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# Solutions

of
Optics &
Modern Physics

## Lesson 26th to 30th

By DC Pandey
26. Reflection of Light

## Introductory Exercise 26.1

1 w = 1.5 1011 rad/s
1. Since c = where c is the speed of light
m 0 e0
1 2 pn = 1.5 1011
in vacuum hence unit of is m/s. 1.5
m 0 e0 n= 1011 Hz
2p
2. Hence w 1.5 1011
-7 11 Speed of the wave v = =
By = 2 10 T sin [500x + 1.5 10 t ] k 500
Comparing this equation with the standard = 3 108 m/s
wave eqution By = B0 sin [ kx + w t ]
2p Let E0 be the amplitude of electric field.
k = 500 m -1 k =
l Then E0 = cB0 = 3 108 2 10-7
2p = 60 V/m
l= m
k
Since wave is propagating along x-axis and
2p p
l= m= metre B along y-axis, hence E must be along z-axis
500 250
E = 60 V/m sin [500x + 1.5 1011 t ]

## Introductory Exercise 26.2

1. Total deviation produced From figure
1 q = 90 - i
d = 360 - 2 [ i + 90 - i]
N1 i
i = 180
Hence rays 1 and 2 are parallel (anti-
i
2

90 2
parallel).
180

q q
90 90 2. v0 = 2 m/s for plane mirror vi = 2 m/s.
1802q
Velocity of approach = v0 + vi = 4 m/s.
N2
3. In figure, AB is mirror, G is ground, CD is
d = 180 - 2 i + 180 - 2q pole and M is the man. The minimum height
d = 360 - 2( i + q) to see the image of top of pole is = EN
2

L' BC 2
tan f = = =1
8m L
q A CC 2
q
N f = 45
2m
So, NK = 4 tan 45 = 4 m
N1 Hence in minimum height
f
K f B
= 6 m + 4 m = 10 m
f
M C C' 6 m In DAC C
pole 4
=4m tan q = =2
E 2m C 2
2m D
In DL LA we get,
= EK + KN = 6 + KN LL
= tan q
Now in DNKB, LA
NK LL
= tan f NK = KB tan f =2
KB 4

= 4 tan f LL = 8 m

## Introductory Exercise 26.3

1. Here f = - 10 cm (concave mirror) 1 -1 + 2
=
v 10
(a) u = - 25 cm
v = 10 cm
Using mirror formula,
Hence, image is virtual, erect and two time
1 1 1
+ = of the object.
v u f
1
1 1 1 1 1 2. Here u = - 3 m, f = - m,
= - =- + 2
v f u 10 25
we have,
1 -5 + 2 1 1 1
= (a) = -
v 50 v f u
50
v=- . cm
= - 167 1 1
3 = -2 +
v 3
Hence image is real, inverted and less
v = - 0.6 m
height of the object.
As ball moves towards focus the image
(b) Since u = - 10 cm,
moves towards - and image is real as the
Hence object is situated on focus of the distance decreases by focal length image
image formed at . become virtual which moves from + to
(c) u - 5, f = - 10 zero.
1 1 1 1 1 (b) The image of the ball coincide with ball,
= - =- +
v f u 10 5 when u = - R = - 1 m
3

## 1 2 4. Since the incident rays and reflected rays

Using h = ut + gt
2 are parallel to each other therefore mirror is
2h 2 2 plane mirror.
t= =
g 9.8 5. Let us solve the first case :
= 0.639 s
Similarly again images match at t = 0.78 s.
q M
3. Since image is magnified, hence the mirror B
q
is concave. q
-v -v a a 2q q
Here, m= =5 A a
A' F C
u u
v = -5u (i)
Let distance between mirror and object is x. 40 cm 20 cm
Since image is formed at a distance 5 m 20 cm
from mirror
By applying the geometry we can prove that,
v = - (5 + x) (ii)
40
From Eqs.(i) and (ii), we get PA = v = cm
3
- (5 + x) = - 5x Further, in triangles ABP and PA B we
4x = 5 have,
x = 1.25 AB A B
=
40 ( 40/ 3)
Hence mirror is placed at 1.25 m on right
side of the object by mirror formula AB 2
\ A B = = cm
1 1 1 3 3
+ = ,
v u f Similary, we can solve other parts also.
we have 6. Simply apply :
1 1 1 1 1 1
=- - = =
f 6.25 1.25 v u f
- 6.25 I -v
f = , and m = = for lateral magnification. If
6 o u
6.25 magnitfication is positive, image will be
Hence R = 2 f R = - = - 2.08 m
3 virtual. If magnification is negative, image
will be real.
Thus mirror is concave mirror of radius of
curvature 2.08 m.
4

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level 1)
1. Here v = 39.2 cm, hence v = - 39.2 cm Hence the images distance are 2 nb, where
n = 1, 2, K . Ans.
and magnification m = 1
5. Suppose mirror is rotated at angle q about
hi = ho = 4.85
its axis perpendicular to both the incident
Hence image is formed at 39.2 cm behind ray and normal as shown in figure
the mirror and height of image is = 4.85 cm. y
2. From figure, angle of incident = 15 I R
N
N Incident ray
90
Reflacted ray Mirror i i
1 50

15
0

x
q
Horizontal (a)
15
15 y
IV
R'
Let reflected ray makes an angle q with the i2q
I
horizontal, then
iq q iq
q + 15 + 15 = 90 q = 60
x
A C q
3.
(b)

30 cm

30 cm
1o cm

1o cm

## In figure (b) I remain unchanged N and R

shift to N and R.
50 cm 50 cm 70 cm
From figure (a) angle of rotation = i,
B 40 cm D
From figure (b) it is i - 2q
Since mirror are parallel to each other Thus, reflected ray has been rotated by
image are formed the distance of five closet angle 2q.
to object are 20 cm, 60 cm, 80 cm, 100 cm and
140 cm. 6. I is incident ray i = 30 = r
1.6m
4. The distance of the object from images are A B
2b, 4 b, 6b..... etc.
A C
30
30

2b
20 cm
R
O''' O'' b b O' O''' I
b A' x P B'
1 4b
4b
From D PA A, we get
B D
5

x 1 1 1
= tan 30 x = 20 tan 30 Using mirror formula, + =
20 v u f
AB 160 cm 1 1 1
No. of reflection = = = -
x 20 cm tan 30 v f u
= 8 3 14 1 1 1 - 165 + 11
=- + =
v 11 16.5 16.5 11
Hence the reflected ray reach other end
after 14 reflections. 16.5 11
v=- = - 33 cm
5.5
7. The deviation produced by mirror M1 is
= 180 - 2 a Hence the image is formed at 33 cm from the
pole (vertex) of mirror on the object side the
M1
image is real, inverted and magnified. The
Z' absolute magnification
A I1
a v 33
1802a |m|= = =2
90a a R2 u 16.5
R1 f f
q 90f 1802q Hence size of image is hi = 2 h0
= 2 6 = 12 mm.
C R
9. Here u = - 12 cm, f = + = + 10 cm
2
and the deviation produced by mirror M2 is
= 180 - 2 Using mirror formula
1 1 1
Hence total deviation + =
v u f
= 180 - 2a + 180 - 2f
we get
= 360 - 2 ( a + f)
1 1 1 1 1
= - = +
In D ABC we get, v f u 10 12
90 - a + q + 90 - f = 180 6+5
=
a + f=q 60
60
Hence deviation produces = 180 - 2q. v= cm = 5.46 cm
11
R 22
8. Here f = - = - = - 11 cm
2 2 The image is formed on right side of the
60
Object height h0 = 6 mm vertex at a distance cm. the image is
11
u = - 16.5 cm virtual and erect the absolute magnification
v
(a) The ray diagram is shown in figure is given by |m|=
u
B 60 5
|m|= =
A' 11 ( - 12) 11
A f
Q m <1
B' u = 16.5 cm Hence image is de-magnified.
Height of image hi =|m| h0
6

5 45 v =3 u
hi = 9= = 4.09 mm
11 11
v = 3u and v is +ve
The ray diagram is shown in figure
By mirror formula,
B
1 1 1 1 1 1
+ = - -
B' v u f 3u u 12
A 12 cm A' 1 -3 1
5/11cm
F =- u = 8 cm
(O) 3u 12
(b) Since image is real
v
10. Here f = - 18 cm m = - = 3 v = - 3u
u
Let distance of object from vertex of concave 1 1 1
By using + = , we get
mirror is u. Since image is real hence image v u f
and object lie left side of the vertex. 1 1 1 -4 1
- - =- =-
v 1 e u 12 3u 12
Magnification m = - =
u 9 u = 16 cm
u -v 1 u
v=- (c) Here m = = v=-
9 m 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1
By mirror formula, + = , we have - - =-
v u f u/3 u 12
1 1 1 10 1 4 1
- - =- - =- -=- u = 48 cm
u/9 u 18 u 18 u 12
1 1 1
u = 180 cm (left side of the vertex). 13. We have + =
v u f
11. Here u = - 30 cm, since image is inverted.
uf
v= at u = f , v =
Hence the mirror is concave. u-f
1 -v u
m= = v=- The variation is shown in figure
2 u 2
1 1 1 v(m)
Using mirror formula, + = , we get
v u f
0.5
2 1 1 -3 1 0.25
- - = =
u u f u f u(m)
u 30 0.25 0.5
f =- =- = - 10 cm
3 3
Hence mirror is concave of focal length
10 cm. Hence focal length if assymtote of the curve.
24 When u < f , Image is virtual. It means v is
12. Here f = - cm = - 12 cm
2 negative.
(a) Since image is virtual When u = 2f
v
m= v = mu v = 2f
u
u 0, v 0
7

## 14. Here f = 21 cm R = 2 f = 42 cm Let v be the distance of the image from pole

(vertex) of convex mirror.
Since the object is placed on C. Hence its
1 1 1
image by concave mirror is formed on C. This Using + = , we get
v u f
image acts as a virtual objet for plane mirror
the distance between plane mirror and 1 1 2 xR
- = v=
virtual object = 21 cm. v x 12 2x + R
Hence plane mirror forms its real image in For concave mirror
front of plane mirror at 12 cm. xR 2R2 + 5xR
u = - 2R + = -
15. Let u is the object distance from vertex, v is 2x + R 2x + R
the image distance for vertex and f is the
R
focal length then distance between object v = - (2R - x) and f = -
2
and focus is u - f and distance between
1 1 1
image and focus is v - f ie, Using + = , we get
v u f
(u - f ) (v - f ) = uv - (u + v) f + f 2 (i)
1 (2x + R) 2
1 1 1 - - -
Using + + , we get (2R - x) (2R2 + 5xR) R
v u f
(ii) 4 R 3 - 2x2 R + 8 xR2
uv = (u + v) f
Putting the value of uv in RHS of Eq. (i), we = 8 R 3 + 16xR2 - 10x2 R
get 4 R 3 + 8 xR2 - 8 x2 R = 0
(u - f )(u - f ) = (v + u) f - (v + u) f + f 2 4 R[ R2 + 2xR - 2x2 ] = 0
(u - f )(v - f ) = f 2 2x2 - 2xR - R2 = 0
Hence proved. Q R0
16. Let object is placed at a distance x from the 2R 2 3 R [1 3 ]
x= = R
convex mirror then for convex mirror 4 2
R 1 + 3
u - x and f = + x = R
2
2

## Objective Questions (Level 1)

1. When convergent beam incident on a plane 2. When an object lies at the focus of a concave
mirror, then mirror forms real image mirror u = - f focal length of a concave
mirror is negative.
Plane mirror
Using mirror formula
1 1 1
+ =
I v u f
O
we get,
Virtual object 1 1 1
- =- v=
v f f
8

v 6. From figure
also magnification m = - = .
u
1
Hence, correct option is (c) , . 2

3. Total deviation, d = d1 + d2 q
q

9 0
q
q N1
q 70 70
180 2q
20 + q
a a
1802a 20 + q = 70
q = 70 - 20
N2
q = 50
= 180 - 2q + 180 - 2a Here (1) and (2) are paralledl 11 to each
but a = 90 - q other.

## Hence, option (a) is correct. R = + 60 cm.

R
4. A concave mirror cannot from a virtual Its focal length f = = + 30 cm
2
image of a virtual object.
v 1
Hence option (a) is correct. Magnification m = =
u 2
5. For a concave mirror for normal sign u
v=
convention if u = - f v = 2
and at u = - , v = - f 1 1 1
Using mirror formula, + = ,
v u f
graph between u and v is
1 1 1
v we get, - - =
u / 2 u 30
-3 1
=
u 30
u u = - 90 cm
u
v = = - 45 cm
2
Hence distance between A and B is
= 90 - 45
The dotted lines are the asymptotes
= 45 cm
(tangent at ) of the curve.
Hence the correct option is (c).
Hence correct option is (b).
9

8. Here it is given that height of the boy Using mirror formula, we get
HF = 1.5 m 1 1 1
+ =
H
v u f
0.1 m C A 1 1 1
- - =
3u u f
E Mirror
-3u
f =
4
1.5m K B - 3 40
f = = - 30 cm
2
Mirror is concave and focal length is 30 cm.
Correct option is (a).
F D
1 v
10. Here m = + = -
Length of mirror = AB = 0.75 m n u
The ray diagram is shown in above figure. u
v=-
n
H is the Head of the boy and F is the feet. It
1 1 1
also shows the paths of the rays that leaves From mirror formula = + ,
the head of the man enter his eyes (E). After f v u
reflection from the mirror at point A, and we get,
the rays that leave his feet and enter his 1 1 1
eyes after reflected at point B. = +
f ( - u / n) u
1
From figure CE = HE = 0.05 m u = - ( n - 1) f
2
CF = HF - HC = HF = CE Hence the correct option is (d).
= 1.50 - 0.05 = 1.45 m 11. Differentiating mirror formula, we get
The distance of the bottom edge of mirror dv v2 du du
= [Q here is ve]
above the floor is dt u2 dt dt
BP = KF = CF - KC = CD - AB Using mirror formula
= 1.45 - 0.75 = 0.7 m 1 1 1
+ = ,
But according to question BD = 0.8 m (given) v u f
which is greater than 0.7 m, the height 1 1 1
we get = -
required to see full image. Hence the boy v f u
cannot see his feet.
Here u = - 60 cm, f = - 24 cm
Option (c) is correct
Putting these we get, v = 40 cm
9. Since the image is magnified hence mirror is dv 402
concave mirror. Hence, = 9 = 4 cm/s
v dt 602
Here m = - = 3 v = - 3u
u Hence the speed of the image is 4 cm/s
|v|=|- 3u|= 3u away from the mirror.
but |v - u|= 80 Hence correct option is (c).
|3u - u|= 80 u = 40 cm' 12. The wrong statement is (d)
10

## 13. Let vm is the speed of mirror, vp is the speed vop = 2 [vm + vp ] - vo

of particle and v p is the speed of the vop = 2 [10 + 4 ] - 2
observer, then speed of the image measured = 28 - 2 = 26 cm/s
by observer is given by
Hence correct option is (d).

## Assertion and Reason

1. Assertion is wrong since when a virtual It never makes real image of real object
object is placed at a distance less than the reason is also true but convex mirror is used
focal length its real image is formed. because since its field of view is greatest.
Hence answer is (d). Hence both assertion and reason are true
1 1 1 but reason is not correct explanation of
2. Using mirror formula + = we get assertion. Correct answer is (b).
v u f
1 1 1 5. Since m = - 2 hence it is definitely a concave
- = v = 10 cm
v 20 20 mirror since only concave mirror form
v 1 magnified image. Since concave mirror form
ie image is virtual exect and since m = = .
u 2 only real image of real object hence reason is
Hence image is diminished, thus assertion also true. Hence it may true but when object
is true. is placed between C and F , m < 1.
If u = + 20 cm for virtual object v = hence Hence correct answer be (a) or (b).
reason is true but reason is not correct Incident ray
6.
explanation of assertion. Hence answer is (b).
1 1 1
3. Using mirror formula + = we get i
v u f
1 1 1 i
= -
v f u d = 180 2i
Reflected ray
If u is front of mirror u is negative and f is
negative for concave mirror. Hence assertion is true.
1 1 1 uf For normal incidence i = 0 hence d = 180.
=- + v=
v f u f -u hence assertion is true but reason is false.
u f v hence correct option is (c).

## Hence assertion is true also in refractive 7.

image and object moves in opposite i M1
direction. Hence both assertion and reason i
are true and reason correctly explain the
assertion Correct answer is (a). r r

## 4. Real view mirror of vehicles is convex

mirror, hence assertion is true. M2
11

## Deviation produced by M1 = 180 - 2i Hence assertion is true but reason is false.

Deviation produced by M2 = 180 - 2 r Correct option is (c).
Total deviation produced = 360 - 2( i + r) 8. The correct option is (b).
But from figure i + r = 90, hence deviation 9. The correct option is (a, b).
= 180 for any value of i.
10. The correct option is (b).

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

1. vmax = w A AB = 2MB - SA = 2x tan f - SA
= 2x tan f - 2x tan q
AB = 2x [tan f - tan q ]

60

M SM SN
= 2x = 2 [ SM - SN ]
=

-
q

x x
AB = 2 L,
where SM - SN = L = Length of mirror
k d d
vmax = A [ AB] = (2L) = 0
m dt dt
k Q Length of mirror is constant.
Q w2 = for SHM
m Hence the correct option is (d).
Maximum speed of insect relative to its 3. Here u = - 10 cm and v = - 20 cm
image
Using mirror formula
= 2 vmax ^ = 2 vmax sin 60
1 1 1 dv du
k + = we get = 2 - 2 = 0
=A 3 u v f v u
m
dv v2 202
Hence correct option is (c). =- 2 =- 2 =-4
du u 10
2. aun = g dv = - 4 du
Height = x dv = - 4 - ( - 0.1), here du = - 0.1
L dv = 0.4 cm,
ie, 0.4 cm away from the mirror.
q q q q x
Hence the correct option is (a).
S N A M B 4. The first and second images are shown in
figure but according to question
Let after time t paperndicular distance
between mirror and source is x we have L1 L2
from figure
(3x)
AB = AM + MB = SM - SA + MB I II
3x x
x
but SM = MB
6x
12

(6 - x) - x = 4 dv
= =2
du
2 = 2x x = 1 m
dv = 2 du,
Hence the correct option is (c).
A B
1 1 1
5. For vertical part - + =-
20 v 5 2 mm 2 mm

20 cm AB = du = 4 mm
dv = 2 4 mm dv = 8 mm
10 cm Hence the correct option is (c).
P
C F 7. If the mirror is rotated by an angle q in
anticlock, wise direction about an axis ^ to
the plane mirror, the new angle of incidence
20 cm becomes i - q and angle of reflection also
20 i - 2q.
v=-
3 According to problem
v 20 / 3
= 1
|mv|= = i + i - 2q = 45
u 20 3
2i = 45 + 2q = 45 + 2 20 = 85
10
Lv = cm But angle of incidence = angle of reflection.
3
Hence the angle between origial incident
For horizontal part first end is at C hence
and reflected ray was 85. Similarly is the
its image is also at C ie at v = - 10 cm, for
mirror is rotated clockwise the angle became
other end
5.
1 1 1 20
- + =- v=-
-20 v 5 3 Hence correct option is (c) 85 or 5.
20 8. The person see his hair if the incident ray
|v|=
3 statics from point A after reflected by mirror
20 10 reach his eyes. Let O is point at minimum at
LH =|v - u|= - 10 =
3 3 a distance x below the point A.
10 A
LH =
3 x
q O
The ratio LV : LH = 1 : 1. q
x
Hence correct option is (c) 1 : 1. Person 170 cm E
164
6. Here u = - 15 cm, f = - 10 cm
P
1 1 1 B
Using + =
v u f
We have 2x = 60 cm x = 3 cm
We get, v = - 30 cm
The distance of O from P is
v (v2 - v1)
We have m = = = 170 - 3 = 167 cm
m u2 - u1
Hence correct option is (a).
13

## 9. Acceleration of block v|| = v sin 37 and v^ = v cos 37

A C From figure, we get
O y
M N
vx = v cos 37 sin 37 + v sin 37 cos 37
B D
x = 2 v cos 37 sin 37
4 3 24
3m 2m vx = 2 5 = = 4.8
5 5 5
3 mg 3g
a AB = = v y = v cos 37 cos 37
3m + m 4
- v sin 37 sin 37
Acceleration of block CD :
v y = v [cos2 37 - sin2 37 ]
2mg 2g
aCD = = 4 3 4 3
2m + m 3 = 5 + -
5 5 5 5
Since the accelerations are in opposite 7 1 7
= 5 = = 1.4
directions relative acceleration of one image 5 5 5
with respect to other is given by
Hence velocity of image is given by
3 g 2 g 17 g
a AB + aCD = + =
4 13 12 v = vx ^i + v y ^j
Hence the correct option is (c).
v = 4.8 ^i + 1.4 ^j
BD
10. Here = tan 30
0.2 Hence the correct option is (c).
12. Since elevator start falling freely, the
23 relative acceleration of the particle in
D B elevator frame = g - g = 0

0.2 m 30 30

u = 2 m/s

1
BD = 0.2 q = 45
3
2 3
No. of reflections = = 30
0.2 / 3

Hence, the correct option is (b). Hence, in elevator frame path of the
particle is a straight line.
11. Resolving velocity along parallel to mirror
The vertical component of velocity is
and perpendicular to mirror, we get
1
v cos 37 u sin 45 = 2 = 1 m/s
y 2
37
The separation between mirror and
37 x particle in 0.5 s is
37
v sin 37 y = v y t = 1 0.5 = 0.5 m
14

The separation between image of particle 16. There are two mistakes one in ray (1) and
and particle at this moment other in ray (3).
= 2 y = 2 0.5 m = 1 m 1

## Hence the correct option is (b). 2

3
A B
13. Here velocity of mirror C
^
v m = 4 ^i + 4 ^j + 8 k

## and velocity of object Hence correct option is (b).

^ ^ ^
vo =3 i + 4 j + 5 k 17. The image formation by plane mirror is
shown as
^
Since k is normal to the mirror hence ^i and ^j
components of image velocity remain M2
unchanged ie, velocity of image can be
written as
^ 20 cm
v i = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + viz k 10 cm
45
but viz = 2 umz - voz = 2 8 - 5 = 11
45
Hence, we get
^ 10
v i = 3 ^i + 4 ^j + 11 k (wrt ground) = sin 45 x = 10 2
x
Hence, the correct option is (b). The x-coordinate is 10 2 cos 45 = 10
\$
3 i\$ + 4 \$j + 11k and y-coordinate is - 10 2 sin 45 = - 10
14. Only option (b) satisfy the given condition. x
Here X 0 = - 2, X i = + 10
1 1 1 45 45 10 2 cos 45
Using + = 10 45
X0 Xi f
10 2 10 2 sin 45
we get x
1 1 1
- =
10 2 f Hence, the convert option if (c), (10, - 10).
fx0 - 10 10
f = - 2.5 cm 18. xi = = = + 5 cm
x0 - f - 10 - 10
Hence, the mirror is concave.
fy0 For concave mirror f = - 10 cm.
We know that yi = fy0 - 10 - 20
f - x0 yi = = cm
f - x0 - 10 - 10
- 2.5 1
= = 5 cm
- 2.5 + 2 = + 10 cm

Hence, the correct option is (b). Hence the coordinates of image are (5, 10).
Therefore, the correct option is (d).
15

## 19. For convex mirror f = + 10 cm Hence the correct option is (d).

fx0 10 10 20. It concave mirror is replaced by plane mirror
xi = = =
x0 - f 10 - 10 the coordinates are (0, + 40).
fy0 10 - 20 Hence the correct option is (d).
yi = = =-
f - y0 10 - 10

## More than one options are correct

1. Here f = - 20 cm u
v=-
2
Case 1. (if image is real) u, v and f all are 1 1 1
Using mirror formula + = , we get
ve. u v f
Here m = 2 v = - 2 u 1 1 1
- - =-
u/2 u f
using mirror formula
1 1 1 -3 1
+ = =-
v u f u f
1 1 1 u = -3f
we get, - - =-
2u u 20
Hence, if the mirror is concave the object
3 1
= u = + 30 cm distance will be 3 f .
2 u 20
Let mirror is convex, then
Case 2. (if image is virtual) v 1 v
m = = u=
u and f are -ve, while v is +ve u 2 2
1 1 1 Using mirror formula, we get
- =-
2u u 20 1 1 1
- = u= f
u = + 10 cm u/2 u f
Hence possible values of u are 10 cm, 30 cm. Hence, if mirror is convex the object distance
The correct options are (a) and (b). will be f .

2. Magnitude of focal length spherical mirror Hence correct options are (a), (b), (c) and (d).
1
is f and linear magnification is 3. Since by a plane mirror
2
speed of image = speed of object
Since concave mirror fro inverted real image
and magnification is less than unity,
therefore u > 2 f .
v cos q
Hence option (a) is correct.' v y
q
If image is erect than it is a convex mirror. vs
in x
q
Let mirror is concave hence focal length vc
= - f. os
q
1 v
Here m = = -
2 u Hence speed of image also v.
16

## Horizontal component (along mirror) 1 1 1

+ =
v u f
= v cos q
we get,
Vertical component (^ to mirror)
v = - 60
= v sin q
Different this w.r.t. time, we get
Hence image velocity also make an angle q
with the mirror. 1 dv 1 du
- 2 - =0
v dt u2 dt
Resolving velocity along (y-axis ie, parallel
to mirror) and (x-axis ie perpendicular to dv v2 du
=- 2
mirror). dt u dt

v 0 = v sin ^i + v cos ^j Hence in event (1),
du
= -v
v i = - v sin ^i + v cos ^j dt
dv 602
Relative velocity of object w.r.t. image is = - 2 - v = 4v

dt 30
v 0 i = v 0 - v i = 2 v sin q ^i
Hence, speed of image in event (1) is 4v.
Hence, correct options are (a), (b) and (d). after time y coordinate of object y0 = v t
4. I but x0 = - 30
fy0 - 20 v t
A B then yi = =

f - x 0 20 + 30
-
O
yi =|- 2 vt|= 2 vt
As image is on opposite side of the principle dyi
axis (inverter image) hence the mirror is = + 2v
dt
concave because convex mirror always form
erect image. Hence, option (b) and (c) are correct.

The mirror is lying to the right of O and the 6. For plane mirror
O lies between C and F.
If centre of curvature lies to the right hand
side of O then v < u. 3f 3f

## Hence, this option is incorrect.

Hence, the correct options are (a), (b) and (d). u =3f v =3f
5. Here f = - 20 cm, u = - 30 cm For concave mirror
u = -3f
Using mirror formula
O 1 1 1 2
= - =-
v 3f f 3f
300 m v = - 1.5 f
Using mirror formula |v|= 1.5 f
17

## For convex mirror, 2 -3 1

= =-
1 1 1 4 3f 3f
= + =
v 3f f 3f v = -3f
v = 0.75 f |v|= 3 f
Hence maximum distance in event (1) if For convex mirror
image is from plane mirror and minimum 1 2 1 5
= + =
distance from convex mirror v 3f f 3f
When v = 1.5 f , then v = 1.5 f v = 0.6 f
by plane mirror Hence, in event (2) maximum distance of
For concave mirror image from the concave mirror.
1 1 1 2 1 Hence, correct options are (a), (b) and (c).
= - = -
u 1.5 f f 3 f f

## Match the Columns

1. (a) m = - 2, since |m|= 2 > 1. (b) r

## Therefore mirror is concave and Q m is -ve. (c) p

Hence image is real [for concave mirror m 3. (a) Since object and its image are on opposite
is = - ve] side of principle axis.
O
Therefore,
(a) q, r A B
1 I
(b) Since m = - , Q m is - ve
2
Hence mirror is concave
Hence mirror is concave and image is real.
(a) r.
(b) q, r
(b) Similarly as for option (a).
(c) m = + 2 , Q m > 1
(b) r
Hence mirror is concave and Q m is + ve
(c) Since image and object are of same
Hence image is virtual. height from AB.
(c) q, s Hence mirror is plane mirror.
1
(d) Q1 m = + < 1 and + ve (c) p
2
(d) Since image is magnified.
Hence the mirror is convex and image is O I
virtual.
x x
(d) p, s A B
2. Plane mirror (for virtual object) only real Hence mirror is concave [D is. distance
image between O and mirror is less than the focal
(a) p length].
18

Hence v
m =2 = - v = - 2u
u
(d) r.
1 1 1
Using - =
4. (a) For concave mirror M1 focal length u u f
= - 20 cm 1 1 1
we get, - - =-
2u u 20
When x = 20 cm, Mirror is M1
3 1
v = and magnified =
2 u 20
(a) p, s
u = 30 cm
(b) For convex mirror M2 of focal length
+ 20 cm if X (distance of object from pole) If image is virtual v = 2 v
= 20 1 1 1
- =-
1 1 1 2u u 20
Using mirror formula + =
v v f u = 10 cm
we get Hence correct option are as
1 1 1 1 (a) p, q
= + =
v 20 20 10 1
(b) Here m = <1
v = 10 cm 2
Hence image is virtual. Hence image is real.
(b) r 1 v u
= - v = -
2 u 2
(c) u = - 30 cm, f = - 20 cm
1 1 1
1 1 1 2 -3 1 Using + = , we get
= - = =- v u f
v 30 20 60 60
1 1 1
v = - 60 cm - - =-
u/2 u 20
Hence image is real. 3 1
60 = u = 60 cm
m=- = -2 4 20
30
Hence correct option is none of these.
Hence image is magnified (2 times).
(b) s
(c) q, s
(c) if m = 1, than u = 2 f
(d) for mirror M2 (convex) at X = + 30 cm
u = - 40 cm
image again virtual.
Hence correct option is none of these.
(d) r
(c) (s)
5. (a) For concave mirror f = - 20 cm
(d) Similarly as in part (b) we see that
Case I. Image is real. answer is none of these.
(d) (s)
27 Refraction of Light
Introductory Exercise 27.1
1. Let real depth of dust particle is x and m3 4 3
= =2
thickness of slab is t m1 3 2
t 3. Frequency remain same.
1st 2nd
face face Let v1 is velocity in medium (1) and v2 in
x tx
Medium (2)

## From Ist surface We have

Real depth c c
m= m1 = and m 2 =
App. depth v1 v2
m 1 v2 m
x = v2 = 1 v1
1.5 = x = 9 cm (i) m 2 v1 m2
6 cm
m1
From other face Similarly, wavelength l2 = l1
m2
t-x
m= t - x = 4 1.5 4. From va = n la
4
t = x + 6 = 9 + 6 = 16 cm va 3 108
la = = = 5 10-7 m
4 m2 4 na 6 10+ 14
2. 1m 2 = = (i)
3 m1 3
= 50 nm
3 m3 3 l 500 5
2m 3 = = (ii) m= a = = = 1.67
2 m2 2 lm 300 3
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

## Introductory Exercise 27.2

1. Since light rays are coming from glass to air m2 m1 m2 - m1
2. - =
m m m - m1 v u R
applying 2 - 1 = 2
v u R 1.5 1 0.5
(a) - =
1 1.5 1 - 1.5 m ( -20) 6
- =
v 10 -1.5
On solving v = 45 cm
1 1 1.5 -1 + 4.5
=- + = 1.5 1 0.5
v 30 10 30 (b) - =
v ( -10) 6
30
v= = 8.57 cm On solving we get v = - 90 cm
3.5
20

1.5 1 0.5 u2 m 1 m 2 - m 1
(c) - = 4. Applying - =
v ( -3) 6 v u R
1.44 1 0.44
On solving v = - 6.0 cm - =
v 1.25
3. Light rays are coming from glass to air
On solving v = 0.795 cm
m2 m1 m2 - m1
5. - =
O v u R
1.635 1 0.635
10 cm - =
v ( -9) ( -2.50)

m2 m1 m2 - m1 on solving v = 6.993 cm
- = v
v u R Lateral magnification m = -
1 4 1 - 4/3 u
- = 6.993
v 3 ( -10) ( -15) =- = - 0.777
9
1 4 1
+ = on solving v = - 9 cm
v 30 45

## Introductory Exercise 27.3

1. We have If lens faces becomes opposite three is no
1 1 1 1 1 change in radius of curvature hence focal
- = = (m - 1) - length does not change.
v u f R
1 R 2
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 4. Using formula - = when u 01 v 0
- + = (1.65 - 1) - - v u f
20 60
R R
when u f , v hence image moves from
-3 + 1 -2
= 0.65 surface to .
60 R
1 1 1
R = 60 0.65 = 39 cm 5. = (m - 1) -
f R1 R2
1 1 1
2. Using - = , we get 1 -1 1 -2
v u f = (1.3 - 1) - = 0.3
f R R 20
1 1 1 1 1 1
- = - = + 100
-50 x 30 x 30 50 f =- cm
3
On solving x = - 18.75 cm
-v (a) When immersed in a liquid of 1.8
50
m= = refractive index
u 18.75
1 1.3 -2 -0.5 -2
50 = - 1 =
Height of filament image = 2 f1 1.8 R 1.8 20
18.75
= 5.3 cm f = 36 cm
1 1 1 (b) The minimum distance is equal to the
3. = (m - 1) +
f R R focal length = 36 cm
21

1 1 1 1 1 1
6. Using - = + = v = 16 cm
v u f 3u u 12
1 1 12 12. Since image is upright and diminished
- =
v ( -20) 10 hence lens is concave. Now
On solving v = 20 cm u - v = 20 (i)
v v 1
Magnification = - = - 1 m= =
u u 2
Hence the image of same size and inverted. 1 u - 20
=
Let the distance between second lens is x 2 u
Since magnification is unity image distance u = 40 cm and v = 20 cm
also x using again 1 1 1
Using - =
1 1 1 v u f
- =
v u f 1 1 1
- + = f = - 40 cm
we get 20 40 f
1 1 1 1 13. The image coincide itself if light falls
- = = x = 20 cm
x ( -x) f 10 normally on plane mirror hence object must
Hence the distance between two lenses be on focus i. e. + 10 cm.
1 1 2 (m 2 /m 1) 2 (m 2 /m 1 - 1)
= 20 cm + 20 cm = 40 cm 8. + = -
1 1 1 v u R2 R1
7. = + (i)
v f u 1 1 2 ( 4/3) 2 ( 4/3 - 1)
+ = -
1 1 1 v 0.2 0.4 0.4
= + (ii)
v1 f u + du On solving v = 12 cm
1 1 (u + du - u) 9. Since shift in position D t = 0.1 m
- = on solving, we get
v v (u + du)u
Hence real depth = (0.1 + 0.2) m
v - v du - v2
= thickness dv = 2 du = 0.3 m
v u(u + du) u
and apparent depth= 0.2 m
2 real depth
10. Size of image = 6 = 2 cm. m=
3 apparent depth
11. Let image distance is u 0.3
= = 1.5
|m|= 3 v = 3u 0.2
22

AIEEE Corner
1. Incident ray 1 10-6 1.8 10-6
Reflected ray t3 = 8
= = 0.6 10-14
3 10 /1.8 3 108
i i Hence t1 is least and t1 = 0.4 10-14 s
90i
(b) Total number of wavelengths
90
r 1 mm 1.5 mm 1 mm
= + +
l/ n1 l/ n2 l/ n3
1000 1.2 nm 1.5 100 nm
Reflected ray = +
600 nm 600 nm
We have r + 90 + i = 180 r = 90 - i 1 1.8 1000 nm
sin i sin i +
From Snells law 1.5 = = 600 nm
sin r sin (90 - i)
4500
= = 7.5
tan i = 1.5 600
i = tan -1(1.5) 5. The given wave equation is
v 343 2py
2. nw = air = = 0.229 Ex ( y, t) = Eax sin - 3 1014 2lt
uw 1498 5 10-7

Critical angle q = sin -1(0229
. ) = 13.2
Comparing with standard equation
c 3 108
3. Sped in glycrine v g = = Ex ( y, t) = E0 sin [ ky - wt ]
ng 1.47
2p
k= , w = 2p 3 1014
20 20 1.47 5 10-7
t1 = = = 9.8 10-8 s
vg 3 108
w 2p 3 1014
8 v= = = 1.5 108 m/s
c 3 10 k 2p/5 10-7
Speed in glycrine v g = =
ng 1.63
c 3 108
20 20 1.63 ~ Refractive index n = = =2
t2 = = - 10.8 10-8 v 1.5 108
vc 3 108
2p
-8
Wavelength in this way ln =
t2 - t1 = (1086
. - 9.8) 10 k
2p
= 1.67 10-8 s ln = = 5 10-7 m
25/ 5 107
1 10-6 m 1 10-6 m
4. (a) t1 = =
v1 3 108 /1.2 ln = 500 nm
-6 If vacuum, wavelength is l then
1.2 10
= l
3 108 ln =
n
t1 = 0.4 10-14 s
l = nln = 2 500 = 1000 nm
1.5 10-6
t2 = = 0.5 10-14 s 6. Refraction from plane and spherical
3 108
surfaces
23

## N1 8. The situation is shown in figure

N2
60
O 1 2
M N
r
6 cm 0.25 cm 10 cm

r r
m2 m1 m2 - m1
N3 For first surface - =
v u R
1.5 1 0.5
- =
sin 60 v ( -2.5) 10
We have = 1.8
sin r 1.5 1 1 7
= - =-
sin 60 v 20 2.5 20
sin r =
1.8 30
v=- cm
3 7
sin r = = 0.48
2 1.8 This image acts as a virtual object for 2nd
r = sin (0.48)-1 surface
30 170
r~- 28.7 u2 = - 20 + =- cm
7 7
MO
Now = tan r
6 and R = - 10 cm
m2 m1 m2 - m1
MO = 6 tan r - =
v u r
Similarly ON = 6 tan r 1 1.5 - 0.5
+ =
MN = MO + ON = 12 tan r = 12 tan(28.7 ) v 170/ 7 -10
MN = 6.6 cm 1 1 10.5
= -
4 sin 45 v 20 170
7. From Snells law =
3 sin r v = - 85 cm
A
Hence final image will produced at -65 cm
45 45 from Ist surface.
1m
D
B 9. Here v = - 1 cm
r
3m R = - 2 cm
2 cm
m m m - m1
Applying 2 - 1 = 2
v u R
C E F 1 1.5 1 - 1.5 - 0.5 1
- = = =
-1 x -2 -2 4
Solving we get r = 32
-1.5 5
EF = DE tan r = 3 tan 32 =
x 4
= 1.88 m -6
x= = - 1.2 cm
Total length of shadow = 1 + 1.88 5
= 2.88 m
24

10. O 12.

10 cm
Air
i
r
3 cm RI = 3/2

4 cm

4
Image formed by refection acts the virtual Here sin r =
object for the mirror. 4 + n2
2

1 2
Here shift = t 1 - sin i =
m 2 + n2
2

1 2 2
= 3 1 - = 1 cm sin i 4 4 2 +n
3 / 2 u= =
sin r 3 2 42 + n2
Hence object appear to the mirror
4 4 + n2
= (10 + 1) cm = 5n2 = 28
9 16 + n2
= 11 cm
28
The image formed by mirror = - 11 cm n2 = n = 2.4 cm
5
Hence image formed by the mirror at 11 cm m m m - m1
13. Using 2 - 1 = 2
behind the mirror. v u R
11. 6 cm 1 1.5 1 - 1.5
- =
v -5
O O' 1 1
8 cm 6 cm = v = 10 cm
v 10
6x x m m m - m1
14. For first surface 2 - 1 = 2
v u R
Step. Let shift in mirror is x then the
distance of object.
From the mirror is = 8 + (6 - x).
Step II. Plane mirror form image behind 1 2
the mirror at same distance as the distance
object from mirror hence 10 cm 5 cm
8 + (6 - x) = x + 6 x = 4 cm
real depth 6 30 cm
Step III. m = = = 15 .
app. depth 4
hence real position of the bubble inside 1.5 1 0.5
- = v = 30 cm
sphere is 1.2 cm from the surface. v 10
25

## For 2nd surface 1 1 1

Using lens formula - = we get
1 1.5 - 0.5 v u f
- =
v ( -15) 5 1 1 1
- =
1 1 1 d - x ( -x) 16
=- - v = - 5 cm
v 10 10 x2 - xd + 16d = 0
Hence the distance from first face is d d2 - 64 d
x=
= (10 + 5) cm 2
= 15 cm d + d2 - 64 d
Let x1 =
15. Since rays goes from paper weight ( n = 1.6) 2
2
to air hence d - d - 64 d
and x2 =
Observer 2
x1 - x2 = d2 - 64 d
8 cm But x1 - x2 = 60 d2 - 64 d - 3600 = 0
n = 1.6 3 cm ( d - 100) ( d + 36) = 0
5 cm d = 100 Q d - 36
Hence the distance between object and
1 1.6 1 - 1.6 screen is 100 cm.
- =
v ( -3) 5
1 1 1
1 0.6 1.6 18. Q = ( n - 1) -
=- - f R1 R2
v 5 3
For identical double convex lens
On solving we get v = - 0.58 |v|= 0.58 cm
|R1|=|R2|= R
Hence the distance between observer and
but R1 = R and R2 = - R
table top is = (8 - 0.58) cm = 7.42 cm.
1 1 1 2
16. Let real velocity of bird = vB cm/s = ( n - 1) + = ( n - 1)
f
R R R
Velocity of bird w.r.t. fish = 16 cm/s R R
f = hence f1 = =R
Velocity of bird w.r.t. water = mvB 2 ( n - 1) 2 (1.5 - 1)
But mvB + v f = 16 cm/s R R
and f2 = =
2 (1.7 - 1) 1.4
Here v f = 4 cm/s
4 v + 4 = 16 f1
(a) = 1.4 f1 : f2 = 1.4 : 1
3
B
f2
4 (b) For first lens
v = 12 cm/s
3 B R 1.6R
fi = =- = - 8R
vB = 9 cm/s 1.5 2 1
2 -1
17. Let the distance between the object and 1.6
screen is d and let distance between object hence first lens become concave (diverging)
and lens is x For 2nd lens
26

R 1.6R f
f2 = = = 8R Hence image is formed at right of 2nd
1.7
2 - 1 2 0.1 2
1.6 lens.
Hence 2nd lens remain convex. 22. Since the object is placed at 2f hence image
19. Here u = - 10 cm acts the virtual object for also form 2f by lens i. e., at 60 cm. The mirror
1 1 1 must be placed at that place that it made the
the lens v = - 15 cm using - = final image at focus of lens. The difference is
v u f
shown below.
1 1 1
+ =
-15 10 f 30 cm f
I'
O I
On solving we get f = - 30 cm.
15
60 cm 60 cm
20. Situation is shown in figure.
Hence the distance between lens and mirror
S1
S2 = 40 cm + 15 cm = 45 cm
x u
24 x

## 23. The diagram is shown in figure.

For Ist source direction left to right is + ve
1 1 1
Using - = , we get
v u f
1 1 1 1 1 1 I'
- = + = (i)
v ( -x) 9 v x 9 x 40
f = 40 cm
For 2nd source direction right to left is + ve
-1 1 1 The parallel ray after refraction on
hence + = (ii)
v 24 - x 9 convergent lens meet at focus = 40 cm. Let
distance between two lenses is x then using
On adding Eqs. (i) and (ii) we set 1 1 1
- = for diverging lens
1 1 2 v u f
+ = x2 - 24 x + 108 = 0
x 24 - x 9 1 1 -1
- =
( 40 - x) 15
x = 6, 18
hence lens can be placed at a distance of x = 25 cm
6 cm from any source. 24. Here f1 = 20 cm f2 = 10 cm and d = 30 cm
21. Since the object is placed at c of first lens f1 = 20 cm f2 = 10 cm
hence image also form at c and of same
magnification i. e. v = 2 f . Since two lens are 7.5 cm I2
O 30 cm I1
separated by distance f hence the distance 30 cm 30 cm
between 2nd lens and image is f . This image d
acts a virtual object for this lens using convex Lens convex Lens
1 1 1 1 1 f I IInd
- = , we get - v=
v u f v f 2 1 1 1
For first lens using - = we get
v - f /2 -1 v u f
and magnification m2 = - = =
u f 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ = = - v = 60 cm
v 30 20 v 20 30
27

## For 2nd lens 1 1 1

Using - =
1 1 1 v u f
- =
v 30 10 1 1 1
=- -
1 1 1 v 20 5
= +
v 30 10 v = - 4 cm
1 4
= For third lens v = - 9 cm and f = 9 cm
v 30
1 1 1
- =
v = 7.5 cm v ( -9) 9
Hence image formed at 7.5 cm from 2nd lens. v=
25. For lens u = - 40 cm f = + 20 cm using Hence the image formed at or rays become
1 1 1 parallel.
- =
v u f
27. Situation is shown in figure when space
1 1 1
= + between two convex lenses is filled with
v f u refractive index 1.3 it become a concave lens
1 1 1 2 -1 1 of radii R1 = - 30 cm and R2 = + 70 cm hence
= - = =
v 20 40 40 40 it focal length is
v = 40 cm
Hence the image is at 40 cm right from the
lens. Since distance between mirror and
lens is 30 cm. Hence for mirror v = + 10 cm,
f = - 10 cm.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Using + = = - = ( n - 1) -
v u f v f u f R1 R2
1 1 1 1 -1 1
=- - v = - 5 cm = (1.3 - 1) -
v 10 10 f 30 70

f = - 70 cm
O
40 cm Hence the equivalent focal length of
15 cm 10 cm 1 1 1 1
30 cm combination = - +
F 30 70 70
Hence image is formed at 5 cm from the F = 30 cm if
mirror toward lens. u = - 90 cm then using
26. f1 = +10 cm f2 = 20 cm f3 = +9 cm 1 1 1
= -
F v u
1 1 1
we get = +
30 v 90
10 cm 1 1 1 2 1
15 cm 5 cm = - = =
v 30 90 90 45
For first lens v = + 10 cm v = 45 cm
For 2nd lens u = - 5 cm, f = - 20 cm
28

c 3 108 sin q c m w 4 2
28. nice = = = 1.30 = =
v 2.3 108 sin r m g 3 3

1 1 9 9 2 3
q c = sin -1 = sin -1 sin r = sin q c = =
8 8 3 4
n
ice 1.30
3
= sin -1(0.77) r = sin -1
4
29. (a) Let angle of refraction in material 2 is r 32. For total internal reflection at top surface
sin q 1.8 18
then = = (i) n1
sin r 1.6 16
For (2) to (3) interface
sin r 1.3 13 90r
= =
sin 90 1.8 18 n1 r
q n2
13
sin r = (ii)
18
18 13
From (i) and (ii) sin q = sin (90 - r) n1
16 18 =
sin 90 n2
13
q = sin -1 n1
16 cos r =
n2
(b) Yes, if q decreases r also decreases and sin q n2
become less than the critical angle and and =
sin r n1
hence light goes into material 3.
n2
30. Let maximum height of liquid is h. From sin q = sin r
n1
figure for critical angle C
n2
sin q = 1 - cos2 r
n1
2
n n
= 2 1 - 1
h r2 + h2 h n1 n2
c
n22 - n12
sin q =
n12
1 r2 + h2 2
m= = (i) n
sin C r q = sin -1 2 - 1
4 n1
Here r = 1 cm and m = putting these
3 33. The deviation angle vary from 0 to q where
4
values in Eq. (i). Solving we get h = cm q = 90 - c (i)
3
1 2 where C is the critical angle
Here sin q c = = 4/3 8
mg 3 m
Now, sin c = w = =
m g 3/2 9
Now if water film is poured on the glass air
surface. Let emergent angle at glass water From Eq. (i) cos q = sin C
surface is r, then 8
cos q =
9
29

8 5 5 3
q = cos -1 sin q = sin r =
9 4 4 5
-1 3
Hence deviation angle vary from 0 to q = sin
8 4
cos -1 .
9 A + dm
sin
34. r 2
36. m =
A
sin
h
h
2
c
c A + sin
sin 2 sin A cos A
2 = 2 2
S 3=
A A
sin sin
(a) Only circular patch light escapes 2 2
because only those rays which are A 3 A
incident within a cone of semivertex cos = = 30
2 2 2
angle C [Critical angle] are refracted out
of the water surface. All other rays are A = 60
totally internally reflected as shown in 37. Here i1 = r1 = 0 .
figures
Now, let other face angle of incidence is r2
1 r2 + h2
(b) Now m = = Q r1 + r2 = A 0 + r2 = A
sin C r
1 r2 = A = 30
or C = sin -1 sin r2 1
m = sin i2 = 1.4 sin r2
sin i2 1.5
r
= sin -1 sin i2 = 1.5 sin 30
r2 + h2
i2 = sin -1(0.75) = 19
35. 38. From figure sin OQP = OQR
q m = 1.0

90 90r
45
r
90r P
m = 1.25
45 r1 r
R r1
2
Q
r1
For maximum angle q the angle 90 - r at left i2 45
surface must be equal to critical angle
1 100 4 Hence the ray retrace its path.
sin (90 - r) = = =
1.25 125 5 39. A
4
cos r =
5 30
3
sin r = 60 90 R
5 45
sin q 5 Q 30
Now, = 1.25 =
sin r 4 B
30

The ray retrace its path from ref. by surface On solving we get my = 1.656
AB hence ARq = 90 from geometry it is w w
44. 1 + 2 = 0
clear that r = 30 f1 f2
sin i 0.18 w 0.18 30
m= + 2 w2 =
sin r 20 -30 20
sin 45 1/ 2
m= m = m = 2 w2 = 0.27
sin 30 1/2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Now, = + = -
40. Depends on formula. F f1 f2 F 20 30
41. The maximum angle will be A = 2C where C F = 60 cm
is the critical angle w1 w2
45. + =0
1 f1 f2
Now, C = sin -1 = 41.81
1.5 w1 f
=- 1
w2 f2
Hence A = 2C = 2 41.81 = 83.62
A + dm 3 f
sin =- 1
2 2 f2
42. m = here A = 60
A 3
sin f1 = -
f2
2 2
60 + dm 1 1 1
sin Now, = +
2 F f1 f2
1.5 =
sin 30 1 1 2
= -
60 + dm 150 f2 3 f2
0.75 = sin
2 f2 = 50 cm and f1 = - 75 cm
60 + dm = 2 sin -1(0.75) sin i1
46. Applying m =
dm = 22.8 sin r1

and not deviation = 180 - 22.8 = 157.2 Find angle r1 for two different refraction
indices. Because i1 = 65 from both the
(b) If the system is placed in water
cases.
1.5 4.5
m= =
4/3 4 Then again apply
sin i2
60 + dm = 2 sin -1(1.125 sin 30 ) m= and find i2 . Because r2 = A - r1.
sin r2
1.125
= 2 sin -1
dm - 60 Then apply :
2
d = ( i1 + i2 ) - A
Net deviation = 180 - dm = 128.4
for two refraction indices. Then difference
m -mR
43. w = V in deviations is :
mY -1
Dd = d1 - d2
1.665 - 1.645
0.0305 =
m y -1
31

## Objective Questions (Level-1)

1. Endoscope is bases on total internal 8. Qv = nl but frequency n remain constant and
refraction Hence, correct option is (c) v decreases hence l decreases.
B
2. Here m = A + 2 Hence correct option is (b).
l
9. Using Snells law
Q m is dimensionless. m3
m2 r
B m1
q
= dimension of m
l2 q
i
B = l2 B has dimension of Area
1 2
Hence, correct option is (d).
On first and 2nd interface
1
3. Shift = 1 - sin i m 2
m = (i)
sin q m 1
Qm R is minimum. than other visible colour. sin q m 3
and = (ii)
Red colour least raised. sin r m 2
correct option is (c) Multiplying (i) and (ii), we get
1
-1 sin i m 3
4. Critical angle q C = sin =
m
sin r m 1
Q m 0 is maximum for violet colour hence q c Hence correct option is (b).
for violet colour is least.
10. We have i = r1 and r2 = 90 - i
Hence correct option is (d)
1 A B
5. We have P =
f (metre) Denser medium
i r1
100 1 1
= = 100 ( n - 1) +
f (cm ) R r
90
Rarer medium
100 0.6 2 r2
P= = + 12
10
C
Hence, correct option is (a).
c sin i 1
6. Speed of light in water = Now =
mw sin r2 m
3 108 sin i 1
vw = = 2.25 108 m/s =
4/3 sin (90 - i) m
1
Hence correct option os (c). tan i = (i)
m
7. Due to TIR emergent beam will turn into
1
black. If C is the critical angle then C = sin -1
m
Hence correct option is (c). -1
C = sin (tan i)
Hence correct option is (a).
32

## 11. Let angle of minimum deviation is dm sin i m 1

We have, = (i)
sin r1 m
we know that
sin r1 m 2
A + dm = (ii)
sin sin r2 m 1
2
m= sin r2 m 3
A and = (iii)
sin sin r3 m 2
2
(60 + dm ) sin r3 m 4
sin = (iv)
2 sin x m 3
2=
sin 30 Multiplying (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), we get
1 60 + dm sin i m 4 m
= sin = sin x = sin i
2 2 sin x m m4
60 + dm
= 45 dm = 30 Hence correct option is (b)
2
14. Let radius of curvature of the lens is R
Hence correct option is (a).
1 1 1 R
12. We know that then = ( n - 1) + f =
f R R 2 ( x - 1)
1 1 1
= ( n - 1) - Let focal length of one part is f
f R1 R2
1 1 1
1 1 1 then = ( n - 1) -
f R
2
= (15
. - 1) -
a R1 R2 R
f = = 2f
1 1 1 ( n - 1)
= (0.5 - 1) - ...(i)
0.2 R1 R2 The focal length of the combination is
Let refractive index of the liquid s nl 1 1 1 1 1 f
= + + + F=
1 n 1 1 F 2f 2f 2f 2f 2
= - 1 -
fcm nl R1 R2 Hence correct option is (b).
1 1.5 15. Here P = + 5D f + = 20 cm
- = - 1 10
0.5 nl 1 1 1
= (1.5 - 1) - (i)
-1 1.5 20
= -1 R1 R2
5 nl
1 1.5 1 1
1.5 4 5 1.5 15 and - = - 1 - (ii)
= = nl nl = 100 ne R1 R2
nl 5 4 8
1.5
Hence correct option is (b).
- 1
1 n
Dividing Eq. (ii) by (i) - = l
13. 5 0.5
m2 m3 x
1 1.5
m1 r3 m4 +1=
m r2 x 10 nl
r
r1 5
i nl =
3
Hence correct option is (b).
33

## 16. We know that 20. Minimum deviation condition

1 1 1 d r1 = r2 = r 90 - r + 90 - r + A = 180
= + -
F f1 f2 f1 f2
A = 2r
Q whole system is concave F < 0 A
r= = 30
d 1 1 2
> + d > f1 + f2
f1 f2 f1 f2 sin i
Now m=
sin r
d > (10 + 20) cm d > 30 cm
sin i
Hence only possible value of the given values 2=
sin 30
is 40 cm. 1
sin i =
Hence correct option is (d). 2
17. Since when A > 2q c total light is reflect i = 45
(TIR) take place hence maximum value of A Hence correct option is (a).
is 2q c . 1 1 1 d
21. = + - (i)
Hence correct option is (c). F f1 f1 f1 f2
18. Q emergent ray is ^ to the surface 1 1 1 2d
= + - (ii)
i2 = r2 = 0 2F f1 f2 f1 f2
1 1 1 4d
Q r1 + r2 = A r1 = A = + - (iii)
sin i F f1 f2 f1 f2
Now m=
sin A On solving (i) , (ii) and (iii) we get F = 2F .
Since i and A are small Correct option is (a).
sin i ~
- i and sin A ~
-A 1 1 1
22. = ( n - 1) -
i f R1 R2
m = i = mA
A 1 1 1
= (1.5 - 1) -
Hence correct option is (c). 24 R 2R
A + dm 1 0.5
sin = R = 6 and 2R = 12
2 24 2R
19. m =
A Hence correct option is (a).
sin
2
23. The system is shown in figure.
A + dm
sin f = + 30 cm
A 2
cot + =
2 A I O IInd
sin O
2
15 cm 15 cm 15 cm 45 cm
A + dm A
= 90 - 30 cm
2 2
1 1 1
A + dm = 180 - A Using - =
v u f
dm = 180 - 2 A 1 1 1
- = v = - 30 cm
Hence correct option is (d). v ( -15) 30
34

This image I1 act as a virtual object for Since image after reflection form on object
mirror since plane mirror form image at itself hence the object must be placed at
same distance as object. Hence the distance focus of the lens. The rays after refraction by
between object and image is lens becomes parallel to optic axis. Hence
(30 + 45) cm = 75 cm. reflection rays follow the same path and
Hence correct option is (c). final image form on x itself. Hence x = 30 cm.
sin 45 Correct option is (b).
24. = 3 (i)
sin r1 sin 45 1
28. = 2 sin r = r = 30
sin r1 2 sin r 2
=
sin r2 3 45
45
Multiplying Eq. (i) and (ii)
sin 45

3 0
30
30 30
= 2
sin r2
1
sin r2 =
2
r2 = 30 hence total deflection = 45 - ( -45 ) = 90

## Hence correct option is (a). Hence correct option is (a).

A + dm
25. For small angle prism sin
2
F = 30 cm 29. m =
A
sin
2
O
90 + dm ,
sin
60 cm 3 2
=
2 sin 45
dmin = (m - 1) A if m increases
90 + dm 3
dmin increases sin = = sin 60
2 2
Hence correct option is (a)
sin i n2 sin i dm = 30
26. = =n
sin r n1 i Hence correct option is (c)
sin
2 1 1 1
30. = ( n - 1) -
i f R
1 R 2
Qr =
2 n 1
i n here n = air =
2 cos = n i = 2 cos -1 nglass 1.5
2 2
1 1 1 1
Hence correct option is (c). = - 1 +
f 1.5 10 10
27. Situation is shown in figure.
f = - 15 cm. Hence lens is concave
F = 30 cm
Correct option is (a).

60 cm
35

## 31. For lens u = - 12 cm and F = + 10 cm = 90 - (30 + 30 ) = 30

1 1 1 Hence correct option is (b).
We have - =
v u f 34. A
1 1 1
+ = 90
v 12 10
v = 60 cm 60 90 R
i
Since the distance between lens and mirror Q 30
N
is 10 cm. Hence the image formed 50 cm B
C
from convex mirror. The rays retrace its
path if image is formed at the centre of Since the ray retrace its path hence
curvature of the mirror i.e., ARQ = 90 RQN = r = 30
R sin i
Rconvex = 50 cm F = = 25 cm m= sin i = m sin r = 2 sin 30
2 sin r
Hence the correct option is (b) 1
sin i = i = 45
2
32.
Hence correct option is (c).
12 cm 10 cm 35. f = 10 cm
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 the focal length of = = +
Using - = - = F 10 10
v u f v ( -12) 20
F = 5 cm
v = - 30 cm
Here u = - 7.5 cm , F = 5 cm
Hence the distance between mirror and this 1 1 1 1 7.5 - 5
image is 40 cm. Therefore second image + - =
v 7.5 5 v 7.5 5
formed 40 cm behind the mirror.
v = + 15 cm
Hence correct option is (c).
v height of image 15
sin i Hence|m|= =
33. We have m = u height of object 7.5
sin r
Height of image = 2 1 cm = 2 cm

60
Hence correct option is (a).
1
45 n n n - n1
36. 2 - 1 = 2
v u R
1 3 1 (3/2 - 1)
45 - =
2 60 v 2 ( ) -20
v = + 40 cm
2 sin 45 Hence correct option is (a).
=
3 sin r 1 ng 1 1
37. = - 1 -
3 f nL R1 R2
sin r = r = 60 (on both faces)
2
Here R1 = - 30 cm and R2 = - 50 cm
Hence the angle between emergent ray
36

1 1.5 1 1
= - 1 - + 39. Here A = 60 , dm = 60
f 1.4 30 50
A + dm
sin
On solving 2 = sin 60
m=
f = - 1050 cm A sin 30
sin
2
Hence correct option is (d).
3 /2
38. From the figure, it is clear that m 1 = m 3 < m 2 m= = 3
1/2
Hence correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (a).

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason 5. Since both assertion and reason are true
1. Due to shifting of image on refraction built reason is not explain assertion Hence
Shayam appear nearer to Ram and light correct option is (b).
suffer two refraction. Hence, both (a) and (b) 6. Using mirror formula.
are correct but reason does not explain the 1 1 1
- =
assertion. v u f
Correct option is (b). Here u=-
2. Applying lens formula f = - f (concave lens)
1 1 1 1 1 1
- = + =
v u f v -f
Let u = object distance from lens v=- f
v = d - u distance of image from lens. Hence image is formed at principle focus
Q v+u=d thus assertion is false but reason is true.
1 1 1 Hence correct option is (d).
- =
d -u -u f A + dm
sin
2
u2 - du + df = 0 7. m =
sin A / 2
d d - 4f
u= Here A = 60, m = 2
2
60 + dm
Q u is real hence d 4 f sin
2
Thus mean distance v = 4 f , if 2=
sin 30
u = - 2 f , v = 2 f . Hence both assertion and
60 + dm
reason are true, and reason explain or may = 450 dm = 30
not explain assertion. Hence correct option 2
is (a, b) Hence both assertion and reason are true
3. Correct option is (b). and reason explain assertion correctly.
Correct option is (a).
4. Correct option is (c).
37

8. Focal length of combination 10. In this case image distance of O1 and O2 are
1 1 1 1 1 same from the lens.
= + = -
F Fconvex Fconvex f1 f2 1 1 1
Q - = and reason is trure.
if f1 > f2 v u f
1 1 Hence correct option is (d).
<
f1 f2
11. Assertion is false since only ray energe if
F = - negative refractve index of the colour less than the
Hence assertion is true. Since power is a prism and angle of incidence is less than
measure of converging or divergence of a critical angle but reason is true. Correct
lens. Hence reason is not true. Correct option is (a).
option is (c). 12. If two object is placed between pole and focus
9. Since glass slab produced a net shift. Hence image is real hence assertion is true. Also
v is increased. Thus magnified image is reason is correct.
obtained but image may be real or virtual Hence correct option is (b)
depending on the position of slab. 13. Since both assertion and reason are true and
Correct option is (b) reason explanation is correct.
Hence correct option is (a).

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

Single option correct
Real depth m2 m1 m2 - m1
1. We have m = 2. - =
App. depth v u R
4 1 Here m = - u1 = 1
=
3 App. depth and m 2 = 1.5
3 1.5 1 0.5
App. depth = + = v = 3R
4 v R
Hence the distance between bird and mirror Hence correct option is (b).
3 11 3. From figure, r = 30
=2 + = m
4 4
Normal
Since plane mirror form image behind the
60
mirror (for real object) at same distance as
object hence the distance between bird and
r r
its image 60
60
11 11 11
= + = m
4 4 2 O

## Correct option is (d).

Q r = q + a - 90 = 120 - 90
38

## sin 60 dV pR2 xn2

Hence m = = 3 =
sin 30 dt n1
The correct option is (d). Hence correct option is (b).
4. The lens become diverging if 7. A
air
m1 - m2 > m2 - m 3
air
m 1 + m 3 > 2m 2 m = 5/3
90
or 2m 2 < m 1 + m 3 i
90 90q
Hence correct option is (b). B r
C
1 1 1 16 f
5. + = v1 =
v1 16 f 16 - f Q q = 37 i = [90 - (90 - q)] = q = 37
- v1 -16 f -f Applying Snells law on face BC.
m1 = = = (i)
16 16 (16 - f ) (16 - f ) sin 37 m 2 3
= =
1 1 1 6f sin r m1 5
and + = v2 =
v2 6 f 6- f 4 5 3
sin r = sin 37 = = 1
3 3 5
v2
m2 = (Q image is virtual)
6 r = 90
6f f Hence deviation d = 90 + 37 = 127
m2 = = (ii)
6 (6 - f ) 6 - f Correct option is (b).
-f f
But m1 = m2 = 8. Let refractive index of liquid is m
16 - f 6 - f
For position of fish w.r.t. bird is
-6 + f = 16 - f 2 f = 22 Real depth x
m= m = (i)
f = 11 cm App. depth h1
Hence correct option is (d). For position of bird w.r.t. fish is
6. Let real depth at any instant t of the water is 1 y
= (2)
h then volume of water V = pR2 h m h2
dV dh h2
= pR2 (i) From Eq. (i) and (ii) we get u =
dt dt h1
Let apparent depth at this instant is h
Hence correct option is (a).
Real depth
Q m= 9.
Apparent depth R
(R t )
n2 h n
= h1 = 1 h
n1 h1 n2
3 t
dh n dh
Now =x= 1
dt n2 dt
dh xn2 ( R - t)2 + 32 = R2
= (ii)
dt n1
2Rt ~- 9 Q R >> T
From Eq. (i) and (ii), we get
39

900 mm m w sin r 4 4 1
2R = = 300 mm = =
3 mm m a sin r 3 3 sin r

R = 150 mm = 15 cm sin r = 1 r = 90
Hence correct option is (a). Hence correct option is (d).
1 1 1 fv1 14. For limiting angle of incident emergent ray
10. + = v1 =
v1 v1 f v1 - f become parallel to the 2nd face
-v1 -f
m1 = = (i)
v1 (v1 - f ) 60

## 1 1 1 fv2 i 30+r' 90r'

+ = v2 = r
v2 v2 f v2 - f r'

v2 f
m2 = = (ii)
v2 m 2 - f sin r 3 3
Q = r = sin -1
sin 90 7 7
Q m1 = m2
-f f v + v2 Now r + 30 + r = 90
= f = 1
v1 - f v2 f 2 r = 60 - r
Hence the correct option is (d). r = (60 - sin -1 3/7 )
1 1 1 d sin i
11. = + - Now m=
F f1 f2 f1 f2 sin r
f1 f2 7 sin i
F= =
f1 + f2 - d 3 sin [60 - sin -1 3/7 ]

## as d increases f1 + f2 - d decreases hence F i = sin -1 { 7/3 sin (60 - sin -1 3/7 }

increases. Hence image move to right. 7
= sin -1 sin (60 - 21 )
Correct option is (b). 3
12. In this case, minimum deviation of ray 1 is = sin -1 { 7/3 sin 19 }
same as ray 2.
= sin -1{0.49} ~
- 30
Hence correct option is (c).
Hence correct option is (a).
13. For critical angle at glass air surface
15. The image form the object itself if the rays
1 2
sin q c = = (i) incident parallel to optical axis on the mirror
mg 3 i.e., image of refraction is formed at . It is
Now for glass water surface. possible when O is placed at focus i. e.,
m w sin q c 4/3 2 d = 10 cm
= =
mg sin r 3/2 3 sin r Hence correct option is (c).
4 16. The dot will appear at c for all values of m.
sin r =
3 Since position does not in same medium.
Now for water air surface Hence correct option is (b).
40

## 17. We have for total internal reflection OB. OA

f = (i)
AB
B E
Now AB2 = AC2 + BC2
3/2
(OA + OB)2 = OC2 + OA2 + OB2 + OC2
90 6/5
q i

q OA2 + OB2 + 2 OAOB = 20 C2 + OA2 + OB2
A C D
OC2 = OA OB (ii)
sin i 6/5 Putting this value in Eq. (i), we get
=
sin 90 3/2 OC2
f =
4 4 AB
sin i = i = sin -1 = 53
5 5 Hence correct option is (c).
Hence the ray will not cross BC if i > 53 21. The shift produce
90 + q + i = 180 2
Dt = t 1 -
q = 90 - iQ i > 53 wm g

q < 37 1 3/2 9
= 36 1 - Q wm g = =
Hence correct option is (a). 9/8 4/3 8
18. For reflection at curved surface 36 1
= = 4 cm
1 1 3 1 9
- = - 1
v ( -x) 2 10 Hence correct option is (b).
20x Real depth
v= 22. m =
x - 20 App. depth
This image act as virtual object for 4 real depth
=
plane-glass-water surface 3 10.5 cm
m g m w ( x - 20) m g - m w 4
- = Real depth = 10.5 cm = 14 cm
20x 3
x = 20 cm Hence correct option is (d).
Hence answer is (c). 23. Q y0 = + 1 cm and yi = - 2 cm
19. The ratio of focal length in the situation II v v
and III is 1 : 1. m=- 2=
u u
Hence correct option is (c). Now let x be the position of lens then
1 1 1 v = 50 - x and v = ( 40 + x).
20. We have - =
OB ( - OA) f 50 - x
2=
1 1 1 40 + x
+ =
OB OA f
80 + 2x = 50 - x
OB. OA
f = Q OB + OA = AB - 3 x = 30 x = - 10 cm
OA + OB
Hence correct option is (c).
41

## 24. If the plane surface of plano-convex lens is c

and = n lw (ii)
silvered it behave the concave mirror of focal mw
length fm /2 Dividing (i) and (ii)
Q fm = 10 cm m w lg 4 4
= =
fe = 5 cm hence R = 10 cm m g lw 3mg 5

## Correct option is (c). 5

mg =
3
25. Since lens made real and magnified image,
hence it is a convex lens when lens dipped in Hence correct option is (a).
water its focal length. f f + d ( f1 - d) ( f - d) D
29. x = 1 2 and y = 1
1 m w 1 1 f1 + f2 - d f1 + f2 - d
= - 1 +

f mg
R1 R2 f = 20 cm f = 20

4/3 1 1 -1 1 1 5 mm
= - 1 + = +
3/2 1 R R2 9 R
1 R2

## Q f is - ve lens behave as concave, hence 30 cm

the image is virtual and magnified.
Here f1 = f2 = 20 cm , d = 30 cm
Correct option is (c).
and D = 55m = 0.5 cm
26. The prism transmit the light for which angle
Putting these values we get
of incidence(c), 2c 90 c 45
x = 25 cm and y = 0.25 cm
Correct option is (b).
30. Since for each q angle of incidence at
glass-air boundry remains 0 hence there
90
will never be total internal reflection.
1 1 Correct option is (d).
Hence m = = = 2 = 1.414
sin C sin 45 31. Diameter = m Original diameter
Correct option is (b). 4 4
= 1 cm = - cm
1 1 1 v 3 3
27. - = Q|m|= =3
v ( -16) f u
Hence correct option is (a).
For convex lens v = 3u 1 1 1
32. = (1.5 - 1) +
1 1 1 f 20 20
+ = f = 12 cm (for real image) 1
48 16 f
f1 = 20 cm
Similarly when distance is 6 cm, 3 times Here u1 = - 30 cm
virtual image is formed hence mirror is 1 1 1 1 1 1
convex with focal length 12 cm. - = = - v1 = 60 cm
v u1 f1 v1 20 30
Correct option is (c). v 60
c Magnification|m1|= - = =+2
28. v g = nl g = nl g (i) u 30
mg
(Inverted image)
42

1 1 1 1 1 1
For second lens. + = v2 = + 30 cm - =-
v2 60 20 v 20 30
30 1 1 1 1
Magnification m2 = = = - v = + 60 cm
60 2 v 20 30

## Total magnification = m1 m2 = 1 Hence correct option is (d).

1
Hence object size remains 3mm and it is 36. Shift in mirror = 6 1 - = 2 cm
1.5
formed at (120 + 30) cm = 50 cm from first
lens. 6 cm

## Hence correct option is (b). Man

1.5
33. From left hand side refraction occur from
n2 = 2 to n1 = 1. 50 cm
n 1
n = 1 = = 0.5
n2 2 Hence man lie at 48 cm from mirror. The
distance of image from observer = 2 48
n 1 n -1
- =
v u R = 96 cm
0.5 1 -0.5 1 0.5 Hence correct option is (b).
- = + =
v 10 10 10 10 1 1 1
37. Using lens formula - =
v = 10 cm v u f
Hence correct option is (a). 1 1 1
+ =
( f + 40) ( f + 10) f
34. For lens v = - 20 cm, f = + 10 cm
1 1 1 On solving we get f = 20 cm
Using - = we get v = 20 cm
v u f Hence correct option is (c).

## This image acts virtual object for convex 38. q q

mirror. For mirror v = - ( x - 20)
and v = - (20 + x) and f = + 60 cm
1 1 1
Using + = sin q
v u f = n1
sin (90 - q c )
1 1 1
- = sin q
- (20 + x) ( x - 20) 60 = n1
cos q c
After solving we get x = 20 cm.
n12 - n22
Hence correct option is (c). Now cos q c <
n1
35. In this case system behave as concave
n12 - n22
mirror or focal length = m fe sin q < n1
n1
= 1.5 20 = 30 cm
sin q < n12 - n22
Now using mirror formula
1 1 1 Hence correct option is (a).
+ = we get
v u f
43

## 39. For mirror u = - 1 cm (taking upward 1 1 1 0.6 0.3

= + = +
F f1 f2 10 20 1.6
direction + ve)
f = - 2 cm F = 28.57 cm
1 1 1 Hence correct option is (d).
=- -
v f u 42. Using formula
1 1 1 m2 m1 m2 - m1
=- +1= - =
v 2 2 v u R
v = 2 cm For real image m is -ve
Hence mirror form virtual image behind m2 m1 m2 - m1
+ =
mirror at 2 cm from pole. This image acts as v u R
virtual object for slab on see below the slab 1.5 0.5 1
= -
the shift is v R u
1 1.5 1 1
Dt = 1 - 9 = 3 cm = - v is + ve if u > 2R
3/2 v 2R u

Hence correct option is (b).
Hence virtual image form on object thus
fu
correct option is (a). 43. v = when u < f
m - m1 f -u
m m
40. We have 2 - 1 = 2
v u R u lend to lens
For real object u is + ve if u 0, v 0
m 2 (m 2 - m 1) m 1 Hence correct option is (d).
= +
v R u
44. Since image formed by diverging lens is
Q R is + ve and m 1 > m 2 always virtual.
m2 m
= - ve + 1 Hence correct option is (a)
v u
45. If the object place at first focus the image
v = - ve
forms at ie, rays incident the plane surface
Hence, if m 1 > m 2 then these cannot be real normally and retrace its path.
image of real object. -m 1R - 60
Now x = f1 = - = - 120 cm
Hence, correct option is (a). m 2 - m 1 0.5
41. At oil-concave surface Hence correct option is (a).
1 1 1 1 0.6
= (1.6 - 1) + = m m m - m1
46. 2 - 1 = 2 for m 2 = 1.6
f1 10 f 10
1 v1 u1 R
At other surface light goes from oil to glass 1.6 1 1.6 - 1 6
- = =
1 1.5 1 1 v1 ( -2) 1 10
= - 1 - -
f2 1.6 10 20
1.6 6 1 1
= - =
1 0.3 v1 10 2 10
=
f2 20 1.6 v1 = 16 m
Let focal length of combination is F For m2 = 2
44

2 1 2 -1 f = - 8 cm
- = =1
v2 ( -2) 1
Hence correct option is (a).
2 1 1
= 1 - = v2 = 4 m 48. The focal length of lens combination is 2f
v2 2 2
1 (1.8 - 1.2) 1 1
Hence separation between images = v1 - v2 Hence = - +
2f (1.2 - 1) R
= (16 - 4) cm 1 0.6
=
= 12 cm 16 0.2R
Hence correct option is (a). R = 48 cm
47. System behave a a concave mirror Hence correct option is (a).
Here u = - 10, v = - 40 cm 49. If plane surface is silvered the system acts a
Using mirror formula concave mirror having focal length
1 1 1 R
+ = we get = = 24 cm
v u f 2
-1 1 1 Hence correct option is (c).
- =
40 10 f

## More than one options correct

1. Since prism are identical hence if a right The correct options are (b) and (d).
prism produce deviation d inverted prism 3. The correct options are (b) and (c).
produce deviation -d.
4. The lens form real image if D 4 F
if n = 2m deviation becomes zero.
(displacement method)
if n = 2m + 1 deviation produce is d
D2 - x2
Hence correct options are (a) and (b). and f =
4D
2. sin i and the magnification m1m2 = 1
Hence correct options are (b), (c) and (d).
5. Deviation produced by prism
d = (m - 1) A = (1.5 - 1) 4 = 2
30
sin r
if the mirror is rotated q = 2 ray become
Q sin i = m sin r horizontal after reflection from mirror.
m = tan 30 = 3 Again if mirror is rotated by 1 reflection ray
if speed of light in medium x is v deviated by 2 from horizontal and after
v v passing through prism again ray become
then speed of light; in medium y = = horizontal.
m 3
Hence correct option are (a) and (b).
Since y is denser w.r.t. x hence total internal
reflection take place when incidence in y.
45

## Match the Columns

1. Correct match is 4. (a) q,
(a) q, r (b) p, s (b) r
(c) p, r (d) p, r (c) r
2. (a) p, r (b) q, s (d) p
(c) q, r (d) q, r 1 1 1
5. Since = ( n - 1) -
O f R1 R2
3.
m1
here n = 1.5 for (a) n = 1.4
x
1 1 1.5 1 1
I
m2 > m = - 1 -
m2 f 1.4 R1 R2
2
f is + ve
Hence image distance is less than x and hence
virtual. (a) > p, s Q f increases, power decreases
(a) q, s (b) q, s Q f is - ve and increase in
Similarly as in (a) the correct match for magnification
(b) q, r Similarly
(c) 1 (c) q, s and
(d) p, s
2 6. For real object at 2c convex lens form image
at 2c similarly for virtual object concave lens
O does.
(a) q, s (b) q, r
(c) p, s (c) q, r (d) q, r
(d) p, r
28 Interference and Diffraction
of Light
Introductory Exercise 28.1
1. Because they are incoherent ie, Df does not
I = 10 + 6 2 cos2 q - 1 I
2 0
remain constant.
q
2. Since laser is highly coherent and = 10 + 12 cos2 - 6 I 0
2
monochromatic source of light
q
3. I = I 0 cos2 q / 2 = 4 + 12 cos2 I 0
2
3I0
= I 0 cos2 q / 2 q
4 = 4 I 0 1 + 3 cos2
2
3
cos q / 2 = I
2 Now, I max = 0
9
q p
= 4 q
2 6 I = I max 1 + 3 cos2
9
2
p
q= yd
3 6. Dx = - (m - 1) t
l l p l D
Dx = f= = l
2l 2p 3 6 if t =
2 (m - 1)
yd
But Dx =
D yd l
Dx = -
D Dx D l D 2
y= =
d d 6 For maxima Dx = nl
1.2 600 10-9
yd 1
= 2n + l
y= = 48 mm
0 . 25 10-2 6 D 2
1 This become minima.
4. 2 mt = n - l for minimum thickness n = 1
2 1
For minima Dx = n - l
l 3 2
t= = = 0.5 cm
4m 4 1.5 yd l l
- = nl -
D 2 2
5. Here a1 = 3 a and a2 = a
yd
- nl this become maxima.
R2 = (3 a)2 + ( a)2 + 2 3 a a cos q D
I = 9 I 0 + I 0 + 6I 0 cos q Hence maxima and minima are
I = [10 + 6 cos q ] I 0 interchanged.
47

## 7. For two slit experiment n =6

d sin q = nl 8. Since amplitude of each wave is equal. The
nl amplitude of resultant wave is zero if waves
sin q =
d are equally displaced in phase
nl 360
But sin q 1 1 ie, q= = 45
d 8
d 4 10-6 Hence phase difference must be 45
n n = 6.67
l 6 10-7

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Question (Level-1)
1. R2 = a12 + a22 + 2a1a2 cos f p
q=
2
(i) R = 2a, a1 = a2 = a 2p
Now, f= Dx
4 a2 = a2 + a2 + 2a2 cos f l
p 2p
cos f = 1 f = 0 = Dx
2 l
(ii) 2a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f l
Dx =
f = 90 4
(iii) a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f But Dx =
yd
-1 D
cos f = f = 120
2 D Dx
y=
(iv) 0 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f f = 180 d
2 1m l 1 500 10-9
a1 y= =
2
+ 1 4 1 mm 4 10-3
I max ( a + a2 ) a
2. = 1 = 2
I min ( a1 - a2 )2 a
2
y = 1.25 10-4 m
1 - 1 q
a2 4. I = I max cos2
2
2
5 I q p
(a) max = I max cos2 q =
I max 3 + 1 2
= = 8 = 16 2 2 2
2
I min 5 22 2p
Now q = Dx
3 -1 l

l yd Dl
I max : I min = 16 : 1 Dx = and Dx = =
4 D 4d
q 1
3. I = I max cos2 (b) I max = I max cos 2 q
2 4 2
I max q q p 2p
= I max cos2 cos = cos q=
2 2 2 3 3
q p 2p
cos = cos f= Dx
2 4 l
48

## 2p 2 p l 8. In Youngs double slit experiment

= Dx Dx =
3 l 3 Dl
yd Dl w=
Now Dx = y= d
D 3d 2.2 l
q 2.82 10-3m =
5. (a) I = I max cos2 .460 10-3
2
l = 590 nm
I max = I 0 and q = 60
3 9. xn for bright fringe is given by
I = I 0 cos2 30 = I 0 = 0.75I 0
4 nDl
xn =
2p d
(b) q = Dx
l Dl 2Dl
x1 = and x2 =
p 2p d d
= Dx
3 l Dl
l 480 Dx = the angular separation
Dx = = nm d
6 6 Dx l 5 10-7
sin ( Dq) = = = = 2.5 10-4
Dx = 80 nm D d 2 10-3
6. l A = lB = 6m ( Dq) = sin -1 [0.00025]
A B = 0.014
5m 10. When whole appratus is immersed in water
4
For constructive interference difference l = nw l = 700 10-9 m
wavelength = 0, l, 2l 3

## Q l = 6 > dAB = 5 Dl 48 10-2 4 7 10-7

w= = = 0.90 mm
d 3 25 10-5
Hence only constructive interference occur
at Dl = 0 D1l Dl
11. w1 = and w2 = 2
5 d d
x = m = 2.5 m
2 ( D1 - D2 ) l
w1 - w2 =
3l d
For destructive interference Dl = l,
2 1.5 10-2
3 10-5 = l
Only possibility at Dl = 6 10-3
3 10-8
Which occur at x = 1 m and x = 4 m from A. l= -2 = 2 10-6 m = 2 mm
1.5 10
c 3 108
7. The wavelength l = = = 2.5 m D nl
n 120 106 12. For bright fringe xn =
d
A (9 x) B
For first light ( l = 480 nm ) the third order
x 1 3 480 10-9
Bright fringe is x3 =
5 10-3
For constructive interference
x - (9 - x) = nl , where n = 0, 1, 2 K For second light ( l = 600 nm )
x = 4.5, 5.75, 7, 8.25 1 3 600 10-9
x3 =
5 10-3
The other points are 3.25, 2, .75
49

## 3 10-9 (600 - 480) For dark fringe

Dx = x3 - x3 =
5 10-3 l
d sin q = (2n - 1)
3 120 2
= 10-6
5 For first dark fringe n = 1 and for 2nd, n = 2
-6
Dx = 72 10 , Dx = 72 mm l
dsin q =
2
13. Fringe width :
3l l
lD dsin q = sin q =
w= 2 2d
d y1 l
(500 10-9 ) (75 10-2 ) =
= m D2 + y12 2d
(0.45 10-3)
y2 3l
and =
= 0.83 10-3 m = 0.83 mm 2
D + y12 2d
Distance between second and third dark
y1 550 10-9
line = one fringe width = 0.83 mm. = (i)
(35 10-2 )2 + y12 2 1.8 10-6
14. For first order bright fringe
Dl y2 3 550 10-9
x= and =
d (35 10-2 )2 + y22 2 1.8 10-6
-9
3 600 10
4.94 10-3 = On solving y2 - y1 = 12.6 cm
d l
18 10-7 18 16. Wavelength of source l =
d= = 10-4 m 2 meV
4.94 10-3 5.94 -34
6.62 10
Let for wavelength l first dark fringe is l=
2 9.1 10-31 100 1.6 10-19
obtained at this point for first dark fringe
Dl l = 1.24 10-10 m
x=
2d Dl 3 1.24 10-10
w= = m = 36.6 cm
3 l 4.94 d 10 10-10
4.94 10-3 =
2 18 10-4 17. Given l = 546 nm = 5.46 10-7 m, D = 1m
-7
2 18 10 = 3l d = 0.3 mm = 0.3 10-3m
l = 12 10-7 m l = 1200 nm (a) At distance y = 10 mm = 10 10-3m from
15. I the central fringe path difference will be
y. d 10 10-3 0.3 10-3
Dy = =
y2 D 1
S1
y1 = 3 10-6 m
q q
screen Corresponding phase difference
2l 2p
f= Dx = 3 10-6 rad
S2 l 5.46 10-7

= 1978
50

q 1.1784 D
I = I 0 cos2 Dx = 10-6 m
2 d
1978
= I 0 cos2 2
= I 0 cos 989 Now when t is removed and D is doubled the
2 distance between successive maximum (or
I = 3 10-4 I 0 minima) i. e., fringe width
lD 2Dl
(b) Fringe width w = w=
d d
5.46 10-7 1 but according to question Dx = w
w= = 1.82 mm
0.3 10-3 1.178 10-6 D 2 Dl
=
10 mm d d
Number of fringes = = 5.49
1.82 mm l = 0.589 10-6 m = 589 nm
Hence the number of fringe is five. 20. Let n bright fringe (l = 5500 ) concide with
18. Shift due to sheet of thickness 10m and 10th
refractive index 1.6 is bright fringe of 6000
(m - 1) tD n 5500 = 6000 10
Dx1 =
d
n~
- 11
10 10-6 1.5
Dx1 = (1.6 - 1) Similarly first bright fringe concide with 1st
1.5 10-3
fringe. Now fringe width
Dx1 = 0.6 10 10-3 = 6 10-3m 14.74 - 12.5
w= = 0.224 mm
Shift due to sheet of thickness 15m and 10
refractive index 1.2 is Hence position of 10th bright fringe
-6
(1.2 - 1) 15 10 1.5 = 14.74 - 0 . 224 ~
- 14.55 mm
Dx2 =
1.5 10-3
Position of zero order bright fringe
Dx2 = 3 10-3m = 12.75 - 0.224 ~
- 12.25 mm
Since these shifts are in opposite direction 21. Here d ~
- 1 cm
of central maxima hence net shift
Dx = Dx1 - Dx2 = 6 10-3m - 3 10-3m
P
= 3 10-3m = 3 mm
S
19. Let l is the wavelength of light D is screen y
distance from source and d is the separation 1 cm
between slits (all are in metres) q

(m - 1) tD
Shift = Dx =
d
(1.6 - 1) 1.964 10-6 D D = 100 m
Dx =
d l = 500 nm
51

## For first dark fringe 24. For constructive interference

-9 1
Dl 100 500 10 2mt = n - l for t to be minimum n = 1
y= =
2d 2 10-2 2
l 6000
y = 2.5 mm t= = = 1154
4m 4 1.3
22. The destructive interference will be 2mt = nl
25. For destructive interference
for thinnest n = 1
2mt = nl for t to be minimum
2mt = l
n =1
l 650 10-9
t= = l 800
2m 2 1.42 t= = (i)
2m 2m
t = 114 nm
For constructive interference
23. Here t = 0.485 mm , t = 485 nm, n = 1.53 l
2mt = (2n - 1)
(a) Condition for constructive interference 2
in refractive system 800 l
2m = (2n - 1)
1 2m 2
2mt = n - l where, n = 1, 2
2 1600 = (2n - 1) l
For n = 1, l1 = 4mt = 4 1.53 485 For n = 1, l = 600 nm which does not lie in
= 2968.2 mm visible region

## which does not lie in visible region put For n =2

n = 2, 3, 1600 = 3 l
1600
we get l = 424 nm, 594 nm, = l l = 533 nm
3
(b) For structive interference in transmitted 1600
system for n = 3, l = = 320 nm which does lie
5
2mt = nl, putting n = 1, 2, in visible
only l = 495 nm is lie in visible region. Hence l = 533 nm

## Objective Questions (Level-1)

(Single option correct)
1. Using phasor method R = 82 + 62 = 10 m
6m
Hence correct option is (b).
I1
2. Here = B2
8m 12 m I2

I max = [ I1 + I1 ]2
6m
I min = [ I1 - I2 ]2
8m
52

2 (m - 1) tD
I1 5. Shift =
- 1 2 d
I min I2 = b - 1
= (1.5 - 1) 10 10-6 100 10-2
I max I1 b + 1 =
+ 1 2.5 10-3
I2
5 10-6
2 = = 2 10-3m = 2 mm
( I max - I min ) b + 1 - b + 1 2.5 10-3
=
( I max + I min ) 2b
Hence correct option is (a).
I max - I min 1 Dnl
= 6. xn = for nth bright fringe
I max - I min b2 d
Dl
Hence, correct option is (d). xn = (2n - 1) for nth dark fringe
2d
3. For nth dark fringe Dl
Dx = xn - xn = [2n - 2n + 1]
Dl 2d
xn = (2n - 1) Dl
2d Dx =
2d
For 1st dark fringe n = 1 Hence correct option is (c).
Dl
x1 = 7. Since at centre path difference for all colour
2d is always zero hence centre will be white.
x
Angular position q = sin -1 1
D
l
q = sin -1
2a
5460 10-10
q = sin -1 -3
2 0.1 10
q = sin -1 [273 10-5 ] Hence correct option is (a).
-1
q = sin [0.00273 ] 8. n1 l1 = n2 l2
q = 0.16
60 4000 = n2 6000 n2 = 40
Hence correct option is (b)
Hence correct option is (a).
10Dl
4. For 10th bright fringe x10 = Dl
d 9. Initial fringe width w1 =
d
Dl
For 6th dark fringe x6 = (2 6 - 1) ( D - 5 10-2 )l
2d Final fringe width w2 =
d
But x6 = x10 l
11 10 Dl |Dw|=|w2 - w1|= 5 10-2
Dl = d
2a d l
l 20 3 10-5 = -3 5 10-2
= 10
l 11
3 10-6
l 20 = l 6000 = l
But m= = = 1.8 5
l 11
Hence correct option is (a).
Hence correct option is (a).
53

## I max 49 l = 0.5 10-6 = 500 nm

10. =
I min 9
Hence correct option is (b).
2
I1 12. Let nth fringe of 6500 concide with nth
2 + 1
I I + I2 I2
Now max = 1 = fringe of 5200 .
I min I1 - I2 I1
- 1 Dn 6500 Dn
I2 xn = = 5200
d d
2
49 2 n 5200 4
+ 1 7 + 1 = =
I max 9 100 n 6500 5
= = 3 = 16
I min 49 7 It means 4th fringe of 6500 coincide with
-1 - 1
9 3 5th fringe of 5200 hence the distance
I 25 4 120 10-2 6500 10-10
max = x=
I min 4 2 10-3
Hence correct option is (a) x = 0.156 cm
Dnl
11. xn = Hence correct option is (a).
d
13. Since number of minima does not depends
3 Dl
x3 = = 7.5 10-3m on orientation hence n1 = n2
d
7.5 10-3 0.2 10-3 Hence correct option is (a).
l=
31

## Assertion and Reason

f 2p
1. We have I = 4 I 0 cos2 if f = 3. Assertion is wrong since fringes are
2 3 symmetrical ie, fringes obtained both above
we get I = I 0 and below point O. Reason is true.
Hence assertion is true. Correct option is (a).
l 4. Here both assertion and reason are true and
Now path difference = phase difference
2p reason correctly explain assertion. Hence
l 2p l correct option is (a).
Path difference = =
2p 3 3
5. Both assertion and reason are true and
Hence reason is true. reason correctly explain the assertion.
But reason is not the explanation of Hence correct option is (a).
assertion. Hence correct option is (b).
6. Assertion is true since locus of all fringes is
2. Here assertion and reason are both true but circle. But reason is wrong since fringes may
reason is not correct explanation of have any shape.
assertion. Correct option is (b).
Correct option is (c).
54

7. 9. Q d sin q = nl
P
nl d
sin q = but = 4
d cos q d l
q n
d sin q =
S1 S2 4
Now if q = 30
Path difference at point P is Dx = d cos q n = 4 sin 30 = 2
The path difference decreases as q increases. Hence assertion is true.
Q as q increases, cos q decreases Also reason is true and does not correctly
d cos q explain assertion correct option is (b).
Hence order of fringe n = decreases
l
10. Here assertion is false. Since shift
as we go above P. Hence assertion is wrong (m - 1) tD
(false). = is independent of l.
d
For 11th order maxima path differenc is Hence shift of red colour = shift of violet
more hence reason is true but assertion is colour.
false correct option is (d).
and reason is true
8. Here assertion is true and reason is false
and reason does not correctly explain Q mV >mR
assertion. Correct option is (c). Hence correct option is (d)

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

px k px
1. I = 4 I 0 cos2 = k cos2
a 4 l
lx1
I 0 = 4 I 0 cos2 cos
px 1
=
a l 2
a
x1 = (i) px 1
3 = cos -1
px2 l 2
and 2I 0 = 4 I 0 cos2 px p px 2p
a = or =
a l 3 l 3
x2 = (ii)
4 l 2l
x = or x =
a a a 3 3
Dx = x1 - x2 = - =
3 4 12 Hence correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (c).
3. Light of wavelength l is strongly reflected if
px px
2. I = 4 I 0 cos2 = k cos2 1
l l 2 ut = n + l n = 0, 1, 2 (i)
2
p
I = k cos2 l = k (i) 2 ut = 2 1.5 5 10-7 m = 1.5 10-6 m
l
I px Putting l = 400 nm in eq. (1) and using
= k cos2 eq. (ii)
4 l
55

1 3 3
1.5 10-6 m = n + 4 10-7 m px = a cos -1
a
x = cos -1
2 4 p 4
n = 3.25 x = 0.20 mm
Putting l = 700 Hence correct option is (d).
1
1.5 10 -6
m = n + 7 10-7 6. Number of fringes shifted =
(m - 1) t
2 l
n = 1.66 (1.5 - 1) t
4=
Hence n can take values 2 and 3. 6000
4ut 4
From (i) if n = 2 , l = = 600 nm 6 10-7 m = t
2 2 + 1 0.5
if n = 3 l = 429 nm t = 4.8 mm
only l = 600 is given in the options. Hence correct option is (a).
Hence correct option is (b). 7. For nth order minima
-2
Dln 100 10
4. xn = = l n
d . 10-3
001 S1
nl q
xn = - 5 For l = 4000
10 q
D
n 4000 10-10 m S2
xn = = 4 10-5 n
10-5
= 0.04 n (2n - 1) Dl
yn = for 3rd minima n = 3
xn = 4 n mm 2d
Similarly for l = 7000 5Dl 5l
y3 = =
2d 2q
xn = 7 n mm n = 5, 6
d
hence only x = 5 Q q~- tan q =
D
Passes through hole l = 5000 Hence correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (b). 3a 5
8. AB = d = 3 a =
px Dl 5
5. I = 4 I 0 cos2 where a =
a
d C
-10
1 6000 10
a= = (6 10-4 ) ( a, 0)
1 10-3 A B
(2a, 0)
px
75% I 0 = I 0 cos2
a D
3 px
= cos2 AB = 15l
16 a
Hence total maxima = 14 4 + 4
3 px
= cos = 60
4 a
Hence correct option is (a).
56

px = 12 104 10-9 m
9. I = 4 I 0 cos2
a
= 1248 10-9 m
p a
I = 4 I 0 cos2 = 1248 nm
a 4
p Net shift = nl
I = 4 I 0 cos2
4 where n is + ve integer
4I0 nl = 1248
= = 2I 0
2
Now, for 416 = l, n = 3
I 1
0 = For 624 = l , n = 2
I 2
Hence correct option is (b). Hence correct option is (c).
p lD 6300 1.33 m
10. I = I 0 cos2 (m - 1) t 13. w = =
a d n 1 mm 1.33
at m = I I = I0 63 10-8 1.33 m
=
Hence correct variation is (c) 10-3 1.33
px
11. I = I 0 cos2 = 0.63 mm
l
Hence correct option is (a).
3 px
I 0 = I 0 cos2 7 Dl 3 Dl Dl
4 l 14. Dx = - = 4
nd nd nd
px p
= Dx = 4 0.63 mm = 2.52 mm
l 6
l Correct option is (a).
x = but x = (m - 1) t
6 15. Dx = 2 of fridge width
l
(1.5 - 1) t = 2 0.63 mm
6 (m - 1) t =
2
l 6000
t= = 2 0.63
3 3 t= = 1.57 mm
0.53
t = 2000 = 0.2 mm
Hence correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (a).
16. Since on introducing thin glass sheet fringe
12. Net shift = (m 1 - 1) t - (m 2 - 1) t width does not change hence fringe width
= (m 1 - m 2 ) t = (1.52 - 1.40) t = 0.63 mm.

57

## More than one options correct

1. At centre path difference between all colours 4. The correct options, are (a), (c) and (d)
is zero hence cnetre is white since violet has Since phase difference = constant
least wavelength hence next to central will
be violet and since intensity is different for Light should be monochromatic.
different for colours hence there will be not a 5. Since in this case fringe pattern shift
completely dark fringe upward hence the correct options are (a), (b)
Hence correct options, are (b), (c) and (d). and (c).

2. Correct options are (a), (c) and (d). 6. Q n1l1 = n2 l2 for maxima
q Using this option (a) is satisfied and
3. Q I = 4 I 0 cos2 at centre q = 0 I = 4 I 0
2 (2n1 - 1) l1 = (2n2 - 1) l2 for minima
and at distance 4 mm above o is again Using this 3rd option is satified
maxima hence its intensity is also 4 I 0 .
Hence correct options are (a) and (c).
Hence correct options are (a) and (c).

## Match the Columns

q
1. Q I = 4 I 0 cos2 (a) q; (b) p; (c) r; (d) s
2
3. Distance between third order maxima and
if q = 60 I = 3I0 3 Dl
central maxima = = 3w
if q = 90 I = 2I 0 d

## if q = 0 I = 4I0 Distance between 3rd order minima and

central
if q = 120 I = I0
1 Dl Dl
Hence correct match is Maxima = 3 - = 2.5 = 2.5 w
2 d d
(a) s; ( b) q; (c) p; (d) r Distance between first minima and forth
l order
2. Dx = Df
2p 4 Dl Dl
2p l maxima = = = 2.5 w
Df = Dx if Dx = d 2d
l 3
2p Distance between first minima and forth
Df = = 120 order
3
l 4 Dl Dl
if Dx = maxima = - = 3.5 w
6 d 2d
l Distance between 2nd order maxima and
Df = 60 if Dx = , Df = 90
4 fifth order minima = 4.5 w - 2w = 2.5 w
Dq hence correct match is
Using I = 4 I 0 cos2
2 (a) q; (b) p; (c) r; (d) p
The correct match are
58

## 4. Since fringe shift in the division of sheet lD

when y = Intensity = I
placed soure hence 3d

(a) p (d) r

Similarly for other the correct match 6. When a thin plate (transparent) is placed in
front of S1 zero order fringe shift above from
(b) r, s; (c) p; (d) p
O hence
lD
5. When y = there will a dark fringe at 0. (a) r
2d
hence (a) q When S1 is closed interference disappear
and uniform illuminance is obtained on
lD lD
when y = =3 screen hence
6d 2d
(b) p, q
The intensity becomes 3I
Similarly (c) r, s and
(b) p
When s is removed and two real sources s1
lD
when y = Intensity = 2I and s2 emitting light of same wavelength are
4d
placed interference disappear. Since sources
(c) s become non-cohrrent hence (d) p, q
29. Modern Physics I
Introductory Exercise 29.1
1. The positron has same mass m as the e 0 n2 h2
3. For H-atom rn =
electron. The reduced mass of electron pme2
positron atom is e2
un =
m m 1 2e 0 nh
m= = m
m+m 2
2prn e n2 h2 2e 0 nh
4 Tn = = 2p 0
RH =
me un pme2 e2
8e20 ch3
4 e 0 n 3h 3
R =
RP = H me4
2 1 me4
1 1 1 rn = = 2 3 3
= RH 2 - 2 Tn 4 e 0 n h
lH 2 3
me4
1 1 1 r1 =
= RP 2 - 2 4 e20 h3
lP 2 3
9.1 10-31 (16. 10-19 )4
lP RH n1 =
= =2 4 (8.85 10-12 )2 (6.6 10-34 ) 3
lH RP
n1 = 6.58 1015 Hz
l p = 2lH = 2 6563 = 13126
n1 n1 6.58 1015
= 1.31 mm n2 = = =
23 8 8
1 1 1
= RH 2 - 2 z2
= 0.823 1015 Hz
lHe 2 3
1 1 1
1 1 lH 6563 (b) =R 2 - 2
= z2 lHe = = l
1 2
lHe lH 22 22 c 3
n = = 3 108 R
lHe = 164 nm l
4
1 1 1 9 108 1.097 107
2. = R 2 - 2 for largest wavelength n = 3 n=
l 2 n 4
1 1 1 = 2.46 1015 Hz
=R -
l 4 9 (c) Number of revolutions
36 36
l= = = v2 T = 0.823 1015 1 10-8
5R 5 1.097 107
= 8.23 106 revolution
l = 656 nm
60

4. Reduce mass 36
lB = = 653 nm
mm m p 207 m 1836 m 5 1.097 107
= = = 186 m
mm + m p (207 m + 1836 m ) lK a lK
b
7. n K = n K a + n L a lL a =
h2 h2 b lK a - lK
r1 = 4 pe 0 2 2 = 4 pe 0 2
4 p (186m) e2

b

4 p me c c c 0.71 0.63
= + lL a =
Putting the value we get lK lK a lL a 0.71 - 0.63
b
-13
r1 = 2.55 10 m 1 1 1
= - l = 5.59 nm
-me4 lL a lK lK a L a
E1 = 2 2 = - 2810 eV b
8 e0 h
hc
8. l =
Ionization energy = - E1 = 2.81 keV DE
h 6.6 10-34 E3
5. (a) l = = = 4.8 10-34 m
mv 46 10-3 30
E2 = 2870 eV
6.6 10-34
(b) l = = 7.3 10-11m Ka Kb
9.1 10-31 107 E1

6. (a) After absorbing 12.3 eV the atom excited 6.6 10-34 3 108
to n = 3 state lK a =
( E1 - 2870) 1.6 10-19
n=3
6.6 10-34 3 108
0.71 10-9 =
n=2 ( E1 - 2870) 1.6 10-19

## Solving this we get

n=1
E1 = - 4613 eV
1 1
= R 1 - 2 6.6 10-34 3 108
lL n lK = = 0.63
B ( 4613 - E3) 1.6 10-19
1 1 8R
= R 1 - = Solving this we get E3 = - 2650 eV
lL 9 9
1
4E
9 9 9. n 31 = =f (i)
lL = = = 102 nm h
1 8 R 8 1.097 107
5E
1 1
= R 1 - 3
lL
4
2 4E
4 4 1 2
lL = = = 122 nm E
2 3 R 3 1.097 107
1 1 1 5R 3E 3 4E 3 f
=R 2 - 2 = n21 = = =
lB 2 3 36 h 4 h 4
36 E f
lB = n 32 = =
5R h 4
61

## Introductory Exercise 29.2

hc hc
1. eV0 = -W 4. K max = -W
l l
6.6 10-34 3 108 6.62 10-34 3 108
eV0 = - 4.3 eV = - 3 eV
2 10-7 1.6 10-19 -7
2 10 1.6 10
-19

eV0 = 6.2eV - 4.3 eV = 1.9 eV = [6.20 - 3 ] eV = 3.20 eV
V0 = 1.9 volt The minimum kinetic energy = 0.
-3
2. P = 1.5mW = 1.5 10 W 5. K max = h [ f - f0 ]
Energy of each photon 1.2 eV = h [ f - f0 ] (i)
-34 8
6.62 10 3 10 4.2 eV = h [1.5 f - f0 ] (ii)
=
4 10-7
Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii)
= 4.96 10-19 J 124 f - f0
=
Number of photons incident per second 42 1.5 f - f0
P 1.5 10-3 3 f - 2 f0 = 7 f - 7 f0
= =
Energy of each photon 4.96 10-19 5 f0 = 4 f
~
- 3 1015 4
f0 = f = 0.8 f
5
The number of photoelectrons produce
f
= 0.1% 3 1015 = 3 1012 1.2 1.6 10-19 = 6.62 10-34 0 - f0
0.8
Current i = 3 1012 1.6 10-19 A
1.2 1.6 10-19 2 f0 f0
-7 = =
= 4.8 10 A = 0.48 mA 6.62 10-34 8 4
3. K max = hf - W = hf - hf0
f0 = 1.16 1015 Hz
K max ( f - f0 )

## Subjective Questions (Level I)

1. Here l = 280 nm = 28 10-8 m E 198 10-19
We have E = mc2 m = =
c2 28 9 1016
hc 6.6 10-34 3 108
E= = J
l 28 10-8 m = 8.2 10-36 kg
19.8 10-34 1016 198 10-19 Momentum p = mc = 8.2 10-36 3 108
E= J= J
28 28 = 2.46 10-27 kg-m/s
-19
198 10 198 ~ 2. Intensity of light at a distance 2 m
E= -19
eV = - 4.6 eV
28 1.6 10 28 1.6 1 1
From the source = 2
= W /m 2
4 p (2) 16p
62

Let plate area is A 5. (a) E = 2.45 MeV = 2.45 1.6 10-19 106 J
Energy incident on unit time is E 3.92 10-13
E = hn n = =
1 h 6.6 10-34
E1 = Aw
16p
n = 5.92 1020 Hz
Energy of each photon c
-34 8
(b) We have c = nl l =
6.6 10 3 10 n
=
4.8 10-7 3 108
l= = 5.06 10-13 m
5.92 1020
Number of photons striking per unit area
1 6. We have p = 2mK
A 4.8 10-7
16 p
n= p1 = 2mK 1 and p2 = 2mK 2
A 6.6 10- 34 3 108 A
p1 K1
=
= 4.82 1016 per m 2 s p2 K2
3. Here p = 8.24 10-28 kg-m/s 1 K1
= [Q p2 = 2 p1 ]
(a) Energy of photon E = pc 2 K2

## E = 8.24 10-28 3 108 K2 = 4 K1

-19
E = 2.47 10 J (b) E1 = p1c and E2 = p2 c E2 = 2 p1c
E in joule E2 = 2E1
Energy in eV =
1.6 10-19
7. (a) Since power = energy per unit line
2.47 10-19 let n be the number of photons
=
1.6 10-19 nc
P = nE 10 = n
l
Energy (in eV) = 1.54 eV
10 l 10 500 10-9
(b) Wavelength n= =
hc 6.6 10-34 3 108
h 6.6 10-34
l= = = 804 nm n = 2.52 1019
p 8.24 10-28
(b) Force exerted on that surface
This wavelength in Infrared region. P 10
F= = = 3.33 10-8 N
c 3 108 m/s c 3 108
4. We have c = f l f = =
l 6 10-7 m
8. Absorbing (power) light = 70% of incident
f = 5 1014 Hz light
E Pa = 70% of 10 W = 7 W
We have p = E = pt power per sec =
t
Refractive power = 30% of 10 W
energy
PR = 3 W
P=E
Pa 2 PR
75 = ( h v) n The force exerted = +
c c
75 7 + 2 3 13
= = =
6.6 10 5 1014
-34
c 3 108
n = 2.3 1020 photons/sec = 4.3 10-8 N
63

## 9. Force = rate of change of momentum h h 6.6 10-34

13. (a) l = p= =
p
p l 2.8 10-10
p cos 60
p = 2.37 10-24 kg-m/s
p sin 60
p2
60 (b) Q p2 = 2me K K =
2me
p cos 60
(2.37 10-24 )2
K =
p sin 60 2 9.1 10-31

K = 3.07 10-18 J
Dp
F= here Dt = 1 s K in J 3.07 10-18
Dt K (in eV ) = =
1.6 10-19 1.6 10-19
F = 2 p cos 60
K = 19.2 eV
F=p
nh 14. Here T = 273 + 20 = 293 K
F=
l 3 RT h
vrms = l=
where n is number of photons striking per M Mvrms
second h
l=
1 1019 6.63 10-34 3 MRT
F= = 10-8 N
663 10-9
6.6 10-34
=
10. Here output energy = 60 W/s 3 1836 9.1 10-31 8.31 293
2 60
Pressure p = = 4 10-7 N l = 1.04
3 108
15. For hydrogen like atom
de-Broglie wavelength
E = - K Here E = - 3.4 eV
11. Here m = 5 g m = 5 10-3 kg, v = 340 m/s
K = 3.4 eV = 3.4 1.6 10-19 J
by de-Broglie hypothesis wavelength h h
l= =
h 6.62 10-34 p 2me K
l= =
mv 5 10-3 340 6.6 10-34
=
l = 3.9 10-34 m 2 9.1 10-31 3.4 1.6 10-19
Since l is too small. No wave like property l = 6.663
is exhibit.
16. In Bohr model the velocity of electron in nth
h 6.6 10-34
12.(a) le = = orbit is given by
mev 9.1 10-31 4.7 106
e2
-10
Un =
= 1.55 10 m 2e 0 nh
6.6 10-34 Putting the values of e, e 0 , h and n = 1, we
(b) l p =
1836 9.1 10-31 4.7 10-6 get
= 8.44 10-14 m 2.19 106
U1 = 2.19 107 m/s and U4 = m/s
4
64

h h h = 1.33 10-9 m
l1 = and l4 = = = 4 l1
mev1 meu4 m u1
e The radius of first Bohr orbit
4
r1 = 0.529 10-10
6.6 10-34
l1 = The radius of fourth Bohr orbit
9.1 10-31 2.19 106
r4 = 16 0.529 10-10
= 3.32 10-10 m
2pr1 = 2 3.14 0529
. 10-10
l4 = 4 l1 = 4 3.332 10-10 m
3.32 10-10 m = l1
= 13.28 10-10 m

## Bohr Atomic Model and Emission Spectrum

17. For hydrogen like atom we can write -13.6 eV
20. For hydrogen atom En =
- z2 n2
en = (13.6 eV)
n2 Putting n = 3, we get
For lithium atom z = 3 we get -13.6 eV
E3 = = - 1.51 eV
-9 -122.4 9
En = 2 (13.6 eV) = eV
n n2 Hence hydrogen atom is in third excited
The ground state energy is for n = 1 state the angular momentum
-122.4 nh 3 h 3 6.62 10-34
E1 = eV = - 122.4 eV L= = =
12 2p 2p 2 3.14
Ionization potential = - E1 = 122.4 eV L = 3.16 10-34 kg-m 2 /s
18. For hydrogen atom we can write hc 6.6 10-34 3 108
21. We have l = =
(a) E = - K K = 3.4 eV DE DE
6.6 10-34 3 108
(b) PE = - 2 K = - 2 3.4 = - 6.8 eV DE = (in Joule)
1023 10-10
Since potential energy depends upon
6.6 10-34 3 108
refrence hence it will changed. DE = (in eV)
1023 10-10 1.6 10-19
19. Binding energy of an electron in He-atom is
~
- 12.1 eV
E0 = 24.6 eV. ie, the energy required to
remove one electron from He-atom = 24.6 eV En - E1 = 12.1 eV But E1 = - 13.6 eV
Now, He-atom becomes He + and energy of En ~
- - 1.51 eV
-13.6 13.6
He + ion is given by For H-atom En = 2
- 151
. =- 2
n n
- z2 (13.6)
En = for He + z = 2, we get n =3
n2
Hence atom goes to 3rd excited state. The
E1 = - 4 13.6 = - 54.4 eV.
possible transition are (3 2, 3 1, and
Hence energy required to remove this 2 1) ie, 3 transitions are possible and the
electron = 54.4 eV, thus total energy largest wavelength = 1023
= 24.6 + 54.4 = 79 eV
(From 3 1)
65

22. For hydrogen like atom Let for ten transitions quantum numbers
-z2 of energy levels are n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3 and
En = (13.6) eV n+4
n2
0.544 eV n
For Li + + z = 3
-122.4 n+1
En = eV E1 = - 122.4 eV
n2 n+2
-122.4
E3 = eV = - 13.6 eV n+3
9
DE = E3 - E1 = (122.4 - 13.6) eV = 108.8 eV 0.85 eV n+4
-34 8 2
hc 6.6 10 3 10 - z (13.6) eV
l= = = 113.74 = - 0.85 eV (i)
E 108.8 1.6 10-19 n2
- z2 (13.6) eV
23. The excited state energy He + atom will be = - 0.544 eV (ii)
( n + 4)2
equal to the sum of energies of the photons
having wavelength 108.5 nm and 30.4 nm. Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii)
hc hc ( n + 4)2 0.85
En - E1 = + = = 1.5625
l1 l2 n2
0.544
. 10-34 3 108 1
663 1 n+4
+ = 1.25
10-10 1085 304 n
4
En - E1 = 83.7 10-19 J 1 + = 1.25
n
83.7 10-19 J
= = 52.3 eV (i) 4
1.6 10-19 J/eV = 0.25
n
- z2 (13.6) 4
For He + atom En = eV n= = 16
n2 0.25
For He + z = 2 Putting this value of n in Eq. (i)
54.4 - z2 (13.6)
En = 2 eV = - 0.85
n (16)2
E1 = - 54.4 eV 256 0.85
z2 =
1 13.6
En - E1 = 54.4 1 - 2 eV (ii)
n z2 = 16 z = 4
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get Hence atom no. of atom is = 4
1 hc
52.3 = 54.4 1 - 2 We know that DE =
n l
1 hc
1 - 2 = 0.96 l= for smallest wavelength DE is
n DE
n =5 maximum
6.6 10-34 3 108
24. For hydrogen like atom l=
[ - 0.544 - ( - 0.85)] 1.6 10-19
- z2
En = (13.6) eV
n2 l = 40441
66

## 25. Here E1 = - 15.6 eV v2 = mw2 r2

nh
(a) Hence ionization potential But by Bohrs postulate mvr =
2p
= - E1 = 15.6 eV
n2 h2
hc m2v2 r2 =
(b) We have l = for short wavelength 4 p2
DE
n2 h2
DE is maximum m 3w2 r4 =
4 p2
6.6 10-34 3 108 ~
l= - 2335 n2 h2
0 - ( - 5.3) 1.6 10-19 r4 =
4 p2 m 3w2
(c) Excitation potential for n = 3 state is r n
= E3 - E1 = - 3.08 + 15.6 = 12.52 V 1 1 - 1 = 1
28. = R ( z - 1)2
(d) From n = 3 to n = 1 lK a 22 l0
DE = E3 - E1 = - 3.08 + 15.6 = 12.52 eV 1
= R ( z - 1)2 1 - 1
hc lK 32
We know l = b
DE
lK
1 DE 12.52 1.6 10-19
b
=
3 9 27
=
= =
l hc 6.6 10-34 3 108 lK a 4 8 32

= 1.01 107 (m -1
) 27 27
lK = lK a = l0
b 32 32
26. (a) E1 = - 6.52 eV
hc
29. l0 =
l = 860 nm = 8600 eV
Energy of this photon 6.6 10-34 3 108
l0 1 =
12375 (eV) 1.6 10-19 25 103
= = 1.44 eV
8600 l01 = 49.5 pm
hence internal energy of atom after l0 2 = 2l01 = 2 49.5 pm = 99 pm
absorbing this photon is given by
[1 pm = 10-12 m ]
Ei = E1 + 1.44 eV = - 6.52 + 1.44
30. fKa = (2.48 1015 ) Hz ( z - 1)2
= - 5.08 eV
12375 (eV) 3 108
(b) l2 = = 2.95 eV = 2.48 1015 (2 - 1)2
4200 lK a

## hence internal energy of the atom after 3 108

= ( z - 1)2
emission of this photon is given by 0.76 10-10 2.58 1015
Ei = E1 - 2.95 eV = ( - 2.68 - 2.95) eV ( z - 1) ~
- 40 z = 41
Ei = - 5.63 eV hc
31. li = Dl = 26 pm when V f = 1.5 V
1 dU eV
27. Heve U = mw2 r2 F = = m2 w2 r
2 dr l f = ( li - 26) pm
mv 2 hc 1 hc 12 1
But = m2 w2 r lf = = = = li
r e 1.5 V 1.5 eV 1.5 1.5
67

2 1 a2 26 - 5
2
( li - 26) = li =
3 l26 c 3
3 li - 26 3 = 2li 5
2
f 26 -
li = 78 pm 1 3
= 2
6.6 10-34 3 108 l26 5
78 10-12 = 887 pm 13 -
1.6 10-19 V 3
2
6.6 3 10-26 5
887 pm 13 -
V =
1.6 78 10-12 10-19 l26 = 3
2
26 - 5
V = 15865 volt
3
32. V = a ( z - b) 342
= 887 pm
c (73)2
= a2 ( z - b)2
l ~
- 198 pm
1 a2
= ( z - b)2 3 RC
l c 33. f = ( z - 1)
4
1 a2
= (13 - b)2 (i) 3 1.1 107 3 108
887 pm c 4.2 1018 = ( z - 1)2
4
1 a2
and = (30 - b)2 (ii) 4.2 1018 4
146 pm z = ( z - 1)2
9 1.1 1015
Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii)
2 ( z - 1) = 41 z = 42
146 (13 - b)
= 34. P = Vi = 40 kW 10 mA = 400 W
887 (30 - b)
400 1
30 - b % of P = = 4W
2.5 = 100
13 - b
(a) Total power of X-rays = 4 W
32.5 - 2.5b = 30 - b
(b) Heat produced per second
2.5 = 1.5b
= 400 - 4 = 396 J/s
5
b=
3

Photoelectric effect
35. Einstein photo electric equation is 12375
10.4 eV = - 1.7 eV
l( )
K max = hn - W
hc 12375
eV0 = - W Q K max = eV0 l( ) = = 1022
l 12.1
hc 12375
For H-atom l = DE = = 12.1 eV
DE 1022
68

## This difference equal to n = 3 n = 1 8 1.6 10-19

h= = 6.4 10-34 J-s
transition. 2 1015
36. K max = hn - W v1(max) 3
39. Here =
6.6 10-34 1.5 1015 u2 (max) 1
K max = - 3.7
1.6 10-19 Using Einstein equation, K max =
hc
- W,
l
K max = 6.18 - 3.7 = 2.48 eV
we get
37. Here work function 1 hc
mv2max = -W
12375 2 l
W(in eV) = = 2.475 eV
5000 where m is the mass of photoelectron
K max = eV0 = 3 eV 1 hc
m[v1(max) ]2 = -W (i)
hc 2 l1
K max = -W
l 1 hc
and m [v2 (max) ]2 = -W (ii)
12375 2 l2
3= - 2.475
l(in )
Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii), we get
12375 hc hc
l= = 2260 2 -W -W
5.475 v1 max
= l1 (3)2 = 1
l
38. Comparing the given graph with v2 max hc hc
-W -W
K max = hn - W l2 l2
Kmax (eV) 9 hc hc
- = 8W
l2 l1
8 C 9 1
hc - = 8W
6 6000 3000
4 6.6 10-34 3 108 7
= 8W
2 6000 10-10 1.6 10-19
0
A D W = 1.81 eV
2
10 20 30
Putting the value of W in Eq. (i)
4
1 hc
m(u1 max )2 =
2 3000 10-10
f = 1 1014 Hz -181 . 10-19
. 16
14
(a) n o = threshold frequency q = 10 10 Hz 1 662
. 10 = 34
3 108
m(u1 max )2 =
= 1015 Hz 2 3 107
(b) W = 4 eV -2896
. 10-19
(c) h = slope of the graph 1
m(u1 max )2 = 662
. 10-19 - 2896
. 10-19
CD 8 eV 2
= =
m(u1 max )2 = 3.724 10-19
2
69

## 3.724 10-19 2 2 7.2 10-19

(u1 max )2 = vmax = = 1.25 106 m/s
9.1 10-31 9.1 10-31
. 10-19 Q
-1.81 16 me = 9.1 10-31 mvmax 9.1 10-31 1.25 106
r= =
u1 max = 9 105 m/s eB 1.6 10-19 5 10-5
1
and v2 max = v1 max = 3 105 m/s r = 0.148 m
3
42. The given equation is
40. Here intensity I = 2 W /m 2 and
E = (100 v / m ) [sin ((5 1015 ) t
-4 2
Area A = 1 10 m
+ sin (8 1015 ) t ]
Energy incident per unit time on the metal
Light consist of two different frequencies.
surface
Maximum frequency
E = IA = 2 10-4 W 8 1015
2 10-4 eV = = 1.27 1015 Hz
= 2 10-4 J/s = 2p
1.6 10-19 s
For maximum KE we will use Einsteins
2 1015 equation
= eV/s
1.6
(KE) max = hn - W
Energy of each photon = 10.6 eV
1.27 1015 6.62 10-34
= -2
Number of photons incident on surface 1.6 10-19
2 1015
= (KE) max = 3.27 eV
1.6 106
.
43. Here E = E0 sin 1.57 107 ( x - ct) frequency
Number of photoelectrons emitted
of the wave
0.53 2 1015
= 1.57 3 1015
100 1.6 106
. n= = 0.75 1015
2 3.14
= 6.25 1011 per second
We have
Minimum KE = 0 6.6 10-34 0.75 1015
eV0 = -19
- 1.9 eV
Maximum KE = (10.6 - 5.6) eV = 5 eV 1.8 10
hc
41. K max = -W V0 = 1.2 V
l
Objective Questions (Level-1)
6.6 1034 3 108 1. Einstein photo electric equation is
K max = - 2 1.6 10-19
180 10-9
K max = hn - W
1 6.6 3 10-18
mev2max = - 2 1.6 10-19 its slope = h = planck constant which is
2 18 same for all metals and independent of
mev2max = 11 10-19 - 3.2 10-19
2
Hence correct option is (d).
= 7.2 10-19 J
2. Since current is directly proportional to
intensity therefore as current is increased
70

1 h
intensity is increased since lmin , if V is
V l2 mv2 v3
= =
decreased lmin is increased. l3 n v2
Hence correct option is (c). mv3
l2 2
3. For hydrogen atom (Bohrs model) nth =
e2 l3 3
orbital speed vn =
2e 0 nh Hence correct option is (a).
For first orbit n = 1 8. For hydrogen like atom
e2 - z2
v1 = En = (13.6 eV)
2e 0 h n2
(1.6 10-19 )2 For ground state n = 1
=
2 8.85 10-12 6.62 10-34 E1 = - z2 13.6 eV
1 c
-
v~ 8
3 10 =
But E1 = - 122.4 eV
137 137
-122.4 eV = - z2 13.6 eV
Hence correct option is (c). z2 = 9
22 210 4b 210
4. 86 A
3a 80
X 84 B z =3
Hence it is Li2 +
Hence correct option is (b)
12375 12375 ~ The correct option is (c).
5. lmin (in ) = = - 0.62
V (in volt) 20 1000 hc Dlmin DV
9. lmin = 100 = - 100
eV lmin V
Hence correct option is (c).
1 Percentage change in lmin = - 2%
6. We have mev2max = eV
2 Hence lmin is decreased by 2%
2eV correct option is (c)
vmax =
m - z2
10. En = (13.6 eV) for first excited state n = 2
2 1.6 10-19 18 1000 n2
=
9.1 10-31 - z2
E2 = (13.6) eV
4
vmax ~
- 8 107 m/s
- z2
Hence correct option is (a). -13.6 eV = 13.6 eV
4
e2
7. For hydrogen atom vn = z =2
2e 0 nh
Hence it is He +
e2 e2
v2 = , v3 = Correct option is (a).
2e 0 2h 2e 0 3 h
12375
v2 3 11. lmin (in ) =
= V (in volt)
v3 2
12375
Let l2 and l3 are the de-Broglie V = = 12.375 103 V
1
wavelengths
V = 12.4 eV
71

## Hence correct option is (c). 3300 - 2200

eV0 = hc
h 3300 2200
12. We have l =
p hc
=
h 6.62 10 -34 3 2200 10-10
p= =
l 0.5 10-10 6.6 10-34 3 108
V0 =
3 2200 1.6 10-19 10-10
l = 13.26 10-24 kg-m/s
30 15
Hence correct option is (c). = =
16 8
hc . 10-34 3 108
66 15
13. W = l0 = V0 = V
l0 . 10-19 16
16 . 8
l0 = 7750 Hence the correct option is (c).
Hence correct option is (a). hc
17. E = -W (i)
l
14. For H-like atom Balmer series is
1 1 1 hc
= z2 R 2 - 2 4E = -W
l
2 n l/3

## For third Balmer line n = 5 3 hc

4E = -W (ii)
1 1 1 l
-10
. 107 - 2
= z2 109
1085 10
4 5 From Eqs. (i) and (ii)
100 1000 hc 3 hc
z2 = =4 4 -W - -W
1085 1.097 21 l l

z =2 hc
= 3W
l
Binding energy = (13.6) z2eV = 13.6 4 eV
hc
= 54.4 eV W =
3l
Hence correct option is (a). Hence correct option is (b).
15. If V1 = 0 then total energy = KE 18. By Moseleys law
KE = 13.6 eV f = a ( z - b) for K a line b = 1
and the energy difference between two f = a ( z - 1)
states = 10.2 eV f = a (31 - 1) = a 30 (i)
Hence total energy in this state and f = a (51 - 1) = 9 50
= 13.6 + 10.2 f 3
=
= 23.8 eV f 5
The correct option is (c). 25 f
f =
hc 9
16. eV0 = -W (i)
3300 Hence correct option is (a).
hc 1 1
2eV0 = (ii) 19. f = ( RC) ( z - 1) - 2
2200
12 n
Substracted Eq. (i) from Eq. (ii), we get
for K a , n = 2
72

K b, n = 3 hc
W =
6l
1 3
fa = RC ( z - 1) 1 - 2 = RC ( z - 1)
2 4 Hence correct option is (a).
23. eV0 = h [2V0 - V0 ] = hV0 (i)
1 8
fb = RC ( z - 1) 1 - = RC ( z - 1) eV = h [3 V0 - V0 ] = h 2V0 = 2hV0 (ii)
9 9
From Eqs. (i) and (ii)
fb 8 4 32
= = , eV = 2 eV0 V = 2V0
fa 93 27
Hence correct option is (b).
Correct option is (a).
24. For H-atom Lyman series is
1 1 1
20. = R 2 - 2 here n = 3 1 1 1
l
2 n =R 2 - 2
l 1 n
1 1 1 9 - 4 5R
= R 2 - 2 = R = v=
c 1 1
= RC 2 - 2
l 2 3 9 4 36 l 1 n
36
l= For H-like atom
5R
1 1
n = RC - 2 z2
Hence correct option is (c) 12 n
h hc
21. lD = and lmin = For Li + + , n = 3 n = n 32 = 9 v
2 meV eV
Hence correct option is (c).
lD 1 eV
= 25. Ground state energy of H-atom = - 13.6 eV
lmin c 2m
( -13.6) eV
1 1.8 1011 10000 For Li + + atom En = z2
= n2
3 108 2 -13.6 eV 9
-13.6 eV =
lD 3 107 1 n2
= =
lmin 3 108 10 n =3
Hence correct option is (c). Hence correct option is (c).
hc 1
22. 5 eV0 = -W (i) 26. mv12 = hn1 - W (i)
l 2
hc 1
eV0 = -W (ii) mv22 = hn2 - W (ii)
3l 2
1
From Eqs. (i) and (ii) m [v12 - v22 ] = h [n1 - n2 ]
2
5hc hc
- 5W = -W 2h
3l l v12 - v22 = [n1 - n2 ]
m
5hc hc
- =4W
3l l Hence correct option is (b).
hc (5 - 3) 27. For Lyman series
=4W
l 3 1 1 1
=R 2 - 2
2hc l 1 n
= 4W
3l
73

## For largest wavelength n = 2 Hence correct option is (c).

1 1 1 h h
=R 2 - 2 31. We have, le = , la =
l
1 2 2me E1 2ma E2
1 1
= R 1 - lp =
h
Q ma > m p > me
l
4 2m p E3
4
l= and le = la = l p Q E1 > E3 > E2
3R
For He + atom Hence correct option is (a).
1 1 1 1 1 32. KE in ground state = 13.6 eV
= R ( z)2 2 - 2 = 4 R - 2
lHe 2 n
4 n
Total energy in n = = KE + Energy
3R 1 1
= 4R - 2 difference between n = to n = 1
4 4 n
Total energy
3 1 1
= - 2 = 13.6 eV + 13.6 eV
16 4 n
1 1 3 4 -3 = 27.2 eV
= - =
n2 4 16 16 Hence correct option is (b).
1 1
= 33. Here P = 1000 W, n = 880 kHz = 880 103Hz
n2 16
Let n is the number of photon p emitted
n=4
per second
Hence correct option is (b). P 1000
n= =
1 3R hn 6.62 10 880 103
-34
28. We have = ( z - 1)
l 4
= 1.7 1030
1 3 1.0973 107
= (92 - 1) Correct option is (b).
l 4
4 34. Here l = 3000 = 3 10-7 m
l= = 0.15
3 91 91 1.0973 107 hc
Energy of incident radiation E = joule
l
Hence correct option is (c).
hc
29. For K a , K b and La of X-rays E= (in eV)
l 1.6 10-19
nK = nK a + nL a 6.62 3 10-26
b E= = 4.125 eV
Y2 = Y1 + Y3 3 1.6 10-26
Hence correct option is (b). Q E < work function hence no emission of
h electrons it means sphere remain natured.
30. We have l =
2mqV Hence correct option is (c).
h h -13.6 eV
lp = and la = 35. Q En = for n = 5
2m p eV 2ma (2 e) V n2
-13.6 eV
lp 2ma 2 4mp E5 = = - 0.54 eV
= = = 8 =2 2 52
la mp mp
Hence correct option is (a).
74

## 36. K max = E - W = (6.2 - 4.2) eV = 2 eV Hence correct option is (c).

6.62 10-34 3 108
K max = 2 1.6 10-19 J 38. K max = - 1 eV
-10 -19
= 3.2 10-19 J 3000 10 1.6 10

## Hence correct option is (b). K max = 3.14 eV = 3.14 1.6 10-19 J

1
6.62 10-34 mev2max = 3.14 1.6 10-19
37. l = = 9.1 10-31 v 2
5200 10-10
3.14 3.2 10-19 ~ 6
6.625 10-27 ~ vmax = - 10 m/s
v= - 1400 m/s 9.1 10-31
5.2 9.1 10-31
Hence correct option is (d).

JEE Corner
1. Here both assertion and reason are true and h h
V0 = n0 - n0 (i)
reason explain correctly assertion. Correct e e
option is (a). if n 2 n 0 n 0 does not become double hence
hc E assertion is false but reason is true. Hence
2. For photon E = and p =
l c correct option is (d).
If l is doubled, E and p are reduced to 7. Here both assertion and reason are true and
half. Hence assertion is true. Since speed of reason may or may not explain assertion
photon is always c. Hence reason is false. correct option is (a, b).
Hence correct option is (c). 8. Here assertion and reason are both true.
3. If frequency is increased keeping intensity hc
Q lmin = if V increases
constant photoelectron emitted the plate eV
reach other plate in less time hence
lmin decreases
saturation current can be increased. Reason
can be true or not hence correct option is but reason is not correct explanation of
(a, b). assertion hence correct option is (b).
-13.6
4. Here both assertion and reason is true and 9. Q En =
n2
reason correctly explain assertion. Hence
correct option is (a). E2 > E1
5. Here assertion is true since possible v
Hence assertion is true and E = - K = +
transition are 6 3, 6 4, 6 5, 5 3, 2
5 4, and 4 3. According to reason total v is more in n = 2
n( n - 1) 6 (3 - 1)
transition has n = 3 =6 Here reason is also true but it is not correct
2 2
explanation of assertion hence correct
it may explain or may not explain assertion
option is (b).
Hence correct option is (a, b)
10. Here assertion is false but reason is true.
6. We have Hence correct option is (a).
eV0 = h[n - n 0 ]
75

## Objective Questions (Level 2) - (13.6)Z2eV

3. For H-like atom En =
GmM mv2 n2
1. Fa = Fc = (i)
r2 r -(13.6) z2
Here E2 = and E1 = - 13.6 z2
nh 4
and mvr = (ii)
2p E2 - E1 = 40.8 eV
From Eq. (ii) 1
13.6 Z 2 1 - = 40.8
nh 4
v=
2pmr 408
. 4
Z2 = Z2 = 4
Putting this value in Eq. (i) 13.6 3
GM h2 h2 Z =2
= 2 2 2
r 4p m r Energy needed to remove the electron from
n2 h2 ground state is
r= 2 2
4p m GM - E1 = + (13.6) Z 2 = + 13.6 4 = 54.4 eV
1 1 m GM GMm Hence correct option is (a).
KE = mv2 = =
2 2 r 2r e e ev
in = = = n
PE =
-GMm Tn 2prn 2prn
r un
E = KE + PE 1 1
Q un and rn 2
- GMm - GMm 4 p m GM 2 2 n n
E= = 1 i 1
2r 2n2 h2 in 3 2 = 3
n i1 2
-2p2G2 M 2 m 3
E= for ground state n = 1
n2 h2 i1 = 8 i2
2 2 2 3
- 2p G M m Hence current increases 8 times correct
E=
n2 option is (c).
Hence correct option is (b). 5. Since five dark lines are possible hence atom
e is excited to n = 6 state.
2. We have m n = in An = p rn2
Tn The number of transition in emission line
e p rn2 un e un rn n ( n - 1)
mn = = =
2prn 2 2
6 5
v1 r1 n2 e v1r1 Number of emission transition = = 15
mn = e = n 2
n 2 2
ev r 2 Hence correct option is (c).
m2 = 1 1
2 6. An = prn2 for hydrozen atom rn = kn2
e v1r1
and m1 = 1 where k is constant.
2
m An = pk2 n4
m1 = 2 An
2 A1 = pk2 = n4
A1
Hence magnetic moment decreases two
times correct option is (b).
76

## A 1.5 1015 6.6 10-34

Taking log both sides log n = 4 log n =
A1 2p 1.6 10-19

## Hence it is a straight line with slope = 4 = 0.98 eV

Correct option is (b) Since work function = 2 eV > maximum
1 energy hence no emission of electrons.
7. For hydrogen atom in 3 and
n Thus correct option is (d).
in 1 2
Bn Bn = k 5 [Q rn n ] 10. Since in Balmer series of H-like atom
rn n
wavelengths (in visible region) are found
k same or smaller hence the gas was initially
B2 = and B1 = k
25 in second excited state.
B2 1 1
= = Correct option is (c).
B1 25 32
11. For H-atom TH = 2pn3
B1 = 32 B2
and for H-like atom
Hence magnatic field increases 32 times.
2pn3
The correct option is (d). Tx =
z2
8. For H-atom Lyman series is given by For H-atom in ground state TH = 2p
1 1 1
= R 2 - 2 for first line n = 2 For H-like atom in first excited state
l 1 n
(2p) 23 2p 8
1 1 Tx = =
= R 1 - 2 z2 z2
l 2
2 2p 8
1 3R But TH = 2Tx 2p =
= z2
l 4
h z2 = 16
Momentum of photon Pp =
l z=4
Let momentum of atom pA Hence correct option is (c).
Q Initial momentum was zero. Hence using 12. For K a line of X-ray
momentum conservation law, we get 1 a2
h 3 hR = ( z - 1)2
pA = pB Mv = = l c
l 4
Q z (atomic No.) for Pb204 , Pb206 , Pb208
3 hR
v=
4M are same hence l1 = l2 = l3.

## 9. Light wave equation is 13. The correct option is (d).

-13.6 eV
200 V/m sin (1.5 1015 sec-1) t 14. Since En =
n2
cos (0.5 1015 sec-1) t
E1 = - 13.6 eV
1.5 1015
Here maximum frequency = -13.6
2p and first excited state E2 = eV
4
Maxmum incident energy
77

E2 = - 3.4 eV 16 32.4 9
z2 = = 49
13.6 7
DE = E2 - E1 = 10.2 if K < 10.2 eV
The electron collide elastically with H-atom z =7
in ground state. Hence correct option is (d).
The correct option is (c). h h h
18. l = = =
1 1 1 p 2m p K 2m p eV
15. For Lyman series = R 2 - 2 here n = 3
l 1 n

1 1
= R 1 - 6.6 10-34
10-13 =
l 9 2 1836 9.1 10-31 1.6 10-19 V
1 8R
= V = 8.15 104 volt
l 9
h 8 Rh Hence correct option is (b).
Pphoton = = 1
l 9 19. Since En 2 and Ln n
n
But PPhoton = PH- atom 1
8 Rh Hence En
= Mp v L 2
n
9
7 -34 The correct option is (d).
8 1.097 10 6.6 10
v= eu r
9 1837 9.1 10-31 1
20. Since m n = n n Q un and rn n2
2p n
v = 4 m/s
m n = kn
Hence correct option is (a).
Where k is constant for H-atom
16. Power = VI = 150 103 10 10-3 = 1500 W
For ground state m 1 = k 1 = k (i)
The 99% power heated the target hence For third excited state n = 4
99
Heating power = 1500 = 15 99 W m2 = k 4 = 4 k (ii)
100
From Eqs. (i) and (ii) we get m 2 = 4m 1
The rate at which target is heated per sec.
(in cal) Hence correct option is (d).
15 99 ~ Q1J = 1 cal 21. By conservation of momentum
= - 355
4.2 4.2 v
M H v = ( M H + M H ) v v =
Hence correct option is (c). 2
13.6 eV z2 Let initial KE of H-atom = K
17. En = -
n2 K
Final KE of each-H-atom =
13.6 eV 2 -13.6 eV 2 2
E3 = - z and E4 = z
9 16 K -13.6
For excitation = E2 - E1 = + 13.6
1 1 2 4
DE = E4 - E3 = (13.6) eV z2 -
9 16 K
= 10.2 eV
2
13.6 (eV) 22 7
DE = = 32.4 eV
16 9 K = 20.4 eV
Hence correct option is (a).
78

## 22. We know that for H-like atom 6.6 10-34

lmin =
En = - K n K n = 3.4 eV 2 9.1 10-31 2 1.6 10-19
h h = 8.69
l= =
p 2me K
Hence correct option is (b).
6.6 10-34
= 27. Photo emission will stop when potential of
2 9.1 10-31 3.4 1.6 10-19 sphere becomes stopping potential
1 q
l = 6.6 =2V
4 pe 0 r
Hence both options (a) and (b) are correct.
Since (KE) max = eV0
Hence answer is (c) both are correct.
hc hence V0 = 2
23-25. 0.6e = -W (i)
4950 10-10 q = 8 pe 0 r coulomb
hc Hence correct option is (b)
1.1 e = -W (ii)
l2 28. Let t be the time for photo emission
1 q
Subtracting Eq. (i) from Eq. (ii) we get t =2
4 pe 0 r
1 1
0.5 e = hc - -10
8 pe 0 r
l 4950 10 t=
2 q
0.5 1.6 10-19 1 1
+ = Intensity of light at 0.8 from source
6.62 10-34 3 108 4950 10-10 l2
3.2 10-3 ~
I= - 4 10-4 W/m 2
l2 ~
- 4111 4 p (0.8)2

## From Eq. (i) Energy incident on the sphere in unit time

6.6 10-34 3 108 ~
W = - 1.9 eV E1 = p (8 10-3)2 4 10-4 = 8.04 10-8 W
4.95 10-7 1.6 10-19 Energy of each photon
23. W = 1.9 eV E2 = 5 1.6 10-19 = 8 10-19 J
Hence correct option is (c). Total number of photons incident on the
sphere per second
24. l = 4111
E1 8.04 10-8
h= = = 1011
Hence correct option is (c) E2 8 10-19
25. Since magnatic field does not change the KE
Since 106 photons emit one electron.
of electrons hence retarding potential
remain same. Hence the total number of photoelectron
n 1011
Hence correct option is (c). per sec is n2 = 11 = 6 = 105
10 10
26. (KE) max = 5 eV - 3 eV = 2 eV Therefore,
= 2 1.6 - 19 J q = n2 e t = 105 1.6 10-19 t
h h 9 109 1.6 10-14 t
lmin = = =2
p 2me K r
79

## 2 8 10-3 and there are three transitions shown as

t= t = 111 s
9 1.6 10-5 (1), (2) and (3) belonging to Lymen series.
Hence correct option is (c). Hence correct options are (a), (b) and (d).

## More than one options are correct 6. Q f = a ( z - b)

hc f versus z is a straight line
1. Since l0 = if v increases l0 decreases
eV c 1 a
hence the interval between lKa and l0 as Q f = = ( z - b)
l l c
well as lKb and l0 increases.
1
The correct options are (b) and (c). hence versus z is a straight line
l
1 1
2. R n2 , V and E 2 for Bohr model of f = a2 ( z - b)
n n
H-atom log f = log a2 + log ( z - b) which is a
V straight line
VR n and n
E Hence correct options are (a), (b) and (c).
Hence, the correct options are (a) and (c).
Match the Columns :
3. For Bohr model of H-atom
1. Lymen series lies in UV region, Balmer
L n, r n2 and T n3 series lies in visible region and Paschen and
rL Brackelt series lie in infrared region. Hence
Hence is independent of n
T (a) r
L 1 T
2 and n, L n3 (b) q
T n r (c) p
Hence correct options are (a), (b) and (c). (d) p
h h -13.6
4. Q l = and l = 2. For H-atom En = eV
mv 2mK n2
Hence heavy particle has smallest -13.6 -13.6
E2 = 2
eV = eV
wavelength when speed and KE both 2 4
particle are same. Ionization energy from first excited state of
The correct options are (a) and (c). H-atom
13.6
5. Since there are six different wavelength E = - E2 = eV (i)
4
n=4
For He + ion
n=3
- (13.6) eV
1 EH (He) = Z 2 for He + z = 2
n=2 n2
2 3 - 13.6 eV
n=1 En (He) = 4
n2
Hence, final state will be n = 4. Ionization energy of He + atom from ground
Since two wavelengths are longer than l0 state = (13.6) eV 4 = 4 E 4 from Eq. (i)
[(From n = 4 3 and n = 3 2)] = 16 E
Hence initial state was n = 2
80

- (13.6) eV 4 1 1 1
E2 (He) = = - (13.6) eV = R 2 - 2 n = 3, 4, 5
4 lB
2 n
But E2 = - K 2 K 2 = (13.6) For 2nd line n = 4 and lB = l
and U = - 2 K = - 2 (13.6) = - 2 4 E = - 8 E 1 1 1
= - R
From Eq. (i) l 4 16
KE in ground state of He + ion 16
l=
3R
= (13.6) eV 4
1 1 1
= 4 E 4 = 16E =R 2 - 2
lB
2 3
1
Ionisation energy from Ist executive state
36 36 36 3 l
-13.6 eV lB = = =
= - 4 = 13.6 eV = 4E 1 5R 5 16 16 5
4
3l
Hence correct match are 27
lB = l
(a) s 1
20
(b) r (a) p
(c) s 1 1 1 R (25 - 4) 21R
(d)
=R 2 - 2 = =
p lB
2 5 25 4 100
3
h W 100 100
3. K max = hn - W and V0 = n - lB = =
e e 3 21 R 21 16

Slope of line -1 is h, Y1 = W 3l
h W 100 3 l 25l
Slope of line -2 is , Y2 = = =
e e 21 16 28
Hence correct match are (b) ( s)
(a) q
For Lyman series
(b) p
1 1 1
(c) r = R 2 - 2 n = 2, 3, 4
lL 1 n
(d) s
1 1 1
2pr n2 z =R 2 - 2
4. T = Qr U lL
1 2
1
v z n
4
n3 lL =
T 1 3R
z2
5 l
( a) r lL = = (c) q
1 16 4

Q L n (b) s l
z 1 1 8R
Q V (c) s = R 1 - =
n lL
2
9 9
n2 9 9 9 3 l 27 l
Q R (d) q lL = = = =
z 2 8 R 8 16 16 8 128
5. Balmer series is 3l
(d) s
81

(a) s same

## Q X-ray is inverse process of photoelectric (b) s

effect [high energy electrons convert in Q Current is directly proportional to
electromagnetic radiation] Intensity. Hence sat current increases but
(b) p stopping potential does not chase
1 (c) q, s
Q lc (c) q
V Q(KE) max = hf - W and stopping potential
Q Wavelength of continuos X-ray depends hf W
= -
on voltage e e
(d) q If W is decreased (KE) max and stopping
7. Q (KE) max f and stopping potential f potential increased

(a) p, r (d) p, r
Modern Physics II
Introductory Exercise 30.1
1. R0 = lN 0 = 8000 Bq 0.223
l=
4 3600
R1 = lN = 1000 Bq
R1 1 N l = 1.55 10-5 /s
= = = e- lt log 8 = lt 0.693 0.693
R0 8 N 0 T1/2 = = = 12.4 h
l 1.55 10-5
log 2
3 log 2 = 9
T1/2 (b) R0 = 10 mci = 10 3.7 1010 10-3 Bq
9 = 3.7 108 Bq
T1/2 = = 3 days
3 R0 = lN 0
Average, life = 1.44 T1/2 = 1.44 3 = 4.33 R 3.7 108
N0 = 0 =
days l 1.55 10-5
2. R0 = lN 0 = 2.39 1013 (atoms)
0.693 (c) R = R0 e- lt
40 3.7 1010 10-6 = N0
64.8 0.693
- 30
4 = 10 mCi e 12.4 = 1.87 mCi
40 64.8 3.7 10
N0 =
0.693 4. R0 = lN 0
= 13.83 107
R0 6 1011Bq
Now, N = N0 e - lt l= =
N0 1015
- 0.693 10
N10 = N 0 e 64.8 = 6 10-4 /s
0.693 0.693
- 0.693 10
T1/2 = = = 1.16 103s
= 13.83 107 e 64.8 l 6 10-4
- 0.693 12
5. N x = N y = N 0
N12 = 13.83 107 e 64.8

## T1/2 x = 50 min and T1/ 2 y = 100 min

N10 - N12 = 13.83 107
n 4
1 1 N
- 0.693 10 - 0.693 12
N x = ( N 0 ) = N 0 = 0
e 64.8 - e 64.8 2 2 16
n 2
1 1 N
9 N y = N 0 = N 0 = 0
9.47 10 nuclei 2
2
4
R0 N0
3. (a) R0 = 10 mCi, R = 8 mCi = e lt
R Nx 1
= 16 =
10 N y N0 4
log = l 4 3600
8 4
83

## Introductory Exercise 30.2

2
1. DE = DMc - 4.002602) u

## Here, P = 109 J/s = 109 24 60 J/day DM = 0.0004589 u

109 24 60 DE = DM 931.5 MeV
DM = = 9.6 10-4 kg
(3 108 )2 = 0.0004589 931.5
9
10 J/s = 4.27 MeV
2. Number of fission =
200 106 1.6 10-19 4. Complete reactions are
= 3.125 10 19
(a) 3Li 6 + 1H2 4Be 7 + 0 n1
3. Given reaction is (b) 17 Cl 35 + 1H1 16S 32 + 2He4

92 U
238
90 Th234 + 2He4 (c) 4 Be 9 + 2He4 3 (2 He4 ) + 0 n1
79
DM = (238.050784 - 234.043593 (d) 35 Br + 1H2 36Kr79 + 2 ( 0 n1)

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1. (a) Initially the rate of distingration is 2. We have A = lN
dN
- = lN 0 6 1011 = l 1 1015
dt 0
l = 6 10-4 s -1
- dN
After 5 min = lN 0.693 0.693
dt T1/2 = = = 1155 s
l 6 10-4
dN
= 19.25 min
N 0 dt 0 4750
= = = 1.76
N dN 2700 3. A = lN
dt
A = 8 Ci = 8 3.7 1010 decay/s
N
log 0.693 0.693
l= =
Now N = N 0 e- lt or l = - N0 T1/2 5.3 yr
t
0.693
2.3026 N0 =
l= log10 5.3 365 24 60 60 s
t N
2.3026 A
= log10 (1.76) N=
5 l
l = 0.113 /min 8 3.7 1010 5.3 365 24 3600
=
0.693 0.693 0.693
(b) Half-life = = = 6.132 min
l 0.113 N = 7.2 1019
84

log 2
6.023 1023 nuclei = 60 g - 60 365
( R2 ) tP = l2 N 0 e 25
60 g 33
1=
6.023 1023 R = ( R1) tP + ( R2 ) tP
32 33
log 2 log 2
Hence 7.2 1019 nuclei - 60 365 - 60 365
= N 0 4l1 e 14 + l2 e 25
60 7.2 1019
= = 7.11 10-3 g
6.023 1023 3 mCi
=
4. Number of decay per second ( 4 l1 + l2 )
m 1 0.693 log 2 60 365 log 2
60 365
NA l = 6 1023 - -
M 238 4.5 109 yr 4 l1 e 14 + l2 e 25

6 1023 0.693
= 3 mCi
238 4.5 109 365 24 60 60 s =
4 log 2 log 2
+
= 1.23 104 decay/s 14
25
5. Probability of decay 4 log 2 - log 2 60 365 log 2 -
log 2
60 365
- lt - t/ T mean e 14 + e 25
P = (1 - e ) = (1 - e ) 14 25
- 5/10 -2
P = (1 - e ) =1 - e = 0.39
206 0.205 mCi
6. Since initially no Pb nuclei is present and
Nv 8. Complete reactions are
after time t the ratio of =3 226
N Pb (a) 88 Ra a + 86RN222
1 238 (b) 8 O19 9F19 + e + n
It means of original U nuclei decays.
4 (c) 13 Al25 12Mg25 + e+ + n
Hence N = N 0 e - lt
9. Only reaction (b) is possible.
N
N0 - 0 = N0 e
-l
4 10. DE = (7 1.000783 + 7 1.00867 - 14.00307)

3 931.5 MeV
= e - lt
4 DE = 104.72 MeV
log 4 - log 3
t= 11. DE = [8 m p + 8 mn - m ( 8 O16 )] 931.5
l
(log 4 - log 3) = (8 1.007825 + 8 1008665
. - 15.994915)
t= 4.5 109 yr
0.693 931.5 = 127.6 MeV
t = 1.88 109 yr 12. (a) Number of nuclei in kg
7. ( R1) 0 P = l1 4 N 0 6.023 1023
32 = 1
235
( R2 ) 0 P = l2 N 0
33
Energy
R0 = ( R1) 0 P + ( R2 ) 0 P
32 33
6.023 1023
= N 0 ( 4 l1 + l2 ) = 3 mCi = 200 106 1.6 10-19
235
( R1) tP = l1 N = l1 4 N 0 e- l1 t
32 = 8.09 1013 J
log 2
- 60 365
( R1) tP = l1 4 N 0 e 14
32
85

## 8.09 1013 J = [2 (2.014102) - 3.016049 - 1.007825] u

(b) Mass =
30 103 J/g DM = 0.000433 u
13
8.09 10 Q = DM 931.5 = 0.000433 931.5
= g
30 103
4.05 MeV
8.09 1
= 109 3 kg (b) DM = (2 2.014102 - 3.016049
3 10
- 1.008665) 931.5
= 2.7 106 kg
DM = 3.25 MeV
13. Applying conservation of momentum
(c) DM = (2.014102 + 3.016049 - 4.002603
M a va = M TivTi
M v - 1.008665) 931.5
vTi = a a
M Ti DM = 17.57 MeV
1 16. The given reaction is
Ka = M a v2a = 6.802 MeV
2 He4 + He4 Be 8
1 1 M 2 vL
K Ti = M v2 = M Ti a2 a DM = (2 4.0026 - 8.0053) u
2 Ti Ti 2 M Ti
= (8.0052 - 8.0053) u
M 1 M v2
K Ti = a a a DM = - (0.0001) u
M Ti 2
Q DM is negative this reaction is not
4
= 6.802 MeV energetically favourable
208
1 DE = DM 931.5
= 6.802 = 0.1308 MeV
52 = - 1 10-4 931.5 MeV
14. Power = 100 MW = 108 W = 108 J/s = - 93.15 keV
8 21
10 10 MeV 17. Number of nuclei in 1 kg water
= =
1.6 10-13 J/MeV 1.6 s 6.023 1026
=
18
Energy per fission = 185 MeV
6.023 1026 1.5 10-2
1021 Heavy water =
Hence number of fissions = / s. 18 100
1.6 185
6.023 1.5
= 1022
Number of nuclei in 1 kg 18
6.023 1026
U235 = Energy realesed per fission
235
6.023 1026 1.6 185 = (2 2.014102 - 3.016049 - 1.007825) 931.5
Hence t =
235 1021
= 4.33 10-3 931.5 106 1.6 10-19 J
= 8.78 days
6.023 1.5 1022
15. (a) The given reaction is Hence total energy =
18
2
1H + 1H2 1H 3 + 1H1 4.33 931.5 1.6 10-16
DM = [2m (1H2 ) - m (1H 3) - m (1H1)] = 3200 MJ
86

## Objective Questions (Level-1)

n n
1. Since during b- decay a neutron in the 1 1 1
But N = N 0 N 0 = N 0
nucleus is transformed into a proton, an 2 8 2
electron and an antineutrino as n =3
n P + e- + g.
3 T1/2 = 8 s
Hence Correct option is (c). 8
T1/2 = s
2. Since nuclear force is same for all nucleons. 3
Hence F1 = F2 = F3 Hence correct option is (d).
Correct option is (a).. 1
8. N = N 0 e- lt for mean life t =
3. Given reaction is X 200
80 Y 168 l
90
1
-l N0
Difference in mass number = 200 - 168 = 32 N = N0 e l =
e
32
Hence Number of a-particles = =8 Hence the fraction disintegrated
4
N -N 1
Difference in atomic number = 10 = 0 = 1 -
N0 e
hence number of b -particles = 6
Correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (d).
7 1
9. N = N 0 - N 0 = N 0
4. The reaction is 8 8
235
92 U + 0 n1 54 Xe138 + 38 Sr
94
+ 3 ( 0 n1) 1
n
But N = N 0
The correct option is (b) three neutrons. 2
n
5. The reactions are A b + a and b C + 2b 1 1
= n = 3
After one a atomic number reduced by 2 and 8 2
after 2b atomic number increased by. 15 min
Hence half life T1/2 = = 5 min
3
Hence A and C are isotopes Correct option
is (d). Correct option is (a).
6. Here m p = 1.00785 u, mn = 1.00866 u 10. Since radioactive substance loses half of its
activity in 4 days it means its half life
and ma = 4.00274 u
T1/2 = 4 days
Dm = 2( m p + mn ) - ma
Now A = 5% of A0
Dm = [2 (1.00785 + 1.00866) - 4.00274 ] u 1
A= A0
Dm = 00
. 3028 u 20
DE = Dm 931.5 MeV A 1
=
A0 20
= 0.3028 931.5 = 28.21 MeV
1
Hence correct option is (c). But A = A0 e - l t = e - lt
20
7 1
7. N = N 0 - N 0 = N 0 log 20
8 8 log 20 = lt t =
l
87

log e 2 N
But l = 13. N = N 0 e lt = e lt
T1/ 2 N0
0. 693
log e 20 log10 20 N 10 1
t = T1/2 = T1/ 2 = 4.32 4 =e 6. 93 = e 1 =
log e 2 log10 2 N0 e
t = 17.3 days Fractional change
Hence correct option is (c). N -N 1
= 0 = 1 - ~
- 063
.
11. Total energy released per sec N0 e

## = 1.6 MW = 1.6 106 J/s Hence correct option is (b).

Energy released per fission= 200 MeV 14. Since radioactive substance reduce to about
N
6
= 200 10 1.6 10 -19
J 6% it means N = 0
16
-11
= 2 1.6 10 J 1
n
We have N = ( N 0 )
Number of fission per second 2
1.6 106 1 1
n
= = 5 1016 /s = n = 4
2 1.6 10-11 16 2
Hence correct option is (a). 4 T1/2 = 2 h T1/2 = 30 min
1/ 3
12. Q R = R0 A Hence correct option is (a).
4 4
Volume = pR 3 = pR03 A 15. Probability of a nucleus for survival of
3 3 time t.
Mass of nucleus = A 1.67 10-27 kg N N e - lt
mass A 1.67 10-27 kg p(survival) = = 0 = e - lt
Density r = = N0 N0
volume 4
pR03 A 1
3 For one mean life t =
l
1.67 10-27 kg
r= 1
4 -l 1
pR03 Psurvival = e l = e -1 =
3 e
Qr is independent of A, hence ratio of Hence Correct option is (a).
r
densities 1 = 1.
r2
Correct option is (d).

## Assertion and Reason

1. Here both assertion and reason are true but 3. Here both assertion and reason are true but
reason does not explain assertion. Hence reason is not correct explanation of
correct option is (b). assertion. Hence correct option is (b).
2. Here assertion is false but reason is true 4. Here a ssertion is true but reason is false
since for heavier nucleus binding energy per since electromagnetic waves are produced
nucleon is least. by accelerating charge particles.
Correct option is (d). Correct option is (c).
88

5. Here assertion is wrong since b-decay 9. Here reason is true but assertion is false

process is n p + e + v Q 1 amu = 931.5 MeV
but reason is true hence correct option is (d). Correct option is (d)
6. Here assertion is true but reason is false. 10. Both assertion and reason are true but
Correct option is (c). reason does not correctly explain assertion.
7. Here both assertion and reason are true and Hence correct option is (b).
reason may or may not be true. Correct 11. Here both assertion and reason are true and
option is (a, b) reason may or may not be correct
8. Both assertion and reason are true but explanation of assertion .
reason is not correct explanation of Hence correct options are (a, b).
assertion. Hence correct option is (b).

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

Single option correct
1. Let initially substance have N i nuclei then From Eqs. (ii) and (iii)
N
N = N i e - lt = 0
64
dN
= - l N i e - lt
dt Hence, correct option is (b).
log 2 log 2
At t=t 2. We have l = l1 + l2 = +
30 60
we get log 2
dN l=
= - l N i e - lt = N 0 (i) 20
dt t = t
Now N = N 0 e - lt
- t log 2
At t = 4t N0
= N 0 e 20
dN N 4
= - l N i e -4 lt = 0 (ii)
dt t = 4 t 16 t
log 4 = log 2
20
Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii) we get
t
e3lt = 16 (iii) 2 log 2 = log 2
20
11
Now at t = t t = 40 yr
2
- 11l Hence correct option is (c).
dN t
= - lN i e 2
3. From graph it is clear that number of
dt t = 11t
2 nucleons in X is N 3 and binding energy per
- 8 lt - 3lt nucleon is E3 for Y nucleon is N2 and BE per
= - lN i e 2 e 2
nucleon is E2 .
- l N i e -4 lt N0 Hence X + Y = E3 N 3 + E2 N2
= =
e 3lt 16 16 Similerly W = E1 N1
89

## The reaction is W X + Y 8. By conservation of momentum

The energy released is M H v = ( M H + M H ) n
( E3 N 3 + E2 N2 - E1 N1) v
v =
Hence Correct option is (b). 2

## 4. Energy = (110 8.2 + 90 8.2 - 200 7.4) Let initial KE of H-atom = K

K
= 200 (8.2 - 7.4) Final KE of each H-atom =
2
= 200 0.8 = 160 MeV For excitation
Hence correct option is (d). K - 13.6
= E2 - E1 = + 13.6 eV
5. The reaction is 2 4
2
+ 1H2 2He4 + energy K
1H = 10.2 eV
2
Energy = (4 7 - 2 1.1) MeV
K = 2 10.2 1.6 10-19
= (28 - 4.4) = 23.6 MeV
1
Hence Correct option is (b). M u2 = 2 10.2 1.2 1.6 10-19
2 H
6. Total energy released per second 2 1.2 10.2 2 1.6 10-19
uH =
= 16 106 W 1.673 1027
= 16 106 J/s = 6.25 104 m/s
Energy per fission = 200 MeV Hence correct option is (c).
= 200 106 1.6 10-19 9. Let us suppose just before the death no
= 2 1.6 10-11 J radioactive atoms were present hence
Q Efficiency = 50% original activity A0 is given as

## Hence power (energy converted per second) A0 = l N 0 (i)

50 After death the radioactivity decreases
= 2 1.6 10-11 = 1.6 10-11 J
100 exponentially ie,
16 106 A=
dN
= l N = l N 0 e - lt (ii)
Number of fission = = 1018 /s
1.6 10-11 dt
Dividing eq. (ii) by eq. (i) we get
Hence correct option is (d).
A
dN = e - lt
7. = A - lN A0
dt
A0 1 A
Q After time N become or lt = log or t = log 0
A l A
dN
conservation =0 Now A0 = 15 decay/min/gram
dt
A A AT 375
N= = = A= decay/min/g
l log 2 log 2 200
T 0.693
but l=
5730 yr
Hence correct option is (d).
90

## 5730 15 200 5730 200 1.29 1028

t= log = log t= s 1012 s.
0.693 375 0.693 25 1016
5730
t= log 8 Hence correct option is (c).
0.693 - log 2
t
5730 - l1 t t1
= 3 log 2 = 5730 3 12. N1 = N 0 e = N0 e (i)
0.693
- log 2
t
t = 17190 yr N2 = N 0 e- l2 t = N 0 e t2
(ii)
Hence correct option is (c).
R1 = l1 N1 (iii)
10. N P = N 0 e- l(t1 + t) (i)
and R2 = l2 = l2 N2 (iv)
and N Q = N 0 e - lt Let after time t, R1 = R2 then
Now AP = lN P and A Q = lN Q R1
=1
AP N R1
= P = e- lt1
AQ N Q l1 N1
=1
AQ l2 N2
lt1 = log
A log 2
t 2 - t1
P l1 N2 t
t1 t 2
= =e
1 AQ A l2 N1
t1 = log = T log Q
A
l AP P t2 t -t
log = t log 2 2 1
Hence correct option is (b). t1 t1t2
11. The given reactions are t1t2 t
t1 = log 2
2 0.693 ( t2 - t1) t1
1H + 1H2 1H 3 + p
2
+ 1H 3 2He4 + n Hence Correct option is (a).
1H

## Mass defect Z X 232 90 Y

A
+ 2He4
Dm = (3 2.014 - 4.001 - 1.007 - 1.008) Z = 92 and A = 228
Dm = 0.026 amu Q Initially X is in rest hence momentum of
a-particle after decay will be equal and
Energy Released
opposite of Y .
= 0.026 931 MeV = 3.87 10-12 J
M Y vY = M a va
This energy produced by the three M
deutronatoms. Total energy released by vY = a va
MY
40
10 deutrons
Total kinetic energy
1040
= 3.87 10-12 J = 1.29 1028 J 1
3 K T = ( M a v2a + M Y v2Y )
2
The average power P = 1016 W = 1016 J/s
1 2 M 2a v2a
KT = M a va + M y
Therefore total time to exhaust all 2 M 2Y
deutrons of the star will be
91

1 Ma and N2 = 2 N 0 e- lt
KT = M a v2a
1 +
2 M Y A1 = N1l = lN 0 e- l (t + t1 )
4 A2 = N2 l = l (2 N 0 ) e- lt
K T = K a 1 +
228 A1 1
232 = e- lt1
Ka = K A2 2
228 T
2 A1
= e- lt1
Hence Correct option is (b). A2
14. Energy of emitted photon = 7 MeV A
log 2 = lt1
6
= 7 10 1.6 10 -19
J 2 A1
-13 1 A
= 11.2 10 J t1 = log 2
11.2 10-13 J l 2 A1
Momentum of photon =
3 108 m/s T A
t1 = log 2
11.2 log 2 2 A1
= 10-21 kg-m/s
3
Hence Correct option is (c).
Q Initial nucleus is stationary
16. The given reaction is
Applying conservation of momentum 2
1H + 1H2 1H 3 + 1H1
principle
DM = [2m (1H2 ) - m (1H 3) - m (1H1)]
O = P nuc + P photon P nuc = - P photon
= (2 2.014102 - 3.016049 - 1.007825) amu

|P nuc|=|- P photon| = 4.33 10-3amu

Pnuc =
11.2
10-21 kg-m/s DE = 4.33 10-3 931.5 MeV
3 = 4 MeV
Mass of nucleus = 24 amu Hence correct option is (c).
= 24 1.66 10-27 kg
17. Number of fusion required to generate
2
But Pnuc = 2mK nuc 1 kWh
1 103 3600
2 -42 =
Pnuc 11.2 11.2 10 4 106 1.6 10-19
K nuc = = Joule
2m 9 2 24 1.66 10-27
36 1018
= = 5.6 1018 1018
6.4
11.2 112. 10-42
K nucc = eV Hence correct option is (b).
18 24 1.66 10-27 1.6 10-19
18. The energy released = 4 MeV

## Hence correct option is (b). Hence energy produced per atom

= 2 MeV = 2 1.6 10-13 J
15. Let time interval between two instants is t1
Hence number of atom fused to produced
then
1 kWJ
N1 = N 0 e- l (t + t1 )
92

36 105 18 18 1018
= = 1018 = = 3.7 10-5 kg.
2 1.6 10-13 1.6 1.6 6.02 1023

18
1018 atom
1.6

## More Than one Option is Correct

4
1. x = N 0 , y = lN 0 1 N
N x = N 0 = 0
x N0 1 2
16
= = 2
y lN 0 l 1 N
N y = N 0 = 0
2 4
where l is decay constant
x N N /16 1
Hence is constant throught. x= x = 0 =
y Ny N 0 /4 4

## x 1 1 T Let their activity are Rx and R y .

Q = = =
y l 0.693 0.693 Rx = lx N x and R y = l y N y
T
0.693
x Rx lx N x 1
> T, xy = l( N 0 )2 y= = = T
y R y l y N y 0.693 4
N0 2T
For one half life N =
2 Rx 1
=y=
2 Ry 2
N lN 20 xy
( xy) T = l 0 = =
2 4 4 Hence correct options are (b) and (c).
Hence correct options are (a), (b) and (d). 5. Since nuclear forces are vary short range
2. The correct options are (a), (b), (c) and (d). charge independent, no electromagnetic and
they exchange (n p or p n). Hence the
3. A nucleus in excited state emits a high
correct options are (a), (b), (c) and (d).
energy photon called as g-ray. The reaction
is 6. Q R = R0 A1/ 3

X * X + g M A 1.67 10-27 kg
r= =
4/3 pR 3 4
Hence by gamma radiation atomic number pR03 A
3
and mass number are not changed. Since
after emission of one a atomic number r is independent of A.
reduced by 2 (2 a4 ) and after 2b atomic 1.67 10-27 kg
But r =
number is increased by (2). Hence correct 4
3.14 (1.3 10-15 ) 3
options are (a), (b) and (c). 3
4. Here half lives are T and 2T and N x = N 0 , = 1.8 1017 kg/m 3
N y = N 0 after 4T for first substance = 4 half Hence correct options are (b) and (c).
lives and after 4T the second substance = 2
Half lines.
93

## Match the Columns

1. Here N 0 = x, let l is the decay constant. 2. In reaction P + P Q energy is released

## N = N 0 e - lt = x e - lt Q Binding energy increases when two or

dN dN more lighter nucleus combine to form
= lx e- lt but =y
dt dt haviour nucleus.
t=0
Hence correct match is
y = lx e 0 = lx
y (a) p
l=
x Similerly for reaction
Hence P + P + RR
(a) s Correct match is
log 2 log 2 x (b) p
Half life T1/2 = = = log 2
l y y
for reaction
x
P + R = 2Q from graph BE per nucleon
Hence
increases.
(b) p
Hence energy is released.
We have activity R = lN = l xe- lt
Correct match is
1
at t =
l (c) p
1
-l lx For the reaction
R = lx e l = l x e -1 =
e P+Q=R
but lx = y We will check energy process if BE per
y nucleon is given. Hence data is not
R=
e sufficient correct match is
Hence (d) s
(c) r 3. Since A and B are radioactive nuclei of
1 ( A + B) decreases with time. Hence correct
Number of nuclei after time t =
l match is
1
-l x (a) q
N =xe l =
e Q A is converted into B and B is converted
Hence into C and decay rate of A B and B C
are not known. Hence correct match is
(d) s
(b) s
Thus correct match is
Since at time passes A is converted to B
(a) s
and B is converted to C. Hence nuclei of
(b) r ( B + C) increases. Correct match is
(c) r (c) p
(d) s Similerly the correct match for (d) is
94

(d) s (a) p
4. After emission of 1 a particle mass no Since BE per nucleon of heavy nuclei is
decreased by 4 but after emission of 1b about 7.2 MeV. Hence
particle atomic number will increase or (b) s
decrease by 1. Hence for (a) X-ray photon have wavelength about 1
(a) p, s the energy of this wavelength is of order of
(b) p, r 10 keV.

(c) s (c) r

Hence
5. For
(d) q