Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Key Engineering Materials Vols.

405-406 (2009) pp 14-18


Online available since 2009/Jan/13 at www.scientific.net
(2009) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.405-406.14

Improvement of concrete durability by composite cement

Nai-Qian Feng1,a Quan-Lin Niu2,b Chong-Zhi Li3,c


1
Department of civil engineering, tsinghua university, Beijing, 100084 P.R.China
2
Shandong university of technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049, P.R .China
3
Beijing university of civil engineering and architectureBeijing 100044
a
mail: fengnq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

Keywords: durability; mineral powder; Alkaline saline soils; alkali-aggregate reaction;


charge passed

Abstract: Mineral powders play positive role in improving the durability of concrete subjected to
alkaline and saline corrosion, where sulphate ion and chloride ion coexisted may cause serious
deterioration to the reinforced concrete structures. Metakaolin, slag, fly ash and natural zeolite
mixed in appropriate proportion were tested in inhibiting the deterioration. It is found that the
composite powder might decreased AAR and the charge passed of concrete effectivelythe while
the 7d and 28d strength of cement and concrete are improved as well.

Introduction
In the alkaline saline area, the sulphate and chloride ion coexisted may cause serious corrosion on
reinforced concrete, while the alkaline cations penetrate into concrete with the inions may increase
the hazard of alkaline aggregate reaction. Decrease of W/B ratio and substitution of cement with
superfine mineral powder are two effective ways to guarantee concrete durability, and the durability
of concrete under different deterioration was related to the type, fineness and percentage of mineral
powders incorporated [1-3]. Therefore the mix of different powder with different functions was an
important solution to the durability problem. A composite cement composed of clinker powder,
metakaoline, slag, fly ash and natural zeolite powder was developed, and exhibits effective
properties in inhibiting chemical corrosions, freezing damage and AAR expansion.

Properties of the composite cement (C.C)


The composite cement was a compound of Portland cement clinker powder with natural zeolite,
fly ash and metakaolin etc., the percentage of the admixtures ranged from 30% to 70%, and the
composition of composite cement and controlled ordinary Portland Shanl cement was shown in
Table 1. The properties of composite cement were examined according to the Chinese national
standard GB12958. The result was shown in Table 2.

Strength of concrete mixed with composite cement


Strength of concrete mixed with composite cement was compared to the controlled one mixed
with Shanl cement P.O.32.5, the mix proportion of concrete was shown in Table 3, and the
compressive strength at 7d and 28d of curing age was shown in Table 4.

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP,
www.ttp.net. (ID: 137.222.24.34, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom-18/03/15,09:22:09)
Key Engineering Materials Vols. 405-406 15

Table .1 Composition of the cement and admixtures


Composition [wt %]
Materials
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 K2O Na2O LOI f-CaO
Shanl cement 20.36 5.04 3.70 62.04 2.85 1.75 0.6 2 0.33 2.67 1.22
Fly ash 57.31 32.50 4.89 2.45 0.55 / 0.76 0.47 2.32 /
Metakaolin 60.27 28.08 1.90 2.38 1.46 / 0.66 5.86 / /
C.C 32.51 12.02 3.31 41.16 3.78 3.88 0.57 0.21 1.3 /

Table 2. The requirement of GB12958 and the properties of the composite cement
Setting Compressive Bending
Residue of time[h:m] strength [Mpa] strength [Mpa]
Properties MgO[%] SO3[%] Soundness
80[%]
Initial Final 3d 28d 3d 28d
Required 10 4.0 10 0:45 10: Qualified 11.0 32.5 2.5 5.5
Measured 3.78 3.88 2.5 2:00 6:30 Qualified 12.7 44.0 3.87 8.43
All the values satisfied the requirement of GB-12958

Table 3 Material and mix proportion of concrete


Material used in concrete [Kg/m3]
NO Cement W/C Superplasticizer [%]
Cement Water Sand Gravel Air entraining agent
1 0.30 550 142 740 1000 27.5 1.5
2 C.C32.5 0.45 450 192 760 1040 22.5 0.5
3 0.55 350 180 810 1090 17.5 0.5
4 0.30 550 142 740 1000 27.5 1.5
Shanl
5 0.45 450 192 760 1040 22.5 0.5
P.O.32.5
6 0.55 350 180 810 1090 17.5 0.5

It is found that the 28d strength of specimen No.1 was 24% higher than that of the controlled
one (No.4) when W/C ratio is 0.30, and the strength variance of concretes with W/C ratio of 0.45
and 0.55 were slight.

Effects of composite cement on concrete durability


Effect of composite cement on ACR expansion. The suppression effect of composite cement on
ACR expansion was tested with the concrete microbar method proposed by the former Nanjing
University of Chemical Engineering [4]. The two cements were mixed with ACR reactive aggregate
of 5-10mm with proportion of 1:1 respectively. Then the mix was blended with water at W/C ratio
of 0.30, during which KOH was added to increase the Na2Oeq dosage to 1.5% of the cement used.
Specimens with size of 20mm20mm80mm were made and put into 80oC water for 24 hours after
1d of standard curing and de-molding. Then the initial length of the specimens were measured. The
microbars were cured in 1N NaOH solution at 80oC and measured at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 28d of curing
age. The length change of the mortar bar was calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the
composite cement on the inhibition of ACR expansion, and the proposed up limit of expansion was
0.1%, the result was shown in Fig.1.
16 Ultra-High-Pumpability and High Performance Concrete Technology

Table.4 7d and 28d compressive strength of the concrete


Compressive strength [Mpa]
Specimens
7d 28d
1 52.7 70.6
2 32.2 42.8
3 20.4 35.6
4 55.0 65.4
5 31.2 41.8
6 22.6 34.2
0.45 high performance cement shanl cement
0.4
ratio of expansion %

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

1d 3d 7d 10d 14d 21 28

curing age (d

Fig.1 Effect of Shanl cement and composite cement on ACR expansion


As shown in Fig.1, the expansion ratio of the controlled specimen (Shanl cement) was 0.38%,
much bigger than the up limit of 0.1%, while the composite cement was effective in inhibiting
alkali-carbonate reaction as the expansion of the specimen was only 0.07%.
Effect of composite cement on ASR expansion. ASTM C441 [5] was used to measure the effect
of composite cement on ASR expansion. Quartz glass was crushed to 0.15-4.75mm as reactive
aggregate, as shown in Table 5. The quartz glass aggregate was blended with cement with C/A ratio
of 1:2.25. Then mixed with water at W/C ratio of 0.47. Specimens with size of
25mm25mm285mm were cast and measured for initial length after 1d of standard curing and
de-molding, and cured at 38oC and RH 100% environment, length change was periodically
measured untill 14 days. The expansion of the mortar bars was calculated and shown in Fig.2.
Table 5 Size and percentage of the quartz glass aggregate specified in ASTMC441
Diameter[mm] 0.15-0.3 0.3-0.6 0.6-1.18 1.18-2.36 2.36-4.75
Percentage[%] 15 25 25 25 10

0.35
Shanl cement high performance cement

0.3
(
n 0.25
o
i 0.2
s
n 0.15
a
p )
x 0.1
e %
f 0.05
o
o 0
i
t -0.05 1d 3d 7d 10d 14d
a
r
curing age(d)

Fig 2 Inhibiting effect of composite cement on ASR expansion


Key Engineering Materials Vols. 405-406 17

It can be seen from Fig.2 that the expansion ratio of the Shanl cement was nearly 0.3%, and the
composite cement was very effective in suppressing ASR expansion, with expansion ratio of only
0.026%, lower than 10% of the controlled one.
Charge passed of concrete mixed with composite cement. According to ASTM C1202, charge
passed of concrete mixed with Shanl cement and the composite cement was measured to evaluate
the chloride ion penetration. The grade and respond charge passed data was shown in Table 6. Mix
proportion of the concrete was shown in Table 3 and the result was shown in Table7.

Table 6 The grade of concrete permeability in ASTM C1202


6h total charge passed [coulombs] Cl- permeability of concrete
>4000 High
2000-4000 medium
1000-2000 low
100-1000 very low
<100 negligible
It is seen from table 6 and 7 that the charge passed of concrete mixed with composite cement was
about 1/10 of the controlled specimens. When W/B ratio is 0.3, the chloride permeability of C.C
concrete is negligible, when W/B ratio varies from 0.45 to 0.55, the corresponding concrete is
very low in chloride permeability.

Table 7 28d charge passed of concrete


Specimens W/C 6h total charge passed [coulombs] Cldiffusion ability
C.C.1 0.3 66 negligible
C.C.2 0.45 440 very low
C.C.3 0.55 620 very low
Shanl P.O.4 0.3 963 very low
Shanl P.O.5 0.45 1630 low
Shanl P.O.6 0.55 2824 medium
Effect of composite cement on sulfates aggression. Effect of composite cement on sulfate
aggression was examined by wetting-drying test [1,6], with immersion of the specimens in
15%NaCl+5%MgSO4 or 5%Na2SO4 solution for 16 hours and drying at 80oC for 6 hours. Weight
loss was employed to evaluate its performance in resisting sulfate aggression. The result was shown
in table 8, 9.
Table 8 The drying-wetting result of concrete immersed in 5%Na2SO4 solution
Specimen Initial weight Weight loss [%]
NO Cement [g] 12 cycles 15 cycles 30 cycles Total cycles
1 C.C1 2478 4.25 33
2 C.C2 2405 5 15
3 C.C3 2401 5.78 12
4 ShanlP.O1 2520 4.81 31
5 ShanlP.O2 854 4.95 15
6 ShanlP.O3 871 5.05 15
18 Ultra-High-Pumpability and High Performance Concrete Technology

Table 9 The drying-wetting result of concrete immersed in 15%NaCL+5%MgSO4 solution


NO. cement Initial weight[g] Weigh loss after 30 cycles[%] Weigh loss after 90 cycles[%]
F1 C.C 2512 -1.6 +1.1
F2 C.C 2413 -1.5 +2.2
F3 C.C 2424 -1.5 +3.0
K1 ShanlP.O 2526 -2.46 -2.39
K2 ShanlP.O 851 -1.72 -0.47
K3 ShanlP.O 863 +0.05 +0.12

It is seen from tables that C.C and ShanlP.O concrete underwent similar wetting-drying cycles
before deterioration.
Other properties of composite cement. Apart from the excellent durability deliberated above, the
composite cement was also a energy conservative, environmental friendly material with low
hydration heat as well.

Conclusions
The composite cement composed of clinker, metakaoline, slag, fly ash and natural zeolite powder
was developedthe cement is capable of curing the durability problems such as sulfate aggression,
ACR and/or ASR expansion, and chloride penetration, etc. The cement was also low in hydration
heat, effective in controlling segregation, energy conservative and environmental friendly. As the
cement exhibits perfect performance in decreasing charge passed and defending NaCl and MgSO4
aggression, the product was also suitable for oceanic and offshore engineering.

References:
[1] Feng Naiqian, Feng Xiaoxin, Hao Tingyu, Xing Feng. Effect of ultrafine mineral powder on the
charge passed of concrete. Cement and concrete research, Vol.32 (2002), pp.623-627.
[2] Feng Naiqian, Niu Quanlin, Feng Xiaoxin. Effect of superfine mineral powder on the Cl -
diffusibility of mortar and concrete. Chinese Engineering science, 2002, 2, pp69-73.
[3] Feng Naiqian, Technology of high performance concrete, press of Chinese atomic energy,
2000.6 Beijing China.
[4] Zhongzi Xu, Xianhui Lan, Min Deng, And Mingshu Tang. A new accelerated method for
determining the potential alkali-carbonate reaction. In: Proceeding of 11th International
Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction, Quebec City, Canada, 2000, pp.703-712.
[5] ASTM C441, Standard Test Method for Effectiveness of Mineral Admixtures or Ground
Blast-Furnace Slag in Preventing Excessive Expansion of Concrete Due to the Alkali-Silica
Reaction.
[6] Tan Ranjing. Behavior of the alkaline saline corrosion on the buildings and structures and its
precaution. In proceeding: Symposium of concrete and cement product branch of the Chinese
ceramic society, 1992.6. Huhehaote, Inner Mongolia,china.
Ultra-High-Pumpability and High Performance Concrete Technology
10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.405-406

Improvement of Concrete Durability by Composite Cement


10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.405-406.14