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Thermochemistry Unit Practice

Basic Thermochemistry Practice

Two substances in a glass beaker chemically react and the glass beaker becomes very cold.
a. If the two substances are defined as the system, what constitutes the surroundings?

b. Describe the direction of heat flow.

c. Is the heat change positive or negative?

d. Is this an exothermic or endothermic reaction?

Transfer of Heat Practice: Fill in the blanks as conduction, convection, or radiation

a. _____________ the heat you feel from a fireplace
b. _____________ this type of heat transfer causes tectonic plates to move
c. _____________ boiling water
d. _____________ heat you feel from a hot stove
e. _____________ frying a pancake
f. _____________ fast particles colliding with slower particles
g. _____________ air travels this way
h. _____________ transfer through solids
i. _____________ transfer through space
j. _____________ moves as a wave
k. _____________ moves as a current
l. _____________ sun rays reaching earth
m. _____________ occurs with fluids
n. _____________ a coil on an electric stove
Heating and Cooling Curves Practice




Label each graph above as a heating curve or a cooling


2. What is happening to the temperature in the cooling curve?

3. What is happening to the temperature in the heating cure?

4. During which segments is one phase only present?

5. Which letters indicate the solid only phase on each curve?

6. Which letters indicate the liquid only phase on each curve?

7. Which letters indicate the gaseous only phase on each curve?

8. During which segments are two phases present?

9. What letter indicates condensing?

10. What letter indicates melting?

11. During which segment could the heat of fusion be determined?

12. During which segment could the heat of vaporization be determined?

13. Classify these processes as exothermic or endothermic.

a. Condensing steam ________________________
b. Evaporating alcohol ________________________
c. Baking a potato ________________________
d. Melting ice ________________________
e. Burning sugar ________________________
f. Sublimation of dry ice _______________________
i. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Practice
k. Conceptual
1. True or False - The heat capacity of 10 grams of water and 50 grams of water is the same.
2. True or False - The heat capacity for 10 grams of iron and 10 grams of sodium is probably different.
3. True or False - A substance with a high heat capacity will heat up and cool down faster than a substance
with a low heat capacity.
4. For each false statement above, change the wording to make the statement true.
5. For question number one, which mass of water would have a higher heat capacity? Explain.
6. Equal masses of two substances absorb the same amount of heat. The temperature of substance A increases
twice as much as the temperature of substance B. Which substance has the higher specific heat?
7. Substance A and substance B have the same mass and are at the same temperature after being heated. They
are then placed in a cool room. Substance A's temperature drops much more quickly than substance B.
Which substance has a higher specific heat?
8. Will the specific heat of 50 g of a substance be the same as, or greater than, the specific heat of 10 g of the
same substance?
9. Explain how our world would be different if water, which has a very high specific heat, had a low specific
m. Calculations
n. Water Substance Specific Heat
o. Hfus = 334 J/g H 2 O (s) 2.110 J/gC
p. Hvap = 2260 J/g H2O (l) 4.184 J/gC
q. H2O (g) 2.08 J/gC
10. What is the specific heat of a substance that absorbs 2.5 x 103 joules of heat when a sample of 1.0 x 104 g of
the substance increases in temperature from 10.0C to 70.0C?
11. A cube of gold weighing 192.4g is heated from 30.0C to some higher temperature, with the absorption of
226 joules of heat. The specific heat of gold is 0.0300 J/gC. What was the final temperature of the gold?
12. If 200. grams of water is to be heated from 24.0C to 100.0C to make a cup of tea, how much heat must be
13. Determine the overall heat required to change an ice cube of mass 5.51 grams at -2.0C to a gas at 110.0 C.
14. Granite has a specific heat of 800. J/gC. What mass of granite is needed to store 1.50 x 106 J of heat if the
temperature of the granite is to be increased by 15.5C?
15. What is the heat change when 76.0 grams of water freezes? Is this exothermic or endothermic?
16. A 55.0 kg block of granite has an original temperature of 15.0C. What will be the final temperature of this
granite if 4.50 x 104 kJ of heat energy is added to the granite?





ab. Energy Diagrams Practice
1. In an exothermic reaction the products have _______________________ energy than the reactants.

2. In an endothermic reaction the products have _______________________ energy than the reactants.
3. Define the terms exothermic and endothermic reaction.
4. Classify each of the following reactions as either exothermic or endothermic.
a. a) 2H2O(l) + heat 2H2(g) + O2(g) ___________________________
b. b) Mg(s) + Cl2(g) MgCl2(s) + heat ___________________________
5. The complete combustion of acetic acid (HC2H3O2) in oxygen gas to form water and carbon dioxide at
constant pressure releases 871.7 kJ of heat per mole of acetic acid.
a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction (include the heat in the reaction).
6. Draw an energy level diagram (similar to those observed in questions 1 and 2) for a reaction in which the
total energy of the reactants is 50 kJ/mol, the total energy of products is 120 kJ/mol. Label the diagram
7. Is this reaction exothermic or endothermic?
8. Consider the reaction A + 2B C. In this reaction, the total energy of the reactants is 80 kJ/mol, the total
energy of the products is 50 kJ/mol
a. Draw a diagram of the energy profile for this reaction (Just like in 6). Label the diagram.
b. State whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic _______________________________.
c. Calculate the energy difference between the reactants and the products.
d. The sign for the enthalpy change is __________________________.
9. Complete the sentences in the table:
af. Exothermic ag. Endothermic
ah. H sign is ai. H sign is

aj. Energy is ak. Energy is

al. Temperature (feels) am.Temperature (feels)

an. Products have less energy than ao. Products have more energy than
ar. Heat of Formation Practice at. Circle all substances that would have a heat of
as. formation (Hf ) equal to zero. Then, check to
see if you are correct by writing the Hf for each 21. I2 (s) bq.
au. Substance av. Hf 22. N2O (g) br.
1. Fe (s) aw. 23. C2H2 (g) bs.
2. C (g) ax. 24. Ca(OH)2 (aq) bt.
3. H3PO4 (s) ay. 25. Cu (s) bu.
4. Cl2 (g) az. bv.
5. Na (s) ba.
6. Na (g) bb. by.
7. F (g) bc. bz. Heat of Reaction Practice
8. F2 (g) bd. cb. Use a standard enthalpies of formation table
9. Ca (g) be. (Hof) to determine the change in enthalpy for
each of these reactions (Hrxn).
10. KCl (s) bf.
1. NH4NO3(s) N2O(g) + 2H2O(l)
11. Al (s) bg. 2. 2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g)
12. Br (g) bh. 3. NaOH(s) + HCl(g) NaCl(s) + H2O(g)
4. 2 CO(g) + O2(g) 2 CO2(g)
13. Br2 (g) bi. 5. CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l)
14. Br2 (l) bj. 6. 2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 H2O(l) + 2 SO2(g)
15. H2S (g) bk.
16. PbCl2 (s) bl.
7. 4HBr(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) + 2Br2(l)
17. Ni (s) bm. 8. CH4(g) + 4Cl2(g) CCl4(l) + 4HCl(g)
18. NH3 (g) bn. 9. N2O4(g) + 4H2(g) N2(g) + 4H2O(g)
10. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
19. CO2 (g) bo. 11. C6H6 (l) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(l)
20. I2 (g) bp. cc.
ce. Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy Practice
cg. Predict the sign of Ssystem for each of the following changes.
1. ClF(g) + F2(g) ClF3(g)
2. NH3(g) NH3(aq)
3. CH3OH(l) CH3OH(aq)
4. C10H8(l) C10H8(s)
5. Comment on the sign of Ssystem for the following reaction: Fe(s) + Zn2+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + Zn(s)
cj. Determine whether each of the following reactions is spontaneous.

6. Hsystem = 75.9 kJ, T = 273 K, Ssystem = 138 J/K

7. Hsystem = 27.6 kJ, T = 535 K, Ssystem = 55.2 J/K

8. Hsystem = 365 kJ, T = 388 K, Ssystem = 55.2 J/K

9. Hsystem = 452 kJ, T = 165 K, Ssystem = 55.7 J/K


10. Given Hsystem = 144 kJ and Ssystem = 36.8 J/K for a reaction, determine the lowest temperature in kelvins
at which the reaction would be spontaneous.


11. Determine whether the system Hsystem = 20.5 kJ, T = 298 K, and Ssystem = 35.0 J/K is spontaneous or


cn. Which of these reactions would one expect to be spontaneous at relatively high temperatures?
At relatively low temperatures?

12. 2NH3(g) N2(g) + 3H2(g) Hsystem = 92 kJ

13. 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) Hsystem = 58 kJ

14. CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) Hsystem = 178 kJ


cp. Calculate Gsystem for each process, and state if the process is spontaneous or nonspontaneous.

15. Hsystem = 145 kJ, T = 293 K, Ssystem = 195 J/K

16. Hsystem = 232 kJ, T = 273 K, Ssystem = 138 J/K

17. Hsystem = 15.9 kJ, T = 373 K, Ssystem = 268 J/K


18. Calculate the temperature at which Gsystem = 0 if Hsystem = 4.88 kJ and Ssystem = 55.2 J/K.


19. For the change H2O(l) H2O(g), Gsystem is 8.557 kJ and Hsystem is 44.01 kJ, What is Ssystem for the


20. Is the following reaction to convert copper(II) sulfide to copper(II) sulfate spontaneous under standard
conditions? CuS(s) + 2O2(g) CuSO4(s). Hrxn = 718.3 kJ, and Srxn = 368 J/K. Explain.


21. Calculate the temperature at which Gsystem = 34.7 kJ if Hsystem = 28.8 kJ and Ssystem = 22.2 J/K.