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2203BPS Mathematics 2A

Assignment 2 solutions

(Overall total 20 marks)

Question 1 (from 12.1, Q2, page 279, hint: refer to examples 12.1, 12.7)

Given f ( x) x for 1 d x d 1 . Write the Fourier series of the function f ( x) on the


interval and determine the sum of the Fourier series.

Solution:

The Fourier series of f ( x)  x on > 1,1@ has the form


f
1
a0  > an cos(nS x)  bn sin(nS x) @
2 n 1

f ( x) is an odd function because f ( x)  f ( x) , so each an 0.

We only need to compute bn :


1 1
1 1
bn  x sin(nS x)dx
1
x cos(nS x) 1 cos( nS x )

 dx
nS 1  1 nS
1
x cos(nS x) 1
 sin(nS x)
nS (nS ) 2
1
cos(nS ) cos( nS )

nS nS
2 cos(nS )
nS
2 2
OR Odd n and Even n
nS nS
2
OR ? bn (1) n
nS

2 f
cos(nS )
Hence the Fourier series f ( x) is
S
n 1 n
sin(nS x)

2 f
(1)n
OR
S
n 1 n
sin(nS x) .

(total 5 marks)
Question 2 (from 13.1, Q2, page 295, hint: refer to example 13.1)

k for 10 d x d 10
Given f ( x)
0 for x ! 10
Write the Fourier integral of the function f ( x) and determine what this integral
converges to.

Solution:

The Fourier integral coefficients of f are

1 10 2k
S
Aw k cos( wt )dt sin(10w) if w z 0 ,
10 Sw
1 10
Bw
S
10
k sin( wt )dt 0

The Fourier integral of f is


f f 2k
>A
0
w cos( wx )  Bw sin( wx)@dw
0 Sw
sin(10w) cos( wx)dw .

Because f is continuous for x z r10 , the integral converges to f ( x) for x z r10 .


1 1 k
At x 10 , the integral converges to f (10 )  f (10 ) (0  k ) .
2 2 2
1 1 k
At x 10 , the integral converges to f (10 )  f (10 ) (k  0) .
2 2 2

This converges to

k for 10  x  10

0 for x ! 10
k
for x 10 and x 10
2

(total 5 marks)
Question 3
(from 15.2, Q6, page 355, hint: refer to 15.2.2, examples 15.4 and 15.6)

Solve the initial-boundary value problem using separation of variables.


w2 y w2 y
4 2 for 0  x  5 , t ! 0
wt 2 wx
y (0, t ) y (5, t ) 0 for t t 0
wy
y ( x, 0) 0 , ( x, 0) g ( x) for 0 d x d 5
wt
0 for 0 d x d 4
where g ( x)
5  x for 4 d x d 5.

Solution:

Let y ( x, t ) X ( x)T (t )
w2 y w2 y
4
wt 2 wx 2
w2 y 2 w y
2
2
wt 2 wx 2
XT cc 22 X ccT
X cc T cc
Take O where O is a constant.
X 22 T
X cc T cc
O
X 22 T
X cc  O X 0 -----------(1)
T cc  22 OT 0 ----------(2)

y (0, t ) X (0)T (t ) 0 for t t 0


X (0) 0

y (5, t ) X (5)T (t ) 0 for t t 0


X (5) 0

y ( x, 0) X ( x)T (0) 0
T (0) 0

(1) X cc  O X 0 gives
X A sin( x O )  B cos( x O ) where A and B are constants

when X (0) 0 , 0 B, ?X A sin( x O )


when X (5) 0 , ? 0 A sin(5 O ) ,
Since A z 0 , so sin(5 O ) 0
2 2
S nS
O , On for n 1, 2,3,...
5 5
nS x
X n ( x) An sin
5

22 n 2S 2
So, (2) Tncc Tn 0
52
2nS t 2nS t
gives Tn ( x) Cn sin  Dn sin
5 5
for n 1, 2,3,... and Cn and Dn are constants.
2nS t
when T (0) 0 , 0 Dn , ?Tn Cn sin( )
5

nS x 2nS t
? yn ( x , t ) X n ( x)Tn (t )
An Cn sin sin
5 5
Let bn An Cn since An and Cn are both constants.
nS x 2nS t
? yn ( x, t ) bn sin sin
5 5
f
nS x 2nS t
? y ( x, t ) bn sin sin
n 1 5 5

wy
Now find bn which satisfies ( x, 0) g ( x) ,
wt
wy
since ( x, 0) X ( x)T c(0) g ( x)
wt
f
nS x 2nS t
then y ( x, t )
n 1
b
sin n sin
5 5

wy f 2nS nS x 2nS t
bn
wt n 1 5 5
sin cos
5

wy f
2nS nS x
( x, 0) bn sin
wt n 1 5 5
f
2nS nS x
g ( x) b
n 1
n
5
sin
5

Using the sine Fourier series:


2 5 5 nS x
bn
5 0 2nS
g ( x) sin
5
dx

1 5 nS x
bn
nS 0
g ( x) sin
5
dx
f
1 5 nS x nS x 2nS t
? y ( x, t )
n 1
nS 0 g ( x) sin 5 dx sin 5 sin 5

0 for 0 d x d 4
Given g ( x)
5  x for 4 d x d 5.
Use integration by parts to find bn ,
1 5 nS x
bn
nS
0
g ( x) sin
5
dx

1 5 nS x
5
5 5 nS x
(5  x ) Sn cos 4
  cos dx
nS 5 4 S n 5

1 5 nS x
5
nS 4 5
2

cos  sin
nS S n 5 S 2 n 2 5 4

1 5 nS 4 25 nS 4
cos  2 2 sin
nS S n 5 S n 5
5 nS 4 5 nS 4
2
cos  sin
S n 5 S n 5
2

f
5 nS 4 5 nS 4 nS x 2nS t
? y ( x, t ) S
n 1
2 2
cos  sin sin
n 5 S n 5 5 5
sin

(total 10 marks)
Question 4 (from 16.2, Q8, page 397, hint: refer to 16.2.2) - optional

A thin, homogeneous bar of length L has insulated ends and initial temperature B,
which is a positive constant. Find the temperature distribution in the bar.

Solution: (the working is similar to Question 3)


wu w 2u
k 2
wt wx
wu wu
(0, t ) ( L, t ) 0
wx wx
u ( x, 0) B
Let u ( x, t ) X ( x)T (t )
XT c kX ccT
T c X cc
Let O
kT X
X cc  O X 0
nS x
gives X n An cos where An are constants
L
T c  O kT 0
n 2S 2 kt

Tnc  On kTn 0 Tn Dn e L where Dn are constants
2

u ( x, t ) X ( x)T (t )
un ( x, t ) X n ( x)Tn (t )
n 2S 2 kt
nS x 
L2
u n ( x, t ) An cos Dn e
L
n 2S 2 kt
nS x  L2
Let An Dn cn , un ( x, t ) cn cos e
L
Using the cosine Fourier series:
n 2S 2 kt
1 f
nS x 
u ( x, t ) c0  cn cos e
L2
2 n 1 L

The coefficients in the series solution are


2 L
L 0
c0 Bdx 2 B

2 L nS x
cn
L 0
B cos
L
dx
L
2 BL nS x
sin 0
L nS L 0
n 2S 2 kt
1 f
nS x  1
So u ( x, t ) c0  cn cos e
L2
2B  0 B
2 n 1 L 2