to-back storms increased damage and destruction. Out of the 20 typhoons only eight or nine tropical storms
make landfall in the Philippines each year, while the remaining more or less 10 typhoons enter Philippine
waters. Eight of the top 10 deadliest cyclones to hit the Philippines took the lives of approximately 1,000 to
2,000 people, while typhoon Yolanda with its international name Haiyan caused over 10,000 deaths. The
casualties and damages including loss of life are devastating effects of natural disasters.

Oriental Mindoro, the capital region of MIMAROPA IV-B although blooming as a tourist attraction is one of the
most affected regions when it comes to natural disasters because of its topographical and geographical setting.
The province ranks 9th on regions most susceptible to natural disasters according nationwide to Department of
Environment and Natural Resources.

Flash floods and storm surges are common for the inhabitants of the province. It has been worse over the past
few years with the recent Typhoon Nona that left the province devastated. That is why the need for a resilient
structure in the province is stronger than ever. Although there are already several proposals for resilient
structures, there still lacks implementation most especially in rural areas whereas these areas are most affected.
Victim relocations are done mostly at schools and gymnasiums wherein such places does not cater to the needs
of the affected sector. These locations are makeshift evacuation facilities.

Having said that, stand-alone evacuation facility that would focus on properly providing adequate facilities for
the victims would not be economically feasible. The need for the facility is strong but the facility would sooner
be a tax-burden on the inhabitants of the region as it would not be of value after the disaster. That is why there is
need to introduce another facility to work harmoniously with an evacuation facility while promoting not only
what Oriental Mindoro needs, but also what it could be more in the future, a potential.

Through the use of innovative ideas and resilient architectural concepts the researcher intends to design a
disaster ready multi-purpose facility. The facility that is the first of its kind in the province aims to provide
solution for the effects of natural disaster while benefiting the province in terms of tourism and economic
growth.
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1.2 Background of the Study

With the average number of typhoons entering PAR, the effects of these natural phenomena is inevitable, but the
response to disaster is not. The response to calamities by the Philippines is improving, in the political level as
different government departments deliver relief goods to the victims of the most recent typhoon Lawin 2016
(devasted Northern Luzon) faster and better organized. Currently, the state of disaster management in the
country is improving yet still inadequate. The need for evacuation facilities that would cater to the needs of the
victims in dire need for help is still lacking.

As victims of harsh natural calamities flock to the nearest school or barangay halls they are faced with several
problems as well. The problems in makeshift evacuation facilities (schools, barangay hall, gymnasiums, and etc.)
such as overcrowding, health problems causing disease outbreaks, sanitary issues, water distribution and
communication are still evident until today.

According to by International Organization for Migrations (IOMs) Building Design Development, one third of
existing designated evacuation centers function as multi-purpose halls, and/or Barangay Halls, however 85% are
currently unusable. An audit undertaken by IOM in April 2013 has identified a need to build new fit-for-purpose
evacuation centers to provide safe shelter for communities vulnerable to disaster to be utilized as community
halls in non-disaster situations. (See Figure 1 pg. 3)

Oriental Mindoro, suffers from these tragedies annually, with one of the most memorable Typhoon Nona as one
of the strongest that left the province devastated. According to Governor Alfonso Umali, the province of Oriental
Mindoro suffered more than P4 billion worth of damage due to Typhoon Nona (Melor), 422,495 individuals
from 95,651 families were affected last December 2015. There were several evacuation centers appointed in the
province, yet said facilities are still not able to provide the needs of the victims for daily survival. Whilst after
the event, victims are still present on the makeshift evacuation centers that they are already causing disturbances.
*insert table on evacuation centers in baco)

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Figure 1 Current
Status of
Evacuation Centers
- post - Yolanda by
IOM

1.3 Statement of the


Problem

The uniting of the


need and potential
of the province of
Oriental Mindoro
would lead to
designing a
disaster ready
multi-purpose
facility as a solution for the effects of natural disasters, a structure that would combine the need for evacuation
facility and tourism potential of the Oriental Mindoro. Specifically, the research aims to answer the following
questions:

1. What type of facilities would potentially work harmoniously together to answer the need for a resilient
structure in a disaster prone rural area, specifically Oriental Mindoro?

2. What design guidelines or principles could be applied to a structure that would define it as a resilient and
disaster ready facility?
3. What are the design issues of spatial configurations when it comes to planning multi-purpose facilities?
4. What planning solutions could be applied for a large indoor facility to cater to different users in times of
different circumstances? (e.g. disastrous events, regional gatherings, simple conference meetings)

1.4 Assumption and Hypotheses

This study assumes that a disaster ready multi-purpose facility is an architectural solution for the problems in
natural disasters of Oriental Mindoro. The said facility would not only cater for the victims of cataclysm but
would also be a platform to showcase the tourism of the province while facilitating large events through
designing a resilient innovative facility that combines the needs and potentials of Oriental Mindoro.
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A Proposed Disaster Ready Multi-purpose Facility as a Solution for the Effects of Natural Disasters in Oriental
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1.5 Importance or Significance of the Study

Today, there are several proposals for disaster ready temporary structures on a smaller scale by the United
Architects of the Philippines Emergency Architects. But unfortunately, there are still no answers for addressing
the effects of natural disasters through the form of a permanent disaster ready structure wherein inhabitants of an
affected rural region could gather and stay safe during these devastating calamities.

The researcher intends Oriental Mindoro as the beneficiary of the proposal because she has first-hand experience
with the disastrous effects of natural calamities in the said province. The researcher sees a lot of potential in the
province but is also undeniably one of the most famous names when it comes to flash floods and landslides
because it is prone to said events due to its geographic and topographical setting.

Having said that, it is more likely that an evacuation facility would be the ideal solution for the problem but a
stand-alone evacuation facility could not be of value after and/or before a typhoon. That is why the researcher
sees fit to incorporate a disaster ready multi-purpose facility in the province.

One of the potentials of this province is that it is the capital province of MIMAROPA IV-B, requiring it to host
several gatherings. Since the province expects more tourists to come in the future as it conducts several regional
and provincial events it unfortunately lacks adequate events place/facilities to host large events. That is why it is
more likely that a spacious indoor facility would be the most ideal companion for an evacuation center as an
ideal disaster ready multi-purpose facility considering both of their spatial requirements to hold thousands of
attendees/users.

1.6 Definition of Terms

1. Resilient Architecture Resilient design is the deliberate design of buildings, landscapes, societies,
communities and areas in order to respond and react to natural phenomena and/or manmade calamities
and disturbancesas well as long-term changes caused by one of the major environmental problem
today, climate changeincluding sea level rise, increased frequency of heat waves, and regional drought.
2. Natural Disaster events such as a flood, earthquake, hurricane, tsunamis and other natural phenomena
that causes exponential damage to communities, livestock, livelihood and/or loss of life.
3. Cataclysm a sudden natural event that causes a lot of damage, for example a flood or an earthquake
(See no. 2)
4. Evacuation Center a structure that serves as a temporary shelter for victims of man-made and natural
disasters

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5. Indoor Facility a facility intended to host large events inside a closed structure, commonly a flexible
space catering to hundreds/thousands of attendees.
6. Rural Area Rural areas in comparison to urban areas has a very low density of people. It is a land
mostly provincial that has only few homes or other buildings.
7. Disaster Risk Management (DRM) defined as activities that aim to evade, diminish or allocation the
effects of hazards and disasters through avoidance, modification and preparation.

1.7 ACRONYMS

1. MIMAROPA MIMAROPA- Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon and Palawan; is an administrative region


in the Philippines designated as Region IV-B.
2. PAG-ASA Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomical Services Administration
3. PAR - Philippine Area of Responsibility
4. IOM International Organization for Migration
5. PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
6. DOST - Department of Science and Technology
7. PSWDO - Provincial Social Welfare and Development Office
8. PDRRMC - Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council

1.8 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The purpose of this study is to design disaster ready multi-purpose facility which would potentially be the
solution for the effects of natural calamities in Oriental Mindoro while providing a spacious indoor facility for
hosting large events for MIMAROPA. This study shall discuss innovative practices to harmoniously
accommodate both the need and potential of the region. The data to be used for the study shall be from the
province of Oriental Mindoro, the region capital of MIMAROPA IV-B. The said province houses 844, 059
people, wherein Calapan City, the city capital is the most populous garnering 15.9% of the total population of the
province.
The study is limited only in the consideration of the laws and codes for the disaster ready multi-purpose facility
in Oriental Mindoro. This also limits only on the data gathered and collected in Oriental Mindoro for the
proposal and is limited in the architectural design aspect only.

1.9 Conceptual Framework

Need + Potential of Oriental Mindoro

Need Potential
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Ineffective Response to the Capital Region of MIMAROPA IV-B


Effects of Natural Disasters
Lack of Indoor Public Assembly
Lack of efficient and Facilities
adequate evacuation facilities
Public hosting of
Makeshift evacuation regional/provincial/district
facilities events

Hosted in schools, barangay halls,


gymnasiums

Fit-for-purpose evacuation facility Indoor public assembly facilities


2 review of related literature and studies
Not economically feasible
2.1 RELATED LITERATURE

2.1.1 Oriental Mindoro: AResilience


Architectura Frequent Disaster StrickenAesthetic
Region in MIMAROPA IV-B
Architectura
l Criteria l Criteria
The province of Oriental Mindoro has experienced various hazards in the past and claimed lives and properties.
Stability Accommodating
The unfortunate events brought about a learning experience to the populace. Given its location and geographical
properties, the province is User-friendly
vulnerable to typhoon and consequently
Spacious flooding. Recent historical occurrences
proved that Oriental Mindoro is also susceptible to disastrous earthquake and tsunami.

The province of Mindoro was identified among the Top 10 provinces highly susceptible to flooding. The list
below came from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), to wit:

a. Pampanga Disaster Ready Multi-Purpose Facility


b. Nueva Ecija
Figure 2: Conceptual Framework Diagram
c. Pangasinan
d. Tarlac
e. Maguindanao
f. Bulacan
g. Metro Manila
h. North Cotabato

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i. Oriental Mindoro
j. Ilocos Norte

According to a report on the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) of the Mindoro
Earthquake of 1994;

The people were awakened from their sleep by the strong ground motion and afterward by the strong
ground motion and afterward by the strong sound created by the incoming tsunami waves. Most of those
who noticed the incoming tsunami were able to run inland and thus escaped the tsunami. Without this
tsunami, total casualty would have been only 29 instead of 78.

The earthquake on 15 November 1994 that struck Oriental Mindoro affected 13 out of 15 municipalities or a
total of approximately 273 barangays in the province. The 1994 earthquake event generated a tsunami which
accounted for majority of the casualties and significant damage to communities, livestock and livelihood
including loss of life. At that time the population of the province is less compared to its population today, but the
account of the tsunami and earthquake proves that it is not impossible in the province.

According to the official report of the Provincial Social Welfare and Development Office (PSWDO),
approximately 22,452 families were devastated. Fatalities were 78 confirmed dead while 430 were injured. The
municipality of Baco had the largest number of casualties, whereas 41 deaths were confirmed from drowning
caused by the tsunami that hit the coastal area of Malaylay, San Andres, Baco.

Another deadly hazard that occurred at the Province of Oriental Mindoro is the Typhoon Nona that hit the
Municipality of Baco. It costs and damaged too much. According to the official report of the Municipality of
Baco on Typhoon Nona of December 15, 2015:

The municipality of Baco was greatly affected and severely damaged by Typhoon Nona that started as
early as 9:00 am up to almost 5:00 in the afternoon on December 15, 2015 with heavy continuous rain
followed by strong wind that raised the typhoon signal No. 3. Unexpectedly, almost within the wink of
an eye roaring sound of flash flood with mud coming from the mountain range of Mt. Halcon in
Barangay Bayanan which was fully devastated, rolled in the netted rivers of Baco.

Baco, is identified as the catch basin of Mt. Halcon, therefore after heavy rainfall, flash flood occurs
simultaneously leaving Baco devastated. The whole town including the 27 barangays and municipal compound

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submerged in both water and mud that caused damaged to the lives and properties of many people. There are 11,
627 families who were affected by the typhoon and 15, 076 or 3,177 families were evacuated to different
evacuation centers in town. But the said evacuation centers were not enough to provide the needs of the victims.

All of these three events, tsunami, earthquake and most importantly flash flood are proof that the province of
Oriental Mindoro is in need of better disaster management and preparation. As of today, although evacuation
centers are present in the form of multi-purpose barangay halls, still there are no proper and safe provision for a
fit-for-purpose evacuation center.

2.1.2 Disaster Response and Management: The Need for Better Evacuation Facilities

Due to the priorities of the government locally and internationally to fund several economic-boosting projects,
there is not enough attention being brought to disaster response and management.

Rahman and Shaw (2015) said that:

It has been observed that developing cities generally spend only a small fraction of their budgets on
disaster preparedness. Such limited investment in rural resilience can lead to massive damage after
catastrophic events occur. Experiences show that even a small investment in rural risk reduction is more
effective than picking up the pieces after a disaster. (p. 201)

Rahman & Shaw, (2015) also argued that disastrous events have occurred in both developing and developed
nations, but developing nations are more vulnerable and experience such incidents more intensely. (p. 201) The
Philippines is a developing country that is very susceptible to natural disasters due to its geographical setting.
According to Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomical Services Administration (PAG-ASA) there is an
average of 20 typhoons entering Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) annually. Casualties and damages are
a heavy burden upon victims of these natural phenomena, and after such devastation a safe and secure place
must be made available for the victims. Quebral, Salanguit, & Salvame (2013) says that when an urgent situation
arises evacuation shelters are needed, the general public expects that officials have thoroughly planned how
these shelters are implemented. (p. 24)

Evacuation centers are provided for public use in the event of disasters when affected people do not have a place
to go. Quebral, Salanguit, & Salvame (2013) says that unfortunately, the country does not have a center built for
the purpose of taking in people affected by calamities. Affected families flock to schools and multi-purpose halls
provided by local barangay. (p. 24)

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Although makeshift evacuation facilities in the form of schools and multi-purpose halls are provided, they are
poorly equipped to accommodate the victims nonetheless they are not designed to function as an evacuation
facility. Several issues arises such as overcrowding, health problems, disease outbreak, sanitation issues, lack of
water distribution, and other factors that are necessities for daily survival. Jewell (1921) argues that first and
foremost a building should be operated to perform its intended function to the best extent possible. (p. 31) and
having said that a school and neither a barangay hall may not be adequate enough as an evacuation facility.

According to Building Design Development in Eastern Samar, one third of existing designated evacuation
centers function as multi-purpose halls, and/or Barangay Halls, however 85% are currently unusable. An audit
undertaken by IOM in April 2013 has identified a need to build new fit-for-purpose evacuation centers to
provide safe shelter for communities vulnerable to disaster to be utilized as community halls in non-disaster
situations. But a structure that is not properly equipped would still not suffice the damages of natural disasters
hence, a resilient approach to an evacuation facility should be taken into consideration.

2.1.3 Taking a Resilience Perspective: Resilience as a Concept and Physical Form

Resilience is defined as the capability to familiarize oneself to changing conditions and to continue or recover
functionality and strength in times of pressure or commotion to what was once a comforting situation. It is the
capability of a victim whether be it an individual or a community to bounce back after a disturbance or
interruption.

According to Sanderson, Kayden & Leis (2016):

Resilience is a current understanding employed by many aid agencies to frame the links between
responses to chronic conditions and acute events, such as rapid onset disasters. Other previous
understanding over the last 40 years or so include disaster mitigation and preparedness, linking relief,
recovery, and development, livelihoods and more recently disaster risk reduction. (p. 26)

Resilience is a popular term when it comes to disaster response and management. The idea is basically bouncing
back after an unfortunate downfall. Resilience is a positive word. It builds in notions of what people and society
can do, supplanting and enervating focus of what has been done to them. (Sanderson, Kayden, & Leis 2016, p.
31)

While the idea of resilience as an understanding in the capacity of people to regain what is lost after disasters,
Sanderson, Kayden, & Leis 2016 says Resilience resonates differently in the urban sphere. With one of its

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strongest roots emerging from architecture and engineering. The link of resilience to physical form should not be
underestimated. (p.31) Resilience in architecture although interchanged with the concept of sustainability is a
different idea. Resilient design is the deliberate design of buildings, landscapes, societies, communities and areas
in order to respond and react to natural phenomena and/or manmade calamities and disturbancesas well as
long-term changes caused by one of the major environmental problem today, climate changeincluding sea
level rise, increased frequency of heat waves, and regional drought.

Ferenbacher (2013) finds that:

To design a building with resiliency means to start the design process by thinking carefully about the
typical use scenarios of the building, common points of stress due to normal use, as well as the most
likely disaster situations in the environment that could challenge the integrity of the building and/or
endanger its occupants. The local environment always plays a critical role in determining the factors that
make a building resilient or not, and so resilient design is always locally specific.

Disasters are a vital consideration in Resilient Architecture as argued by Ferenbacher (2013). Resilience in
architecture is not achieved without proper and thorough understanding of the users needs in times of calamities
and the stability of the structure. The approach is always locally specific, as a region may be different from its
neighboring areas which is also a game changer. But before a resilient approach could be incorporated in an
evacuation facility, one must first understand the existing process and design of evacuation facilities.

Therefore, Resilience is understanding, action, and response.

2.1.4 Evacuation Facilities: Process and Design

Emergency evacuation is defined as the instantaneous movement of people away from the risk, danger or actual
occurrence of hazard and disasters. Emergency evacuation plans are established to guarantee the safest, most
well-organized and most effective evacuation time of all expected residents of structure, city and region.

Quebral, Salanguit, & Salvame (2013) says that Evacuation is a complex process and careful planning can
minimize risks associated with it. Hence, it is essential to consider some factors in order to establish an effective
evacuation site in terms of practicality and cost efficiency. (p. 138) Emergency evacuation centers are required
aspects of any recognized crisis operations plan. It serves as a temporary shelter for victims of disasters. But
evacuation shelters must be properly designed with consideration to the circulation of users and stability of the
structure itself.

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Evacuation shelter systems are types of building construction which are diverse in terms of forms, structural and
assembly solutions.

According to Burford & Gengnagel (2004):

they [evacuation shelters] are designed to provide weather protected enclosure for a wide range of
human activities. Enclosure requirements are generally very simple with the majority needing only a
weather protecting membrane or skin supported by some form of erectable structure. (p. 32)

While Bappenas (2005) says that:

The use of a building as a vertical evacuation implies that the destination is expected to be not damaged
or damaged only to a certain extent of not endangering lives due to disaster, and that it could continue to
serve as a temporary safe shelter (p. 35)

In the Philippines flood water is the major problem brought by typhoons, with strong forces of flash floods and
storm surges they destroy everything in their paths. Flood, among other natural phenomena should be a priority
in consideration to designing a disaster ready evacuation facility. Flood water can cause structural and cosmetic
damage to a building, which can be expensive to repair, while Flood Resilient Design involves constructing a
building in such a way that although floodwater may enter the building, its impact is minimized. (Ferrer,
Morse, & Sina-on 2012)

Oriental Mindoro is a region that experiences flash floods, and because a resilient design must be locally specific
the proposed design for a disaster ready multi-purpose facility should feature a Flood Resilient Design.

2.1.5 Typhoon Resilient Design Strategies

Arch. Rey S. Gabitan (2016) says that The main strategy in protecting buildings from strong winds is to
maintain the integrity of the building envelope, including roofs and windows, and to design the building to
withstand the expected lateral and uplift forces.

Typhoon resilient design focuses on protecting the building wherein inhabitants are present within during and
after typhoons. Said design focuses on the integrity of the building envelop. Therefor an effective building
design for a disaster ready facility is essential in a frequent disaster stricken region.

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2.1.6 AFTERMATH: From Temporary to Transitional

Solving the problem of natural disaster by providing an evacuation facility, causes another problem itself. A
stand-alone evacuation facility is only defined by the frequency of natural phenomena thus, the said structure
although may be permanently stable is not economically feasible.

According to Bappenas (2006):

There is no such building designated or allocated only for vertical evacuation center, because of the
long term period of tsunami disaster [pertaining to Meulaboh City, Indonesia a tsunami-prone area]
and efficiency in urban space and cost. Evacuation Shelter Building (ESB) is defined by an additional
function assigned to the planned or existing buildings which already has a specific function. Hence an
ESB is a multi-function building. The existing function should be public function or public service
oriented function. The examples include: mosques, school, convention centers and shopping centers. (p.
35)

The transition from a temporary use of an evacuation facility during and after times of natural disasters into
another use that would benefit the community and as well as the site must be of vital consideration. Thus, the
idea of a transitional use or space should be recommended. Jewell (1921) emphasizes that operationally, the
relation of one function to another is equally important (p. 21)

Elizabeth Babister, shelter Transitional Community (2006) explained transition in emergency shelter as:

these are transitional as opposed to temporary. Emergency shelter is temporary and is intended
just to provide shelter for survival. Transitional implies something that is longer-term gives you space to
carry out activities rather than just surviving.

One good example for a transitional process would be those of public assemblies and large indoor facilities that
are of no use after a large event such as Olympic Games. These structures are high maintenance and is also not
economically feasible, but if designed and planned carefully could be successful enough to be self-sustaining.
The China National Convention Center was successfully repurposed from an Olympic venue.

An entry in China Today (May 2010) features that:

After the Olympic Games, the CNCC was renovated and reopened officially in November 2009. Up to
the 2010 Spring Festival, it held nearly 200 exhibitions, conferences, banquest and performances, with

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more than 100,000 delegates and thousands of exhibitors. Over 30 events were held whole participants
exceed 1,000 people. (p. 74-75)

2.1.7 Evacuation + Assembly Facilities: Harmony between Two Spacious Facilities

The construction of public assembly facilities must first be defined and carefully planned because all too often
projects are launched on the basis of personal desires, competition with other cities, community pride, political
pleasures, business influences and a score of similar reasons. Jewell (1921) states that these buildings [pertaining
to public assembly facilities] from such beginnings will remain a tax burden on their cities for many years to
come. (p.32)

There is currently no solid structure for public assembly facilities in Oriental Mindoro. Although the province is
the capital region of MIMAROPA IV-B, regional events are done in neighboring regions namely Marinduque,
Romblon and Palawan wherein such events if done in Oriental Mindoro shall provide a boost in tourism and
economic growth for the province.

Although, public assembly facility would prove to be beneficial for Oriental Mindoro it is also not economically
feasible. Ideally, an investigation of a communitys current demand should include an inventory of existing
facilities, followed by an examination of future requirements. To construct the public assembly facility most
needed by a community is perhaps the best formula for a successful project, but deciding what to build often
proves more difficult (Jewell, 1921, p.35).

An assembly facility is an ideal accompaniment for an evacuation facility as both requires spacious areas to
accommodate hundreds of users. Both facilities shall work harmoniously with each other because of the
combination of the sites needs and potentials.

Jewell (1921) emphasizes that:

The goal, it would seem, would be a facility tailor-made for its community, but at the same time
recognizing the specific or peculiar needs of that buildings users or lessees. From a functional
standpoint the floor plan of the building must reflect the affinity of certain activities for one another. (p.
71)

By combining both the need for a disaster ready facility and potential of Oriental Mindoro a disaster ready multi-
purpose facility is a tailor-made design for the community of the province.

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2.2 RELATED STUDIES

2.2.1 INTERNATIONAL

2.2.1.1 Fit-For-Purpose Cyclone Shelter Building, Bangladesh By Kashef Mahboob Chowdry

In remote
coastal areas,
and rural
landscape in
Bangladesh,
there are not
much roads
by which
directions can
be given
neither are
there
addresses or
postal codes.
Figure 3: Cyclone Shelter Coastal Belt of Bengal
The Cyclone Shelter in Coastal Belt of Bengal, Bangladesh showcases a design that fundamentally contains a
cruciform shaped two-storied volume, with a circulation ramp wrapping the inner structure, the said feature
provides added protection to the main building which is effective in times of natural hazards.

Also, ventilation and natural lighting wells are introduced in the four corners of the structure that remains
protected from high wind and flying debris during cyclonic storms. In order to ensure the ventilation of users
inside the cyclone shelter the use of small concrete openings are ensured. In order to ensure sufficient cross
ventilation there are high ceilings and perforations in external and internal surfaces.

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During general conditions without cyclones, the primary use


of the interior spaces would be for classrooms that caters
to the inhabitants of the community. Figure 4: Conceptual Sketches

Due to the
catastrophic
nature and
scale of a
cyclone, the
damage to
livestock,
crops and
property
cannot be
Figure 5: Section
entirely prevented or stopped. Nonetheless, the of Cyclone here
objective Shelter
is to lessen and, if possible, nullify loss or injury
to human, animal lives and other devastating effects of the cyclone. In cyclone prone areas, the cyclone shelter is
the ultimate symbol of safety, welfare and protection that would safeguard their lives. Instead of just satisfying
its functional purpose, the objective here is to generate a shelter that instills a feeling of safe belonging to the
inhabitants of that specific community and not only performs in the best efficient manner that fulfills its
functional purpose. Lastly, with consideration to its principal use as an educational facility, the design of the
cyclone shelter needs to succeed in appealing to the presence and curiosity of children, who are usually less
interested towards learning in the remote and far lying coastal areas of the Bay of Bengal.

3 Research methodology

This chapter introduces the methods that will be effectively used in this research; the research instrument and
research locale, respondents of the study, and the statistical treatment to be used in understanding the data to be
acquired.

3.1. RESEARCH METHOD

The method that will be conducted in this study is descriptive method. As widely accepted, the descriptive
method of research is defines as an investigatory study that includes precise and satisfactory understanding of
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outcomes. Descriptive method will be used to determine systematically the current conditions of disaster-ready
and multi-purpose public assembly facilities that would potentially be the solution to the needs of the target
beneficiary of the proposal. This method aims to anticipate furthering the information needed in this research.
Essentially, the method is suitable to this study because it aims to define the current condition of practical

analysis as it is used in actual practice and real-life demand of the proposed structure . Descriptive information
will be acquired through case studies, interviews, acquired statistical data and etc. The case study will be
conducted to extensively study the background, current status, practices or situation of related existing
structures. Whereas, interviews shall be done on the province of Oriental Mindoro wherein target interviewees
are head of local government departments of the Governors Office located in Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro
and also professionals with a background and knowledge on disaster planning and management.

3.2 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

Statistical data of reports (see collected data) from most devastating typhoons that made landfall in
Oriental Mindoro from 2010 to 2016, including affected families, flood prone areas, etc. are gathered
for the purpose of this research. The proponent has prepared different set of questionnaires (see on
appendices) for her interviewees; people with knowledge on the context of the proposal and people
whom shall support that there is a need for the proposal itself. The said set of questions varies per
professional occupancy of the interviewee. The researcher also conducts observational techniques to
further examine problems and issues pertaining to disaster ready multi-purpose facilities, it was also
used through case studies of current related structures in the Philippines.

3.3 POPULATION UNIVERSE AND SUBJECT OF THE STUDY

The population universe of the study will be the local citizens of Oriental Mindoro and all the potential local and
international tourists of Oriental Mindoro. The proposal will be mostly used by victims of natural disasters
during and after said calamities. Also, it could be used to hold large gatherings and assemblies for the province.
International and local tourists may also use the proposal as a means of conducting any event that requires a
spacious facility in a good tourist spot with ideal access from Central Luzon and Northern Visayas.

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Figure 6: Oriental Mindoro Density and Area by City/Municipality form 2010-2015


A Proposed Disaster Ready Multi-purpose Facility as a Solution for the Effects of Natural Disasters in Oriental
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2013122425 4/10/2017

Figure 8: Tourist Arrival Report Per Town from 2014-2016

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Figure 7: Tourist Arrival Report from 2008 to 2016

4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 PRESENTATION OF COLLECTED DATA

4.1.1 Case Study

4.1.2 Oral Investigation

Under this entry are summaries of interviews from different professionals that has knowledge regarding the
proposal. These interviews helped the researcher to have deeper knowledge and understand the key points of her
proposal as well as its strengths and weaknesses. Actual questions used for the said interviews are located in the
appendix.

4.1.2.1 Oral Investigation Provincial Officials from the Oriental Minodoro Capitol.

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Entries under this section is crucial for a holistic view of the Province of Oriental Mindoro.

A. Governor Alfonso Umali Jr.

Governor of Oriental Mindoro

Provincial Governors Office

B. Mr. Vinscent B. Gahol Administrative Officer

OIC Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Division

Provincial Governors Office

Mr. Vinscent B. Gahol is the officer-in-charge in the office of the Disaster Risk Reduction & Management
Division in Oriental Mindoro.

Q1: What is the state of Oriental Mindoro in terms of Natural Disasters?

According to him, like other provinces in the Philippines, Oriental Mindoro is not an exemption to the average
of 20 typhoons entering PAR and actually it is one of the most susceptible. There is an estimated number of eight
to ten (8-10) typhoons being experienced by Oriental Mindoro and of those, three (3) are typically most
destructive; Yolanda and Nona are some examples.

During typhoons come the secondary hazard, flooding, he said. Because Oriental Mindoro is gifted with major
waters and rivers and up until to date, although engineering interventions are being implemented, said rivers are
still unmanageable adding up to the hazard of flooding. When asked which community or municipality in
Oriental Mindoro is mostly devastated in times of such disasters, he mentioned Baco and Naujan. The
Municipality of Baco is prone to flooding because almost all of its barangays have many rivers.

Q2: What are your past experiences during natural disasters?

According to him, the disaster response before takes too long most especially because rescuers still comes from
Calapan City (the only city then with an organic personnel as a response team). He said that, Ang problema
talaga natin noon ay ang oras ng pagsagip ay napakahaba, lalo nat manggaling pa sa Calapan ang response
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team. Until came the Republic Act 10121: Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction Act of 2010, the act that made
disaster management the major responsibility of the province. Evacuation centers in barangay halls are being
implemented.

Q3: What is the current state of evacuation centers in Oriental Mindoro and how can they be further
improved?

Currently, school classrooms and barangay halls are being used as evacuation centers by municipalities. Mr.
Gahol also argued, hindi rin naman safe [pertaining to barangay halls and school classrooms used as
temporary evacuation centers], ibig sabihin kung nasaan yung baha nandun din yung mga schools/evacuation
centers. Pero dahil wala ngang evacuation centers pinagtyatyagaan nalamang. He said that in a single
barangay hall is not spacious and only two to three (2-3) families could be accommodated.

Oriental Mindoro is trying to continually improve barangay halls by putting up evacuation wards in barangay
halls that was implemented in 2013 using the standard of DSWD. Although standards for an evacuation center is
still not met.

Q4: Aside from an evacuation center, what facility do you think is needed by Oriental Mindoro that would
work harmoniously with the latter?

Mr. Gahol agreed that an evacuation center is not always needed by the province, although typhoons are
frequent. He sees it fit to incorporate a sports facility together with the evacuation facility. Marami tayong
sports competition dito sa Mindoro at kailangan natin ng facility para doon lalo na ang tulugan ng mga athletes
na nanggagaling pa sa ibat ibang rehiyon. Instead of accommodating athletes in hotels, why not build a sports
facility with lodging for them, he said as he strengthen his point. Because the feature of evacuation facilitates has
a spacious center, maybe it could also function as a training center or seminar areas. Kaya kung makakagawa
sana tayo ng isang evacuation center na parang isang sports complex at convention center, maganda sana.
Although a proposal is great, we must first identify a safe and ideal location for the structure he said. He gave
four strategic locations for the proposal which is Calapan, Naujan, Victoria and Baco.

Q5: What are some of the factors that the researcher should consider when designing a Disaster Ready
Multi-purpose Facility?

First, we must consider the evacuees he emphasized. In the interview, Mr. Gahol specifically said, kailangan
hindi maramdaman ng mga tao na sila ay victims. For the researcher, this statement was one of the most

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memorable lines in the interview as it fulfills the intent of the researcher to prioritize the victims of natural
disaster above anything else. He said that evacuees tend to go to evacuation centers to feel safe and secure.

Second, we must consider sanitation of the evacuation facilities. Cleanliness should be exercised properly most
especially that during natural disasters, disease is more evident. Restrooms should be with accordance to proper
ratio and number of users of the facility.

Third is the consideration of general development and space planning. Proper spaces designated for children,
pregnant women, elderly and persons with disability (PWD) is vital for an evacuation center. It is better if inside
the evacuation center children could play and or hold classes. He also said that in a community there is one or
two PWD, and in DRRM they do not neglect these people. Ang isang buhay na mawawala ay mahalaga. He
emphasized.

C. Ms. Lydia Munesca S. Melgar Supervising Administrative Officer | Field Coordinating Officer

OIC Provincial Planning & Development Office

Provincial Governors Office

Q1: What is the state of Oriental Mindoro in terms of Natural Disasters?

D. Mr. Orlando B. Tizon Supervising Tourism Operations Officer

OIC Provincial Tourism, Investigation & Enterprise Development Office

Provincial Governors Office

C.

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4.1.2.2 Oral Investigation Municipal Mayors of Calapan City, Baco and Naujan

Entries under this section is crucial for a specified understanding of the situation of natural disasters in the top
three flood prone and vulnerable cities and municipalities in the province. These information would also the
researchers basis and guide for site selection and analysis.

A. Hon. Mayor D. Leachon

Mayor of Calapan City

Office of the Mayor

B. Hon. Mayor Reynaldo M. Marco

Mayor of Municipality of Baco

Office of the Mayor

Hon. Reynaldo M. Marco is the elected Mayor of the Municipality of Baco.

Q1: What is the state of Baco, Oriental Mindoro in terms of Disaster Management and Preparedness?

As of now, this municipality is doing its best efforts to respond to disasters. As you can see our
Building for Disaster Management office is 90% completed. We also have newly purchased equipment, such as
rescue boats. We are maximizing our efforts in identifying flood prone areas throughout Baco. We are providing
trainings for our rescuers, equipping them with first-hand knowledge as to how they can carry out their tasks
efficiently. The municipality allots budget for food, medicine, gasoline and other necessities. Hon. Mayor
Reynaldo discussed.

Baco does not lack in manpower. That is what the Mayor emphasized. They are talking to residents of the
municipality, most especially those who have cars to help out in rescuing victims of natural disasters, as well as
the local police officers.

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The best way of prevention is information. The Mayor said. nakikipag-usap na tayo sa mga tao, lalong
lalo na sa mga vulnerable families, and we are informing them as much as possible, LEVEL 1 means
information, LEVEL 2 means evacuation.

Q2: What are your past experiences during natural disasters?

According to him, the municipalitys worst experience of natural disaster during his administration would be the
Typhoon Nona of December 2015.

Mayor Marco said that, Isang baranagay Barangay Bayanan, was totally washed out including their
Poblacion, 183 houses taken down, and natabunan talaga yan, nawala talaga yan. He also argued that Bacos
agricultural sector was greatly affected, the death of l. And for the first time, their Municipal Hall was submerged
in flood with a height of six feet, wherein all of the ground floor offices were underwater. But Nona also left
flood mud or banlik as the locals call it.

Bacos typhoon related casualty are only three. One was taken by the current, while the other two were trapped
in their houses and unfortunately were not rescued.

Q3: What is the current state of evacuation centers in the Municipality of Baco and how can they be
further improved?

The Mayor said that the first problem of evacuation centers in the municipalities is that they are very small with
only little space for victims. A barangay hall could only take in five affected families. Second is that these
evacuation centers are also flood prone. Mayor Marco specifically said that, Ang isa pang problema ay itong
mga evacuation centers na ito ay nasa flood prone areas din, kaya minsan kapagh biglang laki ng tubig hindi na
natin madadala ang mga evacuees sa center.

The third problem is the distribution of relief goods, because the evacuation centers are submerged in flood, and
with the strong current, rescue boats are unable to pass through. In order to somehow counteract this, the Local
Government Units or LGUs are already advising the residents that as early as signal number 1, they should
already prepare food, medications and other necessities. So that if the signal reaches number 2, the residents
would be ready to transfer to the evacuation centers.

Q4: Aside from an evacuation center, what facility do you think is needed by the Municipality of Baco that
would work harmoniously with the latter?

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In other barangays they use their Barangay Halls as evacuation centers. Also these centers are used for trainings
and assemblies. So in a way their evacuation centers are already multi-purpose.

Q5: What are your thoughts on having a Disaster Ready Multi-purpose Facility in the Municipality of
Baco?

Mayor Marco is positive that the proposal would be very beneficial for their municipality. Hon. Mayor Marco
specifically said, Yan ang talagang sakin ay number one porposal yan. Dahil ang Baco and isa sa pinaka flood
prone area sa Oriental Mindoro, kami ang catch basin ng Mt. Halcon. Ibig sabihin, lahat ng tubig na nang
gagaling sa bundok ay dumidiretso dito saamin. He said that an evacuation center is the number one priority of
the municipality.

C.

Mayor of Municipality of Naujan

Office of the Mayor

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