of
Optics &
Modern Physics
By DC Pandey
26. Reflection of Light
90 2
parallel).
180
q q
90 90 2. v0 = 2 m/s for plane mirror vi = 2 m/s.
1802q
Velocity of approach = v0 + vi = 4 m/s.
N2
3. In figure, AB is mirror, G is ground, CD is
d = 180  2 i + 180  2q pole and M is the man. The minimum height
d = 360  2( i + q) to see the image of top of pole is = EN
2
L' BC 2
tan f = = =1
8m L
q A CC 2
q
N f = 45
2m
So, NK = 4 tan 45 = 4 m
N1 Hence in minimum height
f
K f B
= 6 m + 4 m = 10 m
f
M C C' 6 m In DAC C
pole 4
=4m tan q = =2
E 2m C 2
2m D
In DL LA we get,
= EK + KN = 6 + KN LL
= tan q
Now in DNKB, LA
NK LL
= tan f NK = KB tan f =2
KB 4
= 4 tan f LL = 8 m
AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level 1)
1. Here v = 39.2 cm, hence v =  39.2 cm Hence the images distance are 2 nb, where
n = 1, 2, K . Ans.
and magnification m = 1
5. Suppose mirror is rotated at angle q about
hi = ho = 4.85
its axis perpendicular to both the incident
Hence image is formed at 39.2 cm behind ray and normal as shown in figure
the mirror and height of image is = 4.85 cm. y
2. From figure, angle of incident = 15 I R
N
N Incident ray
90
Reflacted ray Mirror i i
1 50
15
0
x
q
Horizontal (a)
15
15 y
IV
R'
Let reflected ray makes an angle q with the i2q
I
horizontal, then
iq q iq
q + 15 + 15 = 90 q = 60
x
A C q
3.
(b)
30 cm
1o cm
1o cm
2b
20 cm
R
O''' O'' b b O' O''' I
b A' x P B'
1 4b
4b
From D PA A, we get
B D
5
x 1 1 1
= tan 30 x = 20 tan 30 Using mirror formula, + =
20 v u f
AB 160 cm 1 1 1
No. of reflection = = = 
x 20 cm tan 30 v f u
= 8 3 14 1 1 1  165 + 11
= + =
v 11 16.5 16.5 11
Hence the reflected ray reach other end
after 14 reflections. 16.5 11
v= =  33 cm
5.5
7. The deviation produced by mirror M1 is
= 180  2 a Hence the image is formed at 33 cm from the
pole (vertex) of mirror on the object side the
M1
image is real, inverted and magnified. The
Z' absolute magnification
A I1
a v 33
1802a m= = =2
90a a R2 u 16.5
R1 f f
q 90f 1802q Hence size of image is hi = 2 h0
= 2 6 = 12 mm.
C R
9. Here u =  12 cm, f = + = + 10 cm
2
and the deviation produced by mirror M2 is
= 180  2 Using mirror formula
1 1 1
Hence total deviation + =
v u f
= 180  2a + 180  2f
we get
= 360  2 ( a + f)
1 1 1 1 1
=  = +
In D ABC we get, v f u 10 12
90  a + q + 90  f = 180 6+5
=
a + f=q 60
60
Hence deviation produces = 180  2q. v= cm = 5.46 cm
11
R 22
8. Here f =  =  =  11 cm
2 2 The image is formed on right side of the
60
Object height h0 = 6 mm vertex at a distance cm. the image is
11
u =  16.5 cm virtual and erect the absolute magnification
v
(a) The ray diagram is shown in figure is given by m=
u
B 60 5
m= =
A' 11 (  12) 11
A f
Q m <1
B' u = 16.5 cm Hence image is demagnified.
Height of image hi =m h0
6
5 45 v =3 u
hi = 9= = 4.09 mm
11 11
v = 3u and v is +ve
The ray diagram is shown in figure
By mirror formula,
B
1 1 1 1 1 1
+ =  
B' v u f 3u u 12
A 12 cm A' 1 3 1
5/11cm
F = u = 8 cm
(O) 3u 12
(b) Since image is real
v
10. Here f =  18 cm m =  = 3 v =  3u
u
Let distance of object from vertex of concave 1 1 1
By using + = , we get
mirror is u. Since image is real hence image v u f
and object lie left side of the vertex. 1 1 1 4 1
  = =
v 1 e u 12 3u 12
Magnification m =  =
u 9 u = 16 cm
u v 1 u
v= (c) Here m = = v=
9 m 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1
By mirror formula, + = , we have   =
v u f u/3 u 12
1 1 1 10 1 4 1
  =  = = u = 48 cm
u/9 u 18 u 18 u 12
1 1 1
u = 180 cm (left side of the vertex). 13. We have + =
v u f
11. Here u =  30 cm, since image is inverted.
uf
v= at u = f , v =
Hence the mirror is concave. uf
1 v u
m= = v= The variation is shown in figure
2 u 2
1 1 1 v(m)
Using mirror formula, + = , we get
v u f
0.5
2 1 1 3 1 0.25
  = =
u u f u f u(m)
u 30 0.25 0.5
f = = =  10 cm
3 3
Hence mirror is concave of focal length
10 cm. Hence focal length if assymtote of the curve.
24 When u < f , Image is virtual. It means v is
12. Here f =  cm =  12 cm
2 negative.
(a) Since image is virtual When u = 2f
v
m= v = mu v = 2f
u
u 0, v 0
7
v 6. From figure
also magnification m =  = .
u
1
Hence, correct option is (c) , . 2
3. Total deviation, d = d1 + d2 q
q
9 0
q
q N1
q 70 70
180 2q
20 + q
a a
1802a 20 + q = 70
q = 70  20
N2
q = 50
= 180  2q + 180  2a Here (1) and (2) are paralledl 11 to each
but a = 90  q other.
8. Here it is given that height of the boy Using mirror formula, we get
HF = 1.5 m 1 1 1
+ =
H
v u f
0.1 m C A 1 1 1
  =
3u u f
E Mirror
3u
f =
4
1.5m K B  3 40
f = =  30 cm
2
Mirror is concave and focal length is 30 cm.
Correct option is (a).
F D
1 v
10. Here m = + = 
Length of mirror = AB = 0.75 m n u
The ray diagram is shown in above figure. u
v=
n
H is the Head of the boy and F is the feet. It
1 1 1
also shows the paths of the rays that leaves From mirror formula = + ,
the head of the man enter his eyes (E). After f v u
reflection from the mirror at point A, and we get,
the rays that leave his feet and enter his 1 1 1
eyes after reflected at point B. = +
f (  u / n) u
1
From figure CE = HE = 0.05 m u =  ( n  1) f
2
CF = HF  HC = HF = CE Hence the correct option is (d).
= 1.50  0.05 = 1.45 m 11. Differentiating mirror formula, we get
The distance of the bottom edge of mirror dv v2 du du
= [Q here is ve]
above the floor is dt u2 dt dt
BP = KF = CF  KC = CD  AB Using mirror formula
= 1.45  0.75 = 0.7 m 1 1 1
+ = ,
But according to question BD = 0.8 m (given) v u f
which is greater than 0.7 m, the height 1 1 1
we get = 
required to see full image. Hence the boy v f u
cannot see his feet.
Here u =  60 cm, f =  24 cm
Option (c) is correct
Putting these we get, v = 40 cm
9. Since the image is magnified hence mirror is dv 402
concave mirror. Hence, = 9 = 4 cm/s
v dt 602
Here m =  = 3 v =  3u
u Hence the speed of the image is 4 cm/s
v= 3u= 3u away from the mirror.
but v  u= 80 Hence correct option is (c).
3u  u= 80 u = 40 cm' 12. The wrong statement is (d)
10
M SM SN
= 2x = 2 [ SM  SN ]
=

q
x x
AB = 2 L,
where SM  SN = L = Length of mirror
k d d
vmax = A [ AB] = (2L) = 0
m dt dt
k Q Length of mirror is constant.
Q w2 = for SHM
m Hence the correct option is (d).
Maximum speed of insect relative to its 3. Here u =  10 cm and v =  20 cm
image
Using mirror formula
= 2 vmax ^ = 2 vmax sin 60
1 1 1 dv du
k + = we get = 2  2 = 0
=A 3 u v f v u
m
dv v2 202
Hence correct option is (c). = 2 = 2 =4
du u 10
2. aun = g dv =  4 du
Height = x dv =  4  (  0.1), here du =  0.1
L dv = 0.4 cm,
ie, 0.4 cm away from the mirror.
q q q q x
Hence the correct option is (a).
S N A M B 4. The first and second images are shown in
figure but according to question
Let after time t paperndicular distance
between mirror and source is x we have L1 L2
from figure
(3x)
AB = AM + MB = SM  SA + MB I II
3x x
x
but SM = MB
6x
12
(6  x)  x = 4 dv
= =2
du
2 = 2x x = 1 m
dv = 2 du,
Hence the correct option is (c).
A B
1 1 1
5. For vertical part  + =
20 v 5 2 mm 2 mm
20 cm AB = du = 4 mm
dv = 2 4 mm dv = 8 mm
10 cm Hence the correct option is (c).
P
C F 7. If the mirror is rotated by an angle q in
anticlock, wise direction about an axis ^ to
the plane mirror, the new angle of incidence
20 cm becomes i  q and angle of reflection also
20 i  2q.
v=
3 According to problem
v 20 / 3
= 1
mv= = i + i  2q = 45
u 20 3
2i = 45 + 2q = 45 + 2 20 = 85
10
Lv = cm But angle of incidence = angle of reflection.
3
Hence the angle between origial incident
For horizontal part first end is at C hence
and reflected ray was 85. Similarly is the
its image is also at C ie at v =  10 cm, for
mirror is rotated clockwise the angle became
other end
5.
1 1 1 20
 + = v=
20 v 5 3 Hence correct option is (c) 85 or 5.
20 8. The person see his hair if the incident ray
v=
3 statics from point A after reflected by mirror
20 10 reach his eyes. Let O is point at minimum at
LH =v  u=  10 =
3 3 a distance x below the point A.
10 A
LH =
3 x
q O
The ratio LV : LH = 1 : 1. q
x
Hence correct option is (c) 1 : 1. Person 170 cm E
164
6. Here u =  15 cm, f =  10 cm
P
1 1 1 B
Using + =
v u f
We have 2x = 60 cm x = 3 cm
We get, v =  30 cm
The distance of O from P is
v (v2  v1)
We have m = = = 170  3 = 167 cm
m u2  u1
Hence correct option is (a).
13
0.2 m 30 30
u = 2 m/s
1
BD = 0.2 q = 45
3
2 3
No. of reflections = = 30
0.2 / 3
Hence, the correct option is (b). Hence, in elevator frame path of the
particle is a straight line.
11. Resolving velocity along parallel to mirror
The vertical component of velocity is
and perpendicular to mirror, we get
1
v cos 37 u sin 45 = 2 = 1 m/s
y 2
37
The separation between mirror and
37 x particle in 0.5 s is
37
v sin 37 y = v y t = 1 0.5 = 0.5 m
14
The separation between image of particle 16. There are two mistakes one in ray (1) and
and particle at this moment other in ray (3).
= 2 y = 2 0.5 m = 1 m 1
Hence, the correct option is (b). Hence the coordinates of image are (5, 10).
Therefore, the correct option is (d).
15
2. Magnitude of focal length spherical mirror Hence correct options are (a), (b), (c) and (d).
1
is f and linear magnification is 3. Since by a plane mirror
2
speed of image = speed of object
Since concave mirror fro inverted real image
and magnification is less than unity,
therefore u > 2 f .
v cos q
Hence option (a) is correct.' v y
q
If image is erect than it is a convex mirror. vs
in x
q
Let mirror is concave hence focal length vc
=  f. os
q
1 v
Here m = = 
2 u Hence speed of image also v.
16
The mirror is lying to the right of O and the 6. For plane mirror
O lies between C and F.
If centre of curvature lies to the right hand
side of O then v < u. 3f 3f
Hence image is real [for concave mirror m 3. (a) Since object and its image are on opposite
is =  ve] side of principle axis.
O
Therefore,
(a) q, r A B
1 I
(b) Since m =  , Q m is  ve
2
Hence mirror is concave
Hence mirror is concave and image is real.
(a) r.
(b) q, r
(b) Similarly as for option (a).
(c) m = + 2 , Q m > 1
(b) r
Hence mirror is concave and Q m is + ve
(c) Since image and object are of same
Hence image is virtual. height from AB.
(c) q, s Hence mirror is plane mirror.
1
(d) Q1 m = + < 1 and + ve (c) p
2
(d) Since image is magnified.
Hence the mirror is convex and image is O I
virtual.
x x
(d) p, s A B
2. Plane mirror (for virtual object) only real Hence mirror is concave [D is. distance
image between O and mirror is less than the focal
(a) p length].
18
Hence v
m =2 =  v =  2u
u
(d) r.
1 1 1
Using  =
4. (a) For concave mirror M1 focal length u u f
=  20 cm 1 1 1
we get,   =
2u u 20
When x = 20 cm, Mirror is M1
3 1
v = and magnified =
2 u 20
(a) p, s
u = 30 cm
(b) For convex mirror M2 of focal length
+ 20 cm if X (distance of object from pole) If image is virtual v = 2 v
= 20 1 1 1
 =
1 1 1 2u u 20
Using mirror formula + =
v v f u = 10 cm
we get Hence correct option are as
1 1 1 1 (a) p, q
= + =
v 20 20 10 1
(b) Here m = <1
v = 10 cm 2
Hence image is virtual. Hence image is real.
(b) r 1 v u
=  v = 
2 u 2
(c) u =  30 cm, f =  20 cm
1 1 1
1 1 1 2 3 1 Using + = , we get
=  = = v u f
v 30 20 60 60
1 1 1
v =  60 cm   =
u/2 u 20
Hence image is real. 3 1
60 = u = 60 cm
m= = 2 4 20
30
Hence correct option is none of these.
Hence image is magnified (2 times).
(b) s
(c) q, s
(c) if m = 1, than u = 2 f
(d) for mirror M2 (convex) at X = + 30 cm
u =  40 cm
image again virtual.
Hence correct option is none of these.
(d) r
(c) (s)
5. (a) For concave mirror f =  20 cm
(d) Similarly as in part (b) we see that
Case I. Image is real. answer is none of these.
(d) (s)
27 Refraction of Light
Introductory Exercise 27.1
1. Let real depth of dust particle is x and m3 4 3
= =2
thickness of slab is t m1 3 2
t 3. Frequency remain same.
1st 2nd
face face Let v1 is velocity in medium (1) and v2 in
x tx
Medium (2)
1.5 1 0.5 u2 m 1 m 2  m 1
(c)  = 4. Applying  =
v ( 3) 6 v u R
1.44 1 0.44
On solving v =  6.0 cm  =
v 1.25
3. Light rays are coming from glass to air
On solving v = 0.795 cm
m2 m1 m2  m1
5.  =
O v u R
1.635 1 0.635
10 cm  =
v ( 9) ( 2.50)
m2 m1 m2  m1 on solving v = 6.993 cm
 = v
v u R Lateral magnification m = 
1 4 1  4/3 u
 = 6.993
v 3 ( 10) ( 15) = =  0.777
9
1 4 1
+ = on solving v =  9 cm
v 30 45
1 1 1 1 1 1
6. Using  = + = v = 16 cm
v u f 3u u 12
1 1 12 12. Since image is upright and diminished
 =
v ( 20) 10 hence lens is concave. Now
On solving v = 20 cm u  v = 20 (i)
v v 1
Magnification =  =  1 m= =
u u 2
Hence the image of same size and inverted. 1 u  20
=
Let the distance between second lens is x 2 u
Since magnification is unity image distance u = 40 cm and v = 20 cm
also x using again 1 1 1
Using  =
1 1 1 v u f
 =
v u f 1 1 1
 + = f =  40 cm
we get 20 40 f
1 1 1 1 13. The image coincide itself if light falls
 = = x = 20 cm
x ( x) f 10 normally on plane mirror hence object must
Hence the distance between two lenses be on focus i. e. + 10 cm.
1 1 2 (m 2 /m 1) 2 (m 2 /m 1  1)
= 20 cm + 20 cm = 40 cm 8. + = 
1 1 1 v u R2 R1
7. = + (i)
v f u 1 1 2 ( 4/3) 2 ( 4/3  1)
+ = 
1 1 1 v 0.2 0.4 0.4
= + (ii)
v1 f u + du On solving v = 12 cm
1 1 (u + du  u) 9. Since shift in position D t = 0.1 m
 = on solving, we get
v v (u + du)u
Hence real depth = (0.1 + 0.2) m
v  v du  v2
= thickness dv = 2 du = 0.3 m
v u(u + du) u
and apparent depth= 0.2 m
2 real depth
10. Size of image = 6 = 2 cm. m=
3 apparent depth
11. Let image distance is u 0.3
= = 1.5
m= 3 v = 3u 0.2
22
AIEEE Corner
1. Incident ray 1 106 1.8 106
Reflected ray t3 = 8
= = 0.6 1014
3 10 /1.8 3 108
i i Hence t1 is least and t1 = 0.4 1014 s
90i
(b) Total number of wavelengths
90
r 1 mm 1.5 mm 1 mm
= + +
l/ n1 l/ n2 l/ n3
1000 1.2 nm 1.5 100 nm
Reflected ray = +
600 nm 600 nm
We have r + 90 + i = 180 r = 90  i 1 1.8 1000 nm
sin i sin i +
From Snells law 1.5 = = 600 nm
sin r sin (90  i)
4500
= = 7.5
tan i = 1.5 600
i = tan 1(1.5) 5. The given wave equation is
v 343 2py
2. nw = air = = 0.229 Ex ( y, t) = Eax sin  3 1014 2lt
uw 1498 5 107
Critical angle q = sin 1(0229
. ) = 13.2
Comparing with standard equation
c 3 108
3. Sped in glycrine v g = = Ex ( y, t) = E0 sin [ ky  wt ]
ng 1.47
2p
k= , w = 2p 3 1014
20 20 1.47 5 107
t1 = = = 9.8 108 s
vg 3 108
w 2p 3 1014
8 v= = = 1.5 108 m/s
c 3 10 k 2p/5 107
Speed in glycrine v g = =
ng 1.63
c 3 108
20 20 1.63 ~ Refractive index n = = =2
t2 = =  10.8 108 v 1.5 108
vc 3 108
2p
8
Wavelength in this way ln =
t2  t1 = (1086
.  9.8) 10 k
2p
= 1.67 108 s ln = = 5 107 m
25/ 5 107
1 106 m 1 106 m
4. (a) t1 = =
v1 3 108 /1.2 ln = 500 nm
6 If vacuum, wavelength is l then
1.2 10
= l
3 108 ln =
n
t1 = 0.4 1014 s
l = nln = 2 500 = 1000 nm
1.5 106
t2 = = 0.5 1014 s 6. Refraction from plane and spherical
3 108
surfaces
23
r r
m2 m1 m2  m1
N3 For first surface  =
v u R
1.5 1 0.5
 =
sin 60 v ( 2.5) 10
We have = 1.8
sin r 1.5 1 1 7
=  =
sin 60 v 20 2.5 20
sin r =
1.8 30
v= cm
3 7
sin r = = 0.48
2 1.8 This image acts as a virtual object for 2nd
r = sin (0.48)1 surface
30 170
r~ 28.7 u2 =  20 + = cm
7 7
MO
Now = tan r
6 and R =  10 cm
m2 m1 m2  m1
MO = 6 tan r  =
v u r
Similarly ON = 6 tan r 1 1.5  0.5
+ =
MN = MO + ON = 12 tan r = 12 tan(28.7 ) v 170/ 7 10
MN = 6.6 cm 1 1 10.5
= 
4 sin 45 v 20 170
7. From Snells law =
3 sin r v =  85 cm
A
Hence final image will produced at 65 cm
45 45 from Ist surface.
1m
D
B 9. Here v =  1 cm
r
3m R =  2 cm
2 cm
m m m  m1
Applying 2  1 = 2
v u R
C E F 1 1.5 1  1.5  0.5 1
 = = =
1 x 2 2 4
Solving we get r = 32
1.5 5
EF = DE tan r = 3 tan 32 =
x 4
= 1.88 m 6
x= =  1.2 cm
Total length of shadow = 1 + 1.88 5
= 2.88 m
24
10. O 12.
10 cm
Air
i
r
3 cm RI = 3/2
4 cm
4
Image formed by refection acts the virtual Here sin r =
object for the mirror. 4 + n2
2
1 2
Here shift = t 1  sin i =
m 2 + n2
2
1 2 2
= 3 1  = 1 cm sin i 4 4 2 +n
3 / 2 u= =
sin r 3 2 42 + n2
Hence object appear to the mirror
4 4 + n2
= (10 + 1) cm = 5n2 = 28
9 16 + n2
= 11 cm
28
The image formed by mirror =  11 cm n2 = n = 2.4 cm
5
Hence image formed by the mirror at 11 cm m m m  m1
13. Using 2  1 = 2
behind the mirror. v u R
11. 6 cm 1 1.5 1  1.5
 =
v 5
O O' 1 1
8 cm 6 cm = v = 10 cm
v 10
6x x m m m  m1
14. For first surface 2  1 = 2
v u R
Step. Let shift in mirror is x then the
distance of object.
From the mirror is = 8 + (6  x).
Step II. Plane mirror form image behind 1 2
the mirror at same distance as the distance
object from mirror hence 10 cm 5 cm
8 + (6  x) = x + 6 x = 4 cm
real depth 6 30 cm
Step III. m = = = 15 .
app. depth 4
hence real position of the bubble inside 1.5 1 0.5
 = v = 30 cm
sphere is 1.2 cm from the surface. v 10
25
R 1.6R f
f2 = = = 8R Hence image is formed at right of 2nd
1.7
2  1 2 0.1 2
1.6 lens.
Hence 2nd lens remain convex. 22. Since the object is placed at 2f hence image
19. Here u =  10 cm acts the virtual object for also form 2f by lens i. e., at 60 cm. The mirror
1 1 1 must be placed at that place that it made the
the lens v =  15 cm using  = final image at focus of lens. The difference is
v u f
shown below.
1 1 1
+ =
15 10 f 30 cm f
I'
O I
On solving we get f =  30 cm.
15
60 cm 60 cm
20. Situation is shown in figure.
Hence the distance between lens and mirror
S1
S2 = 40 cm + 15 cm = 45 cm
x u
24 x
f =  70 cm
O
40 cm Hence the equivalent focal length of
15 cm 10 cm 1 1 1 1
30 cm combination =  +
F 30 70 70
Hence image is formed at 5 cm from the F = 30 cm if
mirror toward lens. u =  90 cm then using
26. f1 = +10 cm f2 = 20 cm f3 = +9 cm 1 1 1
= 
F v u
1 1 1
we get = +
30 v 90
10 cm 1 1 1 2 1
15 cm 5 cm =  = =
v 30 90 90 45
For first lens v = + 10 cm v = 45 cm
For 2nd lens u =  5 cm, f =  20 cm
28
c 3 108 sin q c m w 4 2
28. nice = = = 1.30 = =
v 2.3 108 sin r m g 3 3
1 1 9 9 2 3
q c = sin 1 = sin 1 sin r = sin q c = =
8 8 3 4
n
ice 1.30
3
= sin 1(0.77) r = sin 1
4
29. (a) Let angle of refraction in material 2 is r 32. For total internal reflection at top surface
sin q 1.8 18
then = = (i) n1
sin r 1.6 16
For (2) to (3) interface
sin r 1.3 13 90r
= =
sin 90 1.8 18 n1 r
q n2
13
sin r = (ii)
18
18 13
From (i) and (ii) sin q = sin (90  r) n1
16 18 =
sin 90 n2
13
q = sin 1 n1
16 cos r =
n2
(b) Yes, if q decreases r also decreases and sin q n2
become less than the critical angle and and =
sin r n1
hence light goes into material 3.
n2
30. Let maximum height of liquid is h. From sin q = sin r
n1
figure for critical angle C
n2
sin q = 1  cos2 r
n1
2
n n
= 2 1  1
h r2 + h2 h n1 n2
c
n22  n12
sin q =
n12
1 r2 + h2 2
m= = (i) n
sin C r q = sin 1 2  1
4 n1
Here r = 1 cm and m = putting these
3 33. The deviation angle vary from 0 to q where
4
values in Eq. (i). Solving we get h = cm q = 90  c (i)
3
1 2 where C is the critical angle
Here sin q c = = 4/3 8
mg 3 m
Now, sin c = w = =
m g 3/2 9
Now if water film is poured on the glass air
surface. Let emergent angle at glass water From Eq. (i) cos q = sin C
surface is r, then 8
cos q =
9
29
8 5 5 3
q = cos 1 sin q = sin r =
9 4 4 5
1 3
Hence deviation angle vary from 0 to q = sin
8 4
cos 1 .
9 A + dm
sin
34. r 2
36. m =
A
sin
h
h
2
c
c A + sin
sin 2 sin A cos A
2 = 2 2
S 3=
A A
sin sin
(a) Only circular patch light escapes 2 2
because only those rays which are A 3 A
incident within a cone of semivertex cos = = 30
2 2 2
angle C [Critical angle] are refracted out
of the water surface. All other rays are A = 60
totally internally reflected as shown in 37. Here i1 = r1 = 0 .
figures
Now, let other face angle of incidence is r2
1 r2 + h2
(b) Now m = = Q r1 + r2 = A 0 + r2 = A
sin C r
1 r2 = A = 30
or C = sin 1 sin r2 1
m = sin i2 = 1.4 sin r2
sin i2 1.5
r
= sin 1 sin i2 = 1.5 sin 30
r2 + h2
i2 = sin 1(0.75) = 19
35. 38. From figure sin OQP = OQR
q m = 1.0
90 90r
45
r
90r P
m = 1.25
45 r1 r
R r1
2
Q
r1
For maximum angle q the angle 90  r at left i2 45
surface must be equal to critical angle
1 100 4 Hence the ray retrace its path.
sin (90  r) = = =
1.25 125 5 39. A
4
cos r =
5 30
3
sin r = 60 90 R
5 45
sin q 5 Q 30
Now, = 1.25 =
sin r 4 B
30
The ray retrace its path from ref. by surface On solving we get my = 1.656
AB hence ARq = 90 from geometry it is w w
44. 1 + 2 = 0
clear that r = 30 f1 f2
sin i 0.18 w 0.18 30
m= + 2 w2 =
sin r 20 30 20
sin 45 1/ 2
m= m = m = 2 w2 = 0.27
sin 30 1/2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Now, = + = 
40. Depends on formula. F f1 f2 F 20 30
41. The maximum angle will be A = 2C where C F = 60 cm
is the critical angle w1 w2
45. + =0
1 f1 f2
Now, C = sin 1 = 41.81
1.5 w1 f
= 1
w2 f2
Hence A = 2C = 2 41.81 = 83.62
A + dm 3 f
sin = 1
2 2 f2
42. m = here A = 60
A 3
sin f1 = 
f2
2 2
60 + dm 1 1 1
sin Now, = +
2 F f1 f2
1.5 =
sin 30 1 1 2
= 
60 + dm 150 f2 3 f2
0.75 = sin
2 f2 = 50 cm and f1 =  75 cm
60 + dm = 2 sin 1(0.75) sin i1
46. Applying m =
dm = 22.8 sin r1
and not deviation = 180  22.8 = 157.2 Find angle r1 for two different refraction
indices. Because i1 = 65 from both the
(b) If the system is placed in water
cases.
1.5 4.5
m= =
4/3 4 Then again apply
sin i2
60 + dm = 2 sin 1(1.125 sin 30 ) m= and find i2 . Because r2 = A  r1.
sin r2
1.125
= 2 sin 1
dm  60 Then apply :
2
d = ( i1 + i2 )  A
Net deviation = 180  dm = 128.4
for two refraction indices. Then difference
m mR
43. w = V in deviations is :
mY 1
Dd = d1  d2
1.665  1.645
0.0305 =
m y 1
31
This image I1 act as a virtual object for Since image after reflection form on object
mirror since plane mirror form image at itself hence the object must be placed at
same distance as object. Hence the distance focus of the lens. The rays after refraction by
between object and image is lens becomes parallel to optic axis. Hence
(30 + 45) cm = 75 cm. reflection rays follow the same path and
Hence correct option is (c). final image form on x itself. Hence x = 30 cm.
sin 45 Correct option is (b).
24. = 3 (i)
sin r1 sin 45 1
28. = 2 sin r = r = 30
sin r1 2 sin r 2
=
sin r2 3 45
45
Multiplying Eq. (i) and (ii)
sin 45
3 0
30
30 30
= 2
sin r2
1
sin r2 =
2
r2 = 30 hence total deflection = 45  ( 45 ) = 90
60 cm
35
60
Hence correct option is (a).
1
45 n n n  n1
36. 2  1 = 2
v u R
1 3 1 (3/2  1)
45  =
2 60 v 2 ( ) 20
v = + 40 cm
2 sin 45 Hence correct option is (a).
=
3 sin r 1 ng 1 1
37. =  1 
3 f nL R1 R2
sin r = r = 60 (on both faces)
2
Here R1 =  30 cm and R2 =  50 cm
Hence the angle between emergent ray
36
1 1.5 1 1
=  1  + 39. Here A = 60 , dm = 60
f 1.4 30 50
A + dm
sin
On solving 2 = sin 60
m=
f =  1050 cm A sin 30
sin
2
Hence correct option is (d).
3 /2
38. From the figure, it is clear that m 1 = m 3 < m 2 m= = 3
1/2
Hence correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (a).
JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason 5. Since both assertion and reason are true
1. Due to shifting of image on refraction built reason is not explain assertion Hence
Shayam appear nearer to Ram and light correct option is (b).
suffer two refraction. Hence, both (a) and (b) 6. Using mirror formula.
are correct but reason does not explain the 1 1 1
 =
assertion. v u f
Correct option is (b). Here u=
2. Applying lens formula f =  f (concave lens)
1 1 1 1 1 1
 = + =
v u f v f
Let u = object distance from lens v= f
v = d  u distance of image from lens. Hence image is formed at principle focus
Q v+u=d thus assertion is false but reason is true.
1 1 1 Hence correct option is (d).
 =
d u u f A + dm
sin
2
u2  du + df = 0 7. m =
sin A / 2
d d  4f
u= Here A = 60, m = 2
2
60 + dm
Q u is real hence d 4 f sin
2
Thus mean distance v = 4 f , if 2=
sin 30
u =  2 f , v = 2 f . Hence both assertion and
60 + dm
reason are true, and reason explain or may = 450 dm = 30
not explain assertion. Hence correct option 2
is (a, b) Hence both assertion and reason are true
3. Correct option is (b). and reason explain assertion correctly.
Correct option is (a).
4. Correct option is (c).
37
8. Focal length of combination 10. In this case image distance of O1 and O2 are
1 1 1 1 1 same from the lens.
= + = 
F Fconvex Fconvex f1 f2 1 1 1
Q  = and reason is trure.
if f1 > f2 v u f
1 1 Hence correct option is (d).
<
f1 f2
11. Assertion is false since only ray energe if
F =  negative refractve index of the colour less than the
Hence assertion is true. Since power is a prism and angle of incidence is less than
measure of converging or divergence of a critical angle but reason is true. Correct
lens. Hence reason is not true. Correct option is (a).
option is (c). 12. If two object is placed between pole and focus
9. Since glass slab produced a net shift. Hence image is real hence assertion is true. Also
v is increased. Thus magnified image is reason is correct.
obtained but image may be real or virtual Hence correct option is (b)
depending on the position of slab. 13. Since both assertion and reason are true and
Correct option is (b) reason explanation is correct.
Hence correct option is (a).
900 mm m w sin r 4 4 1
2R = = 300 mm = =
3 mm m a sin r 3 3 sin r
R = 150 mm = 15 cm sin r = 1 r = 90
Hence correct option is (a). Hence correct option is (d).
1 1 1 fv1 14. For limiting angle of incident emergent ray
10. + = v1 =
v1 v1 f v1  f become parallel to the 2nd face
v1 f
m1 = = (i)
v1 (v1  f ) 60
v2 f
m2 = = (ii)
v2 m 2  f sin r 3 3
Q = r = sin 1
sin 90 7 7
Q m1 = m2
f f v + v2 Now r + 30 + r = 90
= f = 1
v1  f v2 f 2 r = 60  r
Hence the correct option is (d). r = (60  sin 1 3/7 )
1 1 1 d sin i
11. = +  Now m=
F f1 f2 f1 f2 sin r
f1 f2 7 sin i
F= =
f1 + f2  d 3 sin [60  sin 1 3/7 ]
4/3 1 1 1 1 1 5 mm
=  1 + = +
3/2 1 R R2 9 R
1 R2
1 1 1 1 1 1
For second lens. + = v2 = + 30 cm  =
v2 60 20 v 20 30
30 1 1 1 1
Magnification m2 = = =  v = + 60 cm
60 2 v 20 30
2 1 2 1 f =  8 cm
 = =1
v2 ( 2) 1
Hence correct option is (a).
2 1 1
= 1  = v2 = 4 m 48. The focal length of lens combination is 2f
v2 2 2
1 (1.8  1.2) 1 1
Hence separation between images = v1  v2 Hence =  +
2f (1.2  1) R
= (16  4) cm 1 0.6
=
= 12 cm 16 0.2R
Hence correct option is (a). R = 48 cm
47. System behave a a concave mirror Hence correct option is (a).
Here u =  10, v =  40 cm 49. If plane surface is silvered the system acts a
Using mirror formula concave mirror having focal length
1 1 1 R
+ = we get = = 24 cm
v u f 2
1 1 1 Hence correct option is (c).
 =
40 10 f
AIEEE Corner
Subjective Question (Level1)
1. R2 = a12 + a22 + 2a1a2 cos f p
q=
2
(i) R = 2a, a1 = a2 = a 2p
Now, f= Dx
4 a2 = a2 + a2 + 2a2 cos f l
p 2p
cos f = 1 f = 0 = Dx
2 l
(ii) 2a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f l
Dx =
f = 90 4
(iii) a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f But Dx =
yd
1 D
cos f = f = 120
2 D Dx
y=
(iv) 0 = 2a2 + 2a2 cos f f = 180 d
2 1m l 1 500 109
a1 y= =
2
+ 1 4 1 mm 4 103
I max ( a + a2 ) a
2. = 1 = 2
I min ( a1  a2 )2 a
2
y = 1.25 104 m
1  1 q
a2 4. I = I max cos2
2
2
5 I q p
(a) max = I max cos2 q =
I max 3 + 1 2
= = 8 = 16 2 2 2
2
I min 5 22 2p
Now q = Dx
3 1 l
l yd Dl
I max : I min = 16 : 1 Dx = and Dx = =
4 D 4d
q 1
3. I = I max cos2 (b) I max = I max cos 2 q
2 4 2
I max q q p 2p
= I max cos2 cos = cos q=
2 2 2 3 3
q p 2p
cos = cos f= Dx
2 4 l
48
= 1978
50
q 1.1784 D
I = I 0 cos2 Dx = 106 m
2 d
1978
= I 0 cos2 2
= I 0 cos 989 Now when t is removed and D is doubled the
2 distance between successive maximum (or
I = 3 104 I 0 minima) i. e., fringe width
lD 2Dl
(b) Fringe width w = w=
d d
5.46 107 1 but according to question Dx = w
w= = 1.82 mm
0.3 103 1.178 106 D 2 Dl
=
10 mm d d
Number of fringes = = 5.49
1.82 mm l = 0.589 106 m = 589 nm
Hence the number of fringe is five. 20. Let n bright fringe (l = 5500 ) concide with
18. Shift due to sheet of thickness 10m and 10th
refractive index 1.6 is bright fringe of 6000
(m  1) tD n 5500 = 6000 10
Dx1 =
d
n~
 11
10 106 1.5
Dx1 = (1.6  1) Similarly first bright fringe concide with 1st
1.5 103
fringe. Now fringe width
Dx1 = 0.6 10 103 = 6 103m 14.74  12.5
w= = 0.224 mm
Shift due to sheet of thickness 15m and 10
refractive index 1.2 is Hence position of 10th bright fringe
6
(1.2  1) 15 10 1.5 = 14.74  0 . 224 ~
 14.55 mm
Dx2 =
1.5 103
Position of zero order bright fringe
Dx2 = 3 103m = 12.75  0.224 ~
 12.25 mm
Since these shifts are in opposite direction 21. Here d ~
 1 cm
of central maxima hence net shift
Dx = Dx1  Dx2 = 6 103m  3 103m
P
= 3 103m = 3 mm
S
19. Let l is the wavelength of light D is screen y
distance from source and d is the separation 1 cm
between slits (all are in metres) q
(m  1) tD
Shift = Dx =
d
(1.6  1) 1.964 106 D D = 100 m
Dx =
d l = 500 nm
51
n = 2, 3, 1600 = 3 l
1600
we get l = 424 nm, 594 nm, = l l = 533 nm
3
(b) For structive interference in transmitted 1600
system for n = 3, l = = 320 nm which does lie
5
2mt = nl, putting n = 1, 2, in visible
only l = 495 nm is lie in visible region. Hence l = 533 nm
I max = [ I1 + I1 ]2
6m
I min = [ I1  I2 ]2
8m
52
2 (m  1) tD
I1 5. Shift =
 1 2 d
I min I2 = b  1
= (1.5  1) 10 106 100 102
I max I1 b + 1 =
+ 1 2.5 103
I2
5 106
2 = = 2 103m = 2 mm
( I max  I min ) b + 1  b + 1 2.5 103
=
( I max + I min ) 2b
Hence correct option is (a).
I max  I min 1 Dnl
= 6. xn = for nth bright fringe
I max  I min b2 d
Dl
Hence, correct option is (d). xn = (2n  1) for nth dark fringe
2d
3. For nth dark fringe Dl
Dx = xn  xn = [2n  2n + 1]
Dl 2d
xn = (2n  1) Dl
2d Dx =
2d
For 1st dark fringe n = 1 Hence correct option is (c).
Dl
x1 = 7. Since at centre path difference for all colour
2d is always zero hence centre will be white.
x
Angular position q = sin 1 1
D
l
q = sin 1
2a
5460 1010
q = sin 1 3
2 0.1 10
q = sin 1 [273 105 ] Hence correct option is (a).
1
q = sin [0.00273 ] 8. n1 l1 = n2 l2
q = 0.16
60 4000 = n2 6000 n2 = 40
Hence correct option is (b)
Hence correct option is (a).
10Dl
4. For 10th bright fringe x10 = Dl
d 9. Initial fringe width w1 =
d
Dl
For 6th dark fringe x6 = (2 6  1) ( D  5 102 )l
2d Final fringe width w2 =
d
But x6 = x10 l
11 10 Dl Dw=w2  w1= 5 102
Dl = d
2a d l
l 20 3 105 = 3 5 102
= 10
l 11
3 106
l 20 = l 6000 = l
But m= = = 1.8 5
l 11
Hence correct option is (a).
Hence correct option is (a).
53
7. 9. Q d sin q = nl
P
nl d
sin q = but = 4
d cos q d l
q n
d sin q =
S1 S2 4
Now if q = 30
Path difference at point P is Dx = d cos q n = 4 sin 30 = 2
The path difference decreases as q increases. Hence assertion is true.
Q as q increases, cos q decreases Also reason is true and does not correctly
d cos q explain assertion correct option is (b).
Hence order of fringe n = decreases
l
10. Here assertion is false. Since shift
as we go above P. Hence assertion is wrong (m  1) tD
(false). = is independent of l.
d
For 11th order maxima path differenc is Hence shift of red colour = shift of violet
more hence reason is true but assertion is colour.
false correct option is (d).
and reason is true
8. Here assertion is true and reason is false
and reason does not correctly explain Q mV >mR
assertion. Correct option is (c). Hence correct option is (d)
1 3 3
1.5 106 m = n + 4 107 m px = a cos 1
a
x = cos 1
2 4 p 4
n = 3.25 x = 0.20 mm
Putting l = 700 Hence correct option is (d).
1
1.5 10 6
m = n + 7 107 6. Number of fringes shifted =
(m  1) t
2 l
n = 1.66 (1.5  1) t
4=
Hence n can take values 2 and 3. 6000
4ut 4
From (i) if n = 2 , l = = 600 nm 6 107 m = t
2 2 + 1 0.5
if n = 3 l = 429 nm t = 4.8 mm
only l = 600 is given in the options. Hence correct option is (a).
Hence correct option is (b). 7. For nth order minima
2
Dln 100 10
4. xn = = l n
d . 103
001 S1
nl q
xn =  5 For l = 4000
10 q
D
n 4000 1010 m S2
xn = = 4 105 n
105
= 0.04 n (2n  1) Dl
yn = for 3rd minima n = 3
xn = 4 n mm 2d
Similarly for l = 7000 5Dl 5l
y3 = =
2d 2q
xn = 7 n mm n = 5, 6
d
hence only x = 5 Q q~ tan q =
D
Passes through hole l = 5000 Hence correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (b). 3a 5
8. AB = d = 3 a =
px Dl 5
5. I = 4 I 0 cos2 where a =
a
d C
10
1 6000 10
a= = (6 104 ) ( a, 0)
1 103 A B
(2a, 0)
px
75% I 0 = I 0 cos2
a D
3 px
= cos2 AB = 15l
16 a
Hence total maxima = 14 4 + 4
3 px
= cos = 60
4 a
Hence correct option is (a).
56
px = 12 104 109 m
9. I = 4 I 0 cos2
a
= 1248 109 m
p a
I = 4 I 0 cos2 = 1248 nm
a 4
p Net shift = nl
I = 4 I 0 cos2
4 where n is + ve integer
4I0 nl = 1248
= = 2I 0
2
Now, for 416 = l, n = 3
I 1
0 = For 624 = l , n = 2
I 2
Hence correct option is (b). Hence correct option is (c).
p lD 6300 1.33 m
10. I = I 0 cos2 (m  1) t 13. w = =
a d n 1 mm 1.33
at m = I I = I0 63 108 1.33 m
=
Hence correct variation is (c) 103 1.33
px
11. I = I 0 cos2 = 0.63 mm
l
Hence correct option is (a).
3 px
I 0 = I 0 cos2 7 Dl 3 Dl Dl
4 l 14. Dx =  = 4
nd nd nd
px p
= Dx = 4 0.63 mm = 2.52 mm
l 6
l Correct option is (a).
x = but x = (m  1) t
6 15. Dx = 2 of fridge width
l
(1.5  1) t = 2 0.63 mm
6 (m  1) t =
2
l 6000
t= = 2 0.63
3 3 t= = 1.57 mm
0.53
t = 2000 = 0.2 mm
Hence correct option is (b).
Hence correct option is (a).
16. Since on introducing thin glass sheet fringe
12. Net shift = (m 1  1) t  (m 2  1) t width does not change hence fringe width
= (m 1  m 2 ) t = (1.52  1.40) t = 0.63 mm.
2. Correct options are (a), (c) and (d). 6. Q n1l1 = n2 l2 for maxima
q Using this option (a) is satisfied and
3. Q I = 4 I 0 cos2 at centre q = 0 I = 4 I 0
2 (2n1  1) l1 = (2n2  1) l2 for minima
and at distance 4 mm above o is again Using this 3rd option is satified
maxima hence its intensity is also 4 I 0 .
Hence correct options are (a) and (c).
Hence correct options are (a) and (c).
(a) p (d) r
Similarly for other the correct match 6. When a thin plate (transparent) is placed in
front of S1 zero order fringe shift above from
(b) r, s; (c) p; (d) p
O hence
lD
5. When y = there will a dark fringe at 0. (a) r
2d
hence (a) q When S1 is closed interference disappear
and uniform illuminance is obtained on
lD lD
when y = =3 screen hence
6d 2d
(b) p, q
The intensity becomes 3I
Similarly (c) r, s and
(b) p
When s is removed and two real sources s1
lD
when y = Intensity = 2I and s2 emitting light of same wavelength are
4d
placed interference disappear. Since sources
(c) s become noncohrrent hence (d) p, q
29. Modern Physics I
Introductory Exercise 29.1
1. The positron has same mass m as the e 0 n2 h2
3. For Hatom rn =
electron. The reduced mass of electron pme2
positron atom is e2
un =
m m 1 2e 0 nh
m= = m
m+m 2
2prn e n2 h2 2e 0 nh
4 Tn = = 2p 0
RH =
me un pme2 e2
8e20 ch3
4 e 0 n 3h 3
R =
RP = H me4
2 1 me4
1 1 1 rn = = 2 3 3
= RH 2  2 Tn 4 e 0 n h
lH 2 3
me4
1 1 1 r1 =
= RP 2  2 4 e20 h3
lP 2 3
9.1 1031 (16. 1019 )4
lP RH n1 =
= =2 4 (8.85 1012 )2 (6.6 1034 ) 3
lH RP
n1 = 6.58 1015 Hz
l p = 2lH = 2 6563 = 13126
n1 n1 6.58 1015
= 1.31 mm n2 = = =
23 8 8
1 1 1
= RH 2  2 z2
= 0.823 1015 Hz
lHe 2 3
1 1 1
1 1 lH 6563 (b) =R 2  2
= z2 lHe = = l
1 2
lHe lH 22 22 c 3
n = = 3 108 R
lHe = 164 nm l
4
1 1 1 9 108 1.097 107
2. = R 2  2 for largest wavelength n = 3 n=
l 2 n 4
1 1 1 = 2.46 1015 Hz
=R 
l 4 9 (c) Number of revolutions
36 36
l= = = v2 T = 0.823 1015 1 108
5R 5 1.097 107
= 8.23 106 revolution
l = 656 nm
60
4. Reduce mass 36
lB = = 653 nm
mm m p 207 m 1836 m 5 1.097 107
= = = 186 m
mm + m p (207 m + 1836 m ) lK a lK
b
7. n K = n K a + n L a lL a =
h2 h2 b lK a  lK
r1 = 4 pe 0 2 2 = 4 pe 0 2
4 p (186m) e2
b
4 p me c c c 0.71 0.63
= + lL a =
Putting the value we get lK lK a lL a 0.71  0.63
b
13
r1 = 2.55 10 m 1 1 1
=  l = 5.59 nm
me4 lL a lK lK a L a
E1 = 2 2 =  2810 eV b
8 e0 h
hc
8. l =
Ionization energy =  E1 = 2.81 keV DE
h 6.6 1034 E3
5. (a) l = = = 4.8 1034 m
mv 46 103 30
E2 = 2870 eV
6.6 1034
(b) l = = 7.3 1011m Ka Kb
9.1 1031 107 E1
6. (a) After absorbing 12.3 eV the atom excited 6.6 1034 3 108
to n = 3 state lK a =
( E1  2870) 1.6 1019
n=3
6.6 1034 3 108
0.71 109 =
n=2 ( E1  2870) 1.6 1019
Let plate area is A 5. (a) E = 2.45 MeV = 2.45 1.6 1019 106 J
Energy incident on unit time is E 3.92 1013
E = hn n = =
1 h 6.6 1034
E1 = Aw
16p
n = 5.92 1020 Hz
Energy of each photon c
34 8
(b) We have c = nl l =
6.6 10 3 10 n
=
4.8 107 3 108
l= = 5.06 1013 m
5.92 1020
Number of photons striking per unit area
1 6. We have p = 2mK
A 4.8 107
16 p
n= p1 = 2mK 1 and p2 = 2mK 2
A 6.6 10 34 3 108 A
p1 K1
=
= 4.82 1016 per m 2 s p2 K2
3. Here p = 8.24 1028 kgm/s 1 K1
= [Q p2 = 2 p1 ]
(a) Energy of photon E = pc 2 K2
K = 3.07 1018 J
Dp
F= here Dt = 1 s K in J 3.07 1018
Dt K (in eV ) = =
1.6 1019 1.6 1019
F = 2 p cos 60
K = 19.2 eV
F=p
nh 14. Here T = 273 + 20 = 293 K
F=
l 3 RT h
vrms = l=
where n is number of photons striking per M Mvrms
second h
l=
1 1019 6.63 1034 3 MRT
F= = 108 N
663 109
6.6 1034
=
10. Here output energy = 60 W/s 3 1836 9.1 1031 8.31 293
2 60
Pressure p = = 4 107 N l = 1.04
3 108
15. For hydrogen like atom
deBroglie wavelength
E =  K Here E =  3.4 eV
11. Here m = 5 g m = 5 103 kg, v = 340 m/s
K = 3.4 eV = 3.4 1.6 1019 J
by deBroglie hypothesis wavelength h h
l= =
h 6.62 1034 p 2me K
l= =
mv 5 103 340 6.6 1034
=
l = 3.9 1034 m 2 9.1 1031 3.4 1.6 1019
Since l is too small. No wave like property l = 6.663
is exhibit.
16. In Bohr model the velocity of electron in nth
h 6.6 1034
12.(a) le = = orbit is given by
mev 9.1 1031 4.7 106
e2
10
Un =
= 1.55 10 m 2e 0 nh
6.6 1034 Putting the values of e, e 0 , h and n = 1, we
(b) l p =
1836 9.1 1031 4.7 106 get
= 8.44 1014 m 2.19 106
U1 = 2.19 107 m/s and U4 = m/s
4
64
h h h = 1.33 109 m
l1 = and l4 = = = 4 l1
mev1 meu4 m u1
e The radius of first Bohr orbit
4
r1 = 0.529 1010
6.6 1034
l1 = The radius of fourth Bohr orbit
9.1 1031 2.19 106
r4 = 16 0.529 1010
= 3.32 1010 m
2pr1 = 2 3.14 0529
. 1010
l4 = 4 l1 = 4 3.332 1010 m
3.32 1010 m = l1
= 13.28 1010 m
22. For hydrogen like atom Let for ten transitions quantum numbers
z2 of energy levels are n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3 and
En = (13.6) eV n+4
n2
0.544 eV n
For Li + + z = 3
122.4 n+1
En = eV E1 =  122.4 eV
n2 n+2
122.4
E3 = eV =  13.6 eV n+3
9
DE = E3  E1 = (122.4  13.6) eV = 108.8 eV 0.85 eV n+4
34 8 2
hc 6.6 10 3 10  z (13.6) eV
l= = = 113.74 =  0.85 eV (i)
E 108.8 1.6 1019 n2
 z2 (13.6) eV
23. The excited state energy He + atom will be =  0.544 eV (ii)
( n + 4)2
equal to the sum of energies of the photons
having wavelength 108.5 nm and 30.4 nm. Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii)
hc hc ( n + 4)2 0.85
En  E1 = + = = 1.5625
l1 l2 n2
0.544
. 1034 3 108 1
663 1 n+4
+ = 1.25
1010 1085 304 n
4
En  E1 = 83.7 1019 J 1 + = 1.25
n
83.7 1019 J
= = 52.3 eV (i) 4
1.6 1019 J/eV = 0.25
n
 z2 (13.6) 4
For He + atom En = eV n= = 16
n2 0.25
For He + z = 2 Putting this value of n in Eq. (i)
54.4  z2 (13.6)
En = 2 eV =  0.85
n (16)2
E1 =  54.4 eV 256 0.85
z2 =
1 13.6
En  E1 = 54.4 1  2 eV (ii)
n z2 = 16 z = 4
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get Hence atom no. of atom is = 4
1 hc
52.3 = 54.4 1  2 We know that DE =
n l
1 hc
1  2 = 0.96 l= for smallest wavelength DE is
n DE
n =5 maximum
6.6 1034 3 108
24. For hydrogen like atom l=
[  0.544  (  0.85)] 1.6 1019
 z2
En = (13.6) eV
n2 l = 40441
66
= 1.01 107 (m 1
) 27 27
lK = lK a = l0
b 32 32
26. (a) E1 =  6.52 eV
hc
29. l0 =
l = 860 nm = 8600 eV
Energy of this photon 6.6 1034 3 108
l0 1 =
12375 (eV) 1.6 1019 25 103
= = 1.44 eV
8600 l01 = 49.5 pm
hence internal energy of atom after l0 2 = 2l01 = 2 49.5 pm = 99 pm
absorbing this photon is given by
[1 pm = 1012 m ]
Ei = E1 + 1.44 eV =  6.52 + 1.44
30. fKa = (2.48 1015 ) Hz ( z  1)2
=  5.08 eV
12375 (eV) 3 108
(b) l2 = = 2.95 eV = 2.48 1015 (2  1)2
4200 lK a
2 1 a2 26  5
2
( li  26) = li =
3 l26 c 3
3 li  26 3 = 2li 5
2
f 26 
li = 78 pm 1 3
= 2
6.6 1034 3 108 l26 5
78 1012 = 887 pm 13 
1.6 1019 V 3
2
6.6 3 1026 5
887 pm 13 
V =
1.6 78 1012 1019 l26 = 3
2
26  5
V = 15865 volt
3
32. V = a ( z  b) 342
= 887 pm
c (73)2
= a2 ( z  b)2
l ~
 198 pm
1 a2
= ( z  b)2 3 RC
l c 33. f = ( z  1)
4
1 a2
= (13  b)2 (i) 3 1.1 107 3 108
887 pm c 4.2 1018 = ( z  1)2
4
1 a2
and = (30  b)2 (ii) 4.2 1018 4
146 pm z = ( z  1)2
9 1.1 1015
Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii)
2 ( z  1) = 41 z = 42
146 (13  b)
= 34. P = Vi = 40 kW 10 mA = 400 W
887 (30  b)
400 1
30  b % of P = = 4W
2.5 = 100
13  b
(a) Total power of Xrays = 4 W
32.5  2.5b = 30  b
(b) Heat produced per second
2.5 = 1.5b
= 400  4 = 396 J/s
5
b=
3
Photoelectric effect
35. Einstein photo electric equation is 12375
10.4 eV =  1.7 eV
l( )
K max = hn  W
hc 12375
eV0 =  W Q K max = eV0 l( ) = = 1022
l 12.1
hc 12375
For Hatom l = DE = = 12.1 eV
DE 1022
68
1 h
intensity is increased since lmin , if V is
V l2 mv2 v3
= =
decreased lmin is increased. l3 n v2
Hence correct option is (c). mv3
l2 2
3. For hydrogen atom (Bohrs model) nth =
e2 l3 3
orbital speed vn =
2e 0 nh Hence correct option is (a).
For first orbit n = 1 8. For hydrogen like atom
e2  z2
v1 = En = (13.6 eV)
2e 0 h n2
(1.6 1019 )2 For ground state n = 1
=
2 8.85 1012 6.62 1034 E1 =  z2 13.6 eV
1 c

v~ 8
3 10 =
But E1 =  122.4 eV
137 137
122.4 eV =  z2 13.6 eV
Hence correct option is (c). z2 = 9
22 210 4b 210
4. 86 A
3a 80
X 84 B z =3
Hence it is Li2 +
Hence correct option is (b)
12375 12375 ~ The correct option is (c).
5. lmin (in ) = =  0.62
V (in volt) 20 1000 hc Dlmin DV
9. lmin = 100 =  100
eV lmin V
Hence correct option is (c).
1 Percentage change in lmin =  2%
6. We have mev2max = eV
2 Hence lmin is decreased by 2%
2eV correct option is (c)
vmax =
m  z2
10. En = (13.6 eV) for first excited state n = 2
2 1.6 1019 18 1000 n2
=
9.1 1031  z2
E2 = (13.6) eV
4
vmax ~
 8 107 m/s
 z2
Hence correct option is (a). 13.6 eV = 13.6 eV
4
e2
7. For hydrogen atom vn = z =2
2e 0 nh
Hence it is He +
e2 e2
v2 = , v3 = Correct option is (a).
2e 0 2h 2e 0 3 h
12375
v2 3 11. lmin (in ) =
= V (in volt)
v3 2
12375
Let l2 and l3 are the deBroglie V = = 12.375 103 V
1
wavelengths
V = 12.4 eV
71
z =2 hc
= 3W
l
Binding energy = (13.6) z2eV = 13.6 4 eV
hc
= 54.4 eV W =
3l
Hence correct option is (a). Hence correct option is (b).
15. If V1 = 0 then total energy = KE 18. By Moseleys law
KE = 13.6 eV f = a ( z  b) for K a line b = 1
and the energy difference between two f = a ( z  1)
states = 10.2 eV f = a (31  1) = a 30 (i)
Hence total energy in this state and f = a (51  1) = 9 50
= 13.6 + 10.2 f 3
=
= 23.8 eV f 5
The correct option is (c). 25 f
f =
hc 9
16. eV0 = W (i)
3300 Hence correct option is (a).
hc 1 1
2eV0 = (ii) 19. f = ( RC) ( z  1)  2
2200
12 n
Substracted Eq. (i) from Eq. (ii), we get
for K a , n = 2
72
K b, n = 3 hc
W =
6l
1 3
fa = RC ( z  1) 1  2 = RC ( z  1)
2 4 Hence correct option is (a).
23. eV0 = h [2V0  V0 ] = hV0 (i)
1 8
fb = RC ( z  1) 1  = RC ( z  1) eV = h [3 V0  V0 ] = h 2V0 = 2hV0 (ii)
9 9
From Eqs. (i) and (ii)
fb 8 4 32
= = , eV = 2 eV0 V = 2V0
fa 93 27
Hence correct option is (b).
Correct option is (a).
24. For Hatom Lyman series is
1 1 1
20. = R 2  2 here n = 3 1 1 1
l
2 n =R 2  2
l 1 n
1 1 1 9  4 5R
= R 2  2 = R = v=
c 1 1
= RC 2  2
l 2 3 9 4 36 l 1 n
36
l= For Hlike atom
5R
1 1
n = RC  2 z2
Hence correct option is (c) 12 n
h hc
21. lD = and lmin = For Li + + , n = 3 n = n 32 = 9 v
2 meV eV
Hence correct option is (c).
lD 1 eV
= 25. Ground state energy of Hatom =  13.6 eV
lmin c 2m
( 13.6) eV
1 1.8 1011 10000 For Li + + atom En = z2
= n2
3 108 2 13.6 eV 9
13.6 eV =
lD 3 107 1 n2
= =
lmin 3 108 10 n =3
Hence correct option is (c). Hence correct option is (c).
hc 1
22. 5 eV0 = W (i) 26. mv12 = hn1  W (i)
l 2
hc 1
eV0 = W (ii) mv22 = hn2  W (ii)
3l 2
1
From Eqs. (i) and (ii) m [v12  v22 ] = h [n1  n2 ]
2
5hc hc
 5W = W 2h
3l l v12  v22 = [n1  n2 ]
m
5hc hc
 =4W
3l l Hence correct option is (b).
hc (5  3) 27. For Lyman series
=4W
l 3 1 1 1
=R 2  2
2hc l 1 n
= 4W
3l
73
JEE Corner
1. Here both assertion and reason are true and h h
V0 = n0  n0 (i)
reason explain correctly assertion. Correct e e
option is (a). if n 2 n 0 n 0 does not become double hence
hc E assertion is false but reason is true. Hence
2. For photon E = and p =
l c correct option is (d).
If l is doubled, E and p are reduced to 7. Here both assertion and reason are true and
half. Hence assertion is true. Since speed of reason may or may not explain assertion
photon is always c. Hence reason is false. correct option is (a, b).
Hence correct option is (c). 8. Here assertion and reason are both true.
3. If frequency is increased keeping intensity hc
Q lmin = if V increases
constant photoelectron emitted the plate eV
reach other plate in less time hence
lmin decreases
saturation current can be increased. Reason
can be true or not hence correct option is but reason is not correct explanation of
(a, b). assertion hence correct option is (b).
13.6
4. Here both assertion and reason is true and 9. Q En =
n2
reason correctly explain assertion. Hence
correct option is (a). E2 > E1
5. Here assertion is true since possible v
Hence assertion is true and E =  K = +
transition are 6 3, 6 4, 6 5, 5 3, 2
5 4, and 4 3. According to reason total v is more in n = 2
n( n  1) 6 (3  1)
transition has n = 3 =6 Here reason is also true but it is not correct
2 2
explanation of assertion hence correct
it may explain or may not explain assertion
option is (b).
Hence correct option is (a, b)
10. Here assertion is false but reason is true.
6. We have Hence correct option is (a).
eV0 = h[n  n 0 ]
75
E2 =  3.4 eV 16 32.4 9
z2 = = 49
13.6 7
DE = E2  E1 = 10.2 if K < 10.2 eV
The electron collide elastically with Hatom z =7
in ground state. Hence correct option is (d).
The correct option is (c). h h h
18. l = = =
1 1 1 p 2m p K 2m p eV
15. For Lyman series = R 2  2 here n = 3
l 1 n
1 1
= R 1  6.6 1034
1013 =
l 9 2 1836 9.1 1031 1.6 1019 V
1 8R
= V = 8.15 104 volt
l 9
h 8 Rh Hence correct option is (b).
Pphoton = = 1
l 9 19. Since En 2 and Ln n
n
But PPhoton = PH atom 1
8 Rh Hence En
= Mp v L 2
n
9
7 34 The correct option is (d).
8 1.097 10 6.6 10
v= eu r
9 1837 9.1 1031 1
20. Since m n = n n Q un and rn n2
2p n
v = 4 m/s
m n = kn
Hence correct option is (a).
Where k is constant for Hatom
16. Power = VI = 150 103 10 103 = 1500 W
For ground state m 1 = k 1 = k (i)
The 99% power heated the target hence For third excited state n = 4
99
Heating power = 1500 = 15 99 W m2 = k 4 = 4 k (ii)
100
From Eqs. (i) and (ii) we get m 2 = 4m 1
The rate at which target is heated per sec.
(in cal) Hence correct option is (d).
15 99 ~ Q1J = 1 cal 21. By conservation of momentum
=  355
4.2 4.2 v
M H v = ( M H + M H ) v v =
Hence correct option is (c). 2
13.6 eV z2 Let initial KE of Hatom = K
17. En = 
n2 K
Final KE of eachHatom =
13.6 eV 2 13.6 eV 2 2
E3 =  z and E4 = z
9 16 K 13.6
For excitation = E2  E1 = + 13.6
1 1 2 4
DE = E4  E3 = (13.6) eV z2 
9 16 K
= 10.2 eV
2
13.6 (eV) 22 7
DE = = 32.4 eV
16 9 K = 20.4 eV
Hence correct option is (a).
78
 (13.6) eV 4 1 1 1
E2 (He) = =  (13.6) eV = R 2  2 n = 3, 4, 5
4 lB
2 n
But E2 =  K 2 K 2 = (13.6) For 2nd line n = 4 and lB = l
and U =  2 K =  2 (13.6) =  2 4 E =  8 E 1 1 1
=  R
From Eq. (i) l 4 16
KE in ground state of He + ion 16
l=
3R
= (13.6) eV 4
1 1 1
= 4 E 4 = 16E =R 2  2
lB
2 3
1
Ionisation energy from Ist executive state
36 36 36 3 l
13.6 eV lB = = =
=  4 = 13.6 eV = 4E 1 5R 5 16 16 5
4
3l
Hence correct match are 27
lB = l
(a) s 1
20
(b) r (a) p
(c) s 1 1 1 R (25  4) 21R
(d)
=R 2  2 = =
p lB
2 5 25 4 100
3
h W 100 100
3. K max = hn  W and V0 = n  lB = =
e e 3 21 R 21 16
Slope of line 1 is h, Y1 = W 3l
h W 100 3 l 25l
Slope of line 2 is , Y2 = = =
e e 21 16 28
Hence correct match are (b) ( s)
(a) q
For Lyman series
(b) p
1 1 1
(c) r = R 2  2 n = 2, 3, 4
lL 1 n
(d) s
1 1 1
2pr n2 z =R 2  2
4. T = Qr U lL
1 2
1
v z n
4
n3 lL =
T 1 3R
z2
5 l
( a) r lL = = (c) q
1 16 4
Q L n (b) s l
z 1 1 8R
Q V (c) s = R 1  =
n lL
2
9 9
n2 9 9 9 3 l 27 l
Q R (d) q lL = = = =
z 2 8 R 8 16 16 8 128
5. Balmer series is 3l
(d) s
81
(a) p, r (d) p, r
Modern Physics II
Introductory Exercise 30.1
1. R0 = lN 0 = 8000 Bq 0.223
l=
4 3600
R1 = lN = 1000 Bq
R1 1 N l = 1.55 105 /s
= = = e lt log 8 = lt 0.693 0.693
R0 8 N 0 T1/2 = = = 12.4 h
l 1.55 105
log 2
3 log 2 = 9
T1/2 (b) R0 = 10 mci = 10 3.7 1010 103 Bq
9 = 3.7 108 Bq
T1/2 = = 3 days
3 R0 = lN 0
Average, life = 1.44 T1/2 = 1.44 3 = 4.33 R 3.7 108
N0 = 0 =
days l 1.55 105
2. R0 = lN 0 = 2.39 1013 (atoms)
0.693 (c) R = R0 e lt
40 3.7 1010 106 = N0
64.8 0.693
 30
4 = 10 mCi e 12.4 = 1.87 mCi
40 64.8 3.7 10
N0 =
0.693 4. R0 = lN 0
= 13.83 107
R0 6 1011Bq
Now, N = N0 e  lt l= =
N0 1015
 0.693 10
N10 = N 0 e 64.8 = 6 104 /s
0.693 0.693
 0.693 10
T1/2 = = = 1.16 103s
= 13.83 107 e 64.8 l 6 104
 0.693 12
5. N x = N y = N 0
N12 = 13.83 107 e 64.8
92 U
238
90 Th234 + 2He4 (c) 4 Be 9 + 2He4 3 (2 He4 ) + 0 n1
79
DM = (238.050784  234.043593 (d) 35 Br + 1H2 36Kr79 + 2 ( 0 n1)
AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level 1)
Radioactivity
1. (a) Initially the rate of distingration is 2. We have A = lN
dN
 = lN 0 6 1011 = l 1 1015
dt 0
l = 6 104 s 1
 dN
After 5 min = lN 0.693 0.693
dt T1/2 = = = 1155 s
l 6 104
dN
= 19.25 min
N 0 dt 0 4750
= = = 1.76
N dN 2700 3. A = lN
dt
A = 8 Ci = 8 3.7 1010 decay/s
N
log 0.693 0.693
l= =
Now N = N 0 e lt or l =  N0 T1/2 5.3 yr
t
0.693
2.3026 N0 =
l= log10 5.3 365 24 60 60 s
t N
2.3026 A
= log10 (1.76) N=
5 l
l = 0.113 /min 8 3.7 1010 5.3 365 24 3600
=
0.693 0.693 0.693
(b) Halflife = = = 6.132 min
l 0.113 N = 7.2 1019
84
log 2
6.023 1023 nuclei = 60 g  60 365
( R2 ) tP = l2 N 0 e 25
60 g 33
1=
6.023 1023 R = ( R1) tP + ( R2 ) tP
32 33
log 2 log 2
Hence 7.2 1019 nuclei  60 365  60 365
= N 0 4l1 e 14 + l2 e 25
60 7.2 1019
= = 7.11 103 g
6.023 1023 3 mCi
=
4. Number of decay per second ( 4 l1 + l2 )
m 1 0.693 log 2 60 365 log 2
60 365
NA l = 6 1023  
M 238 4.5 109 yr 4 l1 e 14 + l2 e 25
6 1023 0.693
= 3 mCi
238 4.5 109 365 24 60 60 s =
4 log 2 log 2
+
= 1.23 104 decay/s 14
25
5. Probability of decay 4 log 2  log 2 60 365 log 2 
log 2
60 365
 lt  t/ T mean e 14 + e 25
P = (1  e ) = (1  e ) 14 25
 5/10 2
P = (1  e ) =1  e = 0.39
206 0.205 mCi
6. Since initially no Pb nuclei is present and
Nv 8. Complete reactions are
after time t the ratio of =3 226
N Pb (a) 88 Ra a + 86RN222
1 238 (b) 8 O19 9F19 + e + n
It means of original U nuclei decays.
4 (c) 13 Al25 12Mg25 + e+ + n
Hence N = N 0 e  lt
9. Only reaction (b) is possible.
N
N0  0 = N0 e
l
4 10. DE = (7 1.000783 + 7 1.00867  14.00307)
3 931.5 MeV
= e  lt
4 DE = 104.72 MeV
log 4  log 3
t= 11. DE = [8 m p + 8 mn  m ( 8 O16 )] 931.5
l
(log 4  log 3) = (8 1.007825 + 8 1008665
.  15.994915)
t= 4.5 109 yr
0.693 931.5 = 127.6 MeV
t = 1.88 109 yr 12. (a) Number of nuclei in kg
7. ( R1) 0 P = l1 4 N 0 6.023 1023
32 = 1
235
( R2 ) 0 P = l2 N 0
33
Energy
R0 = ( R1) 0 P + ( R2 ) 0 P
32 33
6.023 1023
= N 0 ( 4 l1 + l2 ) = 3 mCi = 200 106 1.6 1019
235
( R1) tP = l1 N = l1 4 N 0 e l1 t
32 = 8.09 1013 J
log 2
 60 365
( R1) tP = l1 4 N 0 e 14
32
85
log e 2 N
But l = 13. N = N 0 e lt = e lt
T1/ 2 N0
0. 693
log e 20 log10 20 N 10 1
t = T1/2 = T1/ 2 = 4.32 4 =e 6. 93 = e 1 =
log e 2 log10 2 N0 e
t = 17.3 days Fractional change
Hence correct option is (c). N N 1
= 0 = 1  ~
 063
.
11. Total energy released per sec N0 e
5. Here assertion is wrong since bdecay 9. Here reason is true but assertion is false
process is n p + e + v Q 1 amu = 931.5 MeV
but reason is true hence correct option is (d). Correct option is (d)
6. Here assertion is true but reason is false. 10. Both assertion and reason are true but
Correct option is (c). reason does not correctly explain assertion.
7. Here both assertion and reason are true and Hence correct option is (b).
reason may or may not be true. Correct 11. Here both assertion and reason are true and
option is (a, b) reason may or may not be correct
8. Both assertion and reason are true but explanation of assertion .
reason is not correct explanation of Hence correct options are (a, b).
assertion. Hence correct option is (b).
1 Ma and N2 = 2 N 0 e lt
KT = M a v2a
1 +
2 M Y A1 = N1l = lN 0 e l (t + t1 )
4 A2 = N2 l = l (2 N 0 ) e lt
K T = K a 1 +
228 A1 1
232 = e lt1
Ka = K A2 2
228 T
2 A1
= e lt1
Hence Correct option is (b). A2
14. Energy of emitted photon = 7 MeV A
log 2 = lt1
6
= 7 10 1.6 10 19
J 2 A1
13 1 A
= 11.2 10 J t1 = log 2
11.2 1013 J l 2 A1
Momentum of photon =
3 108 m/s T A
t1 = log 2
11.2 log 2 2 A1
= 1021 kgm/s
3
Hence Correct option is (c).
Q Initial nucleus is stationary
16. The given reaction is
Applying conservation of momentum 2
1H + 1H2 1H 3 + 1H1
principle
DM = [2m (1H2 )  m (1H 3)  m (1H1)]
O = P nuc + P photon P nuc =  P photon
= (2 2.014102  3.016049  1.007825) amu
P nuc= P photon = 4.33 103amu
Pnuc =
11.2
1021 kgm/s DE = 4.33 103 931.5 MeV
3 = 4 MeV
Mass of nucleus = 24 amu Hence correct option is (c).
= 24 1.66 1027 kg
17. Number of fusion required to generate
2
But Pnuc = 2mK nuc 1 kWh
1 103 3600
2 42 =
Pnuc 11.2 11.2 10 4 106 1.6 1019
K nuc = = Joule
2m 9 2 24 1.66 1027
36 1018
= = 5.6 1018 1018
6.4
11.2 112. 1042
K nucc = eV Hence correct option is (b).
18 24 1.66 1027 1.6 1019
18. The energy released = 4 MeV
36 105 18 18 1018
= = 1018 = = 3.7 105 kg.
2 1.6 1013 1.6 1.6 6.02 1023
X * X + g M A 1.67 1027 kg
r= =
4/3 pR 3 4
Hence by gamma radiation atomic number pR03 A
3
and mass number are not changed. Since
after emission of one a atomic number r is independent of A.
reduced by 2 (2 a4 ) and after 2b atomic 1.67 1027 kg
But r =
number is increased by (2). Hence correct 4
3.14 (1.3 1015 ) 3
options are (a), (b) and (c). 3
4. Here half lives are T and 2T and N x = N 0 , = 1.8 1017 kg/m 3
N y = N 0 after 4T for first substance = 4 half Hence correct options are (b) and (c).
lives and after 4T the second substance = 2
Half lines.
93
(d) s (a) p
4. After emission of 1 a particle mass no Since BE per nucleon of heavy nuclei is
decreased by 4 but after emission of 1b about 7.2 MeV. Hence
particle atomic number will increase or (b) s
decrease by 1. Hence for (a) Xray photon have wavelength about 1
(a) p, s the energy of this wavelength is of order of
(b) p, r 10 keV.
(c) s (c) r
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