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# 13/4/2017 AppliedMechanicsofSolids(A.F.

Bower)AppendixA:VectorsandMatrices

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Contents
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1.ObjectivesandApplications
>
1.1DefiningaProblem>
1.1.1Decidingwhatto
calculate
1.1.2Defininggeometry
1.1.3Definingloading
1.1.4Choosingphysics
1.1.5Definingmaterial
behavior
1.1.6Arepresentativeproblem
1.1.7Choosingamethodof
analysis
2.GoverningEquations>
2.1Deformation
measures>
2.1.1DisplacementandVelocity
2.1.2Deformationgradient
2.1.3Deformationgradientfrom
twodeformations
2.1.4Jacobianofdeformation
gradient
2.1.5Lagrangestrain
2.1.6Eulerianstrain
2.1.7InfinitesimalStrain
2.1.8EngineeringShearStrain
2.1.9VolumetricandDeviatoric
strain
2.1.10Infinitesimalrotation
2.1.11Principalstrains
2.1.12CauchyGreendeformation
tensors
2.1.13Rotationtensor,Stretch
tensors
2.1.14Principalstretches
2.1.15Generalizedstrainmeasures
2.1.16Velocitygradient
2.1.17Stretchrateandspin
2.1.18Infinitesimalstrain/rotation
rate
2.1.19Otherdeformationrates
2.1.20Strainequationsof
compatibility
2.2Internalforces>
2.2.1Surfacetraction/bodyforce
2.2.2Internaltractions
2.2.3Cauchystress
2.2.4Kirchhoff,Nominal,Material
stress
2.2.5Stressforinfinitesimal
motions
2.2.6Principalstresses
2.2.7Hydrostatic,Deviatoric,Von
Misesstress
2.2.8Stressesataboundary
2.3Equationsofmotion>
2.3.1Linearmomentum
balance
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2.3.2Angularmomentum
balance
2.3.3Equationsusingother
stresses
2.4WorkandVirtual
Work>
2.4.1WorkdonebyCauchy
stress
2.4.2Workdonebyother
stresses
2.4.3Workforinfinitesimal
motions
2.4.4Principleofvirtualwork
2.4.5Virtualworkwithother
stresses
2.4.6Virtualworkforsmall
strains
3.ConstitutiveEquations>
3.1Generalrequirements
3.2Linearelasticity>
3.2.1Isotropicelasticbehavior
3.2.2Isotropicstressstrainlaws
3.2.3Planestress&strain
3.2.4Isotropicmaterialdata
3.2.5Lame,Shear,&Bulkmodulus
3.2.6Interpretingelasticconstants
3.2.7Strainenergydensity
(isotropic)
3.2.8Anisotropicstressstrainlaws
3.2.9Interpretinganisotropic
constants
3.2.10Anisotropicstrainenergy
density
3.2.11Basischangeformulas
3.2.12Effectofmaterialsymmetry
3.2.13Orthotropicmaterials
3.2.14Transverselyisotropic
materials
3.2.15Transverselyisotropicdata
3.2.16Cubicmaterials
3.2.17Cubicmaterialdata
3.3Hypoelasticity
3.4Elasticityw/large
rotations
3.5Hyperelasticity>
3.5.1Deformationmeasures
3.5.2Stressmeasures
3.5.3Strainenergydensity
3.5.4Incompressible
materials
3.5.5Energydensity
functions
3.5.6Calibratingmaterial
models
3.5.7Representative
properties
3.6Viscoelasticity>
3.6.1Polymerbehavior
3.6.2Generalconstitutive
equations
3.6.3Springdamper
approximations
3.6.4Pronyseries
3.6.5Calibratingconstitutive
laws
3.6.6Calibratingmaterial
models
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3.6.7Representativeproperties
3.7Rateindependent
plasticity>
3.7.1Plasticmetalbehavior
3.7.2Elastic/plasticstrain
decomposition
3.7.3Yieldcriteria
3.7.4Graphicalyieldsurfaces
3.7.5Hardeninglaws
3.7.6Plasticflowlaw
3.7.7Unloadingcondition
3.7.8Summaryofstressstrain
relations
3.7.9Representativeproperties
3.7.10Principleofmax.plastic
resistance
3.7.11Drucker'spostulate
3.7.12Microscopicperspectives
3.8Viscoplasticity>
3.8.1Creepbehavior
3.8.2Highstrainratebehavior
3.8.3Constitutiveequations
3.8.4Representativecreep
properties
3.8.5Representativehighrate
properties
3.9Largestrainplasticity>
3.9.1Deformationmeasures
3.9.2Stressmeasures
3.9.3Elasticstressstrain
relations
3.5.4Plasticstressstrain
relations
3.10Largestrain
viscoelasticity>
3.10.1Deformationmeasures
3.10.2Stressmeasures
3.10.3Stressstrainenergy
relations
3.10.4Strainrelaxation
3.10.5Representative
properties
3.11Criticalstatesoils>
3.11.1Soilbehavior
3.11.2Constitutivelaws(Cam
clay)
3.11.3Responseto2Dloading
3.11.4Representative
properties
3.12Crystalplasticity>
3.12.1Basiccrystallography
3.12.2Featuresofcrystal
plasticity
3.12.3Deformationmeasures
3.12.4Stressmeasures
3.12.5Elasticstressstrain
relations
3.12.6Plasticstressstrain
relations
3.12.7Representative
properties
3.13Surfacesandinterfaces
>
3.13.1Cohesiveinterfacemodels
3.13.2Contactandfriction
4.Solutionstosimpleproblems
>
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4.1Axial/Sphericallinear
elasticity>
4.1.1Elasticgoverningequations
4.1.2Sphericallysymmetric
equations
4.1.3Generalsphericalsolution
4.1.4Pressurizedsphere
4.1.5Gravitatingsphere
4.1.6Heatedsphericalshell
4.1.7Axiallysymmetric
equations
4.1.8Generalaxisymmetric
solution
4.1.9Pressurizedcylinder
4.1.10Spinningcirculardisk
4.1.11Interferencefit
4.2Axial/Spherical
elastoplasticity>
4.2.1Plasticgoverningequations
4.2.2Sphericallysymmetric
equations
4.2.3Pressurizedsphere
4.2.4Cyclicallypressurized
sphere
4.2.5Axisymmetricequations
4.2.6Pressurizedcylinder
4.3Sphericalhyperelasticity>
4.3.1Governingequations
4.3.2Sphericallysymmetric
equations
4.3.3Pressurizedsphere
4.41Delastodynamics>
4.4.1Surfacesubjectedto
pressure
4.4.2Surfaceundertangential
loading
4.4.31Dbar
4.4.4Planewaves
4.4.5Wavespeedsinisotropic
solid
4.4.6Reflectionatasurface
4.4.7Reflectionataninterface
4.4.8Plateimpactexperiment
5.Solutionsforelasticsolids>
5.1GeneralPrinciples>
5.1.1Governingequations
5.1.2Navierequation
5.1.3Superposition&
linearity
5.1.4Uniqueness&
existence
5.1.5SaintVenants
principle
5.22DAiryfunctionsolutions
>
5.2.1Airysolutioninrectangular
coords
5.2.2DemonstrationofAiry
solution
5.2.3Airysolutioninpolarcoords
5.2.4Endloadedcantilever
5.2.5Lineloadperpendicularto
surface
5.2.6Lineloadparalleltosurface
4.4.7Pressureonasurface
4.4.8Uniformpressureonastrip
4.4.8Stressnearacracktip
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5.32DComplexvariable
solutions>
5.3.1Complexvariable
solution
5.3.2DemonstrationofCV
solution
5.3.3Lineforce
5.3.4Edgedislocation
5.3.5Circularholeininfinite
solid
5.3.6Slitcrack
5.3.7Bimaterialinterface
crack
5.3.8Rigidflatpunchona
surface
5.3.9Parabolicpunchona
surface
5.3.10Generallinecontact
4.3.11Frictionalsliding
contact
4.3.12Dislocationneara
surface
5.43Dstaticproblems>
5.4.1PapkovichNeuber
potentials
5.4.2DemonstrationofPN
potentials
5.4.3Pointforceininfinitesolid
5.4.4Pointforcenormalto
surface
5.4.5Pointforcetangentto
surface
5.4.6Eshelbyinclusionproblem
5.4.7Inclusioninanelasticsolid
5.4.8Sphericalcavityininfinite
solid
5.4.9Flatcylindricalpunchon
surface
5.4.10Contactbetweenspheres
4.4.11Relationsforgeneral
contacts
4.4.12Pdrelationsfor
axisymmetriccontact
5.52DAnisotropicelasticity>
5.5.1Governingequations
5.5.2Strohsolution
5.5.3DemonstrationofStroh
solution
5.5.4Strohmatricesforcubic
materials
5.5.5Degeneratematerials
5.5.6Fundamentalelasticitymatrix
5.5.7OrthogonalityofStroh
matrices
5.5.8Barnett/Lothe&Impedance
tensors
5.5.9Propertiesofmatrices
5.5.10Basischangeformulas
5.5.11BarnettLotheintegrals
5.5.12Uniformstressstate
5.5.13Lineload/dislocationin
infinitesolid
5.5.14Lineload/dislocationneara
surface
5.6Dynamicproblems>
5.6.1Lovepotentials

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5.6.2Pressurizedspherical
cavity
5.6.3Rayleighwaves
5.6.4Lovewaves
5.6.5Elasticwavesin
waveguides
5.7Energymethods>
5.7.1Definitionofpotentialenergy
5.7.2Minimumenergytheorem
5.7.3Simpleexampleofenergy
minimization
5.7.4Variationalapproachtobeam
theory
5.7.5Estimatingstiffness
5.8Reciprocaltheorem>
5.8.1Statementandproofof
theorem
5.8.2Simpleexample
5.8.3Boundaryinternalvalue
relations
5.8.43Ddislocationloops
5.9Energeticsofdislocations>
5.9.1Potentialenergyofisolated
loop
5.9.2Nonsingulardislocation
theory
5.9.3Dislocationinbounded
solid
5.9.4Energyofinteractingloops
5.9.5PeachKoehlerformula
5.10RayleighRitzmethod>
5.10.1Modeshapes,nat.
frequencies,Rayleigh'sprinciple
5.10.2Naturalfrequencyofabeam
6.Solutionsforplasticsolids>
6.1Sliplinefields>
6.1.1Interpretingslipline
fields
6.1.2Derivationofslipline
fields
6.1.3Examplesofsolutions
6.2Boundingtheorems
>
6.2.1Definitionofplastic
dissipation
6.2.2Principleofminplastic
dissipation
6.2.3Upperboundcollapse
theorem
6.2.4Lowerboundcollapse
theorem
6.2.5Examplesofbounding
theorems
6.2.6Lowerboundshakedown
theorem
6.2.7Examplesoflowerbound
shakedowntheorem
6.2.8Upperboundshakedown
theorem
6.2.9Examplesofupperbound
shakedowntheorem
7.IntroductiontoFEA>
7.1GuidetoFEA>
7.1.1FEmesh
7.1.2Nodesandelements
7.1.3Specialelements
7.1.4Materialbehavior
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7.1.5Boundaryconditions
7.1.6Constraints
7.1.7Contactingsurface/interfaces
7.1.8Initialconditions/external
fields
7.1.9Solnprocedures/time
increments
7.1.10Output
7.1.11UnitsinFEAcalculations
7.1.12Usingdimensionalanalysis
7.1.13Scalinggoverningequations
7.1.14Remarksondimensional
analysis
7.2SimpleFEA
program>
7.2.1FEmeshandconnectivity
7.2.2Globaldisplacementvector
7.2.3Interpolationfunctions
7.2.4Elementstrains&energy
density
7.2.5Elementstiffnessmatrix
7.2.6Globalstiffnessmatrix
7.2.7Boundaryloading
7.2.8Globalforcevector
7.2.9Minimizingpotentialenergy
7.2.10Eliminatingprescribed
displacements
7.2.11Solution
7.2.12Postprocessing
7.2.13Examplecode
8.Theory&Implementationof
FEA>
8.1Staticlinearelasticity
>
8.1.1Reviewofvirtualwork
8.1.2Weakformofgoverning
equns
8.1.3Interpolatingdisplacements
8.1.4Finiteelementequations
8.1.5Simple1Dimplementation
8.1.6Summaryof1Dprocedure
8.1.7Example1Dcode
8.1.8Extensionto2D/3D
8.1.92Dinterpolationfunctions
8.1.103Dinterpolationfunctions
8.1.11Volumeintegrals
8.1.122D/3Dintegration
schemes
8.1.13Summaryofelement
matrices
8.1.14Sample2D/3Dcode
8.2Dynamicelasticity>
8.2.1Governingequations
8.2.2Weakformofgoverningeqns
8.2.3Finiteelementequations
8.2.4Newmarktimeintegration
8.2.5Simple1Dimplementation
8.2.6Example1Dcode
8.2.7Lumpedmassmatrices
8.2.8Example2D/3Dcode
8.2.9Modaltimeintegration
8.2.10Naturalfrequencies/mode
shapes
8.2.11Example1Dmodaldynamic
code
8.2.12Example2D/3Dmodal
dynamiccode
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8.3Hypoelasticity>
8.3.1Governingequations
8.3.2Weakformofgoverningeqns
8.3.3Finiteelementequations
8.3.4NewtonRaphsoniteration
8.3.5Tangentmodulifor
hypoelasticsolid
8.3.6SummaryofNewtonRaphson
method
8.3.7Convergenceproblems
8.3.8VariationsonNewton
Raphson
8.3.9Examplecode
8.4Hyperelasticity>
8.4.1Governingequations
8.4.2Weakformofgoverning
eqns
8.4.3Finiteelementequations
8.4.4NewtonRaphson
iteration
8.4.5NeoHookeantangent
moduli
8.4.6Evaluatingboundary
integrals
8.4.7Convergenceproblems
8.4.8Examplecode
8.5Viscoplasticity>
8.5.1Governingequations
8.5.2Weakformofgoverning
eqns
8.5.3Finiteelementequations
8.5.4Integratingthestressstrain
law
8.5.5Materialtangent
8.5.6NewtonRaphsonsolution
8.5.7Examplecode
8.6Advancedelements>
8.6.1Shearlocking/incompatible
modes
8.6.2Volumetriclocking/Reduced
integration
8.6.3Incompressible
materials/Hybridelements
9.ModelingMaterialFailure>
9.1Mechanismsoffailure>
9.1.1Monotonic
loading
9.1.2Cyclicloading
9.2Stress/strainbasedcriteria
>
9.2.1Stressbasedcriteria
9.2.2Probabilisticmethods
9.2.3Staticfatiguecriterion
9.2.4Modelsofcrushing
failure
9.2.5Ductilefailurecriteria
9.2.6Strainlocalization
9.2.7Highcyclefatigue
9.2.8Lowcyclefatigue
9.2.9Variableamplitude
loading
9.3Elasticfracturemechanics
>
9.3.1Cracktipfields
9.3.2Linearelasticfracture
mechanics

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9.3.3Calculatingstress
intensities
9.3.4UsingFEA
9.3.5Measuringtoughness
9.3.6Valuesoffracture
toughness
9.3.7Stabletearing
9.3.8Mixedmodefracture
9.3.9Staticfatigue
9.3.10Cyclicfatigue
9.3.11Findingcracks
9.4Energymethodsinfracture
>
9.4.1Definitionofenergyrelease
rate
9.4.2Energybasedfracture
criterion
9.4.3GKrelations
9.4.4Gcompliancerelation
9.4.5CalculatingKwith
compliance
9.4.6IntegralexpressionforG
9.4.7TheJintegral
9.4.8CalculatingKusingJ
9.5Plasticfracturemechanics
>
9.5.1DugdaleBarenblatt
model
9.5.2HRRcracktipfields
9.5.3Jbasedfracture
mechanics
9.6Interfacefracture
mechanics>
9.6.1Interfacecracktipfields
9.6.2Interfacefracture
mechanics
9.6.3Stressintensityfactors
9.6.4Crackpathselection
10.Rods,Beams,Plates&
Shells>
10.1Dyadicnotation
10.2Deformablerods
general>
10.2.1Characterizingthex
section
10.2.2Coordinatesystems
10.2.3Kinematicrelations
10.2.4Displacement,velocity
andacceleration
10.2.5Deformationgradient
10.2.6Strainmeasures
10.2.7Kinematicsofbentrods
10.2.8Internalforcesand
moments
10.2.9Equationsofmotion
10.2.10Constitutiveequations
10.2.11Strainenergydensity
10.3String/beamtheory>
10.3.1Stretchedstring
10.3.2Straightbeam(small
deflections)
10.3.3Axiallyloadedbeam
10.4Solutionsforrods>
10.4.1Vibrationofastraightbeam
10.4.2Bucklingundergravitational
loading
10.4.3Postbuckledshapeofarod
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10.4.4Rodbentintoahelix
10.4.5Helicalspring
10.5Shellsgeneral>
10.5.1Coordinatesystems
10.5.2Usingnonorthogonal
bases
10.5.3Deformationmeasures
10.5.4Displacementand
velocity
10.5.5Deformationgradient
10.5.6Otherstrainmeasures
10.5.7Internalforcesand
moments
10.5.8Equationsofmotion
10.5.9Constitutiverelations
10.5.10Strainenergy
10.6Platesandmembranes>
10.6.1Flatplates(smallstrain)
10.6.2Flatplateswithinplane
loading
10.6.3Plateswithlarge
displacements
10.6.4Membranes
10.6.5Membranesinpolar
coordinates
10.7Solutionsforshells>
10.7.1Circularplatebentby
pressure
10.7.2Vibratingcircularmembrane
10.7.3Naturalfrequencyof
rectangularplate
10.7.4Thinfilmonasubstrate
(Stoneyeqs)
10.7.5Bucklingofheatedplate
10.7.6Cylindricalshellunderaxial
load
10.7.7Twistedopenwalled
cylinder
10.7.8Gravityloadedspherical
shell
A:Vectors&Matrices
B:Intrototensors
C:IndexNotation
D:Usingpolarcoordinates
E:Miscderivations
Problems
1.ObjectivesandApplications
>
1.1DefiningaProblem
2.GoverningEquations>
2.1Deformation
measures
2.2Internalforces
2.3Equationsofmotion
2.4WorkandVirtual
Work
3.ConstitutiveEquations>
3.1Generalrequirements
3.2Linearelasticity
3.3Hypoelasticity
3.4Elasticityw/large
rotations
3.5Hyperelasticity
3.6Viscoelasticity
3.7Rateindependent
plasticity

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3.8Viscoplasticity
3.9Largestrainplasticity
3.10Largestrain
viscoelasticity
3.11Criticalstatesoils
3.12Crystalplasticity
3.13Surfacesandinterfaces
4.Solutionstosimpleproblems
>
4.1Axial/Sphericallinear
elasticity
4.2Axial/Spherical
elastoplasticity
4.3Sphericalhyperelasticity
4.41Delastodynamics
5.Solutionsforelasticsolids>
5.1GeneralPrinciples
5.22DAiryfunctionsolutions
5.32DComplexvariable
solutions
5.43Dstaticproblems
5.52DAnisotropicelasticity
5.6Dynamicproblems
5.7Energymethods
5.8Reciprocaltheorem
5.9Energeticsofdislocations
5.10RayleighRitzmethod
6.Solutionsforplasticsolids>
6.1Sliplinefields
6.2Boundingtheorems
7.IntroductiontoFEA>
7.1GuidetoFEA
7.2SimpleFEA
program
8.Theory&Implementationof
FEA>
8.1Staticlinearelasticity
8.2Dynamicelasticity
8.3Hypoelasticity
8.4Hyperelasticity
8.5Viscoplasticity
8.6Advancedelements
9.ModelingMaterialFailure>
9.1Mechanismsoffailure
9.2Stress/strainbasedcriteria
9.3Elasticfracturemechanics
9.4Energymethodsinfracture
9.5Plasticfracturemechanics
9.6Interfacefracture
mechanics
10.Rods,Beams,Plates&
Shells>
10.1Dyadicnotation
10.2Deformablerods
general
10.3String/beamtheory
10.4Solutionsforrods
10.5Shellsgeneral
10.6Platesandmembranes
10.7Solutionsforshells
A:Vectors&Matrices
B:Intrototensors
C:IndexNotation
D:Usingpolarcoordinates
E:Miscderivations
FEAcodes

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Matlab
Reportanerror

AppendixA

ReviewofVectorsandMatrices

A.1.VECTORS

A.1.1Definition

For the purposes of this text, a vector is an object which has magnitude and direction. Examples include
forces,electricfields,andthenormaltoasurface.Avectorisoftenrepresentedpictoriallyasanarrowand
symbolicallybyanunderlinedletter orusingboldtype .Itsmagnitudeisdenoted or .Therearetwo
specialcasesofvectors:theunitvector has andthenullvector has .

A.1.2VectorOperations

Addition

Let and bevectors.Then isalsoavector.Thevector maybeshown
diagramatically by placing arrowsrepresenting and head to tail, as shown in the
figure.

Multiplication

1. Multiplication by a scalar. Let be a vector, and a scalar. Then is a vector. The
directionof isparallelto anditsmagnitudeisgivenby .

Notethatyoucanformaunitvectornwhichisparalleltoabysetting .

2.DotProduct(alsocalledthescalarproduct).Letaandbbetwovectors.The
dotproductofaandbisascalardenotedby ,andisdefinedby
,
where istheanglesubtendedbyaandb.Notethat ,and
.If and then ifandonlyif i.e.aandbare
perpendicular.

3. Cross Product (also called the vector product). Let a and b be two
vectors. The cross product of a and b is a vector denoted by .
Thedirectionofcisperpendiculartoaandb,andischosensothat(a,b,c)
formarighthandedtriad,Fig.3.Themagnitudeofcisgivenby

Notethat and .

Someusefulvectoridentities

A.1.3Cartesiancomponentsofvectors

Let be three mutually perpendicular unit vectors which form a right handed triad, Fig. 4. Then
aresaidtoformandorthonormalbasis.Thevectorssatisfy

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Wemayexpressanyvectoraasasuitablecombinationoftheunitvectors , and .Forexample,wemay
write

## where arescalars,calledthecomponentsofainthebasis .Thecomponentsofahave

asimplephysicalinterpretation.Forexample,ifweevaluatethedotproduct wefindthat

## inviewofthepropertiesofthethreevectors , and .Recallthat

Then,notingthat ,wehave

Thus, representstheprojectedlengthofthevectorainthedirectionof ,as
illustrated in the figure. Similarly, and may be shown to represent the
projectionof inthedirections and ,respectively.

Theadvantage of representing vectors in a Cartesian basis is that vector addition and multiplication can be
expressedassimpleoperationsonthecomponentsofthevectors.Forexample,leta,bandcbevectors,with
components , and ,respectively.Then,itisstraightforwardtoshowthat

A.1.4Changeofbasis

Leta be a vector, and let be a Cartesian basis. Suppose that the components of a in the basis
are known to be . Now, suppose that we wish to compute the components of a in a
secondCartesianbasis, .Thismeanswewishtofindcomponents ,suchthat

Todoso,notethat

Thistransformationisconvenientlywrittenasamatrixoperation
,
where isamatrixconsistingofthecomponentsofainthebasis , isamatrixconsisting
ofthecomponentsofainthebasis ,and isa`rotationmatrixasfollows

## Notethat the elements of have a simple physical interpretation. For example, ,

where is the angle between the and axes. Similarly where
istheanglebetweenthe and axes.Inpractice,weusuallyknowtheanglesbetweentheaxes
that make up the two bases, so it is simplest to assemble the elements of by putting the cosines of the
knownanglesintheappropriateplaces.

Indexnotationprovidesanotherconvenientwaytowritethistransformation:

Youdontneedtoknowindexnotationindetailtounderstandthis allyouneedtoknowisthat

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Thesameapproachmaybeusedtofindanexpressionfor intermsof .Ifyouworkthroughthedetails,
youwillfindthat

## Comparingthisresultwiththeformulafor intermsof ,weseethat

wherethe superscript Tdenotes the transpose (rows and columns interchanged). The transformation matrix
isthereforeorthogonal,andsatisfies

where[I]istheidentitymatrix.

A.1.5Usefulvectoroperations

Calculatingareas
Theareaofatriangleboundedbyvectorsa,bandbais

Theareaoftheparallelogramshowninthepictureis2A.

Calculatingangles
Theanglebetweentwovectorsaandbis

Calculatingthenormaltoasurface.
Iftwovectorsaandbcanbefoundwhichareknowntolieinthesurface,thentheunitnormaltothe
surfaceis

If the surface is specified by a parametric equation of the form , where s and t are two
parameters and r is the position vector of a point on the surface, then two vectors which lie in the
planemaybecomputedfrom

CalculatingVolumes

Thevolumeoftheparallelopipeddefinedbythreevectorsa,b,cis

ThevolumeofthetetrahedronshownoutlinedinredisV/6.

A.2.VECTORFIELDSANDVECTORCALCULUS

A.2.1.Scalarfield.

Let beaCartesianbasiswithoriginOinthreedimensionalspace.Let

denotethepositionvectorofapointinspace.Ascalarfieldisascalarvaluedfunctionofpositioninspace.
Ascalarfieldisafunctionofthecomponentsofthepositionvector,andsomaybeexpressedas .
Thevalueof ataparticularpointinspacemustbeindependentofthechoiceofbasisvectors.Ascalarfield
maybeafunctionoftime(andpossiblyotherparameters)aswellaspositioninspace.

A.2.2.Vectorfield

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Let beaCartesianbasiswithoriginOinthreedimensionalspace.Let

denotethepositionvectorofapointinspace.Avectorfieldisavectorvaluedfunctionofpositioninspace.
Avectorfieldisafunctionofthecomponentsofthepositionvector,andsomaybeexpressedas .
Thevectormayalsobeexpressedascomponentsinthebasis

Themagnitudeanddirectionof ataparticularpointinspaceisindependentofthechoiceofbasisvectors.
Avectorfieldmaybeafunctionoftime(andpossiblyotherparameters)aswellaspositioninspace.

A.2.3.Changeofbasisforscalarfields.

Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three
dimensionalspace.Expressthepositionvectorofapointrelativeto
Oin as

andlet beascalarfield.
Let be a second Cartesian basis, with origin P. Let
denote the position vector of P relative to O. Express the
positionvectorofapointrelativetoPin as

Tofind ,usethefollowingprocedure.First,expresspascomponentsinthebasis ,using
theprocedureoutlinedinSection1.4:

where

or,usingindexnotation

wherethetransformationmatrix isdefinedinSect1.4.
Now,expresscascomponentsin ,andnotethat

sothat

A.2.4.Changeofbasisforvectorfields.

Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three
dimensional space. Express the position vector of a point relative to
Oin as

andlet beavectorfield,withcomponents

## Let be a second Cartesian basis, with origin P. Let

denote the position vector of P relative to O. Express the position vector of a point relative to P in
as

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Toexpressthevectorfieldascomponentsin andasafunctionofthecomponentsofp,usethe
following procedure. First, express in terms of using the procedure outlined for scalar
fieldsintheprecedingsection

fork=1,2,3. Now, find the components of vin using the procedure outlined in Section 1.4.
Usingindexnotation,theresultis

A.2.5.Timederivativesofvectors

Leta(t)beavectorwhosemagnitudeanddirectionvarywithtime,t.Supposethat isafixedbasis,i.e.
independentoftime.Wemayexpressa(t)intermsofcomponents inthebasis as
.
Thetimederivativeofaisdefinedusingtheusualrulesofcalculus
,
orincomponentformas

Thedefinitionofthetimederivativeofavectormaybeusedtoshowthefollowingrules

A.2.6.Usingarotatingbasis

Itisoftenconvenienttoexpresspositionvectorsascomponentsinabasiswhichrotateswithtime.Towrite
equationsofmotiononemustevaluatetimederivativesofrotatingvectors.

Let beabasiswhichrotateswithinstantaneousangularvelocity .Then,

A.2.7.Gradientofascalarfield.

Let beascalarfieldinthreedimensionalspace.Thegradientof isavectorfielddenotedby or
,andisdefinedsothat

foreverypositionrinspaceandforeveryvectora.

Let beaCartesianbasiswithoriginOinthreedimensionalspace.Let

denotethepositionvectorofapointinspace.Express asafunctionofthecomponentsofr .
Thegradientof inthisbasisisthengivenby

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A.2.8.Gradientofavectorfield

Letvbeavectorfieldinthreedimensionalspace.Thegradientofvisatensorfielddenotedby or
,andisdefinedsothat

foreverypositionrinspaceandforeveryvectora.

Let beaCartesianbasiswithoriginOinthreedimensionalspace.Let

denote the position vector of a point in space. Express v as a function of the components of r, so that
.Thegradientofvinthisbasisisthengivenby

Alternatively,inindexnotation

A.2.9.Divergenceofavectorfield

Letvbeavectorfieldinthreedimensionalspace.Thedivergenceofvisascalarfielddenotedby or
.Formally,itisdefinedas (thetraceofatensoristhesumofitsdiagonalterms).

Let beaCartesianbasiswithoriginOinthreedimensionalspace.Let

denotethepositionvectorofapointinspace.Expressvasafunctionofthecomponentsofr: .
Thedivergenceofvisthen

A.2.10.Curlofavectorfield.

Letvbeavectorfieldinthreedimensionalspace.Thecurlofvisavectorfielddenotedby or .
It is best defined in terms of its components in a given basis, although its magnitude and direction are not
dependentonthechoiceofbasis.

Let beaCartesianbasiswithoriginOinthreedimensionalspace.Let

denotethepositionvectorofapointinspace.Expressvasafunctionofthecomponentsofr .
Thecurlofvinthisbasisisthengivenby

Usingindexnotation,thismaybeexpressedas

A.2.11TheDivergenceTheorem.

Let V be a closed region in three dimensional space, bounded by an
orientablesurfaceS.Letn denote the unit vector normal to S,taken so

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thatnpointsoutofV.Letubeavectorfieldwhichiscontinuousandhas
continuousfirstpartialderivativesinsomedomaincontainingT.Then

alternatively,expressedinindexnotation

## For a proof of this extremely useful theorem consult e.g. Kreyzig,

AdvancedEngineeringMathematics,Wiley,NewYork,(1998).

A.3.MATRICES

A.3.1Definition

An matrix isasetofnumbers,arrangedinmrowsandncolumns

Asquarematrixhasequalnumbersofrowsandcolumns
Adiagonalmatrixisasquarematrixwithelementssuchthat for
Theidentitymatrix isadiagonalmatrixforwhichalldiagonalelements
Asymmetricmatrixisasquarematrixwithelementssuchthat
Askewsymmetricmatrixisasquarematrixwithelementssuchthat

A.3.2Matrixoperations

AdditionLet and betwomatricesoforder withelements and .Then

Multiplicationbyascalar.Let beamatrixwithelements ,andletkbeascalar.Then

Multiplicationbyamatrix.Let beamatrixoforder withelements ,andlet beamatrix
oforder withelements .Theproduct isdefinedonlyifn=p,andisan matrix
suchthat

Notethatmultiplicationisdistributiveandassociative,butnotcommutative,i.e.

The multiplication of a vector by a matrix is a particularly important operation. Let bandc be two vectors
withncomponents,whichwethinkofas matrices.Let bean matrix.Thus

Now,

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i.e.

Transpose.Let beamatrixoforder withelements .Thetransposeof isdenoted .

## If isan matrixsuchthat ,then ,i.e.

Notethat

Determinant The determinant is defined only for a square matrix. Let be a matrix with
components .Thedeterminantof isdenotedby or andisgivenby

## Now,let bean matrix.Definetheminors of asthedeterminantformedbyomittingtheith

row and jth column of . For example, the minors and for a matrix are computed as
follows.Let

Then

Definethecofactors of as

## Then,thedeterminantofthe matrix iscomputedasfollows

Theresultisthesamewhicheverrowiischosenfortheexpansion.Fortheparticularcaseofa matrix

The

determinantmayalsobeevaluatedbysummingoverrows,i.e.

andasbeforetheresultisthesameforeachchoiceofcolumnj.Finally,notethat

Inversion.Let bean matrix.Theinverseof isdenotedby andisdefinedsuchthat

## Theinverseof existsifandonlyif .Amatrixwhichhasnoinverseissaidtobesingular.The

inverse of a matrix may be computed explicitly, by forming the cofactormatrix with components as
definedintheprecedingsection.Then

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Inpractice,itisfastertocomputetheinverseofamatrixusingmethodssuchasGaussianelimination.

Notethat

Foradiagonalmatrix,theinverseis

Fora matrix,theinverseis

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Let be an matrix, with coefficients . Consider the vector
equation
(1)
wherexisavectorwithncomponents,and isascalar(whichmaybecomplex).Thennonzerovectorsx
andcorrespondingscalars whichsatisfythisequationaretheeigenvectorsandeigenvaluesof .

Formally,eighenvaluesandeigenvectorsmaybecomputedasfollows.Rearrangetheprecedingequationto
(2)
Thishasnontrivialsolutionsforxonlyifthedeterminantofthematrix vanishes.Theequation

isannthorderpolynomialwhichmaybesolvedfor .Ingeneralthepolynomialwillhavenroots,whichmay
be complex. The eigenvectors may then be computed using equation (2). For example, a matrix
generallyhastwoeigenvectors,whichsatisfy

Solvethequadraticequationtoseethat

Thetwocorrespondingeigenvectorsmaybecomputedfrom(2),whichshowsthat

so that, multiplying out the first row of the matrix (you can use the second row too, if you wish since we
chose tomakethedeterminantofthematrixvanish,thetwoequationshavethesamesolutions.Infact,if
,youwillneedtodothis,becausethefirstequationwillsimplygive0=0whentryingtosolveforoneof
theeigenvectors)

whicharesatisfiedbyanyvectoroftheform

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wherepandqarearbitraryrealnumbers.

Itisoftenconvenienttonormalizeeigenvectorssothattheyhaveunit`length.Forthispurpose,choosepand
q so that . (For vectors of dimension n, the generalized dot product is defined such that
)

Onemaycalculateexplicitexpressionsforeigenvaluesandeigenvectorsforanymatrixuptoorder ,but
the results are so cumbersome that, except for the results, they are virtually useless. In practice,
numericalvaluesmaybecomputedusingseveraliterativetechniques.PackageslikeMathematica,Mapleor
Matlabmakecalculationslikethiseasy.

Theeigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix are always real, and its eigenvectors areorthogonal, i.e. the ith
andjtheigenvectors(with )satisfy .

Theeigenvaluesofaskewsymmetricmatrixarepureimaginary.

Spectraland singular value decomposition. Let be a real symmetric matrix. Denote the n

(real) eigenvalues of by , and let be the corresponding normalized eigenvectors, such that
.Then,foranyarbitraryvectorb,

Let be a diagonal matrix which contains the neigenvalues of as elements of the diagonal, and let
beamatrixconsistingoftheneigenvectorsascolumns,i.e.

Then

Notethatthisgivesanother(generallyquiteuseless)waytoinvert

## where iseasytocomputesince isdiagonal.

Square root of a matrix. Let be a real symmetric matrix. Denote the singular value

## decomposition of by as defined above. Suppose that denotes the square

rootof ,definedsothat

Onewaytocompute isthroughthesingularvaluedecompositionof

where

(c)A.F.Bower,2008

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Thissiteismadefreelyavailableforeducationalpurposes.
Youmayextractpartsofthetextfornoncommercialpurposesprovidedthatthesourceiscited.
Pleaserespecttheauthorscopyright.

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