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118 Integrated Systems for Agri-food Production ISAP03

2. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

ENERGY SAVING IN SPRAY DRYING PROCESS The program is divided in six parts, where specific calculations are performed.
The first part of the program is an entering data calculation from water and air
'DUNR9(/,0DWH%,/,6UHNR720$60LUHOD3/$1,1, database, separately created. Only a few entering data is necessary to know and to
Faculty of Food Technology, University J. J. Strossmayer of Osijek type in the cells, other data as a water and air enthalpy, water and air specific
Department of Process Engineering, volumes are automatically calculated.
F. Kuhaca 18, P. O. Box 709, 31000 Osijek, C R O A T I A The first column in data base (only part of data base adapted from Raznjevic
(1995) or complete version in the third work sheet in Excel programme) represents
ABSTRACT: In this work some possibilities to improve the conventional spray drying a temperature in the range of 0 - 450 C, the second column is a dry air enthalpy,
process using programming in Excel as a calculation tool have been presented. The the third is a water vapour enthalpy, all for the same temperature range 0 450 C
minimization of energy consumption during the drying operation can be achieved by [6]. The fourth column is a water enthalpy, the fifth is a dry air specific volume, and
recycling exhaust air. The maximum theoretical range of recirculation is 60%. The fuel oil the sixth column is a water vapour specific volume, all for the 0 - 100 C
saving rate depends linearly on the rate of recirculation, and the theoretical maximum fuel temperature range.
oil saving is approximately 14%. Ecological issues were also considered as well, since The related enthalpy and specific volumes are calculated using command (=
decreased fuel consumption lowers harmful gas emission to the environment.
VLOOKUP) for the temperature range specified in the entering data. For example,
KEY WORDS: spray drying, recycling, recirculation, optimisation, fuel saving
the water vapour enthalpy for the inlet air temperature is calculated using formula
[=VLOOKUP(H11;'Data base'!C5:E455;2;FALSE] and the dry air enthalpy for the
1. INTRODUCTION same temperature is calculated replacing integer 2 with 3 in the above formula.
Only one data from first part of the program is calculated in the second part of
The spray drying process needs a large amount of heat for water evaporation the program and returned in the cell H7 in the first part of the program. It is the
and for this reason heat saving is an important factor for the successful process amount of dried material leaving spray drier. This is done just for the purpose of
functioning. For the past ten years an intensive optimisation of spray drying having all the heat and mass data in the first part of the program.
operation has been performed. One of the early-published articles on energy The second part of the program calculates the basic heat and mass balance data.
conservation in spray drying has been contributed [1,2]. Since then a spray drying In this part of the program the basic calculations are performed. The amount of
optimisation using exit air recirculation has become a part of industrial practice. A dried material (cell I31), water evaporated (cell I33) and required amount of heat to
lot of existing plants have been redesigned, and manufacturers of spray drying evaporate water (cell I38) are calculated. From the data for the total amount of heat
equipment regularly offer new plants with process optimisation included. The required (cell I42), the amount of fuel oil is calculated (cell I45). The evaporation
efficiency (kg evaporated water/ kg fuel oil) is calculated in cell I47. The third part
energy minimisation contributes also to the process furnace burner emission
of the program calculates the heat and mass balance for the furnace where fuel
reduction giving an additional environmental improvement. However, the dryer
burning and hot air production take place. The total amount of the heat in the
plant operators still have a problem to understand and calculate a heat and mass
furnace represents the sum (cell I58) of heat from ambiental air (cell I52), heat from
balance, in order to see a potential savings in every day operation [3,4,5]. fuel (cell I54) and heat from combustion (cell I56). The heat from furnace is a sum
To make the spray drying operation more clear and understandable to those who run (cell I85) of heat from hot air (cell I74), and heat from products made by
or redesign the existing plants, or design the new plants, a process calculation using combustion: water (cell I76), nitrogen (cell I79) and carbon dioxide (cell I82). The
Excel as a program tool is used and presented below. Using Excel as a calculation furnace losses are difference between heat in the furnace and heat from then
tool, it is easy to calculate any spray drying process knowing only a few basic furnace, (cell I87).
entering data. The fourth part of the program calculates heat and mass balance of the spray
Moreover, it is easy to see any changes at any point of a spray drying process, drying tower. The total heat entering the tower is the sum (cell I93) of the heat from
and what is probably most important, this program contributes to a better the furnace (cell I90), heat from the wet material (cell I91), and heat from leak air
understanding of spray drying, especially in its thermodynamics. (cell I92). The heat leaving the spray drier tower is a sum (cell I103) of heat of
exhaust air (cell I96), heat from water evaporated (cell I97), heat from nitrogen
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(cell I98), heat from carbon dioxide (cell I99), and heat from dried material (cell
I100).
The fifth part of the program calculates overall process heat utilization. The heat
for water evaporation is calculated in cell I109, the heat in dried material is in cell
I110, and the heat in exhaust air is in cell I112. The furnace loss is in cell I113 and
the tower loss is in cell I114.
The heat balance is represented as a kJ/kg (cells from H117 to H122), and as a
percentage of total heat in the process (cells from I117 to I122). The mass balance
of exit air is represented as kg of each components (cells from H126 to H130), and
as volume of each component (cells from I126 to I130), which is important for the
exhaust system design (ducts, blowers, cyclones, scrubbers, air filters, etc.).
The sixth part of the program is process optimisation using exhaust air
recirculation as a method for energy conservation.
The maximum theoretical range of recirculation is 60%. The desired
recirculation range has to be print in cell I134. The ambiental air moisture content
is also entering data and has to be print in cell I135. For the desired recirculation
rate, the amount of blended quench air (recirculated air + ambiental air) is
calculated in cell I146. Taking into account the amounts of recirculated and
ambiental air, and their temperatures, the temperature of blended quench air is
calculated in cell I148. From the combustion data and quench air amount, the total
amount of hot air is calculated in cell I150, and heat content of hot air is calculated
in cell I154. From the heat required in the process the amount of fuel oil is
calculated in cell I157, and the fuel oil saving as a percentage of fuel oil for process
without recirculation is calculated in cell I160. At the same time in column D, cells
from D167 to D174, the moisture content of recirculated air is calculated, to be sure
that the dew point is far enough for every stage of the drying process.
For better understanding and following of the calculation procedure, the formulae
for each calculation step are presented in column B under title or in column E.

Figure 1
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Table 1
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recirculated and blended air. It means that the wet air in all process phases has
enough capacity to accept moisture from the dried material, and to keep the water
evaporated as vapour phase. Fig. 3 shows the potential fuel oil saving as a function
of recirculation rate. Fig. 4 shows how evaporation efficiency and required amount
of hot (inlet) air depends on the inlet air temperature.

4. CONCLUSIONS

This simple and effective model provides the first information concerning
possible fuel saving, based exclusively on the thermodynamic and physical data.
Figure 2 Figure 3
Using the program it is possible to reduce operating costs and to improve capacity
per unit of drying equipment.
It is evident that the fuel oil saving linearly depends on the rate of recirculation, and
the theoretical maximum is approximately 14%, for recirculation range of 60%.
Evaporation efficiency and required amount of hot (inlet) air depends on the inlet
air temperature. It can be seen that higher evaporation efficiency is achieved using
higher inlet temperature of hot air. As a result of this there is a less amount of hot
air in the spray drier. There is a certain limitation of inlet air temperature depending
on the heat sensitivity of material to be dried.
For practical purpose other factors, e.g. plant construction details, dedusting system
efficiency, blowers characteristics, etc., should be included.

Figure 4 Nomenclature

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION mwm amount of wet material [kg/h]


Xwm moisture content [%]
The table 1 is an example of program application. As it can be seen, the Dmc dry matter content [%]
calculation is performed for the entering data shown in the first part of the program. Twm temperature of wet material [C]
mdr amount of dried material [kg/h]
The results of calculations have also been shown in the active cells of the Process
Xd moisture content of dried material [%]
Flow Sheet, Fig. 1 where it can be seen how process respond on parameters entered. Tdm temperature of dried material [C]
The Fig. 1 represents the Process Flow Sheet, where all main process parameters LA leak air [%]
are shown. All cells are active, which means that any change in the process Tin temperature of hot inlet air [C]
calculations automatically induce the value changes in the cells of the Flow Sheet. Tout temperature of outlet air [C]
Therefore, it is easy to follow the process changes at any stage, even for minimal Ta temperature of ambiental air [C]
NCVF net caloric value of fuel oil [kJ/kg]
changes in the entering data.
h3a enthalpy of ambiental air [kJ/kg]
There are some other process parameters that are presented graphically here, in h2a enthalpy of outlet air [kJ/kg]
order to show the possibilities and gains of process optimisation. h1a enthalpy of inlet air [kJ/kg]
The moisture content in the critical process steps is shown in Fig. 2. It is evident h1w enthalpy of water on Twm [kJ/kg]
that in any process stages the moisture content is between 0.15-0.4 kg water/kg air. h2w enthalpy of water on Tout [kJ/kg]
These values are far from the value of 0.789 kg/kg, which is a dew point of h3w enthalpy of water vapour on Tin [kJ/kg]
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cp(N2) specific heat of nitrogen [kJ/kgC] T(air)bl temperature of blended air [C]
cp(CO2) specific heat of CO2 [kJ/kgC] meha amount of hot entering air [kg]
cpMwet specific heat of wet material [kJ/kgC] Q(air)bl heat of blended air [kJ/kg]
cpMdr specific heat of dried material [kJ/kgC] Qtot total amount of heat required [kJ/kg]
r(H2O) heat of evaporation of water [kJ/kgC] mfrec amount of fuel (recirculation) [kg]
cpf specific heat of fuel on 60 C [kJ/kgC] FS fuel savings [%]
Tf temperature of fuel [C]
mdm amount of dried material [kg/h] 5. REFERENCES
mev amount of evaporated water [kg/h] [1] M. Bilic, G. Glavas, Spray-Drying Simulation in Spreadsheet, Drying
mha required amount of hot (inlet) air [kg/h] Technology 10 (2) (1992) 509-519.
Q1 heat for water evaporation [kJ/h] [2] M. Bilic, Z. Olujic, A Model for Energy Saving in Spray-Drying the Detergents,
Q2 outlet air heat content [kJ/h] Proceedings 4th Mediterranean Congress on Chemical Engineering, Barcelona,
QU total amount of heat [kJ/h] (1987) 688-689.
mf required amount of fuel [kg/h]
[3] A. S. Mujumdar, Handbook of Industrial Drying. 2nd ed., Vol. 1., New York,
Cev evaporation efficiency [kg H2O/kg fuel]
Basel, Hong Kong: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 605-621, 1995.
mla Leak air [kg/h]
[4] K. Masters, Spray drying handbook. 4th ed., London: Longman Scientific &
Qa heat from ambiental air [kJ/h]
Qf heat from fuel [kJ/h]
Technical, 96-110, 1985.
Q comb. heat from combustion [kJ/h] [5] R. H. Perry, D. W. Green. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook. 7th ed., New
OFin total amount of heat in furnace [kJ/h] York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
m(aircomb.) total amount air for combustion [kg] [6] K. Raznjevic. Handbook of Thermodynamic Tables. 2nd revision edition, New
Qha heat from hot air [kJ/h] York: Begell House, 1995.
Q(H2O) heat from water in combustion [kJ/h]
Q(N2) heat from nitrogen [kJ/h]
Q(CO2) heat from CO2 [kJ/h]
QFout total heat from furnace [kJ/h]
QFL furnace losses [kJ/h]
QF heat from furnace [kJ/h]
Qsl heat from slurry [kJ/h]
QLA heat from leak air [kJ/h]
Qtin total amount heat in tower [kJ/h]
Qaout heat from exhaust air [kJ/h]
Qewout heat from evaporated water [kJ/h]
Qdm heat from dried material [kJ/h]
Qout total amount heat from tower [kJ/h]
Qplant total amount heat in plant [kJ/h]
Qev heat for water evaporation [kJ/h]
QTL tower losses [kJ/h]
RR recirculation range [%]
X air humidity [kg/kg]
mout amount of air leaving tower [kg]
mrec recirculation rate [kg]
m(air)lp amount of air leaving plant [kg]
mfa amount of fresh air [kg]
m(air)bl amount of air blend [kg]