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2 MASS TRANSFER Vol.

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diffusivity, DAB (1). Also, if A and B are the more and the less mobile components,
respectively, then the mutual diffusivity DAB tends to have a value between
the upper and the lower limits of DAA and DBB (1).

Typical Magnitude of Diffusivity in Various Phases


Continuous phase Diffusivity (m2/s)
gas (atmospheric pressure) 105
liquid 109
liquid held in a solid matrix 1010
polymers 1012
solid 1014

Diffusion coefficients of common solutesolvent combinations are available


in handbooks. Tables and provide some typical data. Methods of measuring dif-
fusion coefficients have been described by Geankoplis (2) and Pratt (3). When dif-
fusion coefficients are not available, they can be estimated as discussed next.

Diffusivities of Some Common Solutes in Dilute Liquids


Solute Solvent Temperature (8C) D (  109 m2/s)
acetic acid water 25 1.26
acetic acid benzene 25 2.09
acetone water 25 1.28
benzoic acid water 25 1.21
carbon dioxide water 20 1.50
carbon dioxide water 25 2.00
chloroform benzene 20 2.11
chloroform ethanol 20 1.23
ethanol water 25 1.24
glucose water 20 0.60
glycerol water 20 0.83
methanol water 15 1.26
nitrogen water 20 1.64
oxygen water 20 1.80
oxygen water 25 2.41
phenol water 20 0.84
phenol ethanol 20 0.80
sodium chloride water 20 1.35
sucrose water 20 0.45
urea water 25 1.38
water ethanol 25 1.13

Diffusivities of Some Large Molecules (Globular Proteins) in Dilute Aqueous Solutions


Molecular weight
Protein (kg/kmol) Temperature (8C) D ( 1011 m2/s)
bovine serum albumin 67,500 25 6.81
urease 482,700 25 4.01
human serum albumin 72,300 20 5.93
human fibrinogen 339,700 20 1.98