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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION 3/16/2017

Chapter 4
TRANSIENT
HEAT CONDUCTION

ASSOC. PROF. DR. NAZRI KAMSAH


Department Of Thermo-fluid
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

SEMESTER II, 2016-2017

Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

PROLOGUE
In this chapter, we consider the variation of temperature with
time as well as position in one-dimensional systems.
We begin with the analysis of lumped systems in which the
temperature of a body varies with time but remains uniform
throughout at any time.
Then we consider the variation of temperature with time as
well as position for one-dimensional heat conduction
problems such as those associated with a large plane wall, a
long cylinder, a sphere using transient temperature charts and
analytical solutions.

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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

Lumped System Analysis


Lump behavior interior temperature of body remains uniform
at any times during heat transfer process.
Then temperature of bodies varies with time only, T = T(t).
Heat transfer analysis is called lumped system analysis a great
simplification in certain classes of problems.

Which one is the lumped system analysis applicable?


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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION


The Formulation
Initially the body is at a uniform
temperature, Ti.
At time t = 0, body is placed into a
medium at temperature T > Ti.
During time interval dt, temperature
of body rises by dT.
Energy balance on body, during dt
[Heat transfer
to body] = [Increase in energy
of the body]

Note that,
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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION


Rearranging,

Integrate from t = 0, at which T = Ti, to any time t, when T = T(t)

Taking the exponential of both sides and rearranging,


T (t ) - T hAs
= e -bt where b= (1/s)
Ti - T Vc p
Note: Reciprocal of b (s) is called the time constant.

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Plots of T(t) vs. t for various b.


T (t ) - T
= e - bt
Ti - T
This equation allows us to find
temperature T(t) of body at time
t, OR time t taken by body to
reach the temperature T(t).
1. large value of b indicates that
body approaches environment
temperature in a short time.
2. the larger the value of b, the
higher the rate of decay in
temperature.
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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

Heat Transfer Rate


Knowing temperature T(t) at time t, the rate of convection heat
transfer can be determined from
= hA [T (t) - T ] (W)
Q(t) s

Total amount of heat being transferred over time interval t = 0


and t is
Q = mc p [T (t ) - Ti ] (kJ)
Q is maximum when body reaches surrounding temperature T.
Qmax = mc p [T - Ti ] (kJ)

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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

Applicability of Analysis
Determine the Biot number, Bi for the system
hLc
Bi =
k
where Lc is characteristic length of body, defined as
Volume of body V
Lc = =
Body surface area As
Note: For large plane wall of thickness 2L, Lc = L; For a long
cylinder of radius ro, Lc = ro/2; For sphere of radius ro, Lc = ro/3.
Verdict: Lumped system analysis is applicable only if
Bi 0.1

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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

More on Biot Number


Physically, Bi can be viewed as
Heat convection
Bi =
Heat conduction

Small bodies with high k values are


good candidate for analysis,
especially if they are in air or gas
that is motionless.
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In-Class Exercise - Submit

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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

In-Class Exercise - Submit

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In-Class Exercise - Submit

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In-Class Exercise - Submit

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In-Class Exercise - Submit

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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

In-Class Exercise - Submit

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In-Class Exercise - Submit

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Chapter 4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

In-Class Exercise - Submit

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