Anda di halaman 1dari 44

English for Economics 2.

Prepared by:

Moh. Haris Firdaus

Ph: 081232909470 - 08563453423

firdauz25@yahoo.com

@firdausharis

Majapahit Islamic University of Mojokerto

2013
Chapter I: ARTICLE

DEFINITE ARTICLE: THE

Articles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according to the gender or
number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman, the children.

'The' is used:

1. To refer to something which has already been mentioned.

An elephant and a mouse fell in love.

The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk,


and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.

2. When both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not

been mentioned before.

'Where's the bathroom?'


'It's on the first floor.'

3. In sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object:

The man who wrote this book is famous.


'Which car did you scratch?' 'The red one.
My house is the one with a blue door.'

4. To refer to objects we regard as unique:

the sun, the moon, the world


5. Before superlatives and ordinal numbers.

the highest building, the first page, the last chapter.

6. With adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:

the Japanese, the old

7. With names of geographical areas and oceans:

the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic

8. With decades, or groups of years:

she grew up in the seventies

INDEFINITE ARTICLE: A / AN

Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels),
'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)

Examples

A boy
An apple
A car
An orange
A house
An opera

NOTE:
- An before an h mute - an hour, an honour.
- A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a european, a university, a unit
The indefinite article is used:

to refer to something for the first time:


An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
Would you like a drink?
I've finally got a good job.
to refer to a particular member of a group or class

Examples:

with names of jobs:


John is a doctor.
Mary is training to be an engineer.
He wants to be a dancer.
with nationalities and religions:
John is an Englishman.
Kate is a Catholic.
with musical instruments:
Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
(BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.")
with names of days:
I was born on a Thursday
to refer to a kind of, or example of something:
the mouse had a tiny nose
the elephant had a long trunk
it was a very strange car
with singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such':
What a shame!
She's such a beautiful girl.
meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person:
I'd like an orange and two lemons please.
The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.
Notice also that we usually say a hundred, a thousand, a million.

NOTE: that we use 'one' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers:
I don't know one person who likes eating elephant meat.
We've got six computers but only one printer.

EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

There is no article:

with names of countries (if singular)


Germany is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Zimbabwe.
(But: I'm visiting the United States next week.)

with the names of languages


French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.
Indonesian is a relatively new language.

with the names of meals.


Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.

with people's names (if singular):


John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.
(But: we're having lunch with the Andrews tomorrow.)

with titles and names:


Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)

After the 's possessive case:


His brother's car.
Peter's house.

with professions:
Engineering is a useful career.
He'll probably go into medicine.

with names of shops:


I'll get the card at Smith's.
Can you go to Boots for me?

with years:
1948 was a wonderful year.
Do you remember 1995?

With uncountable nouns:


Rice is the main food in Asia.
Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive.

with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:


Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
She lives near Lake Windermere.
Have you visited Long Island?

with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports:


Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
Can you direct me to Bond Street?
She lives in Florence.
They're flying from Heathrow.
in some fixed expressions, for example:
by car
by train
by air
on foot
on holiday
on air (in broadcasting)
at school
at work
at University
in church
in prison
in bed
Chapter 2: Confusing Words (Rise vs. Raise)

Rise vs. Raise


RISE RAISE

Use raise for an action that a person does to


Use rise for an action that a person or animal
someone or something else. Raise is a transitive
does by oneself. Rise is an intransitive verb
verb it requires an object (to lift, to increase, to
it does not take an object. (to ascend, go up)
elevate)
Please rise from the chair. The Boy Scouts are raising the flag.
The sun rises in the morning. Please raise your hand if you want to speak.
The bread dough rose quickly. (past) The farmer raises wheat and barley.
He rises at 6:00 a.m. every morning
My employer raised my salary.

RISE Additional Meanings


MEANINGS Expressions

GET OUT OF BED He rises at 6:00 a.m. every morning


REACH UPWARD The towers of the bridge rise up 1,000 ft.
COME INTO ACTION A storm in rising in the North
OCCUR A quarrel arose among the two lovers.
INCREASE ALTITUDE The plane rose as it approached the mountains.
INCREASE RANK The rise of the middle class was easy to predict.
PROVOKE They tried to get a rise out of him by insulting him.
PRODUCE The Industrial Revolution gave rise to Urbanization
RAISE Additional Meanings
MEANINGS Expressions

FOSTER My grandparents raised me.


GROW Mrs. Green raises roses.
The engineer raised over four million dollars for his battery-operated
COLLECT
engine.
INCREASE The landlord raised my rent.
OPEN Raise the window shades and let some light in.
ANIMATE The good news raised his spirits.
ASSEMBLE The king had to raise an army before he could go to war.
CAUSE TROUBLE He was raising Cain in the back of the bus.

Common Mistakes
ERROR FIX

He raised the hood (bonnet) of his car and


He rised the hood (bonnet) of his car and worked on
worked on the engine.
the engine. (lifed, put up)

He rised at 4 a.m. in the morning to catch his flight He rose at 4 a.m. in the morning to catch
home. (woke up) his flight home.
We rose when the president came to greet
We raised up when the president came to greet us.
us. (stood up)
(stood up)
Chapter 3: Confusing Words (Loose vs. Lose)

Lose vs. Loose


LOOSE LOSE

The adjective loose is The verb lose is used when we stop having (no longer have)
used for something something, or we gradually have less of a particular attitude,
that is (1) not tied or quality, ability etc. For example, by misfortune, we fail to win
fastened in place; (2) something, or we misplace something, or we no longer have
not attached to something (including the death of someone). By good fortune, we
anything. lose weight, worries, a bad attitude, etc.
Sophie's tooth is
loose. (not securely
attached)
Sophie will lose her tooth in a day or so. (become unattached)
She is loosening the
tooth with her finger.

Your dog is loose. You might lose your dog if you don't keep him inside. (allow to
(free) runaway)
The football got loose,
so the other team took Our team needs to play better or we will lose the game. (fail to
possession of it. (free win)
from our possession)
You are too anxious. You will lose your temper if you continue this way. (expression
Hang loose. be unable to control )
(expression relax)

loosen (adj. loose, v. loosen, loosened) lose (adj. lost, v. lose, lost)
fastened (adj.) not well connected or attached
LOOSE adjective
MEANING SENTENCE

FREE, ESCAPED The chickens run loose in the yard.


NOT TIGHT He prefers to wear loose shirts.
Vegetables grow well in loose soil. / He carries loose change in
UNATTACHED, IN
his pocket. (disorderly, random, not tightly packed together)
RANDOM ORDER
We make loose leaf tea rather than using tea bags.
He has a loose explanation, arrangement, agreement.
APPROXIMATE, INEXACT

MEANING
EXPRESSION

ESCAPE, RUN AWAY


The horse will break loose from its enclosure if it is not closed
well.
RELAX, GET A LITTLE He walked onto the dance floor and cut loose. (intentionally lose
WILD control)
He doesn't want to be at loose ends. He doesn't know where to
HAVE NOTHING TO DO
go.
He was a loose cannon on the battle field. (someone who cannot
UNTRUSTWORTHY,
be trusted because they say or do things you do not want them
UNPREDICTABLE
to)
BE RELAXED Just go in there and hang loose. (stay calm, do not worry)
ALLOW EMOTIONS TO
The wolf let loose a howl. / He picks up a guitar and lets loose.
ESCAPE
HAVE NO CARES OR He is foot loose and fancy free.
WORRIES
LOSE verb (n. loss)
MEANING SENTENCE

He lost the election, game, match, competition by a


NOT WIN
landslide. (a lot)
She loses her keys quite often. She finds them again
MISPLACES
later.
ALLOW TO ESCAPE She will lose her dog if she doesn't close the gate.
MISS AN OPPORTUNTITY We lost a chance to see him before his left.
DECREASE WEIGHT Most people lose weight when they have the flu.
He lost his father recently to a heart attack. "I'm sorry for
DIE
your loss."
After he turned ninety, he lost his sight, hearing, voice,
STOP HAVING AN ABILITY
balance, sense of smell, etc.
After he turned ninety, he lost his temper, his control, his
STOP HAVING AN CONTROL
mind, his head, his cool. He lost it.
He must not lose his confidence, interest, hope, respect,
STOP HAVING AN EMOTION
heart, etc.
While walking in the forest, he lost his sense of direction,
STOP HAVING A SENSE
sense of time, etc. He lost his way.
He will lose his license if he is texting while driving.
STOP HAVING SOMETHING
(Br-EN license)
STOP HAVING A SPECIAL SKILL This food is terrible. The chef has lost his touch.
He lost time in the race because he had to repair a flat
STOP HAVING ENOUGH TIME
tire.
Lose him. (an unwanted person) Lose the attitude!
GET RID OF (unwanted character)
MEANING EXPRESSION

STOP KNOWING THE LOCATION We lose track of friends after we move away. We lose
OR WELL-BEING touch with friends after we move away.
HAVE NO RISK, NO CHANCE OF Ask him for a raise. You have nothing to lose. He needs
LOSING you.
They settled the disagreement so that neither person
STOP RECEIVING RESPECT
would lose face.
Think carefully. You don't want to lose sight of the
STOP REASONING CLEARLY
situation. (forget an important fact or goal)
Our team lost to / lost out to a team with an even worse
STOP REASONING CLEARLY
record. (forget an important fact or goal)
NOT SLEEP WELL, INSOMNIA He loses sleep because he worries.
He's lost it. (It refers to his sanity or peacefully state of
BECOME CRAZY OR CONFUSED mind)

Common Mistakes
ERROR FIX

Where did you loose your keys?


I don't know. No one ever sets out to loose something.
Where did you lose your keys?
It just happens.

Can you loosen the ties on my shoes?


(verb form)
Can you loose the ties on my shoes? He loosened the ties on my shoes. (past
form)

We losed the game with a score of 17 to 12. We lost the game with a score of 17 to
12.
Chapter 4: Used / be used to

Used to is same with a former habit

Be used to is same with accustoming to a new habit

Former Habit vs. Accustomed Activity


USE

Used expresses that an activity was a past habit; it was occurring at an earlier stage of life but not
now. It focuses on the past habit, not duration or frequency. (used + infinitive) It is a lexical verb
limited to past tense.
LECIAL VERB INFINITIVE CLAUSE

We used to go camping every spring.


We used to wake up early to go fishing.
My parents used to tell stories before bedtime.
BE USED TO

Used to expresses something that you are accustomed to; are familiar with and accept as normal.
Also, in Amer. Engl get used to (become accustomed gradually). The verbal expression is
followed by a gerund.
VERBAL EXPRESSION GERUND CLAUSE

We are used to going camping every spring.


We got used to waking up early to go fishing.
We were used to telling stories before bedtime.
Common Mistakes

ERROR SOLUTION

We used to go camping every spring.


*We are used to go camping every
(A past activity occurring at an earlier stage of life.)
spring.

We are used to going camping every spring. (It is a


family custom.)
We used to go there. (a past habit that ended)

*We used to go there for six We went there for six months.
months. (Use the past tense verb form with a quantity of time.)
Chapter 5: By the time vs. If

By the time vs. If


BY THE TIME

By the time expresses a time of completion. X will already be done when (by the time) Y
happens.
SUBJECT END-POINT TIME

We will have left the office by the time you arrive.


we will have invented more fuel-
by the year 2020.
efficient cars
IF

A future perfect clause followed by an if clause expresses the hypothetical completion of an


activity under a particular condition. X will already be done if Y happens.
FUTURE PERFECT CONDITIONAL TIME

If you arrive after 5 p.m.


We will have left the office.
(future hypothetical)
We would have invented more if oil companies had not discouraged it. (hypothetical
fuel-efficient cars. situation in the past that did not happen)
Chapter 6: Wishes

Wishes

Expressing wishes and regrets

Present Wishes Real vs. Unreal


A WISH THAT CAN COME TRUE

We use wish followed by an infinitive clause to express a wish that can occur in the future.
(A that-clause may follow hope or wish.)
SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

We wish to go with you. (direct request / demand)


We would like to go with you. (more formal request)
I hope (that) we can go with you. (suggestion / request)
*(that) I can go with you.
I wish

AN IMAGINARY WISH

We use wish + preterit to express a wish about a hypothetical (imaginary) situation.


Optionally, use that before the clause that complements the verb.
SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

wish (that) I were home in my country. (a private thought; a


I
longing)
wish (that) I could go with you. (an excuse due to inability, or an
I
expression of regret)
wish (that) you would let me pay for dinner. (pretend regret, or
I
upset)
I wish (that) you would turn that TV off! (low expectation request)
Unreal Wishes (Hypothetical)

Present and Past

Past Wishes Unreal


A PRESENT WISH ABOUT THE PAST

Wish followed by a clause with could have or would have expresses regret about a past action
that did not happen.
SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

I wish (that) I could have gone with you. (regret over a lost opportunity)
I Wish (that) you would have remembered to take the dog out. (nagging, anger)
A PAST WISH ABOUT THE PAST

Wished follwed by a clause with could have, would have, or a past participle expresses regret
about a past action that did not happen.
SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

I wished (that) I could have gone with you. (remembering a lost opportunity)
I wished (that) I had been old enough to drive. (remembering a wish)

Variations in Meaning

Regret & Upset

Wish Regret vs. Upset


HAD + PARTICIPLE

Wish may express regret over a past action that failed to occur. Wish is complemented by a
clause that includes the past perfect verb form. (that is optional before the clause.)
SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

(that) the store had had the shoes in her size. (She regrets they did not
She wishes
have her size.)
(that) you had let me know that you were coming. (I regret you did not
I Wish
let me know.)
They Wish (that) you had called before coming. (They regret you did not call.)
(that) my boss had bought us laptops instead of desktop computers.
I Wish
(I regret he did not buy laptops.)
WOULD HAVE + PARTICIPLE

Wish followed by a clause with would have expresses dissatisfaction or the unwillingness of
someone to do something.
SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

(that) the store would have had the shoes in her size. (She is unhappy they
She wishes
are unwilling to carry her shoe size.)
(that) you would have let me know.(I am displeased you were unwilling to
I Wish
communicate.)
(that) you would have driven instead of them. (They are upset you were
They Wish
unwilling to drive.)
(that) my boss would have bought us laptops instead of desktops. (I am angry
I Wish
he was unwilling to do so.)
Variations in Meaning

Lost Opportunity

WISH Lost Opportunity vs. Upset


COULD HAVE

"Could have" expresses regret over inability to do something physical or mental. The situation
is a lost opportunity.
SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

the store could have had the shoes in her size. (The store was unable to do so
She wishes
because they had none in stock.)
you could have let me know. (You were unable to do so because you could not
I wish
get to a phone.)
you could have driven instead of them. (They were unable to drive due to not
They wish
having a license or being incapable.)
my boss could have bought us laptops not iPads. (He was not able to buy laptops
I wish
due to budget limitations.)
WOULD HAVE

Would have expresses dissatisfaction and emphasizes someone's unwillingness to do something.


SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT

the store would have had the shoes in her size. (She was unhappy the store was
She wishes
unwilling to restock her size.)
you would have let me know.(I am displeased you were unwilling to
I wish
communicate.)
you would have driven instead of them. (They are upset you were unwilling to
They wish
drive.)
my boss would have bought us laptops not iPads. (I am disappointed he was
I wish
unwilling to do so.)
Chapter 7: Who & Whom

Who & Whom

Adding a Modifying Clause for a Person

Relative Pronouns for People Who / Whom / That


SUBJECT PRONOUNS

Who replaces a personal subject noun in a modifying clause. That is used informally as a
personal (animate) noun and which is not used at all.

The woman who called you is my friend.

The woman that called you is my friend. (informal)

OBJECT PRONOUN

Whom or who replaces a personal object noun in a modifying clause. That is used informally for
a personal (animate) noun and which is not used.

The woman whom/ who you called is my friend.

The woman that you called is my friend. (informal)


Forming a Who-Clause

Replacing the Subject or Object Noun

Who / Whom
SUBJECT PRONOUN OF CLAUSE

Who replaces the repeated personal subject noun in the modifying clause. Then the clause is
placed after the personal noun that it modifies.
The woman is my friend. The woman called you.
The woman is my friend. She called you.
SUBJECT of MOD CLS

The woman called you.


The woman is my friend.

who / that
The woman who called you is my friend.
OBJECT PRONOUN OF CLAUSE

Whom / who / that replaces the repeated personal object noun in the modifying clause. Whom is
more formal. Optionally, who, whom or that can be omitted (deleted).
The woman is my friend. You called the woman.
The woman is my friend. You called her.
OBJECT of MOD CLS

You called the woman


The woman is my friend.

who / whom / that


who(m) you called
The woman is my friend.
whom you called
Who / Whom Clause

Clause Position

Modifying the Subject of the Main Clause


WHO SUBJECT OF THE CLAUSE

The who-clause is placed directly after the personal noun that it modifies.
SUBJECT SUBJ of MOD CLS

The woman
who called you
is here.
She called you.

*that called you


The woman is here.
She called you.
WHOM OBJECT OF THE CLAUSE

The who(m)clause is placed directly after the personal noun that it modifies. The object
pronoun can be omitted.
SUBJECT OBJ of MOD CLS

The woman
who(m) you called
is here.
You called her.

*that you called


The woman is here.
You called her.
Modifying the Object of the Main Clause
WHO SUBJECT OF THE CLAUSE

The who-clause is placed directly after the personal noun that it modifies.
OBJECT SUBJ of MOD CLS

the woman
who called you
Here is
She called you.

*that called you


Here is the woman
She called you.
WHOM OBJECT OF THE CLAUSE

The who(m)clause is placed directly after the personal noun that it modifies. The object
pronoun can be omitted.
OBJECT OBJ of MOD CLS

who(m) you
the woman
called
Here is
You called
her.
*that you
called
Here is the woman
You called
her.
Object Pronouns

Omitting Who(m)

When can you omit who?


SUBJECT PRONOUN OF CLAUSE

When who takes the place of the subject noun/pronoun in a modifying clause, it cannot
be omitted (deleted).
The guy who is talking is the leader.
The guy is talking (subject)
The doctor who looked at my arm was young.
The doctor looked at my arm (subject)
Two girls who rang my doorbell sold me cookies.
Two girls rang my doorbell (subject)
OBJECT PRONOUN OF CLAUSE

When who takes the place of the object noun/pronoun in a modifying clause, it can
optionally be omitted (deleted).
The guy (who) you spoke to is the leader.
you spoke to the leader (object)
The doctor (who) I preferred was young.
I preferred the doctor (object)
Two girls (who) I chatted with sold me cookies.
I chatted with two girls (object)
How do you know if who is an object pronoun? (This is a method for simple clauses.)
FOLLOWED BY A VERB

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, then the relative pronoun is probably the subject of
the clause. It cannot be deleted.
The guy who showed us his car seems fair.
who verb (It's likely the subject.)
The driver who hit his car is apologetic.
who verb (It's likely the subject.)
The girl who lives next door drives a Honda.
who verb (It's likely the subject.)
FOLLOWED BY A SUBJECT NOUN / PRONOUN

If the relative pronoun is followed by a subject noun or pronoun I, we, he, she, they then who
is probably the object and it can be deleted.
The guy who we spoke to seems fair.
who we (It's likely the object.)
The driver who she ran into is upset.
who she (It's likely the object.)
The man who you met drives a Jeep.
who you (It's likely the object.)
Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions


ERROR SOLUTION

The guy who wants to play football is here.


*The guy is here who wants to play football.
The who-clause must be next to the word it
modifies.
The man whom/ who/ that you are talking about
isn't a friend.
*The man which you are talking about isn't a
Which is not used as a personal pronoun for a
friend.
person. Use that.

There's man on the phone who wants to talk to


*There's a man on the phone wants to talk you. A subject pronoun cannot be omitted.
with you. missing relative pronoun
Chapter 8: Whose

Whose

Adding a Modifying Clause for Possessives

Relative Pronoun for Personal Possession whose


WHO

Who replaces a personal noun or pronoun in a modifying clause (relative clause).


SUBJECT OF CLAUSE

The woman who is Greek is on the phone.


She is Greek.
OBJECT OF CLAUSE

The woman who(m) you met is on the phone.


You met her.

WHOSE

Whose replaces a possessive noun in a modifying clause (relative clause).


SUBJECT OF CLAUSE

The woman whose name is Greek is on the phone.


Her name is Greek.
OBJECT OF CLAUSE
The woman whose son you met is on the phone.
You met her son.

Forming a WhoseClause

Replacing the Subject or Object Noun

Whose as Subject or Object of the Modifying Clause


SUBJECT OF CLAUSE

Whose replaces the subject possessive noun or pronoun in the modifying clause. Then the
clause is placed after the personal noun that it modifies.
The woman is on the phone. The woman's name is Greek.
The woman is on the phone. Her name is Greek.
SUBJECT of MOD CLS

Her name is Greek


The woman is on the phone.

whose name
The woman whose name is Greek is on the phone.
OBJECT OF CLAUSE

Whose replaces the object possessive noun or pronoun in the modifying clause, which is
placed after the personal noun it modifies.
The woman is on the phone. You met the woman's son.
The woman is on the phone. You met her son.
OBJECT of MOD CLS

You met her son


The woman is on the phone.

whose son
The woman whose son you met is on the phone.

Add commas if the clause adds extra information that is not essential to identifying who the
person is. (a non-identifying, non-restrictive clause) See Some or All and That vs Which

Whose-Clause

Clause Position

Modifying the Subject of the Main Clause


SUBJECT of MOD CLS MODIFIES SUBJECT OF MAIN CLAUSE

Below, a whose-clause modifies the subject noun of the main clause. Whose+noun has taken the
place of the subject pronoun in the modifying clause.
The man is a doctor. His show is entertaining.
The doctor is successful. His advice is amusing.
SUBJECT SUBJECT of MOD CLS

The man whose show is entertaining


is a doctor.
subjectverbadjective
The doctor whose advice is amusing is successful on TV.
OBJECT of MOD CLS MODIFIES SUBJECT OF MAIN CLAUSE

Below, a that-clause modifies the subject noun of the main clause. That has taken the place of
the object pronoun in the modifying clause.
The man is a doctor. We watch his show.
The doctor is successful. We value his advice .
SUBJECT SUBJECT of MOD CLS

The man
whose show we watch
is a doctor.
objectsubjectverb

The doctor whose advice we value is successful on TV.

complement a word, phrase or clause which is necessary in a sentence to complete its meaning
verb + complement elements required to complete the meaning of the clause

Modifying the Object of the Main Clause


MODIFIES OBJECT OF MAIN CLAUSE

Below, a whose-clause modifies the object noun of the main clause. whose is the subject
pronoun in the modifying clause.
We watch the doctor. His TV show is funny.
Do you know the talk show host. His name is Turkish?
OBJECT OBJECT of MOD CLS
the doctor
whose TV show is funny
We watch
subjectverbadjective

Do you know the talk show host whose name is Turkish?


MODIFIES OBJECT OF MAIN CLAUSE

Below, a that-clause modifies the object noun of the main clause. That is also the object
pronoun in the modifying clause.
We watch the doctor. You like his TV show.
The doctor is successful. We value his advice.
OBJECT OBJECT of MOD CLS

the doctor
whose TV show you like.
We watch
objectsubjectverb

the talk show


Do you know whose name i can't remember?
host

Whose-Clause

Punctuation

An identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause


IDENTIFYING CLAUSE

A clause that identifies the noun before it (tells you which person) is not set off with
commas. No comma(s) is/are used.
You met the woman whose first name is Greek.
The man whose TV show is popular is a doctor.
NON-IDENTIFYING CLAUSE

A clause that adds extra, nonidentifying information is set off with comma(s). See Commas
You met Arianna, whose first name is Greek.
Dr. Oz, whose TV show is popular, is a doctor.

An identifying clause adds information or narrows the noun to a specific one, group or lot. The
clause helps by telling us which one. No commas are used. It is also called restrictive, essential ,
or necessary clause.

A nonidentifying clause adds extra information about a noun already identified by other means,
for example, by name, by shared knowledge or context. The clause, a comment, is set off with
commas (before and, if necessary, after the clause). It is also called nonrestrictive, nonessential,
or unnecessary clause.

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions


ERROR SOLUTION

*The runner who his balloons popped ran


The runner whose balloons popped ran to the finish
to the finish line naked!
line naked!

*The woman whose husband we chatted The woman whose husband we chatted with [him]
with him lives next door. lives next door.
*The woman who her husband is from
The woman whose husband is from Uruguay is going
Uruguay is going to be the CEO of the
to be the CEO of the company. (Change who her to
company.
whose.)
Chapter 9: That vs. Which

That vs. Which

Adding a modifying clause to identify which noun

An Identifying vs. Nonidentifying Relative Clause


AN IDENTIFYING RELATIVE CLAUSE THAT /
A NONIDENTIFYING RELATIVE CLAUSE WHICH
WHICH

An identifying (restrictive) relative clause


A nonidentifying (non-restrictive) relative clause
adds information or narrows the noun to a
adds extra information about a noun already
specific one, group or lot. The clause helps
identified by other means, for example, by name,
by telling us which one, where or when. The
by shared knowledge or context. The clause is just
pronoun which is used when it is preceded by
adding interesting information. That is not used in
a preposition. NO COMMAS are used to set
a nonidentifying clause. COMMAS are used
off the clause. The pronoun that is more
before and after the clause.
commonly used.
The water that I drank last night contained The Evian water, which I drank last night,
sodium. (identifies the specific one) contained sodium. (adds extra info)
The car that runs off of a lithium-ion battery The Tesla, which runs off of a lithium-ion battery,
is surprisingly fast. is surprisingly fast.
The problem about which I wrote is the The Lost Generation , about which I wrote, is the
subject of today's lecture. subject of today's lecture.
Alcatraz Prison, which is located in San Francisco
The prison that is located in San Francisco
Bay, was a depressing place to work.
Bay was a depressing place to work.
Exception Preposition + Which

AN IDENTIFYING CLAUSE IN/ ON/ AT WHICH A NON-IDENTIFYING CLAUSE WHICH

Which can be used in an identifying (restrictive) Otherwise, which is used in a clause not
clause when preceded by a preposition: in which, on to identify but to add some extra
which, which. information.
The day, which you wrote down, was
The day on which it happened was Thursday.
Thursday.
The situation in which we find ourselves is a difficult The situation, which we find ourselves, is
one. a difficult one.
The address, which they gave us, is
The address at which they live is unlisted in the unlisted in the telephone book.
telephone book.

Restrictive Clauses

Identifying Words, Phrases and Clauses

Identifying (Restricted) vs. Non-Identifying (Nonrestrictive)


IDENTIFYING MODIFIER NON-IDENTIFYING MODIFIER

NO COMMA is used when adding an


COMMAS are used before and after a clause that
identifying clause, which adds information
adds extra information to a subject or object noun
necessary for the identification of a subject
that is already clearly identified.
or object noun.
NO MODIFIER NO MODIFIER

The store sells organic produce. Which Whole Foods sells organic produce.
store? (Main sentence noun is identified by name.)
AN IDENTIFYING CLAUSE
A NONIDENTIFYING MODIFYING CLAUSE
The store where I shop sells organic
produce. Whole Foods, where I shop, sells organic produce.
(The noun is identified by the clause (The Whole Foods store is further modified by extra
"where I shop".) information "where I shop".

AN IDENTIFYING PREPOSITIONAL
A NONIDENTIFYING PREPOSITIONAL
PHRASE
PHRASE

The store on University Avenue sells


Whole Foods, on University Avenue, sells organic
organic produce.
produce.
The noun is identified by the phrase "on
Whole Foods is further modified by extra (assuming
University Avenue".
there is only one in town) information location.

We went to Whole Foods on University


We went to the Berkeley Whole Foods, on
Avenue.
University Avenue.
The clause identifies which Whole Foods.
(No final commas is used when the clause identifies
(There are three in the city.)
the object noun and the clause ends the sentence.)

AN IDENTIFYING PROPER NOUN


A NONIDENTIFYING MODIFYING CLAUSE

The store called Whole Foods sells organic


Whole Foods, a grocery store, sells organic
produce.
produce.
The noun "store" is identified by name
Whole Foods is identified by name and is further
"Whole Foods".
modified by "a grocery store".

INDENTIFIED BY LATER MENTION IN


THE SENTENCE

The store that sells organic produce is


Whole Foods.
The noun is identified by modifying clause
and by later mention in the sentence.

INDENTIFIED BY EARLIER MENTION


IN THE SENTENCE

I like Whole Foods; the store sells organic



produce.
The noun is identified by a noun in the
independent clause before it.

A RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE to a
particular area A NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSE

The Whole Foods stores in San Francisco Whole Foods, where shoppers can recycle bags,
sell Napa Valley cheese. sells organic produce.
Whole Foods is identified by name and is (Whole Foods is identified by name and is further
further modified by "in San Francisco". modified by extra information "where shoppers can
This modifier refers to a restricted group or recycle bags" . This modifier refers to ALL because
a particular "Whole Foods" .) all "Whole Foods" recycle bags .)

IDENTIFIED BY NAME AND


A NONIDENTIFYING MODIFYING CLAUSE
UNIQUENESS

The Golden Gate Bridge, which is actually orange-


The Golden Gate Bridge is actually orange-
red, is surrounded by fog.
red.
The Golden Gate bridge is modified with extra
The bridge is unique and identified by
information that is not necessary for its
name. No identifying clause can be used.
identification.
Common Mistakes
ERROR FIX

The London Bridge, which was in England, is now in


*The London Bridge which it
Arizona.
was in England is now in
Remove it. Use commas because the clause is not necessary
Arizona.
to identify the bridge.
The marine iguana, which eats algae in the sea, is only found
in the Galapagos Islands. algae (n.) a simple plant without
*The marine iguana that eats
stems or leaves that grows in or near ocean water
algae in the sea is only found in
the Galapagos Islands.
There marine iguana (in the Galapagos) is unique. The
modifying clause adds extra information. Add commas.
*Alcatraz Island surrounded by
Alcatraz Island, surrounded by fog, was a depressing place to
fog was a depressing place to
serve time in prison.
serve time in prison.
Chapter 10: Causative Verbs

Causative verbs

Causative structures indicate that one thing or person causes another thing or person to do
something or be something.

Examples of causatives

Have (give someone the responsibility to do something)

I had John fix the car


I had my hair cut

Make (force someone to do something)

The teacher made the students work in groups


Our boss made us work extra hours

Get (convince or trick someone into doing something)

He got the mechanic to repair the machine.


She got him to read more.

Let (allow someone do something)

Jane let her son go out


They let the children play in the yard

Other causative verbs

Other causative verbs include:

allow, help, enable, keep, hold, force, require, persuade


Chapter 11: Adjective Order

Describing people or thing

Adjectives are often placed before a noun in the following order:


EVALUATION/OPINION APPEARANCE AGE COLOR ORIGIN FUNCTION

APPEARANCE/ AGE/ COLOR/ ORIGIN/ TYPE /


EVALUATION/ OPINION
QUALITY PERIOD PATTERN MATERIAL FUNCTION

SIZE / MEASURE GEOGRAPHICAL TYPE


beautiful new-born red
good big / large old green French 1st class
multi-
bad small / little young blue Mexican
purpose
ugly low new light-yellow beach wireless
interesting high antique striped mountain HD / 3-D
fascinating heavy ancient dark blue oceanic men's
SHAPE five-year-
deep purple MATERIAL FUNCTION
intelligent
old
pretty triangular brand-new pink ceramic hunting
five-day-
unsightly square brown cotton cooking
old
CONDITION
foul century-old rose wooden walking
stupid chipped mature olive titanium running
silly broken middle-age aqua dancing

ridiculous rotten teenage lime front-loading

easy shiny prehistoric polka-dot off-road

Example:

- I have a luxurious big new white German car.


- She is a beautiful young Dutch lady.
- Yesterday, I bought some expensive new black suits.
Adjective Order

Sentence Examples

Sentence Examples (Word order may vary!)


SENT / APPEAR / AGE /
EVAL / OPIN COLOR ORIGIN TYPE NOUN
QUES QUAL PER

SENTENCE/ EVALUATION/ APPEARANCE/ AGE / COLOR/ ORIGIN / TYPE / NOUN /


QUESTION OPINION QUALITY PERIOD PATTERN MATERIAL FUNCTION PRONOUN

two-
Who left
foul, rotten, week- banana?
this
old
huge,
The artist stainless-
fantastic, mobius- shiny, sculpture.
created a steel
shaped,
feathered,
They wore red-and-
beautiful, life-size, Chinese- costume.
a yellow
dragon
Olodum is hypnotic, Samba-
powerful, Brazilian ensemble.
a energetic, reggae
red-
He wore bell-bottom/
mod / fab 1960's flowered/ cotton pants.
some discotheque
patterned
young, Portuguese water /
He was an intelligent, black, dog.
hunting
HD (high
This is my sleek, new, black, iPad.
definition)
girls', Hello
She chose
cute, pink, Kitty, ball.
a
bowling
Variations

Appearance

Appearance: size, shape, and condition


SENTENCE (SIZE) (SHAPE) (CONDITION) NOUN PHRASE

SENTENCE SIZE SHAPE CONDITION NOUN

We picked a gigantic round ripe tomato.


ripe (condition) large (size) heart-shaped (shape)
round (shape) ripe (condition) jumbo (size)
Chapter 12: Expressing Preferences (1)

EXPRESSING PREFERENCE

PREFER: + Noun +TO + Noun : I prefer coffee to tea

+ -ING Form + TO + ING Form : I prefer skiing to


swimming. = to talk about general preferences

+ TO Infinitive + RATHER THAN + Bare Infinitive : I prefer


to eat fish rather than (eat) meat to talk about general preferences

WOULD PREFER + TO Infinitive : Would you like to have a cup of coffee?


Id prefer to have some water. = To talk about specific preference

- Another clause can be introduced by rather than + bare infinitive : Hed

prefer to stay at home rather than drive to the restaurant.

- Prefer takes an object when we want to introduce new subject: I would prefer

her to stay at home.


Chapter 13: Expressing Preferences (2)

WOULD RATHER/SOONER

a. Same Subject : followed by the bare infinitive: I'd rather play football

than golf but I prefer football to golf.

b. Perfect Infinitive: I'd rather have stayed at home.

c. Different Subject: Use a Past Tense with present or future

meaning: Shall I open the window? I'd rather you didn't

Use a Past Perfect with past meaning: I'd rather

you hadn't called him old

HAD BETTER + Bare Infinitive (= should/ought)

You had/'d better book your flight early


I'd better not take out a loan; I won't be able to pay it back