Chapter 8 Exercises - Lyman Ott Michael Longnecker an Introduc

© All Rights Reserved

155 tayangan

Chapter 8 Exercises - Lyman Ott Michael Longnecker an Introduc

© All Rights Reserved

- Research Methodology
- Computer Assignment
- Destructive R&R
- Studying Methodology Workshop for FMT Students
- The Differences of Students Learning Motivation in Learning Civic Education Using Democratic Learning
- 309pdm31 Robust Design
- radlinski_etal_08b
- TRIXY CHAP4
- Statistics level 1
- tmp7AC8.tmp
- AQA Paper 4
- 2011_L1_FINAL
- Witte 19
- Finding P Agresti
- articol biostatistica
- Unit D
- Statistical Hypothesis
- 12 Chi Square and Odds Ratios
- IN-HOUSE TRAINING AS AN EFFORT TO IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE OF SPECIAL SCHOOL TEACHERS FOR THE DEAF ABOUT AUDIOVISUAL LEARNING MEDIA DEVELOPMENT.
- Cj 12040

Anda di halaman 1dari 13

8.9 Exercises

8.1 Introduction

Med. 8.1 For the port-wine stains research study, answer the following:

a. What are the populations of interest?

b. What are some factors besides change in skin color that may be of interest to the

investigators?

Med. 8.2 For the port-wine stains research study, do the following:

a. Describe how the subjects in this experiment could have been selected so as to satisfy

the randomization requirements.

b. State several research hypotheses that may have been of interest to the researchers.

8.2 A Statistical Test about More Than Two Population Means: An Analysis of Variance

Theory 8.3 Four techniques of teaching algebra are to be compared in five high schools. Four mathe-

matics teachers are randomly selected in each of the five schools and the four techniques are

randomly assigned to the teachers. The students are given a standardized algebra exam at the

end of the semester with the average score in each classroom used as the measure of the effec-

tiveness of the teaching technique. Therefore, five measurements of the teaching effectiveness

are obtained for each of the four teaching techniques. Would it be appropriate to use the AOV

F test to evaluate whether there is a difference in the average scores of the four teaching

techniques?

Theory 8.4 In Example 8.2, suppose the psychologist wanted to compare method 1 to method 2. What

is the advantage of using a t test having s 2W in the denominator as opposed to using the conven-

tional pooled t test of Chapter 5, with s2p, the average of the sample variances from method 1 and

method 2 data?

Theory 8.5 For an experiment comparing t treatments with sample sizes n1, n2, . . . , nt and sample vari-

ances s21, s22 , . . . , s2t , consider the following questions.

a. If the sample sizes satisfy n1 . . . nt, show the s 2W is the average of the t sample

variances, s21, s22 , . . . , s2t .

b. Does this hold if the sample sizes are not equal? If not, why not just use the average?

Ag. 8.6 A large laboratory has four types of devices used to determine the pH of soil samples. The

laboratory wants to determine whether there are differences in the average readings given by

these devices. The lab uses 24 soil samples having known pH in the study, and randomly assigns

six of the samples to each device. The soil samples are tested and the response recorded is the dif-

ference between the pH reading of the device and the known pH of the soil. These values, along

with summary statistics, are given in the following table.

Sample

Sample Standard

Device 1 2 3 4 5 6 Size Mean Deviation

B .176 .125 .013 .082 .091 .459 6 .0947 .2091

C .137 .063 .240 .050 .318 .154 6 .1227 .1532

D .042 .690 .201 .166 .219 .407 6 .2735 .2492

a. Based on your intuition, is there evidence to indicate any difference among the mean

differences in pH readings for the four devices?

b. Run an analysis of variance to confirm or reject your conclusion of part (a). Use a .05.

c. Compute the p-value of the F test in part (b).

d. What conditions must be satisfied for your analysis in parts (b) and (c) to be valid?

e. Suppose the 24 soil samples have widely different pH values. What problems may

occur by simply randomly assigning the soil samples to the different devices?

8.9 Exercises 439

Bus. 8.7 A cigarette manufacturer has advertised that it has developed a new brand of cigarette,

LowTar, that has a lower average tar content than the major brands. To evaluate this claim, a con-

sumer testing agency randomly selected 100 cigarettes from each of the four leading brands of

cigarettes and 100 from the new brand. The tar content (milligrams) of the cigarettes gave the fol-

lowing results:

Brand yi si ni

A 10.22 .478 100

B 10.77 .372 100

C 11.57 .352 100

D 13.59 .469 100

A boxplot of the data used to produce the table are given here.

brand for Exercise 8.7

(means are indicated by 14

solid circles)

13

Tar content

*

12 **

11

10

9

LowTar A B C D

Brand

a. Based on the information contained in the boxplot, does the LowTar brand appear to

have a lower average tar content than the other brands?

b. Using the computer output shown here, is there a significant (a .01) difference in

the average tar content of the five brands of cigarettes?

c. What is the p-value of the test statistic in (b)?

d. What are the practical consequences of making a Type I error with respect to your test

in (b)?

Source DF SS MS F P

Brand 4 941.193 235.298 1478.39 0.000

Error 495 78.784 0.159

Total 499 1019.976

Individual 95% CIs for Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev -+---------+---------+---------+-----

1 100 9.644 0.291 (*)

2 100 10.221 0.478 (*)

3 100 10.775 0.372 (*)

4 1 00 11 . 57 0 0 . 3 52 (*)

5 100 1 3.5 9 2 0. 46 9 (*)

-+---------+---------+---------+-----

Pooled StDev = 0.399 9.6 10.8 12.0 13.2

440 Chapter 8 Inferences about More Than Two Population Central Values

Theory 8.8 Four populations are to be compared based on differences in their means. Suppose the pop-

ulation means are given as follows:

m1 20 m2 25 m3 15 m4 35

Using the relationship mi m ti, compute the values of m and ti.

Consum. 8.9 Refer to Example 8.1. Apply the model yij m ti eij to the data in this example by iden-

tifying the values of t, n1, n2, and n3. Also, estimate the values of m, ti, s from the observed data.

Med. 8.10 Refer to Example 8.2. Apply the model yij m eij to the data in this example by iden-

tifying the values of t, n1, n2, and n3. Also, estimate the values of m, ti, s from the observed data.

Theory 8.11 Suppose that in a study for comparing five population means ni 10 for i 1, . . . , 5. The

data yield s2W 0. What can we conclude about the 50 residuals: eij yij yi?

Consum. 8.12 Refer to Example 8.1.

a. From the data set compute the 15 residuals.

b. Are the conditions for conducting the AOV F test satisfied by this data set?

Med. 8.13 Refer to Example 8.2. Are the conditions for conducting the AOV F test satisfied by this

data set?

Med. 8.14 Refer to Exercise 8.6. Are the conditions for conducting the AOV F test satisfied by this

data set?

Med. 8.15 Refer to Exercise 8.7. Are the conditions for conducting the AOV F test satisfied by this

data set?

Envir. 8.16 Refer to Example 8.4.

a. Apply the AOV F test to the original measurements using a .05.

b. Apply the AOV F test to the transformed data using a .05

c. Did transforming the data alter your conclusion whether the oxygen content is

related to the distance to the mouth of the Mississippi River?

Pol. 8.17 Refer to Example 8.6.

a. Apply the AOV F test to the original measurements using a .05.

b. Apply the AOV F test to the transformed data using a .05

c. Did transforming the data alter your conclusion whether there is a difference in the

four geographical regions with respect to their opinion of the EPA regulations on air

pollution?

Engin. 8.18 Refer to Example 7.9. The consumer testing agency was interested in evaluating whether

there was a difference in the mean percentage increase in mpg of the three additives. In Exam-

ple 7.9, we showed that the data did not appear to have a normal distribution.

a. Apply the natural logarithm transformation to the data. Do the conditions for apply-

ing the AOV F test appear to hold for the transformed data?

b. Test for a difference in the means of the three additives using a .05.

Biol. 8.19 Refer to Exercise 7.20.

a. The biologist hypothesized that the mean weight of deer raised in a zoo would differ

from the mean weight of deer raised either in the wild or on a ranch. Do the condi-

tions necessary for applying the AOV F test appear to be valid?

b. If the conditions for AOV F test are satisfied, then conduct the test to evaluate the

biologists claim. If not, then suggest a transformation, and conduct the test on the

transformed data.

8.9 Exercises 441

a. The school administrators want to determine if there was a difference in the mean

increase in test scores between the four methods of instruction. Do the conditions

necessary for applying the AOV F test appear to be valid?

b. If the conditions for AOV F test are satisfied, then conduct the test to evaluate

whether there is a difference in the means for the four methods of instruction. If not,

then suggest a transformation and conduct the test on the transformed data.

Cons. 8.21 Refer to Exercise 3.55.

a. The state legislative committee in charge of allocations for food stamps wanted to de-

termine if there was a difference in the mean food expenditures among the five family

sizes. Do the conditions necessary for applying the AOV F test appear to be valid?

b. If the conditions for AOV F test are satisfied, then conduct the test to evaluate

whether there is a difference in the means for the four methods of instruction. If not,

then suggest a transformation and conduct the test on the transformed data.

8.22 Refer to Example 8.5. In many situations in which the difference in variances is not too

great, the results from the AOV comparisons of the population means of the transformed data are

very similar to those from the results that would have been obtained using the original data. In

these situations, the researcher is inclined to ignore the transformations because the scale of the

transformed data is not relevant to the researcher. Thus, confidence intervals constructed for the

means using the transformed data may not be very relevant. One possible remedy for this prob-

lem is to construct confidence intervals using the transformed data, and then perform an inverse

transformation of the endpoints of the intervals. Then we would obtain a confidence interval with

values having the same scale units of measurements as the original data.

a. Test the hypothesis that the mean hours of relief for patients on the three treatments

differs using a .05. Use the original data.

b. Place 95% confidence intervals on the mean hours of relief for the three treatments.

c. Repeat the analysis in (a) and (b) using the transformed data.

d. Comment on any differences in the results of the test of hypotheses.

e. Perform an inverse transformation on the endpoints of the intervals constructed

in (c). Compare these intervals to the ones constructed in (b).

Engin. 8.23 In a 1996 article published in Technometrics, 38, pp. 1122, the authors discuss the relia-

bility of nuclear power plant emergency generators. To control the risk of damage to the nuclear

core during accidents at nuclear plants, the reliability of emergency diesel generators (EDG) to

start on demand must be maintained at a very high level. At each nuclear power plant there are a

number of such generators. An overall measure of reliability is obtained by counting the number

of times the EDGs successfully work when needed. The table here provides the number of suc-

cessful demands for implementation of an EDG between each subsequent failure in an EDG for

all the EDGs at each of seven nuclear power plants. A regulatory agency wants to determine if

there is a difference in the reliability of the seven nuclear power plants.

A 34 28 50 193 55 4 7 174 76 10 0 10 84 0 9 1 0 62

26 15 226 54 46 128 4 105 40 4 273 164 7 55 41 26 6

B 15 2 11 75 6 1 12 4 6 64 3 0 3 1 20 78

C 17 142 110 3 273 54 32 3 40 23 30 17 7 12 6 12 7 5

D 8 64 29 1 3 8 29 4 60

E 12 139 21 214 67 174 1 9 2 119 237 110 71

F 7 18 108 9 8 17 88 28

G 10 0 6 0 16 1 58 13 36 33 19

442 Chapter 8 Inferences about More Than Two Population Central Values

a. Do the conditions necessary for conducting the AOV F test appear to be satisfied

by these data?

b. Because the data are counts of number of successes for the EDGs, the

Poisson model may be an alternative to the normal based analysis. Apply a

transformation to the data and then apply the AOV F test to the transformed

data.

c. As a second alternative analysis which has fewer restrictions, answer the agencys

question by applying the KruskalWallis test to the reliability data.

d. Compare your conclusions to parts (a)(c). Which of the three procedures do you

feel more confident with its conclusion?

a. Apply the KruskalWallis test to determine if there is a difference in the distri-

butions of oxygen content for the various distances to the mouth of the Mississippi

River.

b. Does your conclusion differ from the conclusion reached in Exercise 8.16?

a. Apply the KruskalWallis test to determine if there is a difference in the distributions

of pain reduction for the three analgesics.

b. Does your conclusion differ from the conclusion reached in Exercise 8.22?

a. Apply the KruskalWallis test to determine if there is a difference in the distributions

of opinions across the four geographical regions.

b. Does your conclusion differ from the conclusion reached in Exercise 8.17?

Engin. 8.27 In the manufacture of soft contact lenses, the actual strength (power) of the lens needs to

be very close to the target value for the lenses to properly fit the customers needs. In the paper,

An ANOM-type test for variances from normal populations, Technometrics (1997), 39:

274 283, a comparison of several suppliers is made relative to the consistency of the power of the

lenses. The following table contains the deviations from the target power of lenses produced

using materials from three different suppliers:

Lens

Supplier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

B 156.6 158.4 157.7 154.1 152.3 161.5 158.1 150.9 156.9

C 218.6 208.4 187.1 199.5 202.0 211.1 197.6 204.4 206.8

a. Using the appropriate tests and plots given here, assess whether the data meet the

necessary conditions to use an AOV to determine whether there is a significant

difference in the mean deviations for the three suppliers.

b. Conduct an AOV with a .05 and compare your results with the conclusions from (a).

c. Apply the KruskalWallis test to evaluate the research hypothesis that the three

suppliers have different distributions of deviations.

d. Suppose that a difference in mean deviation of 20 units would have commercial

consequences for the manufacture of the lenses. Does there appear to be a practical

difference in the three suppliers?

8.9 Exercises 443

220

210

200

Deviations

190

180

170

160

150

A B C

Suppliers

.999

.99

Probability

.95

.80

.50

.20

.05

.01

.001

-10 0 10

Residuals

Average: -0.0000000 Anderson-Darling Normality Test

StDev: 5.53971 A-Squared: 0.718

N: 27 P-Value: 0.054

Ag. 8.28 The Agricultural Experiment Station of a university tested two different herbicides and

their effects on crop yield. From 90 acres set aside for the experiment, the station used herbicide

1 on a random sample of 30 acres, herbicide 2 on a second random sample of 30 acres, and they

used the remaining 30 acres as a control. At the end of the growing season, the yields (in bushels

per acre) were as follows:

Sample Standard

Sample Mean Deviation Sample Sizes

Herbicide 2 89.3 7.8 30

Control 85.0 7.4 30

a. Use these data to conduct a one-way analysis of variance to test whether there is a

difference in the mean yields. Use a .05.

b. Construct 95% condence intervals on the mean yields mi.

c. Which of the mean yields appear to be different?

444 Chapter 8 Inferences about More Than Two Population Central Values

Hort. 8.29 Researchers from the Department of Fruit Crops at a university compared four different

preservatives to be used in freezing strawberries. The researchers prepared the yield from a straw-

berry patch for freezing and randomly divided it into four equal groups. Within each group they

treated the strawberries with the appropriate preservative and packaged them into eight small plas-

tic bags for freezing at 0C. The bags in group I served as a control group, while those in groups II,

III, and IV were assigned one of three newly developed preservatives. After all 32 bags of straw-

berries were prepared, they were stored at 0C for a period of 6 months. At the end of this time, the

contents of each bag were allowed to thaw and then rated on a scale of 1 to 10 points for discol-

oration. (Note that a low score indicates little discoloration.) The ratings are given here:

a. Use the following plots of the residuals and a test of the homogeneity of variances to

assess whether the conditions needed to use AOV techniques are satised with this

data set.

b. Test whether there is a difference in the mean ratings using a .05.

c. Place 95% condence intervals on the mean ratings for each of the groups.

d. Conrm your results with the computer output given here.

Source DF SS MS F P

Group 3 159.187 53.062 55.67 0.000

Error 28 26.687 0.953

Total 31 185.875

Individual 95% CIs for Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Group N Mean StDev --+---------+---------+---------+----

I 8 8.3125 1.0670 (---*--)

II 8 6.4375 1.0155 (--*---)

III 8 4.0000 0.8452 (---*---)

IV 8 2.5000 0.9636 (---*--)

--+---------+---------+---------+----

Pooled StDev = 0.9763 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0

for Exercise 8.29 (means are

9

indicated by solid circles)

8

7

Ratings

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

I II III IV

Group

8.9 Exercises 445

Normal probability plot of

residuals for Exercise 8.29 .999

.99

.95

Probability

.80

.50

.20

.05

.01

.001

-1 0 1

Residuals

Average: 0 Anderson-Darling Normality Test

StDev: 0.927840 A-Squared: 0.503

N: 32 P-Value: 0.191

8.30 Refer to Exercise 8.29. In many situations in which the response is a rating rather than an

actual measurement, it is recommended that the KruskalWallis test be used.

a. Apply the KruskalWallis test to determine whether there is a shift in the distribution

of ratings for the four groups.

b. Is the conclusion reached using the KruskalWallis test consistent with the conclusion

reached in Exercise 8.29 using AOV?

H.R. 8.31 Salary disputes and their eventual resolutions often leave both employers and employ-

ees embittered by the entire ordeal. To assess employee reactions to a recently devised salary

and fringe benets plan, the personnel department obtained random samples of 15 employees

from each of three divisions in the company: manufacturing, marketing, and research. The per-

sonnel staff asked each employee sampled to respond (in condence) to a series of questions.

Several employees refused to cooperate, as reected in the unequal sample sizes. The data are

given here:

Sample size 12 14 11

Sample mean 25.2 32.6 28.1

Sample variance 3.6 4.8 5.3

b. Use the summary of the scored responses to compare the means for the three divi-

sions (the higher a score, the higher the employee acceptance). Use a .01.

Ag. 8.32 Researchers record the yields of corn, in bushels per plot, for four different varieties of

corn, A, B, C, and D. In a controlled greenhouse experiment, the researchers randomly assign

each variety to eight of 32 plots available for the study. The yields are listed here:

B 3.6 3.9 4.1 4.3 2.9 3.5 3.8 3.7

C 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.1 3.5 3.4 3.2 4.6

D 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.4 3.2 2.5 3.6 2.7

446 Chapter 8 Inferences about More Than Two Population Central Values

b. Perform an analysis of variance on these data and draw your conclusions. Use

a .05.

8.33 Refer to Exercise 8.32. Perform a KruskalWallis analysis of variance by ranks (with

a .05) and compare your results to those in Exercise 8.32.

Edu. 8.34 Doing homework is a nightly routine for most school-age children. The article Family in-

volvement with middle-grades homework: effects of differential prompting [Journal of Experi-

mental Education, 66:31 48], examines the question of whether parents involvement with their

childrens homework is associated with improved academic performance. Seventy-four sixth

graders and their families participated in the study. Researchers assigned the students, similar in

student academic ability and background, in one of three mathematics classes taught by the same

teacher, and randomly assigned the classes to one of the three treatment groups.

Group I, student /family prompt: Students were prompted to seek assistance from a family

member and the family was encouraged to provide assistance to students.

Group II, student prompt: Students were prompted to seek assistance from a family

member but there was no specic encouragement of family members to provide

assistance to students.

Group III, no prompts: Students were not prompted to seek assistance from a family

member nor were family members encouraged to provide assistance to students.

Thus, one class was assigned to each of the three treatment groups. The researchers gave

the students a posttest, with the results given here:

Group Students Score

Student prompt 22 66%

No prompt 25 67%

The researchers concluded that higher levels of family involvement were not associated with

higher student achievement in this study.

a. What is the population of interest in this study?

b. Based on the data collected, to what population can the results of this study be

attributed?

c. What is the effective sample for each of the treatment groups; that is, how many

experimental units were randomly assigned to each of the treatment groups?

d. What criticisms would you have for the design of this study?

e. Suggest an improved design for addressing the research hypothesis that family

involvement improves student performance in mathematics classes.

Gov. 8.35 In a 1994 Senate subcommittee hearing, an executive of a major tobacco company

testied that the accusation that nicotine was added to cigarettes was false. Tobacco company

scientists stated that the amount of nicotine in cigarettes was completely determined by the size

of tobacco leaf, with smaller leaves having greater nicotine content. Thus, the variation in nico-

tine content in cigarettes occurred due to a variation in the size of the tobacco leaves and was not

due to any additives placed in the cigarettes by the company. Furthermore, the company argued

that the size of the leaves varied depending on the weather conditions during the growing sea-

son, for which they had no control. To study whether smaller tobacco leaves had a higher nico-

tine content, a consumer health organization conducted the following experiment. The major

factors controlling leaf size are temperature and the amount of water received by the plants dur-

ing the growing season. The experimenters created four types of growing conditions for tobacco

8.9 Exercises 447

plants. Condition A was average temperature and rainfall amounts. Condition B was lower than

average temperature and rainfall conditions. Condition C was higher temperatures with lower

rainfall. Finally, condition D was higher than normal temperatures and rainfall. The scientists

then planted 10 tobacco plants under each of the four conditions in a greenhouse where tem-

perature and amount of moisture were carefully controlled. After growing the plants, the scien-

tists recorded the leaf size and nicotine content, which are given here:

2 27.8523 14.1577 5.0473 44.9680

3 21.3495 7.0279 18.3020 34.2074

4 31.9616 7.0698 16.0436 28.9766

5 19.4623 0.8091 10.2601 42.9229

6 12.2804 13.9385 19.0571 36.6827

7 21.0508 11.0130 17.1826 32.7229

8 19.5074 10.9680 16.6510 34.5668

9 26.2808 6.9112 18.8472 28.7695

10 26.1466 9.6041 12.4234 36.6952

2 9.4712 8.1299 10.9249 5.8495

3 9.1246 11.3401 11.3878 10.3005

4 11.3652 9.3470 9.7022 9.7140

5 11.3976 9.3049 8.0371 10.7543

6 11.2936 10.0193 10.7187 8.0262

7 10.6805 9.5843 11.2352 13.1326

8 8.1280 6.4603 7.7079 11.8559

9 10.5066 8.2589 7.5653 11.3345

10 10.6579 5.0106 9.0922 10.4763

in the average leaf size under the four growing conditions. Use a .05.

b. What conclusions can you reach concerning the effect of growing conditions on the

average leaf size?

c. Perform a one-way analysis of variance to test whether there is a signicant difference

in the average nicotine content under the four growing conditions. Use a .05.

d. What conclusions can you reach concerning the effect of growing conditions on the

average nicotine content?

e. Based on the conclusions you reached in (b) and (d), do you think the testimony of

the tobacco companies scientists is supported by this experiment? Justify your

conclusions.

8.36 Using the plots given here, do the nicotine content data in Exercise 8.35 suggest violations

of the AOV conditions? If you determine that the conditions are not met, perform an alternative

analysis and compare your results to those of Exercise 8.35.

448 Chapter 8 Inferences about More Than Two Population Central Values

Boxplots of leaf size by group 50

for Exercise 8.36 (means are

indicated by solid circles)

40

Leaf size

30

20

10

0

A B C D

Group

leaf size for Exercise 8.36 .999

.99

.95

Probability

.80

.50

.20

.05

.01

.001

-10 0 10

Leaf size residuals

StDev: 4.75535 A-Squared: 0.205

N: 40 P-Value: 0.864

13

for Exercise 8.36 (means are

indicated by solid circles) 12

11

10

Nicotine

9

8

7

6 *

A B C D

Group

8.9 Exercises 449

Probability plot of residuals

nicotine content for .999

Exercise 8.36 .99

Probability

.95

.80

.50

.20

.05

.01

.001

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Nicotine content residuals

StDev: 1.62647 A-Squared: 0.443

N: 40 P-Value: 0.273

Ag. 8.37 Scientists conducted an experiment to test the effects of ve different diets in turkeys. They

randomly assigned six turkeys to each of the ve diet groups and fed them for a xed period of time.

Control diet level 1 of additive A 5.2, 4.8, 4.5, 6.8, 5.5, 6.2

Control diet level 2 of additive A 6.3, 6.5, 7.2, 7.4, 7.8, 6.7

Control diet level 1 of additive B 6.5, 6.8, 7.3, 7.5, 6.9, 7.0

Control diet level 2 of additive B 9.5, 9.6, 9.2, 9.1, 9.8, 9.1

b. Compute y and s2 for each sample.

c. Is there any evidence of unequal variances or nonnormality? Explain.

d. Assuming that the ve groups were comparable with respect to initial weights of the

turkeys, use the weight-gained data to draw conclusions concerning the different

diets. Use a .05.

8.38 Run a KruskalWallis test for the data of Exercise 8.37. Do these results conrm what you

concluded from an analysis of variance? What overall conclusions can be drawn? Use a .05.

Hort. 8.39 Some researchers have conjectured that stem-pitting disease in peach tree seedlings might

be related to the presence or absence of nematodes in the soil. Hence, weed and soil treatment using

herbicides might be effective in promoting seedling growth. Researchers conducted an experiment

to compare peach tree seedling growth with soil and weeds using with one of three treatments:

A: Control (no herbicide)

B: Herbicide with Nemagone

C: Herbicide without Nemagone

The researchers randomly assigned 6 of the 18 seedlings chosen for the study to each treat-

ment group. They treated soil and weeds in the growing areas for the three groups with the

appropriate herbicide. At the end of the study period, they recorded the height (in centimeters)

for each seedling. Use the following sample data to run an analysis of variance for detecting

differences among the seedling heights for the three groups. Use a .05. Draw your conclusions.

Herbicide A 66 67 74 73 75 64

Herbicide B 85 84 76 82 79 86

Herbicide C 91 93 88 87 90 86

450 Chapter 8 Inferences about More Than Two Population Central Values

8.40 Refer to the data of Exercise 8.37. To illustrate the effect that an extreme value can have

on conclusions from an analysis of variance, suppose that the weight gained by the fth turkey in

the level 2, additive B group was 15.8 rather than 9.8.

a. What effect does this have on the assumptions for an analysis of variance?

b. With 9.8 replaced by 15.8, if someone unknowingly ran an analysis of variance, what

conclusions would he or she draw?

8.41 Refer to Exercise 8.40. What happens to the KruskalWallis test if you replace the value

9.8 by 15.8? Might there be a reason to run both a KruskalWallis test and an analysis of vari-

ance? Justify your answer.

Engin. 8.42 A small corporation makes insulation shields for electrical wires using three different types of

machines. The corporation wants to evaluate the variation in the inside diameter dimension of the

shields produced by the machines. A quality engineer at the corporation randomly selects shields

produced by each of the machines and records the inside diameters of each shield (in millimeters).

She wants to determine whether the means and standard deviations of the three machines differ.

2 2.4 56.8 18.7

3 2.7 4.4 16.5

4 7.5 8.3 63.7

5 11.0 5.8 18.9

6 107.2

7 19.7

8 93.4

9 21.6

10 17.8

a. Conduct a test for the homogeneity of the population variances. Use a .05.

b. Would it be appropriate to proceed with an analysis of variance based on the results

of this test? Explain.

c. If the variances of the diameters are different, suggest a transformation that may alle-

viate their differences and then conduct an analysis of variance to determine whether

the mean diameters differ. Use a .05.

d. Compare the results of your analysis in (c) to the computer output given here, which

was an analysis of variance on the original diameters.

e. How could the engineer have designed her experiment differently if she knew that the

variance of machine B and machine C were so much larger than that of machine A?

Analysis of Variance

Source DF SS MS F P

Factor 2 4141 2071 2.73 0.094

Error 17 12907 759

Total 19 17048 Individual 95% CIs for Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev --------+---------+---------+--------

Machine 5 8.32 6.52 (---------*----------)

Machine 5 16.78 22.43 (----------*---------)

Machine 10 40.70 34.52 (------*-------)

--------+---------+---------+--------

Pooled StDev = 27.55 0 25 50

8.43 The KruskalWallis test is not as highly affected by unequal variances as the AOV test.

Demonstrate this result by applying the KruskalWallis test to both the original and transformed

data and comparing the conclusions reached in this analysis for the data of Exercise 8.42.

- Research MethodologyDiunggah olehSimhadri Ashok
- Computer AssignmentDiunggah olehSudheender Srinivasan
- Destructive R&RDiunggah olehKalyan Srinivas
- Studying Methodology Workshop for FMT StudentsDiunggah olehkangnalu
- The Differences of Students Learning Motivation in Learning Civic Education Using Democratic LearningDiunggah olehGlobal Research and Development Services
- 309pdm31 Robust DesignDiunggah olehwhatisname
- radlinski_etal_08bDiunggah olehdanpliske6330
- TRIXY CHAP4Diunggah olehJett Arney Garil Figueroa
- Statistics level 1Diunggah olehJames Wu
- AQA Paper 4Diunggah olehAmeen Hussain Fahmy
- 2011_L1_FINALDiunggah olehAnca Afloroaei
- Witte 19Diunggah olehAro Preethi
- tmp7AC8.tmpDiunggah olehFrontiers
- Finding P AgrestiDiunggah olehTabitha Howard
- articol biostatisticaDiunggah olehm_963934629
- Unit DDiunggah olehJacob Dziubek
- Statistical HypothesisDiunggah olehJhoanie Marie Cauan
- 12 Chi Square and Odds RatiosDiunggah olehAngela Mitchelle Nyangan
- IN-HOUSE TRAINING AS AN EFFORT TO IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE OF SPECIAL SCHOOL TEACHERS FOR THE DEAF ABOUT AUDIOVISUAL LEARNING MEDIA DEVELOPMENT.Diunggah olehIJAR Journal
- Cj 12040Diunggah olehFendy Hananto
- Questionnaire Analysis Using SpssDiunggah olehyasit10
- Handbook-of-Parametric-and-Nonparametric-Statistical-Procedures.pdfDiunggah olehPopa Andreea
- oneway anova.pdfDiunggah olehPkg Subis
- The Influence of the Application of Mathematics Learning Performance Assessment and Portfolio Assessment toward Senior Highschool Students’ Mathematics AchievementDiunggah olehInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- Research Hypothesis.pptxDiunggah olehaziskf
- Chapter_13 Correlation and Linear RegressionDiunggah olehcatherine wijaya
- Assignmt_June21Diunggah olehEs Claro
- UuuDiunggah olehIntan Azkiyah
- Inference about population variancesDiunggah olehPablo Inocencio
- Clinical rotation planDiunggah olehsubi

- LDSH 485 - Case Study Presentation by Hannah Madelaine Jocson on PreziDiunggah olehhnoor6
- 184-C1003Diunggah olehhnoor6
- AssociationDiunggah olehlinhkurt
- Handout on SQL Server Analysis Services TutorialsDiunggah olehhnoor6
- ImmigrationSurveillance NEG 2015CoreFileDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Set the Example (Chapter 3) Flashcards _ QuizletDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Financial Statement Analysis an IntroductionDiunggah olehhnoor6
- chapter_1Diunggah olehhnoor6
- The Minkowski Distance is Computed Using Equation 218 Therefore With h 3 WeDiunggah olehhnoor6
- ch02-SM-1Diunggah olehbilkeralle
- ch02-TBDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Chapter+14Diunggah olehhnoor6
- Murach SQL Server 2012 Chapter 3 Flashcards _ Quizlet.pdfDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Murach SQL Server 2012 Chapter 6 Flashcards _ QuizletDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Murach SQL Server 2012 Chapter 4 Flashcards _ QuizletDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Murach SQL Server 2012 Chapter 2 Flashcards _ QuizletDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Murach SQL Server 2012 Chapter 1 Flashcards _ QuizletDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Overview of Connecting to (Importing) Data - ExcelDiunggah olehhnoor6
- journeytoodswebinar-160323154938Diunggah olehhnoor6
- Hoffer Mdm11e Tif 09Diunggah olehOmar Khan
- CSS Shorthand Cheat Sheet by ExampleDiunggah olehhnoor6
- An Android Cheat Sheet (My Notes, Main Concepts)Diunggah olehhnoor6
- Family Setting ValuesDiunggah olehhnoor6
- Statistics Rio Part1Diunggah olehhnoor6

- 10spring asl762 seminarinsignlanguageteachingDiunggah olehapi-243476215
- australian animals sequenceDiunggah olehapi-326029017
- CHAPTER I Mind MappingDiunggah olehAmridio Zulhilmi Saifinnuha
- DLP in Applied EconomicsDiunggah olehTonette Gamboa
- task 3 measurementDiunggah olehapi-300269240
- ADEC - Al Manahil Private School 2016-2017Diunggah olehEdarabia.com
- Robert N. Shaffer, MD at 90: An Oral History and MemoirDiunggah olehGlaucoma Research Foundation
- tech intergration project part 3- diffusion of innovations medt 8461Diunggah olehapi-329059045
- Lesson 2Diunggah olehLeeann Randall
- resume for hillsdale othersDiunggah olehapi-319519517
- spring 2016 cuin 4375 syllabusDiunggah olehapi-357727805
- MemorandumDiunggah olehGerrive Oliveros
- photo 1 syllabus aDiunggah olehapi-351129462
- Reaction Paper1Diunggah olehClaire Ann Dajero
- wwi mini lessonDiunggah olehapi-355764164
- black and gold award ltr rec blazevski corser v1 0 140322Diunggah olehapi-245984093
- Seminole County Public Schools Budget Work SessionDiunggah olehWekivaPTA
- 1 BDiunggah olehCaramella Sousou
- kindergarten math lesson direct instructionDiunggah olehapi-351979305
- OBEdized Coourse SyllabusDiunggah olehJonald Sia
- What Are HomophonesDiunggah olehSYariza JamMuri
- Boris Lordkipanidze about a Federal program for HIV preventionDiunggah olehActual News
- a dente writing piece domain 4 pdfDiunggah olehapi-350956028
- Are You Going ToDiunggah olehCláudia Silva
- pete unit plan basketball 2015Diunggah olehapi-267317363
- AbstractDiunggah olehFitri Aini
- jennifer rios resume 2019Diunggah olehapi-417519995
- SohailDiunggah olehSyed Muhummad Arsalan
- edci 270 lp for interactive module badgeDiunggah olehapi-355618397
- Amir Reza Nemat TabriziDiunggah olehKatia Mulik

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.