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Apresentao

sta obra adota uma viso sociointeracional e interdisciplinar para

E o estudo da lngua inglesa no Ensino Mdio. Ao longo das unidades


didticas que compem a coleo so trabalhadas, de maneira
integrada, sistemtica e progressiva, as quatro habilidades lingusticas:
compreenso escrita, produo escrita, compreenso auditiva e
produo oral.
Ser capaz de compreender o que l e o que ouve, em ingls, alm de
escrever e falar, so pr-requisitos para o aluno ampliar seu conhecimento
de mundo, por meio de pesquisas em livros, jornais, revistas e da interao
com pessoas de outros pases, principalmente pela Internet. Essas prticas
lingusticas visam ao desenvolvimento de competncias e habilidades
exigidas no Enem e nos demais exames de acesso universidade ou no
mundo do trabalho.
Alm dos contedos lingusticos e discursivos, a coleo valoriza a
oportunidade de abordar contedos de relevncia sociocultural, como cidadania,
solidariedade, tica, diversidade cultural, sustentabilidade, sade, cincia e
tecnologia, destacando valores importantes para a educao.
A escolha dos temas abordados nas unidades didticas desta coleo reflete
uma clara atitude interdisciplinar, ao estabelecer um constante dilogo entre o
ensino de ingls e as outras disciplinas do currculo, visando integrao do
conhecimento, reflexo, ao debate e ao posicionamento crtico. Esses temas
devem tambm despertar no aluno o esprito de solidariedade e de participao
comunitria, assim como o interesse pela busca de solues para os problemas
que preocupam a todos ns, ajudando-nos a fazer deste pas e do nosso planeta
um lugar melhor para viver.
Ao longo dos trs volumes desta coleo, aparecem muitos homens
e mulheres, atores que se apresentaram no grande palco do mundo em
diversos momentos da histria da humanidade. Vamos saber de suas
entradas e sadas de cena, seus sucessos e fracassos, cada um desses
atores representando diversos papis, interagindo com a natureza e o
meio ambiente, comunicando-se, descobrindo, inventando, fazendo cincia,
produzindo arte e tecnologia, lutando pela liberdade, enfim, atuando no
espao que compartilhamos.
O mundo inteiro um palco e nele somos todos meros atores. Mas isso
que nos anima. No somos espectadores. Somos atores. Podemos atuar, ter
voz, tomar outra direo quando necessrio. Seguindo as sbias palavras
de Gandhi, podemos ser a mudana que queremos ver no mundo, fazer a
nossa parte.
Visando educao para a cidadania, esta coleo foi escrita com esse
esprito de envolvimento, responsabilidade, participao, com todo o cuidado
e no limite do nosso conhecimento. a nossa parte, o papel que nos cabe
desempenhar.

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Contents
UNIT 4
Basic Language Review 6
Autobiography in Five
UNIT 1 Short Chapters 53
What Is Global Warming? 9
Vocabulary: In Other Words;
Vocabulary: Transparent Words in Context; False
Words; In Other Words; Friends
Discourse Markers; Word Structure: Simple Present Interrogative
Formation: Suffixes Form; Another Use of Do; Simple Present
Structure: Noun Phrases; Present Interrogative Form Using Question Words
Progressive; Uses of the -ing form Listening: A Change for the Better Speaking:
Listening: A Hot Topic Speaking: Whats Yes-No Questions Writing: Words and Images
Happening? Writing: Filling a Form Curriculum Links: Philosophy; Sociology
Curriculum Links: Geography; Biology

UNIT 5
UNIT 2 The Father of Flight 65
The Changing of the Guard 23
Vocabulary: In Other Words;
Words in Context
Vocabulary: In Other Words;
Words in Context Structure: Simple Past
Affirmative Form; Simple Past
Structure: Simple Present
Adverbs and Finished-time
Affirmative Form; Adverbs of
Expressions; Uses of the -ing form
Frequency
Listening: On Air Speaking & Writing: Time for an
Listening: After Class Talk Speaking:
Interview
Words and Images Writing: Photo Captions
Curriculum Links: History; Physics
Curriculum Links: Geography; Biology

UNIT 6
UNIT 3 The Boy Who Changed
The Tree Machine 35 The World with His Music 79

Vocabulary: In Other Words, Vocabulary: In Other Words;


Word Webs; Discourse Transparent Words
Markers
Structure: Reference Words
Structure: Possessive Personal Pronouns;
Adjectives and Pronouns; Simple Past Negative and
Simple Present Negative Interrogative Forms
Form; Imperative
Listening: A Classical Composer Reading &
Listening: A Class in Cape Town Writing & Speaking: Who Is He and Who Is She?
Speaking: Time for a Quiz Writing: Comments and Suggestions
Curriculum Links: Sociology; Biology Curriculum Links: Art; Philosophy

Check Your English 1 49 Check Your English 2 91

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UNIT 7 UNIT 10
Can You Live Without It? 95 How to Live a Better Life 141

Vocabulary: In Other Words; Vocabulary: In Other Words;


Words in Context; Discourse Discourse Markers
Markers; Noun Phrases Structure: Modal Verbs Used to Express
Structure: Uses of the -ing Form; Advice, Obligation, Necessity
Relative Pronoun What; Can: Ability, Possibility, Listening: Enjoy Your Life! Speaking: Healthy
Permission, Requests Habits Writing: Some Good Advice A Blog
Listening: Search on the Net Speaking: Searching Curriculum Links: Philosophy; Sociology
the Net Writing: Your Message on a Social
Network
Curriculum Links: Philosophy UNIT 11
Yes, We Have Bananas 153

UNIT 8 Vocabulary: In Other Words;


Robots R Us? 109 Synonyms and Antonyms;
Function Words; Noun Phrases;
Vocabulary: In Other Words; Looking for Reference
Finding Opposites; Discourse Structure: Adjectives Ending in -ed or -ing; Uses
Markers of the -ing Form; Modal Verbs Used to Express
Structure: That Quando o que Deduction Must, Cant
invisvel; Future Time Be + Going to, Will, Shall, Listening: Myth or Reality? Writing: Creating a
Present Progressive; Reflexive Pronouns & Poster Speaking: What Should I do?
Reciprocal Pronouns
Curriculum Links: Biology; Chemistry
Listening: Interviewing a Robot Speaking: Interviewing
a Friend Writing: Movie Release
Curriculum Links: Philosophy UNIT 12
Why Are We So Fat? 167

UNIT 9 Vocabulary: In Other Words; Words


A Colony in the Sky? 121 in Context; Discourse Markers;
Looking for Reference
Vocabulary: In Other Words; Structure: Modal Verbs: Review; Phrasal Verbs
Transparent Words; Words in
Listening: On the Phone Speaking: Healthy Habits
os respectivos crditos nas pginas ao longo do livro.
As imagens utilizadas neste sumrio aparecem com

Context; Noun Phrases; Looking


Writing: My Secret Diet
for Reference; Discourse Markers
Curriculum Links: Chemistry; Biology; Sociology
Structure: Do as an Emphatic Auxiliary; Modal
Verbs Used to Express Certainty or Possibility
Check Your English 4 179
Listening: Science Predictions for the Future
Speaking: Talking about the Future
Minigrammar 187
Reading & Writing: Looking for a Pen Pal Objetos
Vocabulary 225
Curriculum Links: Geography; Philosophy Index 235 Educacionais
Digitais
Bibliography 238
Check Your English 3 135 Contedo do CD de udio 240

Contents 5

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Basic Language Review
Para comearmos nosso curso de lngua inglesa, tomamos como base uma amostra
da obra de um cone cultural dos Estados Unidos. Norman Rockwell (1894-1978),
ilustrador, soube como talvez nenhum outro artista do seu pas retratar a vida, os
costumes, o American way of life, a cultura do povo norte-americano na sua poca.
De sua vasta obra escolhemos dois quadros: Day in the Life of a Little Girl,
composio com nada menos que 22 cenas do cotidiano de uma garotinha um
pequeno filme pintado, de graciosa inocncia, que foi capa da revista Post de 30 de
agosto de 1952 e Spring Flowers, criado bem mais tarde (1969), em que o artista
mostra um cantinho do jardim de sua casa (p. 8). interessante observar os detalhes
das cenas, as pistas que ele deixa para contar a histria, marca registrada de
Norman Rockwell.
Ao ler e responder s perguntas que fizemos sobre essas duas obras, todas muito
simples, voc vai fazer uma breve reviso de contedos de ingls trabalhados no
Ensino Fundamental, base para o estudo que temos pela frente.
Ready? Lets start!

Look at the picture and choose the best answer to complete each sentence.
Norman Rockwell/The Norman Rockwell Museum at Stockbridge

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1. Norman Rockwell American artist and 9. Johnny is a bad boy. He is ducking Mary
illustrator. (pushing her water).
a. is a a. over
b. was an b. under
c. has an c. behind
2. You look at one of Rockwells pictures and it
tells you a story. is called Day in the Life of a 10. Now Mary is ducking Johnny. She is pushing
Little Girl. under water. Tit for tat.

a. This one a. he
b. These b. his
c. Those ones c. him

3. The main characters in this picture a little


11. Good friends again. Johnny offers Mary a
girl and a little boy.
bite of hot dog.
a. is
a. her
b. was
b. its
c. are
c. his
4. Let's imagine are Mary and Johnny.
a. the childrens names 12. One bicycle for two kids. Johnny and Mary
a bike.
b. the childs names
c. the children names a. is riding
b. rides
5. In that picture the artist shows twenty-two
moments in Marys life. In the first scene . c. are riding

a. she sleeps
13. The two kids are to the movies. Johnny is
b. she is sleeping the tickets. Mary is popcorn.
c. she sleeping
a. eating; going; buying
6. The second scene shows the girl as she . b. going; buying; eating
a. is waking up c. buying; going; eating
b. is still asleep
c. is going to sleep 14. Mary and Johnny are watching a movie and
eating popcorn. Wow! That movie is really .
7. Mary is late for her swimming class. She a
a. boring
banana.
b. cold
a. eats
c. cool
b. eating
c. is eating
15. What a nice ! The kids are having a lot of
8. Splash! Mary is jumping into . fun.

a. the bicycle a. birthday party


b. the cake b. party birthday
c. the water c. party of birthday

Basic Language Review 7

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16. a full moon tonight. Its time for romance, 19. painting is a good example of .
and Johnny is trying to kiss Mary. a. These; Rockwell art
a. There are b. This; Rockwells art
b. There is c. Those; art of Rockwell
c. There was 20. The picture a corner of a house in the
artists backyard and us something about a
17. Mary is writing in diary. What great day!
woman, his wife.
a. her; a
a. show; tell
b. its; an
b. to show; to tell
c. their; the
c. shows; tells
18. Mary is sleeping again. about Johnny? 21. We cannot see in the picture.
a. She is dreaming a. someone
b. Is she dreaming b. anyone
c. Dreaming is she c. no one

Now look at another picture and complete 22. There is no one in the picture, but we can
the sentences. feel the presence of .
a. a man
Norman Rockwell/2010 The Norman Rockwell Family Entities

b. a woman
c. some children
23. That woman is a gardener and we the
impression that she herself could arrive at
any moment.
a. has
b. are
c. have
24. a chair in the picture. It is the door.
a. There is; near
b. There are; in front of
c. There is; behind
25. We can see a bird at the door the door is .
a. as; closed
b. why; locked
c. because; open

8 Basic Language Review

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What Is Global Warming?
02Global warming is happening now. Some people
say that it is not true, but scientists know more than
ever before that the Earths climate is changing.
Climate change is a fact, and we, human beings, are
the primary cause. Temperatures are increasing, sea
levels are rising, sea ice is melting. People, animals,
and plants are already feeling the heat.

Jan Martin Will/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Observe a foto, leia o ttulo e o texto acima. O que est acontecendo? O que est
mudando? Qual a causa? Quem est sendo mais afetado por esse fenmeno? O que
mais voc sabe sobre esse assunto? Que tipo de informao espera encontrar no texto a
seguir? Formule hipteses e verifique-as com a leitura.

What is Global Warming? UNIT 1 9

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READING

Before You Read


Read the list of words and phrases below. Some of them are from What
Is Global Warming?, others are not. Choose 4 of those words and phrases
you think are from the text.

mathematics theater office heat


computer climate change sports show business
carbon dioxide fashion Earth

Time to Read

Now read the text quickly (dont stop at words you dont know) to
understand the main idea and check your predictions.

Banco de imagens/Arquivo da editora


The evidence is clear. Carbon dioxide
Oliver Berg/dpa/Corbis

and other gases warm the surface of the


planet naturally by trapping solar heat
in the atmosphere. This is a good thing
because it keeps our planet habitable.
However, by burning fossil fuels such
as coal, gas and oil and clearing forests
we are greatly increasing the amount of
carbon dioxide in the Earths atmosphere
and temperatures are rising.
We are already seeing changes. Global warming is making hot days hotter, rainfall and
flooding heavier. Glaciers are melting, plants and animals are being forced from their
habitats, and the number of severe storms and droughts is increasing.
Global warming, however, is a problem we can solve. The good news is that we know
what is causing global warming and therefore we know what we have to do to solve it. In
fact, we have a moral obligation to solve the problem. We have to reduce our emissions
of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Investing in a clean energy future is essential. Small
changes to your daily routine can also result in big differences in helping to stop global
warming. The time to come together to solve this problem is now.

(Abridged from: WHAT Is Global Warming? Climate Crisis. Available at: <www.climatecrisis.net/the_
evidence.php>, and WHAT Is Global Warming? National Wildlife Federation. Available at: <www.
nwf.org/Wildlife/Threats_to_Wildlife/Global-Warming.aspx>. Access: Mar. 1, 2013.)

10 UNIT 1 What is Global Warming?

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General Comprehension

Whats the Main Idea in the Text?

To solve the problem of global warming it is necessary to

a. increase the amount of CO2 in the Earths atmosphere.


b. burn fossil fuels like coal and gas.
c. reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
d. know more about climate change.

Word Study

Transparent Words

In What Is Global Warming?, as in many other texts related to science, there are many cognates,
transparent words. They are words in a language (English, in this case) that have the same origin and
are similar in form and in meaning to other words in a different language (Portuguese, in this case).

Read the text to find at least 30 transparent words and phrases.

At a Glance

Look at the pictures and the words in the box. Write the number that
corresponds to each word.

1. oil 2. glacier 3. drought 4. flooding 5. coal 6. greenhouse


SeDmi/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Four Oaks/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Paul Rapson/Science Photo Library/Latinstock


Skynavin/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Mogens Trolle/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Przemyslaw Skibinski/Shutterstock/Glow Images

What is Global Warming? UNIT 1 11

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In Other Words
Match the two columns to find the definitions of some important words
and phrases from the text.
a. climate change ( ) becoming liquid
b. human beings ( ) the quality of being hot, the opposite of cold
c. increasing ( ) people
d. melting ( ) making something become larger in amount
e. heat ( ) making it impossible for something to leave
f. trapping ( ) extreme, very strict
g. fossil fuels ( ) removing
h. severe ( ) going up, getting higher
i. reduce ( ) substances that produce heat when they are burned
j. clearing ( ) global warming
k. rising ( ) make something smaller

Discourse Markers
Discourse markers are words or phrases that help to organize ideas and to
make them clear.

1. Complete the table with the ideas expressed by the discourse markers
from What is Global Warming? Choose from the box.

time contrast origin emphasis exemplification cause consequence addition

Discourse Marker Portuguese Idea

Introduction but mas

and e

Paragraph 1 because porque

such as tais como

already j
Paragraph 2
from de

therefore portanto
Paragraph 3
in fact de fato

12 UNIT 1 What is Global Warming?

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2. Now complete the sentences with the discourse markers from exercise 1.

a. The pollution that is causing global warming comes human


activities.

b. Human activities the burning of coal and gas produce air pollution.

c. We burn gasoline in our cars, carbon dioxide is produced.

d. Global warming is happening now. People, plants and animals are


feeling the heat.

e. Global warming, climate change, climate crisis are different


names, they mean the same thing: trouble.

f. that is not a problem for the future. The time to solve it is now.

Word Formation: Suffixes


Observe the words in bold in these sentences from the text:
Carbon dioxide and other gases warm the surface of the planet naturally
we are greatly increasing the amount of carbon dioxide
it keeps our planet habitable
The suffixes ly and able are commonly used to form adverbs and adjectives.
Complete the boxes with the missing words.

Adjective + ly Adverb of manner

natural naturally

great

es
ag
Im
low
normal k /G
oc
rst
tte
hu
4 /S
a8

exact
k
Je

Verb + able Adjective

habit habitable Use compact fluorescent


bulbs. Save 300 lbs.* of
drink carbon dioxide and
$60 per year.
* lbs = pounds. A pound is
reason a unit for measuring weight,
equal to 0.454 kilograms.

avail

sustain

What is Global Warming? UNIT 1 13

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Detailed Comprehension
Finding Specific Information
Scan the text and match the beginnings with the endings of the sentences,
according to What Is Global Warming?

a. Climate change is a fact ( ) we know what is causing global warming.


b. We have to reduce ( ) are melting.
c. The number of severe ( ) are rising.
storms and droughts ( ) and we, human beings, are the primary
d. We have a moral obligation cause.
e. Glaciers ( ) is increasing.
f. Temperatures ( ) our emissions of CO2.
g. The good news is that ( ) to solve the problem.

True or False?
Mark each statement T (for true) or F (for false), according to the text.
Correct the statements when they are false.
a. Human activities are causing climate change.
b. Burning coal, gas and oil increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the
planets atmosphere.
c. There is no evidence that the Earths climate is changing.
d. People, plants, and animals are causing the heat.
e. The number of severe storms and droughts is melting.
f. We have a moral obligation to force the emissions of CO2.
g. One of the ways of stopping global warming is investing in clean energy.
h. We are all contributors to global warming and we all need to be part of the
solution.

LISTENING

03 A Hot Topic
1. Alguns jovens amigos esto conversando sobre um problema
importante e do interesse de todos. Oua uma vez para entender o
contexto e assinale a resposta correta.

a. Quantos amigos esto conversando?


2 4 3 5

14 UNIT 1 What is Global Warming?

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b. Qual o assunto da conversa?
Aquecimento global Superpopulao
Poluio Desmatamento

2. Oua novamente a gravao e responda s seguintes perguntas.

a. O assunto apresentado como um problema apenas futuro?


b. Quem considerado o grande culpado por esse problema?
c. Qual a causa do problema?

3. Complete as seguintes frases com uma palavra ou locuo em portugus


que transmita a ideia do que foi dito em ingls.

a. A a principal causa do problema.

b. Devemos reduzir a emisso na atmosfera para


resolver o problema.

STRUCTURE

Noun Phrases
Em ingls, ao contrrio do que ocorre em portugus, o adjetivo geralmente
vem antes do substantivo que ele qualifica:
global warming aquecimento global Plant a tree.
primary cause causa principal Trees absorb
carbon dioxide
E no varia no plural: and make clean
air for us to
human beings seres humanos breathe. Save
hot days dias quentes 2,000 lbs. of
carbon dioxide
Scan the text and complete the phrases with the appropriate adjective, per year.
according to What Is Global Warming?

a. heat calor do sol


b. news notcia boa
c. storms tempestades srias
d. obligation obrigao moral
e. energy energia limpa
f. changes pequenas mudanas
g. routine rotina diria
h. differences grandes diferenas Arkady/Shutterstock/Glow Images

What is Global Warming? UNIT 1 15

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Alm da locuo adjetivo + substantivo, muito comum o uso de locues
formadas por dois (ou mais) substantivos, em que o primeiro funciona como um
adjetivo, qualificando o segundo. Nesses grupos nominais muito importante
identificar o ncleo, ou seja, o substantivo mais impotante, que aparece por ltimo.

word study estudo das palavras


climate change mudana climtica
sea levels nveis do mar

Complete the phrases with the missing nouns. Choose from the box.

dioxide gases ice fuels

a. sea gelo do mar

b. carbon dixido de carbono

c. fossil combustveis fsseis

d. greenhouse gases do efeito estufa

As locues formadas por dois substantivos e uma preposio tambm so


muito comuns. Essa uma estrutura de fcil compreenso para ns, j que os
substantivos aparecem na mesma ordem das expresses correspondentes em
portugus e estas so usadas tambm com preposio.
the temperature of the air a temperatura do ar

Scan the text to find the nouns that complete the following phrases:
To learn more
about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 22. a. the of carbon dioxide a quantidade de dixido de carbono

b. our of CO2 nossas emisses de CO2

c. the of the planet a superfcie do planeta

Present Progressive (ou Continuous)


Observe a forma verbal em destaque nestas frases:

Global warming is happening now.

Temperatures are increasing, sea levels are rising, sea ice is melting.

Para descrever aes ou situaes em desenvolvimento no momento em que


se fala ou em um presente mais amplo usamos o Present Progressive em ingls.
Esse tempo verbal formado com o presente de to be (am / are / is) + o gerndio
(forma terminada em -ing) do verbo principal.

16 UNIT 1 What is Global Warming?

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Complete with the Present Progressive of the verb to speak.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I speaking. I not speaking. I speaking?

You speaking. You not speaking. Are speaking?

He / She / It not
He / She / It speaking. Is he / she / it ?
.
We are . We . we speaking?

You speaking. You are . Are you ?

They are . They . they ?

Notas ortogrficas
 Nosverbos terminados em -e, substitui-se essa letra por -ing:
have having write writing live living change changing
Mas isso no acontece com be e os verbos terminados em -ie:
be being die dying lie lying tie tying

 Nos verbos de uma slaba (ou duas, desde que a ltima seja a slaba tnica, terminados em uma sequncia
consoante-vogal-consoante), dobra-se a consoante final antes de se acrescentar -ing:
put putting stop stopping swim swimming
begin beginning prefer preferring occur occurring
Mas, quando a slaba tnica do verbo a primeira, isso no ocorre:
open opening happen happening answer answering

E nos monossilbicos no terminados na sequncia consoante-vogal-consoante tambm no se dobra a


consoante final:
rain raining break breaking dream dreaming

Complete the sentences with the Present Progressive of the verbs in the box.

to feel to make to clear to burn to change to rise to cause to melt to be to increase

a. The Earths climate .


b. People, animals, and plants the heat.
c. Human beings fossil fuels and forests.
d. We the amount of carbon dioxide in the Earths atmosphere.
e. Global warming hot days hotter.
f. Sea levels and glaciers .
g. Plants and animals forced from their habitats.
h. We know what global warming.

What is Global Warming? UNIT 1 17

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Uses of the Present Progressive
O Present Progressive usado basicamente para expressar uma ao que est
acontecendo no momento em que se fala:
Its 9 oclock now. I am writing to you from New York.
Tambm usado para expressar uma ao que est ocorrendo na atualidade,
mas no necessariamente no momento em que se fala:
I am taking a course in The Effects of Climate Change.
Alm de indicar aes no presente, o Present Progressive tambm pode ser
To learn more
about this topic, go to
usado para indicar aes futuras, expressando uma inteno, um plano, ou um
MINIGRAMMAR 25/26. compromisso de pratic-las:
I am going to a lecture on Evolution on Monday morning.
Professor Dawkins is coming from Oxford to give that lecture.

Uses of the -ing Form


Como vimos, a forma terminada em -ing de um verbo principal usada na
composio do Present Progressive. Veja um exemplo com o verbo to warm:
The world is warming.
Essa mesma forma em -ing pode ser usada com outras funes e outros
significados. Assim, na locuo global warming, a palavra sublinhada significa
aquecimento e , portanto, um substantivo. Alm de a terminao em -ing
ser uma forma verbal componente do Present Progressive e de seu uso como
substantivo, tambm possvel encontr-la:

Pa u
l como adjetivo:
lM
il e s
/A x
iom
Ph
ot
The warming climate is an urgent problem.
og
ra
ph
ic
Ag
en
cy
l como forma nominal, sujeito ou objeto da orao, mas
/G
et
ty

correspondendo ao infinitivo em portugus:


Im
ag
es

Warming the temperature of the Earth has dangerous effects.


We must stop warming the environment.

l aps uma preposio (for, in, before, after etc.),


correspondendo ao infinitivo em portugus :
That container is used for warming water.

A capacidade de identificar a funo e o


significado das formas em -ing muito importante
para a compreenso dos textos e ser desenvolvida
em outras units.

18 UNIT 1 What is Global Warming?

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In each sentence check the alternative which the word in bold corresponds to.
a. The burning of coal, gasoline and gas adds to air pollution.
queima queimando
b. Reading is one of the four linguistic skills.
ler lendo
c. The boys are running in the park.
correndo corrida
d. Running shoes are generally more expensive than common shoes.
correndo de corrida
e. They are burning another area of the forest. They are destroying it by fire.
queima queimando
f. Jane is reading another book about global warming.
lendo; aquecimento leitura; aquecendo
g. You should always warm up before and after running.
correr correndo
h. I like reading, but I have to wear glasses for reading.
To learn more
ler; ler lendo; lendo
about this topic, go to
i. Swimming is a very healthful activity. I like swimming in the ocean. MINIGRAMMAR 40.
nadar; nadar nadar; nadando
j. Cesar goes to a swimming club every morning. He wears a special suit for swimming.
de natao; nadar natao; nadando

SPEAKING

Whats Happening?
1. Observe a ilustrao e descreva o

Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora


que est acontecendo. Revezando-
-se com um colega, faa as perguntas
e d as respostas, de acordo com o
exemplo abaixo.

Ms. Parker is a Science teacher.


What is Ms. Parker / she doing?
She is giving a class.

a. Ms. Parker / talk about global


warming
b. Ms. Parker / show some slides
c. Kay / take notes
d. Nick / look at the screen
e. Kay and Nick / take a Science class
f. They / discuss about climate change

What is Global Warming? UNIT 1 19

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2. Ainda com um colega observe a sala de aula e descreva algumas aes
que esto ocorrendo no momento. As aes da atividade anterior e os
verbos e as locues do quadro abaixo podem ajud-lo.

write ask listen read on the board on the notebook a question to the teacher

WRITING

Filling a Form
1. Quando queremos nos inscrever em um clube ou uma associao,
precisamos preencher um formulrio. Que caracterstica possui um
formulrio? Quais dados, em geral, so pedidos?
2. Existem diversas organizaes nacionais e internacionais preocupadas
em promover aes para a conservao do planeta. Preencha o formulrio
abaixo e faa parte da instituio (fictcia) Our Planet.

Banco de Imagens/Arquivo da editora


OUR PLANET
Sign up for e-mail from OUR PLANET.
Fill out the form below to receive the latest
in conservation news and urgent updates via e-mail.

REQUIRED INFORMATION
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail:
Home Address:
City:
State:
ZIP/Postal Code:
Country:
Cell/Mobile Phone:

Sign up for Our Planets newsletter and start saving life on Earth!

3. Troque seu formulrio com um colega, veja se ele ou ela preencheu


devidamente os campos, e pense em outra pergunta ou solicitao de
informao que um formulrio como esse poderia conter.

20 UNIT 1 What is Global Warming?

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Another Look at...

Reproduo/WWF
Climate Change
Observe o pster ao lado, atente para
a linguagem verbal e tambm para a
no verbal e escolha as alternativas
mais adequadas a cada questo.

a. O pster reproduzido ao lado


faz parte da campanha de uma
organizao ambientalista visando
despertar a conscincia das pessoas
para os perigos resultantes da(s)
pesca indiscriminada.
poluio do ar.
mudanas climticas.
degradao dos oceanos.
evoluo marinha.
b. A mensagem expressa em linguagem
no verbal a de que
as pessoas evoluram dos peixes.
as mudanas climticas podem
causar significativas mudanas aos seres humanos.
as mudanas climticas no podem ser comprovadas cientificamente.
os peixes e as pessoas tm muito em comum.
preciso mudar o clima para, ento, mudarmos o ser humano.
c. Das alternativas abaixo, assinale a nica INCORRETA quanto frase do pster:
stop um verbo usado no modo imperativo, para expressar uma ordem, um chamado,
um convite.
change usado duas vezes, com o mesmo sentido, primeiro como substantivo e
depois como verbo.
it refere-se a climate change.
climate, originalmente um substantivo, faz parte de uma noun phrase e est
funcionando como um adjetivo nessa expresso.
before uma conjuno, o oposto de ahead.
d. O slogan da WWF, for a living planet, significa:
para viver no planeta.
por um planeta vivo.
para viver um planeta.
por um vivo no planeta.
para um vivendo planeta.

What is Global Warming? UNIT 1 21

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derretimento acelerado do gelo nos dois polos do

THINK
Oplaneta ameaa, entre muitas outras espcies,
os ursos no rtico e os pinguins na Antrtida.
Na origem desse derretimento est, sem dvida,
climate change, global warming. Outros efeitos do
ABOUT IT mesmo problema, como inundaes, secas, furaces,
tsunamis etc. so tambm frequentes. Problema
agudo dos ltimos anos, continua sem perspectiva de
soluo, e ameaa tornar-se crnico, j que os lderes
polticos dos pases que mais contribuem para a poluio
do planeta no conseguem chegar a um acordo que venha limitar as
emisses de gases poluentes na atmosfera. Havia uma grande expectativa
em torno do que poderia ter sido resolvido na Rio + 20 The Future We Want,
a conferncia das Naes Unidas
sobre Desenvolvimento Sustentvel,

Galyna Andrushko/Shutterstock/Glow Images


realizada no Rio de Janeiro em
junho de 2012. Infelizmente os
resultados prticos desse evento
ficaram aqum das expectativas.
Por que ser que, mesmo havendo
consenso quanto gravidade do
assunto, as naes do mundo
no conseguem se unir, de forma
realista e efetiva, para cuidar do
planeta?
O que cada um de ns pode
fazer nesse sentido? Esse um hot
problem, precisamos encontrar cool
solutions para ele.

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores, principalmente


os de Biologia e de Geografia.

Exploring Other Resources


Exploring Other Sources

GORE, Al. Our Choice: How We Can Solve the Climate Crisis. New York: Puffin Books, 2009.
LOVELOCK, James. A vingana de Gaia. Rio de Janeiro: Intrnseca, 2006.

UMA VERDADE inconveniente. Direo: Davis Guggenheim. Produo: Scott Burns; Lawrence Bender;
Jeff Skoll. Apresentao: Al Gore, 2006.

CLIMATE Crisis. Available at: <www.takepart.com/an-inconvenient-truth>. Access: Mar. 1, 2013.


AQUECIMENTO Global. Available at: <www.aquecimentoglobal.com.br>. Access: Mar. 1, 2013.

22 UNIT 1 What is Global Warming?

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The Changing of the Guard
Winter arrives in Antarctica in March, when nearly
04

all creatures leave except for the emperor penguin, the only
animal that spends the winter on Antarcticas open ice. They
spend their entire lives on Antarctic ice and its waters.

Frans Lanting/Corbis

Quando comea o inverno na Antrtida? Com a chegada do inverno quase todos os animais
abandonam o continente gelado. Qual o nico animal que fica? Quanto tempo ele passa na
superfcie gelada da Antrtida? O que mais voc sabe a respeito dessa espcie? Voc sabia que
o macho poderia, com justia, concorrer ao ttulo de pai-heri do reino animal? Por qu? E a que
mudana da guarda pode estar se referindo o ttulo do texto? Recorde o que voc j sabe sobre
os pinguins-imperadores, formule hipteses sobre o que vai ler a seguir e verifique-as com a leitura.

23

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
READING

Before You Read


These 6 words are from The Changing of the Guard, but their letters are
not in the correct order. Can you unscramble them?

a. owsn c. ormeper e. trwien

b. nugipne d. cie f. dclo

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

Banco de imagens/Arquivo da editora


Emperor penguins spend the long Antarctic winter
on the open ice and they breed during this harsh season
(unlike most birds, which breed in the springtime). After a
courtship of several weeks, females lay one single egg and
then leave it behind! Every year, female emperors go to the
open sea to get their food. They travel about 80 kilometers
across the frozen surface every winter. Where are the eggs,
then? At the feet, literally, of the male emperors.
The male emperor penguin incubates his egg, keeping
it warm on his feet covered by his stomach. He just stands
there, for about 65 days, through icy temperatures, cruel
winds, and blinding storms until the egg hatches. And
those dedicated fathers eat nothing that whole time.
Because of the cruel Antarctic cold, the male penguins
stay together, very near each other. The snow falls.
Super Stock/Keystone

The wind blows very, very hard. But the penguins just
stay there. And survive. Finally, after over two months,
the females return from the sea, bringing food they
regurgitate, to feed the now hatched chicks. The two birds
greet each other noisily. Then the male changes places
The male penguin incubates
with the female; writers call this the changing of the his egg, keeping it warm on his feet
guard. The mother takes over care of the chick and the covered by his stomach.
male finally starts the long trip to the open sea and food.

(Main source: CREATURE Features. Available at: <http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/


animals/creaturefeature/emperor-penguin>. Access: Mar. 14, 2013.)

24 UNIT 2 The Changing of the Guard

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
General Comprehension

Finding the Main Ideas


Skim the text to find the main ideas in each paragraph and match the boxes.

a. Title and opening text (page 23) ( ) The male penguin incubates the egg for over two months.
( ) The changing of the guard happens when the female
b. Paragraph one
penguin returns from the sea.
c. Paragraph two ( ) Emperor penguins never leave Antarctica.
d. Paragraph three ( ) Female penguins lay one egg and go to the sea to get their
food.

Word Study

In Other Words
Find the words or phrases in the text that have the same meaning as those in bold:

a. they have babies during this harsh season

b. this unpleasant period of the year

Paragraph 1 c. differently from the majority of birds

d. after a period before marriage

e. females produce (an egg)

Paragraph 2 f. until the baby comes out of the egg

g. stay together, close to one another

h. and stay alive


Paragraph 3
i. The two birds say hello to one another
with a lot of noise

j. The mother takes control of

Words in Context
Complete the sentences with the correct words, according to The Changing of the Guard.

a. Romeo loves Juliet. Juliet loves Romeo. Romeo and Juliet love .
together several each other whole entire
b. most birds, penguins are not able to fly.
Until During Across Unlike Every

The Changing of the Guard UNIT 2 25

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
c. Its a harsh winter and the water on the lake is .
frozen warm single blinding open
d. Its 11:58 p.m. Its midnight.
near icy noisily nearly after
e. When Mr. Smith is on vacation his brother care of the office.
takes over feeds leaves travels hatches

Detailed Comprehension

Finding the Right Sequence


1. Number the sentences from 1 (first event) to 10 (last event), putting the events in the
correct order.
a. ( ) Male and female change places. Its the changing of the guard.
b. ( ) Finally, after more than two months, the females return from the sea.
c. ( ) Emperor penguins breed during the long Antarctic winter.
d. ( ) Females go to the open sea to get their food.
e. ( ) The male penguins just stay there on the open ice for more than two months.
f. ( ) The two birds greet each other noisily.
g. ( ) After a courtship of several weeks, females lay one single egg and then leave it behind.
h. ( ) The female takes over care of the chick and the male goes to the sea to get his food.
i. ( ) The female regurgitates food and gives it to the chick.
j. ( ) The male emperor penguin incubates his egg by keeping it warm on his feet.

2. Now use the information in the previous exercise to help you complete the sentences.
They show the correct sequence of events in The Changing of the Guard.

a. Tim Davis/Corbis, b. Doug Cheeseman/Other Images, c. John Eastcott e Yva Momatiuk/


Mindem Pictures, d. Fritz Polking/Other Images, e. John Conrad/Corbis, f. Goebel/Corbis

f
b

e
d
c

26 UNIT 2 The Changing of the Guard

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
a. Emperor penguins during the long Antarctic winter.

b. After a courtship of several weeks, the female one single


egg. Then she it behind. She to the sea to
her food.

c. The male there on the open ice the egg.

d. After about 65 days, the chick . A baby penguin is born.


His father the baby warm on his feet until the female
from the sea.

e. Finally, the female from the sea and the two birds
each other noisily. The female food and
it to the chick.

f. The female care of the chick and after that the male
to the sea to his food.

LISTENING

05 After Class Talk


1. Susan e Michael, alunos de uma high school norte-americana
(equivalente escola de Ensino Mdio no Brasil), esto saindo de uma aula e
conversando sobre algo. Oua o narrador e escolha a resposta adequada:

a. Sobre o que eles esto conversando?


uma msica um vdeo um programa de TV
b. De que aula eles acabaram de sair?
Biologia Histria Ingls

2. Oua a conversa e identifique os interlocutores.

a. Acha os pinguins muito engraadinhos.

b. Acha que eles tambm so corajosos.

c. Lembra que os pinguins vivem na Antrtida e passam o inverno no gelo.

d. Lembra que os invernos na Antrtida so rigorosos.

e. Lembra que o aquecimento global no afeta apenas os pinguins.

The Changing of the Guard UNIT 2 27

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STRUCTURE

Simple Present Affirmative Form

O Simple Present usado basicamente para falar de aes no presente, mas


no necessariamente no momento da fala:

when nearly all creatures leave except for the emperor penguin
the only animal that spends the winter on Antarcticas open ice

Esse tempo verbal tambm usado para falar de verdades universais, fatos
cientficos e da natureza:

Winter arrives in Antarctica in March.

Um outro uso importante do Simple Present para descrever aes habituais,


repetidas, no presente:

Every year, female emperors go to the open sea to get their food.
They spend their entire lives on Antarctic ice and its waters.
They travel about 80 kilometers across the frozen surface every winter.

A forma bsica do Simple Present igual do infinitivo (sem to). Como


exemplo, veja os verbos to live (viver; morar) e to leave (sair; partir; deixar):

I live I leave
you live you leave
we live we leave
they live they leave

Na maioria dos verbos, a flexo da 3a pessoa feita com o acrscimo de -s:

he lives he leaves
Male and she lives she leaves
female change
it lives it leaves
places. It's the
"changing of the Observe as excees:
guard".
verbos terminados em -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x e -o: em vez de -s, acrescenta-se -es.

I kiss she kisses


I wash he washes
I watch she watches
I fix it fixes
I do she does
I go he goes

nos verbos terminados em consoante + y: troca-se o y por i e acrescenta-se -es:

I try he tries
I study she studies
I fly it flies
I carry he carries
I cry she cries
Neale Cousland/Shutterstock/Glow Images

28 UNIT 2 The Changing of the Guard

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
mas a regra geral aplicada nos verbos terminados em vogal + y, ou seja, acrescenta-se -s:
I say he says
I buy she buys
I pay he pays
I pray she prays
I stay it stays
Veja abaixo a conjugao no Simple Present dos verbos to live, to go e to play, na forma afirmativa:
I live I go I play
you live you go you play

he lives he goes he plays


she lives she goes she plays
it lives it goes it plays

we live we go we play
you live you go you play
they live they go they play

1. Complete the sentences with the Simple Present of the verbs in the box, according to
The Changing of the Guard.

to return to spend to get to arrive to leave to eat


to blow to stay to survive to lay to fall to go to travel

a. The male penguins together, very near each other.

b. Every year, female emperors to the open sea to their food.

c. Those dedicated fathers nothing during that whole time.

d. Females one single egg and then it behind!

e. Emperor penguins the long Antarctic winter on the open ice.

f. The snow . The wind very, very hard.

g. Winter in Antarctica in March.

h. The penguins about 80 kilometers across the frozen surface every winter.

i. The Antarctic winter is harsh, but the penguins . To learn more


about this topic, go to
j. Finally, after over two months, the females from the sea. MINIGRAMMAR 11.

2. Observe os verbos destacados nas frases a seguir:

Then the male changes places with the female; writers call this...
The mother takes over care of the chick and the male finally starts the long trip...

a. Por que foi acrescentado -s a esses verbos?

b. E o verbo to call? Por que no se acrescentou -s a ele?

The Changing of the Guard UNIT 2 29

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora
Adverbs of Frequency
Observe as palavras em destaque:
Winter always arrives in Antarctic in March.
Emperor penguins never leave Antarctica.
Most birds often breed during springtime.

As palavras destacadas nessas frases so advrbios


que expressam a frequncia, maior ou menor, com que
as aes so praticadas.

Observe o cartum ao lado e a citao e responda:

a. O que o homem do cartum sempre faz?


b. E o que ele nunca faz?
What is a diplomat? A diplomat is a man who
always remembers a womans birthday but
So estes os adverbs of frequency:
never remembers her age. (Robert Frost)

often, usually,
always frequently generally sometimes seldom, rarely hardly ever never

sempre frequentemente geralmente s vezes quase nunca raramente nunca

Agora, classifique os advrbios das frases no topo da pgina de acordo com o sentido: maior (+)
ou menor () frequncia.
A posio mais comum dos adverbs of frequency :
antes da forma simples dos verbos, principalmente o Simple Present:

I always read the newspaper in the morning.

depois de am, are, is, was ou were:

The kids are never at home in the morning.

Alm do seu uso mais frequente, acompanhando o Simple Present, o advrbio always pode aparecer
com o Present Progressive, para expressar uma crtica a respeito da frequncia com que a ao
acontece. Compare:

He always reads the newspaper in the morning. (um hbito normal)


He is always reading the newspaper. (Hasnt he got any work to do?)

1. Complete the following sentences using the adverbs and verbs from the box.

always never often rarely to arrive to drink to cook to feel to go to rain

a. I before driving. Its against the law.


b. Jane and Greg to the movies. They love the movies.
c. It in the Amazon Forest in the wet season. Thats why it is called a rain forest!
d. My sister . She hates cooking.

30 UNIT 2 The Changing of the Guard

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
e. That train late. It always arrives on time.
f. Jane and Greg happy when they see each other. They are in love.

2. Pergunte a um colega sobre a frequncia com que ele realiza as atividades listadas no quadro
abaixo. Siga o exemplo:
How often do you go to the mall? To learn more
about this topic, go to
I always go to the mall. MINIGRAMMAR 14.

go to the mall play video games go dancing listen to music do housework

WRITING

Photo Captions

1. Observe as fotos abaixo e numere as legendas de cada uma.


2012 was the year of extremes
1 3
Robert Harding/Latinstock

Cesar Diniz/Pulsar Imagens


in northern Brazil: floods in
the Amazon and drought in the
northeast.

Baby seals like this one in


Iceland are susceptible to the
effects of global warming.

2 4
Patricio Crooker/Corbis/Latinstock

1
Bolivia produces less than
1. Marcio Silva/A Crtica/Folhapress
2. Mauricio Simonetti/Pulsar Imagens

0.1% of the worlds CO2 but is


suffering low crop yields and
disrupted seasons as a result
of global warming.
2

A leading cause of global


warming is deforestation.

2. Observe as fotos e as legendas acima e aquelas da atividade de Speaking (pgina 32) e


assinale cada frase T (true) ou F (false).

a. ( ) As legendas de fotos, em geral, so c. ( ) As legendas so, na maioria das vezes,


textos explicativos. curtas e objetivas.
b. ( ) As legendas apenas descrevem a d. ( ) Um dos objetivos de uma legenda
imagem retratada, sem fornecer informar o leitor, complementando a
detalhes do contexto. informao mostrada na imagem.

The Changing of the Guard UNIT 2 31

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
3. Usando as palavras e locues do quadro, crie legendas para as imagens
abaixo. Pense nas caractersticas do texto das legendas, observando os
exemplos da pgina anterior e procure atrair o interesse do leitor.

in Brazil increase(s) severe drought Arctic foxes


Gerson Gerloff/Pulsar Imagens
the consequences climate change dramatically suffer(s)

Panoramic Images/Getty Images

SPEAKING

Words and Images


Leia o texto abaixo e as duas legendas das fotos. Revezando-se com um
colega, converse sobre os animais das fotos, usando o dilogo como modelo.

Oh, I love emperor penguins! Theyre so cute!


Yes, they are. And brave too.
Do they live in the Arctic?
No, of course not! They live in Antarctica.
Mmm, I see. But why are they losing their habitat?
Because they live on the open ice, and theres a lot less ice now.
Global warming, remember?
I see, thats a real problem. And it doesnt affect penguins only.
It affects all animals! That means even you and me!
Steven Kazlowski/Science Faction/
Corbis/ Latinstock

Arco Image GMBH/Alamy/Other Images

Polar bears are


strong animals that
live up there in the Seals are beautiful
Arctic. Because of animals that live up
global warming, it is there in the Arctic.
estimated that two Because of global
thirds of polar bears warming, seal babies
will disappear by are dying in record
2050. numbers.

32 UNIT 2 The Changing of the Guard

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Another Look at...
Emperor Penguins

GLOBAL WARMING THREATENS PENGUINS


Frans Lanting/Corbis/Latinstock

Sharing the Warmth


The Emperors huddle together to protect themselves from the extreme cold of
Antarctica. Scientists warn that global warming could put the magnificent birds
at the risk of extinction by the end of the next century.

(GLOBAL Warming Threatens Penguins. Available at: <www.time.com/time/


photogallery/0,29307,1938690_1988643,00.html>. Access: Mar. 14, 2013.)

1. O que os pinguins-imperadores fazem para se proteger do frio da


Antrtida?

2. O que poder acontecer a esses animais antes do fim do prximo


sculo?

The Changing of the Guard UNIT 2 33

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
om a chegada do inverno na Antrtida, l vo

THINK
C
eles, em marcha, os pinguins-imperadores. O
documentrio realizado pelo diretor francs
Luc Jacquet, chamado A marcha dos pinguins, mostra
como nas condies cruis do inverno antrtico eles
ABOUT IT abandonam a segurana da sua colnia no oceano,
marchando cerca de 80 quilmetros na longa viagem
em busca de um parceiro para acasalar e assim garantir a
sobrevivncia da espcie. Esses animais sofrem, como
vimos em What Is Global Warming?, as consequncias do aquecimento global,
da mudana climtica. Que outros animais ou outras espcies
esto ameaados? E o prprio ser
humano, ser que tem ideia das

Jerome Maison/National Geographic/Album Cinema/Latinstock


consequncias de suas aes?
O que preciso acontecer
para que o homem perceba
a natureza como a fonte
da vida? Veja ou reveja
o filme March of the
Penguins e pense como
ele pode conscientizar
as pessoas para a
relevncia do problema
que o global warming.

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores,


principalmente os de Geografia e de Biologia.

Exploring Other Sources

DENAPOLI, Dyan. 40.000 pinguins: a inspiradora histria do maior salvamento de animais


selvagens do mundo. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, 2011.
JACQUET, Luc. A marcha do imperador. Rio de Janeiro: Prestgio, 2005.
HAPPY Feet, o Pinguim. Direo: George Miller. Produo: Kennedy Miller; George Miller.
Distribuio: Warner, 2006.
A MARCHA dos pinguins. Direo: Luc Jacquet, 2005. Produo: Jean-Franois Camilleri.
Distribuio: Videofilmes, 2005.
EMPEROR Penguin. Animals NatGeo Wild. Available at: <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/
animals/birds/emperor-penguin.html>. Access: Feb. 28, 2013.
EMPEROR Penguins: Winter Survivors. Australian Government, Australian Antarctic Division.
Available at: <www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=3524>. Access: Feb. 28, 2013.

34 UNIT 2 The Changing of the Guard

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
The Tree Machine
06Trees are great and beautiful machines, powered by sunlight taking
in water from the ground and carbon dioxide from the air, converting
these materials into food for their use and ours.
Carl Sagan, in Cosmos.

Gerolf Kalt/Corbis

Observe a foto, o ttulo e o texto acima. Qual a personagem principal? Por que ela pode ser
comparada a uma mquina? Qual a origem da energia dessa mquina? Que nome damos
a um dos processos bsicos da natureza no qual os vegetais sintetizam a matria orgnica
a partir da luz solar com desprendimento de oxignio? O que mais voc sabe sobre esse
processo? Por que as florestas (como a Amaznica e a mata Atlntica) so s vezes chamadas
de o pulmo da Terra? Formule hipteses sobre o texto a seguir e verifique-as com a leitura.

35

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB8LQGG 30
READING

Before You Read


Read the list of words and phrases in the box below. They are related to a
biochemical process. Which one? Talk to a classmate about it.

plant life sunlight green carbon dioxide water energy

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

M
ost forms of life on When a tree dies, it gives nutrients to
Earth need oxygen. We the soil for other trees to use as fuel.
do not get oxygen from So, the tree does not die, actually. It
industrial machines. We get it from the recycles its substance for the benefit
5 tree machine. Trees make the oxygen 30 of all animal and plant life.
that we need to take in from the air. Please remember: the tree is your
Industrial machines cause air pollution. friend. Do not destroy it.
Trees do not pollute the air. On the
contrary, they clean it. The industrial
10 machine causes noise pollution. The
tree machine does not make
any noise. On the contrary, it
filters noise.
The tree machine
15 does not need
coal, oil, steam,
gas, or electricity
to work. Its fuel
comes from water,
20 sunlight, and carbon
dioxide. When a tree dies,
it helps new plants. The
combination of water, insects,
and microorganisms in the soil
25 causes the decomposition of the tree. Elena Elisseeva/
Shutterstock/Glow Images

(Adapted from: SCIENCE and Children, Washington, D.C., National Science Teachers Association, March 1985.)

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General Comprehension
Whats the Main Idea?
Choose the sentence that contains the most important idea (and not just the details) in the
text.

a. The tree helps new plants when it dies.

b. Trees help to fight pollution.

c. The tree works for the benefit of humanity, animals, and plants.

d. Trees make the oxygen that we need to take from the air.

Word Study
In Other Words
Find the words or phrases in the text that have the same meaning
as those in bold:

with energy supplied by


Introduction
absorbing water
the majority of forms of life
Paragraph 1
The opposite, they clean it
the tree does not die, really
Paragraph 2
for the good of

Word Webs
Complete the diagrams with the words from the box.

noise pollution carbon dioxide coal oil oxygen sunlight insects microorganisms
electricity fuel water soil air pollution ground nutrients steam

The Tree Industrial


Machine Machines

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Discourse Markers

Discourse markers are words or phrases that help to organize ideas and to
make them clear.

1. Observe the different meanings and complete the table with the ideas
expressed by the discourse markers from The Tree Machine. Choose from
the box.

consequence origin contrast purpose


manner, function alternative addition emphasis

Line Discourse Marker Portuguese Idea

3, 4, 6 and 19 from de

8 and 12 on the contrary ao contrrio

17 or ou

20, 24 and 30 and e

27 as como

28 so por isso

28 actually na verdade

27 and 29 for para, com o propsito de

2. Now complete the sentences with the discourse markers above.

a. Trees do not cause air pollution. they clean the air.

b. Coal, oil, steam, gas are different kinds of fuel.

c. The tree works the benefit of humanity. ,


it is our friend.

d. Most cars use gas fuel.

e. Trees need water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide they


die.

f. Trees take in water the ground and carbon dioxide


the air.

g. The tree recycles its substance. It does not die, .

38 UNIT 3 The Tree Machine

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Detailed Comprehension

Distinguishing Contrasts
Write T (for Trees) or IM (for Industrial Machines) in reference to each of
the following sentences, as adequate.
Chepko Danil Vitalevich/Shutterstock/Glow Images

a. ( ) They make a lot of noise.

b. ( ) They dont pollute the air.

c. ( ) They clean the air.

d. ( ) They make the oxygen that we need.

e. ( ) They cause noise and air pollution.

f. ( ) Their fuel comes from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide.

g. ( ) They dont give us the oxygen that we breathe.

h. ( ) They dont die, actually.

i. ( ) They are powered by sunlight.


A seed today,
j. ( ) They dont recycle their substance for our benefit. fruits tomorrow.

STRUCTURE

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns


Observe as palavras destacadas nestas frases:
So, the tree does not die, actually. It recycles its substance for the benefit of all
animal and plant life.

The tree is your friend.


As palavras em destaque so possessive adjectives. Os possessive adjectives
vm sempre antes de um substantivo, indicando a quem ele pertence.
I have a pet dog. My dog is my friend.
Ao contrrio do que acontece em portugus, os possessive adjectives no so
flexionados, tm uma nica forma para masculino e feminino, singular e plural.
Eles referem-se sempre ao possuidor e no ao que possudo (objeto, animal ou
pessoa).
I have a family. It is my family: my mother, my father, my brothers, my sisters.
Tambm ao contrrio do uso em portugus, os possessive adjectives no so
usados com o artigo definido:
My sister and her friends work in their office.

The Tree Machine UNIT 3 39

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Ask and answer these questions using possessive adjectives:
my, his, her etc.

a. Whats your name?

b. Whats your mothers name?

c. Whats your fathers name?

d. Whats your friends name?

e. Whats the name of our president?

f. Whats the name of North Americans president?

Agora observe a palavra em destaque neste trecho:

converting these materials into food for their use and ours.

A palavra em destaque um possessive pronoun. Os pronomes possessivos


vm no lugar de um substantivo, j mencionado ou implcito, e so usados para
evitar sua repetio. Observe:

for their use and our use. for their use and ours.

Da mesma forma que os possessive adjectives, e ao contrrio do que acontece


em portugus, os possessive pronouns no so flexionados: tm uma nica forma
para masculino e feminino, singular e plural, referindo-se sempre ao possuidor e
no ao que possudo.
Embora todos os possessive pronouns terminem em s, com exceo da 1a
pessoa do singular (mine), essa terminao no indica plural:

This is our family. It is ours.


Those are our kids. Those kids are ours.

Veja o quadro dos pronomes possessivos relacionados aos pronomes


pessoais:

Pronomes Pronomes
Pronomes
possessivos possessivos
pessoais
(adjetivos) (substantivos)
I my mine meu(s); minha(s)
you your yours seu(s); sua(s) de voc
he his his seu(s); sua(s) dele
she her hers seu(s); sua(s) dela
it its ---* seu(s); sua(s) dele; dela**
we our ours nosso(s); nossa(s)
you your yours vosso(s); vossa(s) de vocs
they their theirs seu(s); sua(s) deles; delas***
* Forma no usada. ** Objeto ou animal. *** Pessoas, objetos ou animais.

40 UNIT 3 The Tree Machine

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Choose the correct possessive adjectives or possessive pronouns in
parentheses to complete each sentence.

a. The ice on which the Antarctic penguins raise chicks is melting.


(their theirs our ours)
b. For the penguins it is a disaster, she says. Dr. Lara Hansen is a scientist
and words are a serious warning about the consequences of
climate change. (her hers his your)
c. Emperor penguins spend entire lives on Antarctic ice and To learn more
waters. (his her their theirs) (his her its my) about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 6.
d. The male emperor penguin incubates egg, keeping it warm on
feet. (his her our hers) (his her their theirs)
e. Carl Sagan was an American astronomer, professor, scientist and writer.
words about man and planet are a beautiful
message to all of us. (His Her Our Its) (its our ours their)
f. The tree machine does not need coal, oil, steam, gas, or electricity to work.
fuel comes from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide.
(Their His Hers Its)
g. We live on a small planet. Earth is small planet.
(its our his ours)
h. They have their problems. We have . (theirs its our ours)
i. Adele has a beautiful voice, but I prefer your voice to .
(its his her hers)
j. Cosmos is one of favorite books. Is it one of too?
(yours mine its my) (their its your yours)

Simple Present Negative Form


Leia algumas frases do texto e observe as formas verbais em destaque.

1. We do not get oxygen from industrial machines.


2. We get it from the tree machine.
3. Industrial machines cause air pollution.
4. Trees do not pollute the air.
5. On the contrary, they clean it.
6. The industrial machine causes noise pollution.
7. The tree machine does not make any noise.
8. On the contrary, it filters noise.
9. The tree machine does not need coal, oil, steam, gas, or electricity to work.
10. So, the tree does not die, actually.
Pelo contexto, e por descreverem verdades universais, conclui-se que os
verbos em destaque referem-se a aes que acontecem (ou no) no presente,
expressas pelo Simple Present.

Identifique, entre as frases acima, aquelas que descrevem aes negativas


no tempo presente.

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Conclumos ento que para expressar aes negativas no Simple Present
em ingls usamos do not (ou dont na forma curta, prpria da oralidade, da
linguagem informal) + a forma bsica do verbo. Para a 3a pessoa do singular (he,
she, it), usamos does not (ou doesnt na forma curta) + a forma bsica do verbo.

Volte s frases negativas da pgina anterior. Separe-as em dois grupos:


um para os sujeitos da 1a ou 2a pessoa e outro grupo para os sujeitos da 3a
pessoa do singular.

Observe a conjugao do verbo to work no Simple Present, nas formas


afirmativa e negativa:

I I
work in Brazil. do not work (don't) work in England.
You You

He He

She works in Brazil. She does not (doesn't) work in England.

It It

We We

You work in Brazil. You do not (don't) work in England.

They They

importante observar que, na negativa, a forma bsica do verbo no


flexionada na 3a pessoa do singular. A flexo ocorre apenas no verbo do (verbo
auxiliar, sem traduo), que muda de do not para does not.

1. Choose from the verb forms in parentheses to complete the following


sentences.

a. Trees great and beautiful machines.


(is / are / does)

b. Trees water and carbon dioxide into food for their use and ours.
(convert / converts / does convert)

c. On the contrary, it noise.


(does not filter / filter / filters)

d. Most forms of life on Earth oxygen.


(needs/does not need/need)

e. The tree machine any noise.


(does not make / do not make / makes)

42 UNIT 3 The Tree Machine

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2. Choose from the verb forms in the box to complete the following
sentences:

dies helps does not help does not filter does not make
does not die do not get do not pollute cause

a. When a tree dies, it new plants. So, the tree


, really.

b. We oxygen from industrial machines.

c. Trees the air.

d. Industrial machines noise and air pollution.

3. Now choose the verbs from this box and modify them accordingly to
complete the following sentences:

to cause to recycle to need to get to work

a. The tree for the benefit of humanity, animals, and plants.

b. We oxygen from the tree machine.

c. Trees air pollution.

d. The tree machine coal, oil, steam, gas, or electricity to


work.
They give us
e. The tree its substance for our benefit. flowers and
food, they give
4. Make new sentences, using the negative form of each verb + the words us shade and
wood...
in parentheses.

a. Humans breathe oxygen. (carbon dioxide)

b. Cars pollute the air. (sea)

c. A plant needs sunlight. (coal)

d. Steam comes from water. (oil)

e. A tree works for our benefit. (the benefit of oil)

f. I drink water. (fuel)

g. You need food. (pollution)

h. I like music. (noise)

i. A machine needs fuel. (rain)


Arkady/Shutterstock/
Glow Images

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Imperative
Observe o sentido destas frases, especialmente o modo verbal em destaque:
Please remember: the tree is our friend. Do not destroy it.
Pelo contexto conclui-se que o modo verbal em destaque nas duas frases o
imperative. O imperativo usado para expressar um comando, ordem ou pedido.
Em ingls a formao do imperativo muito simples: a mesma do infinitivo, sem
to. No negativo usa-se do not (ou dont, na forma curta), antes do verbo.
Veja mais alguns exemplos de frases no modo imperativo:

Imperativo afirmativo Imperativo negativo

Open your books. Don't close your books.

Please open your books. Please don't close your books.

Uma outra forma (mais gentil) de apresentar sugestes sobre aes que
incluem a pessoa que fala usar lets + o infinitivo do verbo, sem to.
Lets open/close our books.
Complete the sentences with the imperative forms in the box, as
adequate.

Plant Let's eat Protect Let's get out Let's listen Do not destroy
don't park Use Don't eat Save Let's go Don't waste

a. The tree is your friend. it.

b. Be a friend of the Earth. the planet.

c. Water is precious. it.

d. This is not a parking area. Please here.

e. Its a beautiful day. to the beach!

f. Fruit and vegetables are good for our health. lots of them!

g. Junk food is not good for you. that!

h. Emperor penguins are in danger. them!

i. Its hot in here. and have a glass of water.

j. She is playing a Mozart piano sonata. to it.

k. compact fluorescent bulbs. They are much more economical.


To learn more
about this topic, go to
l. a tree. Trees make clean air for us to breathe.
MINIGRAMMAR 15.

44 UNIT 3 The Tree Machine

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LISTENING

A Class in Cape Town


1. O que voc sabe sobre Cape Town? Responda ao quiz com um colega e descubra.

1. Cape Town is the legislative capital of ___.


Angola South Africa Australia

2. There are _____ official languages in South Africa. One of them is


English.
11 15 5

3. More than _____ tourists visit Cape Town each year.

80,000 2 million 700,000

4. The climate in Cape Town is _____.


tropical sub-tropical Mediterranean temperate

1. South Africa / 2. 11 / 3. 700,000 / 4. sub-tropical Mediterranean

07 2. Aysha Pokolo professora de Biologia em uma escola secundria de Cape Town. Hoje
Aysha aplicou a seus alunos um quiz, um teste rpido. Oua um trecho desse teste e escreva se
as frases so T (True) ou F (False).

( ) Number 1

Michaeljung/Shutterstock/Glow Images
( ) Number 2

( ) Number 3

( ) Number 4

( ) Number 5

( ) Number 6

( ) Number 7

( ) Number 8

( ) Number 9

( ) Number 10

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WRITING & SPEAKING

Time for a Quiz


1. Individualmente leia o texto e complete-o com uma ou mais palavras
entre parnteses.

My favorite place is (big quiet green).


There are a lot of (tress plants flowers birds)
in my favorite place. I like to (sit walk lie down run)
on (a bench the grass the sand). It's good to be
under one of those enormous (mango fruit palm)
tress and (read sleep chat with a friend).
I like to go there on a (beautiful sunny
warm rainy cold) Sunday morning. There are no cars, no
(machines streets tall buildings) there.

2. Use algumas das informaes acima e prepare um quiz para seu colega,
inserindo as mesmas opes de respostas ou outras e fazendo os ajustes
necessrios. Veja como foi preparado o quiz sobre Cape Town, quais os
elementos e como as perguntas so formuladas. As respostas podem ter
vrias opes ou apenas duas, com yes ou no, ou true ou false, como no
caso do quiz aplicado pela professora Aysha.
Exemplos:

Your favorite place is


big. quiet. green. sunny.

Is your favorite place green?


Yes or No

Your favorite place is green.


True or False

3. Depois de preparar o quiz, faa as perguntas a um colega e responda


s dele oralmente. No final, descreva o lugar favorito de seu colega para
outro colega e tentem adivinhar que lugar esse: a park, a valley, a forest,
a beach etc.

46 UNIT 3 The Tree Machine

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Another Look at...
Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a crucial process that


Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da Editora

can be considered the ultimate source


of life for nearly all plants and animals. It
provides the source of energy that drives
all their metabolic processes. Observe the
picture and read the text below. They give
us a basic idea of how that process works.
Plants make their own food from
sunlight, water, and soil. They get water
from minerals from the ground through
their roots. They also absorb carbon
dioxide from the air through tiny holes in
their leaves. The green pigment in plant
leaves is called chlorophyll. It combines
solar energy with water and carbon
dioxide to produce glucose. This process
is called photosynthesis. During the process the plant releases oxygen into the
atmosphere. It uses some of the glucose to grow larger. When humans and other
animals eat plants, they also make use of his stored energy.
(COLLINS Cobuild Advanced Dictionary of American English.
Glasgow: Harper Collins, 2007. p. 981.)
Responda em ingls.

1. As plantas obtm substncias 5. Qual o nome do pigmento verde


nutritivas por meio de um processo existente nas folhas das plantas?
em que usam a luz solar. Que processo
esse?
6. A clorofila combina luz solar, gua
e dixido de carbono, formando
2. Qual a parte das plantas que absorve a principal fonte de energia para
a gua e os sais minerais do solo? os organismos vivos. Qual essa
substncia?

3. Durante a fotossntese a planta libera


um gs. Qual? 7. Para que a planta consome parte da
glicose que produz?

4. Alm da luz solar, quais so os


elementos essenciais para as plantas 8. O que os seres humanos e os animais
nesse processo? absorvem quando comem plantas?

The Tree Machine UNIT 3 47

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s rvores so essenciais nossa vida. Sem

THINK
A elas a vida animal (e que somos ns, afinal?)
seria insustentvel. Elas nos do tudo: o ar que
respiramos, a sombra que nos abriga, os frutos e as
frutas de que nos alimentamos, os remdios para muitos
ABOUT IT dos nossos males, a madeira da nossa casa, a fertilidade
do solo, o controle da eroso, e tantos outros produtos
e servios. As rvores esto presentes no ciclo inteiro da
nossa vida, so o bero que embala nossos primeiros dias, o
caixo que nos acompanha no fim.

Schab/Shutterstock/Glow Images
They give us flowers and food,
And then we cut them down.
They give us shade and wood,
And then we cut them down.
They give us the book youre reading,
And then we cut them down.
They give us the gas were breathing,
And still we cut them down.

Qual contradio est contida no poema acima?


Como voc v esse assunto? O que voc acha que deve ser feito
sobre o desmatamento? O que VOC se dispe a fazer?

Converse com seus colegas e professores, principalmente os de


Sociologia e de Biologia.

Exploring Other Sources

HELENE, Maria Elisa M. Florestas: desmatamento e destruio. So Paulo: Scipione, 2007.


(Coleo Ponte de Apoio).
AKINYEMI, Rowena. Rainforests. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. (Coleo Oxford
Bookworms Factfiles Stage 2.)
AVATAR. Direo: James Cameron. Produo: Jon Landau. Distribuio: Fox, 2009.
EXPLORANDO a Amaznia. Direo: James Smith, Rob Sullivan e Matt Brandon. Apresentao:
Bruce Parry, 2008. 3 DVDs.
THE VALUE of Trees to a Community. Available at: <www.arborday.org/trees/benefits.cfm>.
Access: March. 1, 2013.
THE BILLION Tree Campaign. Available at: <www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign/
Treeandhumanity/index.asp>. Access: Jan. 18, 2013.

48 UNIT 3 The Tree Machine

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Check Your English 1
1. Mark the correct answers to these questions. b. ice / penguins / on / Antarctic / spend / lives /
emperor / their / waters / its / and / entire
a. This problem is in the newspapers almost every
day. What are human beings putting into the
atmosphere?
Factories
c. causing / air / global / warming / pollution / is
Pollution
Climate
d. pollute / air / not / trees / do / the
b. What is air pollution causing?
Human activity
e. climate / beings / the / human / are / causing / crisis
Precious resources
Global warming
0.1 point each /0.5
c. When we refer to emperor penguins, what is the
changing of the guard? When male and female 3. Replace the words in bold with possessive
change their chicks. pronouns.

change places. mine yours his hers ours theirs


change their food.
a. They have their problems. We have our
d. Why is global warming affecting animals like problems.
the polar bears in the Arctic and the emperor
penguins in Antarctica? b. This is my planet and it is your planet, too.

Because it is destroying their homes, their


habitats. c. We burn gas in our stoves. They burn gas in
their stoves.
Because it is spoiling precious resources.
d. The tree is your friend. It is her friend, too.
Because of the extreme weather in those
regions.
e. They are destroying their homes and
e. Trees are great and beautiful machines, in the
they are destroying my home, too.
words of some scientists. What happens when a
tree dies? 0.1 point each /0.5
It helps new plants.
It filters noise. 4. Match the verbs on the left with the phrases on
the right.
It causes the decomposition of the soil.
a. burn the long Antarctic winter
0.4 point each /2
b. survive emissions of CO2
2. Put the words below in the correct order to
c. reduce fossil fuels
make sentences.
d. lay the air
a. oxygen / machines / not / we / from / industrial /
do / get e. clean an egg

0.1 point each /0.5

49

2QB6WDJHB9ROB31/'BDB&<(LQGG 30
5. Complete the sentences with one of the words 7. Leia o Text II e responda s questes a seguir.
in the box, as adequate. In one of the sentences,
Text II
more than one word is possible.

always usually sometimes hardly ever never

a. Winter arrives in Antarctica in March.

b. Some people leave

Peter Essick/National Geographic


their computer on while not in use. Thats bad.

c. Trees die, actually. They recycle their


substance for the benefit of all animal and plant life.

d. Carbon dioxide is produced when we


burn something.

e. They burn coal to make electricity.


They almost never do it.

0.1 point each /0.5

6. (PISA-2006) Read Text I and answer the


questions that follow.
Text I
Climate Change

The burning of coal, oil, and natural


gas, as well as deforestation and various
agricultural and industrial practices, are
altering the composition of the atmosphere Carbon Dioxide In, Oxygen Out
Photograph by Peter Essick
and contributing to climate change. These
human activities cause greater concentrations Every living plant in a luxuriant patch of
of particles and greenhouse gases in the Puerto Rican rain forest devotes day and night
atmosphere. Increased concentrations of carbon to inhaling carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
dioxide and methane have a heating effect. and soil, their sources of lifes most basic
element carbon. The crucial biological cycling
(Adapted from: COMMON Questions About Climate
of carbon depends on photosynthesis, the
Change. Available at: <www.gcrio.org/ipcc/qa/04.
process through which plants use the energy
html>. Access: Oct. 5, 2012.)
of the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water
a. What human activities are contributing to into the carbon-based carbohydrates they
climate change? need to create tissue. This chemical reaction
frees oxygen, releasing it to the atmosphere for
animals to breathe. By locking up carbon in their
tissues, often for decades, plants help regulate
the carbon cycle.
b. Which greenhouse gases are the main factors
(CARBON Dioxide In, Oxygen Out. National Geographic
causing climate change? Magazine. Available at: <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.
com/ngm/0402/feature5/zoom4.html>.
Access: Oct. 5, 2012.)
1 point each /2

50 Check Your English 1

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a. O ttulo do texto sintetiza um processo bsico da He is a great horseback rider and his horse can
natureza, fundamental para a vida. Qual esse run really fast.
processo?
New York and Virginia are not on the same time
zone.
b. Nesse processo as plantas absorvem um gs e
His horses name is Wednesday.
liberam outro. Identifique esses dois gases.
He applies Einsteins theory of relativity.
He uses a time machine.
c. Qual o elemento bsico da vida, segundo o
/0.5
texto?

9. (Enem-2010)
d. O que as plantas usam para converter o gs
carbnico e a gua nas substncias orgnicas de

Available at: <www.andrill.org/iceberg/postcards/index.html>.


Access: Mar. 4, 2013.
que elas necessitam para criar o tecido vegetal?

e. Que gs liberado como resultado dessa


reao qumica?

0.2 point each /1

8. Leia o Text III e escolha a resposta correta.


Text III
Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora

Os cartes-postais costumam ser utilizados


por viajantes que desejam enviar notcias
dos lugares que visitam a parentes e amigos.
Publicado no site do projeto ANDRILL, o texto
em formato de carto-postal tem o propsito de
comunicar o endereo da nova sede do projeto
nos Estados Unidos.
convidar colecionadores de cartes-postais a se
reunirem em um evento.
anunciar uma nova coleo de selos para
angariar fundos para a Antrtica.
divulgar s pessoas a possibilidade de receberem
um carto-postal da Antrtica.
Every month a man travels on horseback
from New York City to Virginia. The trip solicitar que as pessoas visitem o site do
normally takes four days. He leaves New York on mencionado projeto com maior frequncia.
Wednesday and arrives on the same Wednesday.
/0.5
How is that possible?

Check Your English 1 51

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Fonte:RevistaNewscientist.21maio2011, p.20.
10. (UEL-2012) Leia o cartaz a seguir. SELF-EVALUATION (UNITS 1, 2 AND 3)

Can
Excellent Good OK
do better
Test total:
10-9 8-7 6-5 less than 5
out of 10

How do you evaluate your own progress?


Check ( ) for Yes, (x) for No, or (R) for Review
Units 1, 2 and 3 after each of the topics below.
Now I can
( ) use the different reading strategies to be able to
understand a text in English.
( ) identify the meaning and use of the words in
noun phrases.
( ) understand and use verbs in the Present
Progressive Tense.
( ) guess the meanings of new words from context
( ) understand and use verbs in the Simple Present
Tense.
( ) understand the position and meaning of the
adverbs of frequency.
( ) understand and use verbs in the Imperative.
(Newscientist, Mar. 21, 2011. p. 20.)
( ) distinguish between the use of the Present
O objetivo desse cartaz divulgar um evento. Progressive and the Simple Present Tenses.

a. Que evento esse, onde acontece e quanto custa ( ) distinguish between the use of possessive
para v-lo? adjectives and possessive pronouns.
( ) listen to a conversation and a brief talk and
understand their meanings.
( ) role-play a dialogue or a conversation.
b. De acordo com o cartaz, qual a importncia ( ) talk about my favorite place and my classmates.
histrica de James Watt? ( ) describe a scene.
( ) fill out a form.
( ) write photo captions.
( ) prepare a quiz.
1 point each /2
( ) reflect and debate about the relationship between
man and nature and the resultant ecological crisis
we face today.

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Autobiography in
Five Short Chapters
08 Do you make silly mistakes now and
then? Do you insist on making the same
mistakes? Does habit sometimes assume
control of your actions? Does life teach
you a lesson sometimes? Do you learn
from your mistakes? Read the poem and
see if it makes any sense to you.

Bruno Toldi/Getty Images

Usando metforas como as asas da imaginao, os poetas falam da vida como sendo uma
jornada ou uma viagem, s vezes tranquila e prazerosa, outras vezes nem tanto. No poema
que vamos ler a seguir essa metfora da vida apresentada de modo a permitir diversas
interpretaes. Formule hipteses sobre elas e verifique-as com a leitura.

53

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READING

Before You Read


An autobiography is a story
about your life that somebody writes.
that people write about their own lives.
about your life that you write yourself.

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

Chapter One Chapter Three


I walk down the street. I walk down the same street.
There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk.
I fall in. I see it is there.
I am lost I am helpless. I still fall in its a habit but,
It isnt my fault. my eyes are open.
It takes forever to find a way out. I know where I am.
It is my fault.
Chapter Two I get out immediately.
I walk down the street.
There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. Chapter Four
I pretend I dont see it. I walk down the same street.
I fall in again. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk.
I cant believe I am in this same place. I walk around it.
But, it isnt my fault.
It still takes a long time to get out. Chapter Five
I walk down another street.

(NELSON, Portia. Autobiography in Five Short Chapters. In: Theres a Hole in My Sidewalk:
The Romance of Self-Discovery. Hillsboro: Beyond Words Publishing, 1993.)

General Comprehension

Whats It All About?


A metaphor is a word or phrase that means one thing and is used, especially in
literature, to refer to another thing to emphasize their similar qualities.

In the poem, the author uses the word chapters to refer to sections of
a book a story someones life a problem

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Word Study

In Other Words
Find the words or phrases in the poem that mean the same as the
definitions and phrases below. They appear in the same order in the poem.

a. profound
b. a cavity, a hollow place in the surface of the ground
c. the pavement by the side of a street
d. move quickly downwards, by accident
e. I dont know where I am
f. I am not able to do anything without help
g. I am not to blame
h. It takes a long, long time
i. an exit
j. I make believe

Words in Context

Choose the right alternative to complete each sentence.

a. A baby is when his or her mother is not around.


helpless deep open long

b. Im sorry Im late, but . I was stuck in a traffic jam.


its my fault I am lost it isnt my fault I cant believe

c. If it goes wrong, dont me. It isnt my fault.


blame find believe walk

d. It me a long time to organize all that material.


falls takes pretends gets out

e. Peter is an old man but he finds it hard to lose that bad habit.
around still same another

False Friends

False friends or false cognates are words in a language that look similar to
words in another language but have different meanings.
In the sentence I pretend I dont see it the word in bold looks similar to
pretender in Portuguese, but it actually means fingir. Pretend is one of the many
false friends in English, when comparing with Portuguese. Actually is another false
friend, as it does not mean atualmente. What does actually mean? Actually is a
synonym for really, in fact, so it means realmente, na verdade.

Autobiography in Five Short Chapters UNIT 4 55

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Observe the words in bold in the following sentences. They are all false
friends. Choose the correct meaning of each one.
es
Imag

a. Mary pretends not to like Jack, but actually she does.


/Glow
rs to ck

pretende / atualmente finge / na verdade


hu tte
oke /S

b. There are notices on the board. I advise you to read them.


an C o

avisos / aconselho notcias / aviso


Jona th

c. Does he realize the mistake hes making?


percebe realiza
Does he realize the d. That library has a large collection of rare books.
mistake hes making?
livraria / larga biblioteca / grande
e. My parents made a compromise never to argue. They live in perfect harmony.
parentes /compromisso/ arguir pais /acordo/discutir
f. When adopting a pup remember it eventually becomes a dog.
eventualmente por fim, com o tempo
g. In his latest novel, the author gives us a comprehensive description of the
hazards caused by nuclear plants.
novela / compreensiva / azares / plantas romance / ampla / riscos / usinas
To learn more
about this topic, go to
h. That scholar wants to leave the auditorium, but he cant find the exit.
MINIGRAMMAR 41. escolar / xito erudito / sada

Detailed Comprehension

Finding the Key Word


Repetition is a common technique used by the poet to make a point. It
can be found in a pattern repeated along Autobiography in Five Short
Chapters:

I walk down the street. I walk down the street. I walk down the same street. I
walk down the same street. I walk down another street.

a. What is the key word in the last sentence?

b. What does it show?


frustration persistence change repetition

When Does It Happen?


In the poem, the author uses metaphorical images to write about five periods
in her life. By doing so, she shows how she changes over time.

56 UNIT 4 Autobiography in Five Short Chapters

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Write the corresponding chapter to find the periods in her life when
a. again she finds herself in the same difficult situation.

b. she is in control of her life and decides to do things in a different way; she
avoids that familiar hole and manages not to fall in.
"Straight ahead,
left, right...
Which way
c. for the first time she faces difficulties that seem to be out of her control. should I go?"

d. she changes her behavior completely and makes a new choice, giving her
life a new direction.

e. she falls into the same hole once again but this time she realizes she is
responsible for being there and decides to change her attitude.

Whose Fault Is It, Anyway?


age s
w Im
c k /Glo
In Chapter One, the author says: Dn y 3 d /S
hu tt ers to

It isnt my fault.
It takes forever to find a way out.
In Chapter Three, the author says:
It is my fault.
I get out immediately.

a. When does the author assume responsibility for her actions?

b. What happens as a consequence?

STRUCTURE

Simple Present Interrogative Form


Observe as formas verbais em destaque nestas frases:

I make mistakes. Do you make mistakes?


I learn from my mistakes. Do you learn from your mistakes?

Com base nesses exemplos, vemos que, para formar perguntas no Simple
Present, emprega-se o verbo auxiliar to do no incio da pergunta, antes do sujeito.
Nesse caso, ele no tem traduo e usado como auxiliar de todos os verbos
principais, inclusive do prprio verbo to do, quando esse significa fazer.

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Nas perguntas a seguir, identifique o do como verbo auxiliar e como verbo
principal. Em seguida, traduza-as.

a. Do you do your homework in the evening?

b. Do you do that every day?

Agora observe as formas verbais em destaque nestas perguntas:


Do you make silly mistakes now and then?
Do you insist on making the same mistakes?
Does habit sometimes assume control of your actions?
Does life teach you a lesson sometimes?
Quando o sujeito da 3a pessoa do singular (he, she, it), substitui-se do por
does no incio da pergunta. O verbo principal fica na sua forma bsica, sem
ser flexionado. No caso dos exemplos, assume (e no assumes), teach (e no
teaches).
Observe a formao de perguntas no Simple Present e tambm de respostas
curtas a essas perguntas, construo muito comum em dilogos. Vamos tomar
por exemplo o verbo to like.

Yes / No questions Short answers


I Affirmative Negative
you music I I
Do we poetry you you
you movies we do. we dont.
like ?
they sports you you
Yes, No,
he video they they
Does she games he he
it she does. she doesnt.
it it

1. Match the questions to the answers.


a. Yes, she does.
b. No, she doesn't.
c. No, it doesn't.
( ) In Chapter One, does the author walk down the street?
( ) Does she fall into a hole in the sidewalk?
( ) Does she find a way out immediately?
( ) In Chapter Two, does she fall in again?
( ) Does she get out immediately?
( ) In Chapter Three, does she see the hole in the sidewalk?
( ) Does she know where she is?
( ) Does it take her a long time to get out?
( ) In Chapter Four, does she fall in?
( ) In Chapter Five, does she walk down the same street?

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2. Now give short answers to these questions.
a. Do you come to school every day?

b. Do you walk to school?

c. Do you have English classes every day?

d. Do you like English?


To learn more
e. Do you think English is important to you? about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 12.

Another Use of Do
Alm do seu uso como verbo principal, com o significado de fazer, e do
importante uso como verbo auxiliar da forma interrogativa (e tambm da negativa)
dos outros verbos, do (ou does, quando o sujeito for da 3a pessoa do singular)
pode tambm aparecer em lugar de um outro verbo, quando este for bvio ou
subentendido. Observe esta resposta, especialmente o do em destaque:
Do you learn from your mistakes? Of course you do.

Nessa frase o do foi usado para evitar a repetio de outro verbo e seu
complemento learn from your mistakes/them.

Nas frases abaixo, identifique os verbos e complementos que foram


substitudos por do ou does nas respostas.
a. Do you walk down the same street every day? Maybe you do.

b. Do you sometimes make mistakes? Of course you do. Everybody does.

c. Does life teach you a lesson sometimes? It probably does.

Simple Present Interrogative Form Using Question Words


Nas perguntas sobre aes no tempo presente, iniciadas com pronomes ou
advrbios interrogativos (what, which, who, whose, where, when, why, how etc.),
emprega-se do ou does aps o interrogativo, seguido do sujeito da frase.
Where does the author walk? Why does she fall into the hole in the sidewalk?
sujeito sujeito

Nos casos, menos comuns, em que o interrogativo estiver no lugar do sujeito,


a pergunta feita sem do ou does. Nesses casos, os interrogativos so seguidos
do verbo principal na 3a pessoa do singular.
Who walks down the same street four times? What makes her do that?

sujeito sujeito

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Observe o quadro das question words:

what: o que, qual (geral) whose: de quem why: por que how many: quantos
which: qual (especfico) where: onde how: como how long: quanto tempo
who: quem when: quando how much: quanto how often: com que frequncia

In pairs, ask and answer about Autobiography in Five Short Chapters:


1. Complete each question with the correct question word from the box above.

a. walks down the street? ( ) She feels lost and helpless.


b. is there in the sidewalk? ( ) She gets out immediately.
c. does she fall into the hole?
( ) The author does.
d. does she feel when she is in the hole?
( ) She walks down another street.
e. long does it take to find a way out?
f. street does she walk down in ( ) Because she doesnt want to fall in again.
Chapter Two? ( ) It takes a long time to find a way out.
g. does she get out in Chapter Three?
( ) She walks down the same street.
h. does she walk around the hole in
Chapter Four? ( ) Because she doesnt see it.
i. does she walk in Chapter Five? ( ) There is a hole in the sidewalk.

2. Now match the columns to find the correct answer to each question.
To learn more
about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 23.

LISTENING

09 A Change for the Better


Debbie, uma aluna norte-americana, e Andr, seu amigo brasileiro, esto conversando sobre
um problema que est incomodando Andr e precisa ser mudado. Oua o dilogo e marque as
alternativas corretas.
es

a. Andr is stressed because he is getting


PhotoAlto /Gett y Imag

nervous fat tired


b. He probably eats a lot of
fruit and vegetables broccoli junk food
c. Both Andr and Debbie like
pasta broccoli fruit and vegetables
d. He invites Debbie to have lunch at
home Mamas Greens for Teens
e. Debbie thinks Andr
is serious about that really means it is not serious about it

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SPEAKING

10 Yes-No Questions

1. A figura abaixo apresenta a entonao de uma yes-no question (um tipo de pergunta a que
podemos responder sim ou no). Observe a figura e oua como esse tipo de questo
pronunciado.

Do you help your mom every day?

Em ingls, a entonao nas yes-no questions : ascendente descendente

2. Em duplas, faa perguntas e responda sobre seus hbitos e os de outras pessoas. H algum
deles que seria bom mudar? O quadro abaixo pode ajud-lo a fazer e a responder s perguntas.
No se esquea de observar a entonao, levando em conta o que foi visto na atividade 1.

Auxiliary Verb Subject Verbs and complements Answers

help your mother with the housework?

Yes, I do.
Do you wash the dishes?
No, I don't.

make your bed every day?

brush his/her teeth after meals?

do his/her homework every day?


Yes, he/she does.
Does your friend
No, he/she doesn't.
do physical exercise regularly?

spend hours in front of the TV?

3. Ao final, troquem as duplas e perguntem sobre os hbitos do outro colega com quem
conversaram. Por fim, respondam s seguintes perguntas:

a. Does life teach you a lesson sometimes?

b. Does it seem necessary to change your habits then?

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WRITING

Words and Images


1. Complete os quadrinhos com as frases e palavras do quadro abaixo.

TWEET, TWEET Bye, James! HELLO?! HEEEELP!


See you, Linda! Ooops! Don't worry! SNIFF, SNIFF

Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora


2. De acordo com a histria da atividade 1, coloque as seguintes frases em
ordem, numerando-as de 1 a 6.
a. ( ) Theres a hole in the sidewalk. She doesnt see it.
b. ( ) A strong handsome boy helps her.
c. ( ) She falls in.
d. ( ) They fall in love.
e. ( ) She shouts for help.
f. ( ) A girl walks down the street.
3. Em duplas, reescreva as frases no caderno de modo a compor um
pargrafo narrando a histria apresentada. No final, troque com um
colega e observe as semelhanas e diferenas dos dois pargrafos.

4. Ainda em duplas, observem a histria em quadrinhos e o pargrafo que


vocs escreveram. Quais so as semelhanas e as diferenas entre uma histria
contada com imagem e texto escrito e outra apenas com texto escrito? Qual
forma vocs preferem? Vocs acham que as duas formas so adequadas em
todos os momentos, para todos os leitores?

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Another Look at...

Life Lessons
What do they mean by that?
These are quotes from some famous personalities and their life lessons. Match each
quote with its meaning.

1 2 3 4 5
Insanity is Life is a daring Life is what You can often Good friends,
doing the same adventure or happens to you change your good books,
thing, over and nothing. while youre circumstances by and a sleepy
over again, (Helen Keller) busy making changing your conscience: this
but expecting other plans. attitude. is the ideal life.
different results. (John Lennon) (Eleanor Roosevelt) (Mark Twain)
(Albert Einstein)

Sometimes When things When you People who are If you have
you are so go wrong, it realize the way afraid of facing a sleepy
involved in is not a good you do things new challenges conscience you
your problems idea to insist is wrong, it is dont get to know are probably
and planning on doing them time to change what life has to tolerant of the
for the future the same way. your attitude. offer. mistakes you
that you forget make.
to enjoy the
present.

1. Apic/Getty Images. 2. Hulton Archive/Getty Images. 3. Evening Standard/Getty Images. 4. Hulton Archive/Getty Images. 5. Hulton Archive/Getty Images

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A
utobiography in Five Short Chapters conta uma
histria que pode ter vrias leituras, diversas
interpretaes. Dependendo da personalidade
e do frame of mind do leitor, essa histria pode divertir
THINK ou levar reflexo. Quem preferir zombar da situao
ABOUT IT descrita no poema pode achar que o personagem
precisa usar culos ou ento ter mais cuidado ao
caminhar pela rua. Uma leitura mais broad-minded,
porm, leva a um amplo debate. Qual dessas interpretaes
voc compartilha? Voc reconhece o comportamento do
personagem em algum? Em voc prprio, talvez?

A vida nos oferece muitas

CWB/Shutterstock/Glow Images
opes, caminhos e maneiras de
trilh-los. Por vezes insistimos
em seguir caminhos e repetir
aes que no do certo, e
fazemos isso torcendo para
que os resultados sejam bons.
Perceber que preciso mudar
de atitude quando as coisas no
do certo uma grande virtude.
O escritor norte-americano
William Arthur Ward disse:
The pessimist complains
about the wind; the optimist
expects it to change; the realist
adjusts the sails.

Debata esse assunto com seus professores, principalmente


os de Filosofia e de Sociologia.

Exploring Other Sources

NELSON, Portia. Theres a Hole in My Sidewalk. Hillsboro: Beyond Words Publishing, 1993.
O DISCURSO do rei. Direo: Tom Hopper. Produo: Iain Canning, Emile Sherman, Gareth
Unwin. Distribuio: SM Distribuidora de Filmes Ltda, 2010.
PEQUENA Miss Sunshine. Direo: Jonaton Dayton. Produo: David T. Friendly. Distribuio:
Fox Films do Brasil, 2006.
PORTIA Nelson. Available at: <http://portianelson.com/>. Access: Mar. 4, 2013.

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The Father of
Flight
11Alberto Santos-Dumont,
the youngest son of a
Brazilian millionaire, spent
his childhood on an isolated
coffee plantation in Minas
Gerais devouring the novels of
Jules Verne and dreaming of
conquering the skies. After
he was 18, Santos-Dumont
lived in Paris, where he made
his name. At first he flew
balloons and dirigible airships
winning a prize in 1901 for
circling the Eiffel Tower. But
that was just the beginning.
Harlingue/Roger-Viollet/France-Presse

O que voc sabe sobre Santos-Dumont? O pai dele era rico ou pobre? Alberto passou a
infncia na cidade ou no interior? Qual era o grande sonho desse jovem? Onde ele viveu a
partir dos 18 anos? O que ele pilotou inicialmente? Que prmio ele ganhou em 1901? Por que
isso foi apenas o comeo? Que outras conquistas ele alcanou? Ative seu conhecimento
sobre esse assunto, formule hipteses, leia o texto e veja se elas so confirmadas.

65

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READING

Before You Read


Which of the following words do you expect to find in the text?

flying computer
prison airship
balloon machine
ocean meteor

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.
Banco de Imagens/Arquivo da editora

Time Special Issue Latin American Leaders


for the New Millennium
Alberto Santos-Dumont in 1916. Ill and despondent over
(1873-1932) was born in Brazil the use of aircraft in warfare, he
and educated in Paris. He made committed suicide in 1932.
his first balloon ascent in 1898 and

Album/Akg-Images
soon after that began constructing
dirigible airships. In 1901 he won
a Paris air race and international
fame. (After the race, he asked
Louis Cartier for a timepiece that
would keep his hands free the
first wristwatch.)
Turning to heavier-than-air
machines, Santos-Dumont built
his 14-Bis in 1906, three years
after the Wright brothers initial
flight. His flight was the first
in Europe, and his plane was
the first anywhere to lift off the
ground under its own power. In
1909 Santos-Dumont designed
the Demoiselle monoplane, the
forerunner of modern light planes.
In 1910 Santos-Dumont fell ill
with multiple sclerosis and retired
In 1901 he won a Paris air race and
from flying. He returned to Brazil international fame.

(From: LEADERS of the Century. Time, May 24, 1999. Special Issue:
Latin American Leaders for the New Millennium.)

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General Comprehension
Finding the Main Ideas
The text contains 3 paragraphs. Complete the following
sentences with the number of each paragraph, according
to its main idea.

a. Paragraph describes the period of the inventors


life when he built a heavier-than-air machine and flew it
successfully.

b. Paragraph describes Santos-Dumonts initial


success as an inventor and constructor.

c. Paragraph describes the decline of the inventor


and his tragic death.
Photoresearchers/Latinstock

Word Study
In Other Words
Match the two columns to find the definitions of some important words
and phrases from the text.

( ) very unhappy and without


a. childhood
hope

Introduction b. devouring ( ) eating something very fast

c. winning ( ) started his life

d. was born ( ) the time when you are a child

( ) an object that shows the time (a


Paragraph 1 e. ascent
watch or a clock)

f. timepiece ( ) the process of going up

g. lift off the ground ( ) getting something as a prize


Paragraph 2
( ) precursor, something that
h. forerunner
existed before a newer thing

i. fell ill ( ) became sick


Paragraph 3
( ) take off, go up from the ground
j. despondent
into the air

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Words in Context
Complete the sentences with the correct words, as adequate.

a. When you fall , it is time to call a doctor.


youngest isolated first ill in love
b. Balloons, dirigible airships, and (air)planes are different kinds of .
air races aircraft warfare flights skies
c. Santos-Dumont on a farm near Palmira, Minas Gerais, and died in Guaruj, So Paulo.
was born fell began built flew
d. When a plane off the ground it takes off. It is the beginning of the flight.
retires returns wins lifts circles
e. An airplane is a machine.
light despondent heavier-than-air free multiple

Detailed Comprehension
An Eventful Life
Number the sentences from 1 (first event) to 12 (last event), putting the events in
Santos-Dumonts lifetime in the correct order.

Alberto Santos-Dumont

a. ( ) designed a monoplane called g. ( ) asked Louis Cartier for a special


Demoiselle. timepiece.
b. ( ) retired from flying. h. ( ) returned to Brazil.
c. ( ) was born in Brazil. i. ( ) made his first balloon ascent in 1898.
j. ( ) committed suicide.
d. ( ) began constructing dirigible airships
soon after his first balloon ascent. k. ( ) won a Paris air race and international
e. ( ) built his 14-Bis in 1906. fame.
f. ( ) was educated in Paris. l. ( ) fell ill with multiple sclerosis.

Finding Specific Information


Answer the questions choosing from the phrases in the box. Then work with a classmate and
ask him (or her) those questions.

in 1910 in 1932 after he fell ill in 1901 in 1898 soon after 1898 in 1916 in 1906

When did he do it?


a. Alberto Santos-Dumont was born in 1873. When did he die?

b. When did Santos-Dumont make his first balloon ascent?

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c. When did he begin building dirigible airships?

d. When did Santos-Dumont build his 14-Bis?

e. When did he win a Paris air race and international fame?

f. When did Santos-Dumont retire from flying?

g. When did he fall ill?

h. When did he return to Brazil?

Learning More About Alberto Santos-Dumont


1. The text on page 66 was originally published in an American magazine. Some
important information about the Brazilian inventor was not included in that
story. Scan the text to identify the information given in the sentences below
that is not in that text.
Santos-Dumont
a. made his first flight in a hot-air balloon in 1898.
b. designed a monoplane called Demoiselle.
c. was born on a farm near a small town called Palmira, now Santos-Dumont, in
Minas Gerais.
d. went to France in 1892 to study physics, mechanics, and electricity.
e. designed and built fourteen different dirigible airships.
f. studied at the University of Bristol, in England.
g. flew hot-air balloons, dirigible airships and heavier-than-air machines.
h. became ill in 1910 and stopped flying.
i. was the first person to officially fly a heavier-than-air machine under its own
power. He did it in the presence of a crowd in Paris.
j. was very unhappy because aircraft were used in war.
k. became famous after winning an air race in Paris in 1901.
l. asked Louis Cartier to make a wristwatch for him to wear.

2. Todas as informaes abaixo so verdadeiras. Identifique a nica que, apesar de


se referir histria de Santos-Dumont, no foi abordada no texto da revista Time.
a. O primeiro relgio de pulso foi feito por Louis Cartier para Santos-Dumont, que
queria um relgio que no lhe ocupasse as mos.
b. Santos-Dumont construiu o 14-Bis trs anos depois do primeiro voo dos irmos
Wright.
c. O uso de aeronaves com fins blicos causou grande tristeza e depresso ao
inventor e contribuiu para o seu suicdio.
d. O monoplano Demoiselle, desenhado e construdo por Santos-Dumont, foi o
precursor dos modernos ultraleves.
e. O primeiro voo de um aparelho mais pesado que o ar e usando propulso prpria
foi feito por Santos-Dumont com o 14-Bis, perto de Paris, em outubro de 1906. Esse
voo oficial, documentado, feito com a presena de uma comisso fiscalizadora do
Aeroclube da Frana, foi a origem real da aeronutica.

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STRUCTURE

Simple Past Affirmative Form


Alberto Santos-Dumont nasceu em 1873 e morreu em 1932. Os textos que
falam sobre esse heri brasileiro, injustamente pouco conhecido at mesmo em
seu prprio pas, referem-se, portanto, a acontecimentos no passado. Observe os
verbos em destaque nestas frases:
After he was 18, Santos-Dumont lived in Paris.
After the race, he asked Louis Cartier for a timepiece that would keep his hands
free the first wristwatch.
In 1909 Santos-Dumont designed the Demoiselle monoplane.
In 1910 Santos-Dumont fell ill with multiple sclerosis and retired from flying. He
returned to Brazil in 1916. Ill and despondent over the use of aircraft in warfare, he
committed suicide in 1932.

Conclui-se, pelo contexto, que todos os verbos em destaque esto no


passado, num tempo verbal chamado Simple Past, que corresponde em
portugus tanto ao Pretrito Perfeito como ao Pretrito Imperfeito.
Os verbos em ingls podem ser divididos em regulares e irregulares. Os
regulares formam o passado com o acrscimo de -ed forma bsica do verbo ou,
no caso de verbos terminados em -e, acrescenta-se apenas o -d.
Complete the table with the Simple Past of the following regular verbs:

Infinitive Simple Past


retornar: to return
viver, morar: to live
retirar-se, aposentar-se: to retire
desenhar, projetar: to design
pedir: to ask
devorar: to devour

Na formao do Simple Past, alm do simples acrscimo de -d no caso


dos verbos que terminam em -e, preciso tambm observar as alteraes
ortogrficas de verbos com outras terminaes.
Notas ortogrficas
Nos verbos regulares terminados em y precedido de consoante, troca-se o
-y por -ied:

study studied carry carried marry married


Nos verbos terminados em -y precedido de vogal, acrescenta-se
simplesmente -ed:
play played stay stayed enjoy enjoyed

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Nos monosslabos terminados na sequncia consoante-vogal-consoante,
dobra-se a consoante final e acrescenta-se -ed:

stop stopped drop dropped plan planned

Nos disslabos, quando a ltima slaba tnica, tambm se dobra a


consoante final e acrescenta-se -ed:

commit committed prefer preferred occur occurred

Observe que isso no acontece quando o verbo no termina na sequncia


consoante-vogal-consoante ou quando a ltima slaba no tnica:

rain rained happen happened open opened

A grande maioria dos verbos em ingls faz o passado de forma regular. Os


cognatos, de origem latina (formas semelhantes s dos verbos em portugus),
so regulares, por exemplo: educate educated; construct constructed.
Mas muitos dos verbos mais comuns, de uso mais frequente, no so de
origem latina e so irregulares, cada um com sua forma especfica de passado, To learn more
por exemplo: see saw; go went; eat ate. Essas formas irregulares vo about this topic, go to
aparecer gradualmente nos textos e devem ser memorizadas. MINIGRAMMAR 29.

Agora observe os verbos em destaque nestas frases:

Alberto Santos-Dumont spent his childhood on an isolated coffee plantation in


Minas Gerais.
in Paris, where he made his name. At first he flew balloons and dirigible
airships.
and soon after that he began constructing dirigible airships. In 1901 he won a
Paris air race and international fame.
Santos-Dumont built his 14-Bis in 1906.
In 1910 Santos-Dumont fell ill with multiple sclerosis.

Todos os verbos em destaque esto no passado, no Simple Past, e todos esses


verbos so irregulares.

Complete the table with the Simple Past of the following irregular verbs:
Keystone-France/Getty Images

Infinitive Simple Past


comear: to begin
construir: to build
fazer: to make
cair: to fall
voar, pilotar: to fly
gastar, passar (tempo): to spend
ganhar, vencer: to win
ir: to go

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O verbo to be tem duas formas no Simple Past:

I You
He We
was here in 2012. were here in 2012 too.
She You
It They

Mas, na sua imensa maioria, os verbos em ingls, sejam regulares ou


irregulares, tm uma nica forma em todas as pessoas no Simple Past.

Regulares: I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they lived, loved, walked, talked etc.


Irregulares: I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had, began, saw, went, wrote etc.

1. Use the Simple Past of the regular verbs in the box to complete the
following sentences.

To learn more cry (chorar, gritar) plan (planejar) arrive (chegar)


about this topic, go to rob (roubar) create (criar) try (tentar)
MINIGRAMMAR 27.

a. Do you believe God the universe?

b. They home very late last night.

c. I to call you last night, but you werent home.

d. They that Museum of Art again last month.

e. I like a baby when my dog died.

f. The British for the Olympic Games with great care.

2. Use the Simple Past of the irregular verbs in the box to complete these
sentences.

saw had said came left went

a. Cabral Lisbon on March 9, 1500 and reached the coast of Bahia


on April 22, 1500.

b. Who give peace a chance? How did he die?

c. John Lennon never to Brazil.

d. American astronauts to the moon in 1969.

e. We Avatar two or three times last year.

f. The United States never a king.

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3. Complete the following sentences with the Simple Past of the verbs in the box. Some of
them are regular, others are not. For irregular verbs, refer to the list on page 208.

to fly to write to see to become to create to die to come to leave to make to paint

2 3

Santos-Dumont
Galileo Galilei
Tarsila do Amaral a. Raquel de Queirs Memorial de Maria Moura in 1992.

b. Elis Regina O bbado e a equilibrista in 1979.


10

Nelson Mandela

c. Tarsila do Amaral Abaporu in 1928.

d. The Dalai Lama Tibet in 1959.

e. Santos-Dumont a heavier-than-air machine for the 5

first time in 1906.

Madonna f. Isaac Newton the first reflecting telescope in 1668.

g. Charles Darwin the theory of evolution via natural


selection in 1859.
9

h. Galileo Galilei the four moons of Jupiter in 1608.

8. Edvaldo Rodrigues/DP/D.A Press. . 9. Claudine Petroli/Agncia Estado. 10. Cinemafestival/Shutterstock/Glow Images


Charles Darwin
i. Madonna to Brazil in 2012.

1. Tarsila do Amaral Empreendimentos. 2. Instituto de Psicologia da Aeronutica, Castelo/Arquivo da editora.

5. Bettmann/Corbis. 6. Ichiro Guerra/Folhapress. 7. National Portrait Gallery, Londres/Arquivo da editora.


3. National Maritime Museum, Londres/Arquivo da editora. 4. Schalk Van Zuydam/Associated Press.
j. Nelson Mandela South Africas first black president
in 1994.

6
8
7

Elis Regina

Raquel de Queirs Isaac Newton The Dalai Lama

4. Work with a classmate. Ask What happened in? and answer according to the dates from
the previous exercise.

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Simple Past Adverbs and Finished-time Expressions
Para deixar claro que uma determinada ao aconteceu no passado, usam-
-se advrbios ou locues adverbiais no final de frases no Simple Past. Atente
posio desses advrbios na frase, principalmente o ago:
We saw a good movie yesterday. (ontem)
The universe began billions and billions of years ago. (atrs [tempo])
The British held the London Olympic Games in 2012.
There was a meeting here last week. (na semana passada)
We went to the beach last Sunday. (no domingo passado)
1. Complete the sentences using the words in the correct order.

a. I saw a documentary about Santos-Dumont .


(month last)
b. Santos-Dumont built his 14-Bis .
(1906 in)
c. It happened .
(ago time a long)
d. The Father of Flight died in 1932, .
(over ago years 80)

Uses of the -ing Form


A terminao -ing pode corresponder em portugus terminao -ndo, que
identifica o gerndio dos verbos nos tempos contnuos.
(He) spent his childhood [] in Minas Gerais devouring the novels of Jules
Verne and dreaming of
Turning to heavier-than-air machines, Santos-Dumont built his 14-Bis in 1906.
Alm do gerndio, a forma terminada em -ing pode ter outros usos importantes.
Sempre que o verbo vier aps uma preposio, ele ser usado na forma -ing.
Em portugus, nesse caso, usamos o infinitivo:
and dreaming of conquering the skies.
(he) retired from flying.
Por vezes, dependendo do contexto, a forma terminada em -ing pode
corresponder a um substantivo.

Voc capaz de identificar o substantivo no trecho abaixo?

After he was 18, Santos-Dumont lived in Paris, where he made his name.
At first he flew balloons and dirigible airships winning a prize in 1901
for circling the Eiffel Tower. But that was just the beginning.

Em outros casos, aps certos verbos, a forma terminada em -ing corresponde,


em portugus, ao infinitivo do verbo.
and soon after that (he) began constructing dirigible airships.

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Volte aos textos (p. 65 e 66) e, orientando-se pelo contexto, traduza as
palavras abaixo. Depois classifique-as como gerndio (G), infinitivo (I) ou
substantivo (S).

nsto ck
a. devouring

Collection/ Lati
b. dreaming

Courtes y Everett
c. conquering

d. winning

e. circling

f. beginning

g. constructing

h. turning to
To learn more
i. flying about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 40.

LISTENING

On Air

121. Voc vai ouvir uma entrevista com uma personalidade muito
especial. Oua a reprter e responda como essa personalidade
conhecida:
Father of nation
Father of aviation
Brother of aviation

2. Agora oua a entrevista, fique atento s perguntas e respostas para


completar a biografia a seguir.

Santos-Dumont born in Minas Gerais, Brazil.


When he in his country he of conquering
the skies.
After he 18 he to Paris, where he
his name. He in a balloon for the first time in 1898.
In 1906 he a heavier-than-air machine that he
14-Bis.
In October 1906 he his 14-Bis in the presence of a crowd
in Paris. It mans first without any outside help.
Man fly!

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WRITING & SPEAKING

Time for an Interview


1. Oua novamente a entrevista do Listening e escolha a melhor opo
para responder a cada uma destas perguntas:

a. A finalidade bsica de uma entrevista


informar.
entreter.
discutir a opinio do entrevistador.
b. Essencialmente, a entrevista um gnero:
escrito.
oral.
c. Em geral, antes da entrevista feita uma breve apresentao para
fazer referncia ao entrevistado, mostrando sua relevncia ou
posicionamento social.
falar sobre o ponto de vista do entrevistador.
discutir as opinies do entrevistado.

13 2. Oua novamente a pergunta Where were you born? da entrevista


e observe como Wh-questions (perguntas que comeam com What,
When, Why etc.) so pronunciadas em ingls.

Where were you born?

De acordo com o udio e as linhas azuis na figura acima, podemos concluir


que em ingls as Wh-questions tm entonao:
ascendente
descendente

3. Voc o entrevistador! Levando em conta os pontos no exerccio anterior


e o modelo apresentado no Listening elabore, em seu caderno, algumas
perguntas para fazer a um colega. No se esquea de criar tambm uma breve
apresentao. Use as palavras e locues sugeridas abaixo, se necessrio.

rode a bike went to school favorite singer/artist as a child and now


feel start learning English favorite school subject in the fifth grade
travel last summer go with dreams for the future

4. Agora, faa a entrevista com um colega e, depois, responda s


perguntas dele/dela.

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Another Look at...

Santos-Dumont

Observe a foto e as palavras ditas por Santos-Dumont e preencha as


lacunas:

Reproduo/My Airships by Alberto Santos-Dumont

The balloon seems to


stand still in the air
while the Earth flies
past underneath.
(Santos-Dumont)

Segundo , nas suas viagens de balo, duas


aes pareciam acontecer simultaneamente. O parecia
ficar imvel no enquanto a passava
voando l embaixo.

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m 1904, Santos-Dumont recebeu a notcia de que, nos

THINK
THINK
E
Estados Unidos, os irmos Wright haviam conseguido voar
no ano anterior com um aeroplano mais pesado que o ar.
No entanto, nenhuma comisso cientfica ou outras
ABOUT
ABOUT IT
IT
testemunhas haviam acompanhado o voo. O nico registro
eram publicaes nos jornais com base nos relatos dos
prprios aviadores.
Eles acabaram sendo publicamente aceitos como
pioneiros, mas admitiram que o aparelho usado dependera
de recursos externos para alar voo. Como o motor de 12 HP era
insuficiente para fazer o aparelho decolar, eles tinham contado com a ajuda de uma
espcie de catapulta.
Somente em 1908, dois

Reproduo/Fundao Santos Dumont


anos aps o voo do 14-Bis,
Wilbur Wright esteve na Frana
para realizar demonstraes,
mostrando ento publicamente a
superioridade do seu aparelho em
relao aos que estavam sendo
produzidos na Europa. Ele alegava
que seu aeroplano havia sido
construdo com base no modelo
original de 1903.
(IRMOS Wright. Available at: <www.aer.
mil.br/portal/personalidades/sdumont/
wright.htm> Access: Mar. 4, 2013.)

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores, principalmente


os de Histria e de Fsica.

Exploring Other Sources

HOFFMAN, Paul. Asas da loucura: a extraordinria vida de Santos-Dumont. Rio de Janeiro:


Objetiva, 2004.
NOGUEIRA, Salvador. Conexo Wright Santos-Dumont: a verdadeira histria da inveno do
avio. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 2006.
O HOMEM pode voar. Direo: Nelson Hoineff. Produo: Elaine Mattos. Distribuio:
Comunicao Alternativa, 2006.
FUNDAO Santos-Dumont. <www.santosdumont.org.br/internas.
php?menu=1694&interna=75769>. Access: Mar. 4, 2013.
ALBERTO Santos-Dumont, Brazil. <www.smithsonianeducation.org/scitech/impacto/graphic/
aviation/alberto.html>. Access: Mar. 4, 2013.

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The Boy Who Changed the
World with His Music
14 This child prodigy became one of the most popular
and prolific classical composers of all time. In a very short
lifetime (he died when he was only 35), he wrote more than
600 pieces of music, compositions that the world continues
to love centuries after his death.

Bettmann/Corbis

Observe a ilustrao, o ttulo e o lide


acima. Quem foi esse menino? O que
ele fez? Por que ele changed the world
with his music? Quantas msicas ele
comps? Quantos anos ele viveu? Por
que esse menino ficou famoso? Faa
suas previses, leia o texto e verifique-
-as com a leitura.

79

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READING

Before You Read


These 5 words are from The Boy Who Changed the World with His Music,
but their letters are not in the correct order. Can you unscramble them?

a. rpmocoes c. cimus e. diprogy

b. ympyhson d. ybo f. dhcil

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

olfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in


Andrea Maria Dusl/<http://www.comandantina.com>

W Salzburg, Austria, in 1756, the son of a


music teacher. Young Wolfgang was a child
prodigy. He mastered piano compositions at age 5,
played before the Austrian emperor at age 6, wrote
symphonies when he was 9. In 1787 the Austrian
emperor Joseph II appointed him court composer.
Mozart enjoyed a successful career but he did not
know how to manage his financial situation. He spent
money as fast as he made it. In his short life he wrote
over 600 compositions of beautiful music, but he was
in debt when he died at the age of 35.
One day, a young man went to visit Mozart, who was already a famous
composer, and asked him for advice on composing a symphony.
How old are you? the composer asked.
Eighteen.
I think you are too young to compose a symphony, then, the composer
told him. Try something easier.
But you composed symphonies when you were nine, protested the young man.
Yes, agreed Mozart, but I did not ask anyone how to compose them.
Mozart was a prodigy, a great artist, a genius. He changed the world (for the
better) with his eternal music, and his name is now linked to science. In pop
culture, the Mozart Effect is a theory about the transformational powers of
music in areas of mental and physical health. Scientists believe the rhythmical
and melodic patterns in music provide a form of therapy that promotes greater
relaxation, improves memory recall and some other cognitive processes. Why
music? Listen to a Mozart composition and enjoy the experience.

(Adapted from: THE MOZART Effect Resource Center. Available at: <http://www.mozarteffect.com/MoreOnTME/FAQ.html>. Access:
Mar. 4, 2013; and FADIMAN, Clifton (Ed.). The Little, Brown Book of Anecdotes. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985.)

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General Comprehension
Whats the Main Idea?
Choose the sentence that contains the most important idea (and not just
the details) in the text.

Mozart was a very prolific successful composer.


Mozart did not want to help any young composers.
Mozart died when he was still a young man.
Centuries after Mozarts death, the results of Mozarts invention and
creativity are still important to us.

Word Study
In Other Words
Match the columns to find the definition of each word or phrase below:

a. advice ( ) when you owe money to someone


b. as fast as he made it ( ) in front of (someone)
c. before (someone) ( ) the ability to remember something you know
d. cognitive ( ) an opinion on how to do something
e. in debt ( ) in a very short time
f. pattern ( ) regularly repeated arrangement of sounds or words
g. recall ( ) of or about learning and understanding

It Happened Long Ago


Fill in the blanks with the Simple Past of the verbs in the boxes, according
to The Boy Who Changed the World with His Music. Then write down the
letter that corresponds to each verb in Portuguese.

Regular verbs: compose play agree ask protest die ask

a. But you symphonies when you ( ) concordou


were nine, the young man.
( ) perguntou
b. and him for advice.
c. Yes, Mozart, but I did not ask ( ) comps; protestou
anyone how to compose them.
( ) pediu
d. He at the age of 35.
( ) morreu
e. He before the Austrian emperor.
f. How old are you? the composer . ( ) tocou

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To learn more Irregular verbs: go be born make spend tell become write
about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 29.
a. This child prodigy one of the most ( ) escreveu
popular and prolific classical composers of his time.
( ) gastava; ganhava
b. He money as fast as he it.
c. He more than 600 pieces of music. ( ) disse a
d. A young man to visit Mozart. ( ) tornou-se
e. Wolfgang A. Mozart in Salzburg, Austria.
( ) foi
f. Try something easier, the composer
him. ( ) nasceu

Transparent Words
Scan the text to find transparent words and complete the following phrases:

a. child criana prodgio


b. music peas musicais, msicas
c. emperor imperador austraco
d. composer compositor da corte/do reino
e. successful carreira bem-sucedida
f. pop cultura popular
g. health sade fsica
h. melodic padres meldicos
i. recall lembrana, recordao
j. processes processos cognitivos

At a Glance

Family portrait
This painting shows Mozarts family. Can you identify them? Complete
of the Mozarts. the sentences with the phrases from the box.
Ascribed to
Johann Nepomuk the woman in the portrait the man on the piano
della Croce
(1736-1819). the man with the violin the woman on the piano
Oil on canvas,
1780/81
a. Wolfgang Amadeus is .
Reproduo/<rmc.library.cornell.edu>

b. Leopold Mozart, Wolfgangs father, is


.

c. is Maria Anna
Nannerl, Wolfgangs sister.

d. Whos Wolfgangs mother? Shes


.

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Detailed Comprehension
Mark these statements T (for true) or F (for false). Correct the false
statements.
a. ( ) Mozarts father was a scientist.
b. ( ) Mozart was able to write long complex pieces of music by the time he
was nine.
c. ( ) Mozart was appointed court composer when he was 31.
d. ( ) Mozart had a successful career and he was rich when he died.
e. ( ) Mozart never asked anyone how to compose a symphony.
f. ( ) Mozart was not very successful in money matters.

LISTENING

A Classical Composer
15 1. Voc vai ouvir um trecho de uma aula de msica em que o
professor apresenta partes de quatro obras famosas de Mozart. Voc
seria capaz de identific-las? Saberia dizer o que msica sacra, o que
caracteriza uma pera, uma sinfonia e uma sonata para piano? Oua e
numere na ordem em que esses gneros so apresentados na audio.
( ) a requiem ( ) a symphony ( ) an aria ( ) a piano sonata

162. Voc vai ouvir um trecho de um programa de uma rdio de


Auckland, Nova Zelndia. Em seguida, complete o pargrafo.

O programa chama-se Meet the e contar com a presena


de uma da of Auckland, falando sobre um
grande , que o mundo com sua msica. Esse
compositor .

3. Oua o restante da gravao e assinale cada afirmao abaixo com T


(true) ou F (false).

a. ( ) O estilo desse compositor nico e ele comps diversas obras:


sinfonias, sonatas, msica sacra.
b. ( ) Ele comps menos de 600 obras.
c. ( ) Seu pai tambm era msico.
d. ( ) Ele tinha trs irms.
e. ( ) Ele comeou a compor aos 5 anos.
f. ( ) Entre 1763 e 1766 ele e sua famlia saram em turn pela ustria.
g. ( ) Ele morreu aos 45 anos.

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STRUCTURE

Reference Words Personal Pronouns

Observe as palavras em destaque nestas frases:

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in []. In 1787 the Austrian emperor
Joseph II appointed him court composer.
He spent money as fast as he made it.
to visit Mozart, who was already a famous composer, and asked him for advice
But you composed symphonies Yes, agreed Mozart, but I did not ask
anyone how to compose them.

As palavras em destaque so pronomes pessoais oblquos. So usados


para evitar a repetio de uma palavra, ou nome, em geral j mencionada ou
subentendida. Esses pronomes aparecem depois do verbo ou de uma preposio
como objeto da orao.

Volte s frases acima e identifique a palavra a que cada pronome se refere.


Observe no quadro dos Personal Pronouns a relao entre os Subject Pronouns
(pronomes retos) e os Object Pronouns (pronomes oblquos).

Personal Pronouns

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns

I eu me me; a mim

you tu; voc you te; a ti; a voc

he ele him o; lhe; a ele

she ela her a; lhe; a ela

it ele/ela it o/a; lhe; a ele/ela

we ns us nos; a ns

you vs; vocs you vos; a vs; a vocs

they eles/elas them os/as; lhes; a eles/elas

Os pronomes retos so usados antes do verbo, como sujeito.

He spent money as fast as he made it.

Os pronomes oblquos so usados depois do verbo ou de uma preposio,


como objeto.

I did not ask anyone how to compose them.


Mozarts music changed the world for us.

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1. Complete the sentences with personal pronouns, as adequate.

a. Music can help feel better. (we us they)


b. Mozart was a child prodigy. He composed symphonies when
was very young. (he him them)
c. Joseph II liked Mozart. He appointed court composer in 1787.
(he we him)
d. Wolfgang had a sister, Maria Anna, they often called Nannerl.
Wolfgang loved . (its her him) (she him her)
e. Mozart was already famous when the young man visited .
(he her- him)
f. The young man needed advice on how to compose symphonies. To learn more
He did not know how to write . (they it them) about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 5.
g. That is an old anecdote, a true story that really happened to .
(we they them)

2. Maria Emlia, uma jovem pianista apaixonada por msica clssica, ganhou
uma bolsa de estudos na ustria e resolveu escrever um postal para um colega
em Londres. Complete o carto com as palavras do quadro abaixo.

helped city Did you know classical music he


movie it its sound of music fantastic

Images /Glow
tterstock
Salzburg

Lisa S./Shu
Hi Ray,
Im writing from Salzburg
, a very beautiful
Images

in the mountains in the sou


th of Austria.
low

that Salzburg means sa


lt castle
utterstock/G

and is a Unesco World Heri


There is a ta ge site?
fes tiv al every year
Mr. Hanson/Sh

in Salzburg, in July/Au
gust, in honour of the cit
famous son. You know wh ys most
o is, of course:
Mozart! The Hollywood
of Music also Th e Sound
to make Salzburg and
hills, parks, gardens and
famous. The Sound of M mountains very
usic, with Julie Andrews. T
are alive, with the he hills
Music is in the air in thi . Re me mb er? Raymond Lawrence
s
Its good to be here! city!
13 Liverpool Street, City
Best, of London,
Maria Emlia London, N1 0RW

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Simple Past Negative and Interrogative Forms

Observe as formas dos verbos em destaque nestas frases:


but he did not know how to manage his financial situation.
I did not ask anyone how to compose them.
O tempo em que se passa a ao o passado. Pelo contexto, conclui-se que
as aes expressas pelos verbos em destaque so negativas. Para expressar uma
ao negativa no passado, usa-se did not (ou didnt, na linguagem informal)
antes do infinitivo (sem to) dos verbos principais (regulares, como ask, ou
irregulares, como know). Essa forma vlida para todas as pessoas.

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they did not (didnt) know/ask etc.

Para formular perguntas sobre aes no passado, usa-se did no incio da


pergunta e o verbo fica na forma bsica (infinitivo sem to). Isso vlido para
todas as pessoas.

Did I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they know that story about Mozart?

Para respostas curtas, comuns em conversao, usa-se:

Yes, I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they did.


No, I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they didn't.

Em perguntas com pronomes ou advrbios interrogativos (question words


como what, which, who, where, when, how, how many, how long etc.), a question
word usada no incio da pergunta, logo seguida de did + sujeito + verbo na
forma bsica, sem to.
How did he do it?
1. Match the columns to find the answers.

a. What did he do? ( ) He appointed Mozart.

b. What did he become?


( ) He lived in Europe.
c. Why did he change the world
with his music? ( ) He composed symphonies.

d. How many pieces of music did he ( ) Because his music is loved all
write? over the world.

e. When did he die?


( ) He had a very successful career.
f. Where did he live?
( ) He became a composer.
g. What did he compose when he
was 9?
( ) He wrote over 600 of them.
h. Who did Joseph II appoint as court
composer? ( ) He died in 1791.

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2. The following images show absurd scenes, none of them corresponds to History. Work with
a classmate asking and answering in the negative short form.
Ilustraes: Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora

a. Santos-Dumont flew the b. Tarsila do Amaral painted c. Oscar Niemeyer built the
first helicopter. (fly) the Mona Lisa. (paint) Great Wall of China. (build)

d. American astronauts went to e. Jorge Amado created Harry f. Princess Diana lived in
Mars in 1969. (go) Potter. (create) Brazil. (live)

3. Work with a classmate. Write 5 sentences about what you think he or she did yesterday.
Examples:

He played video games.


He watched TV.
He did his homework.
He listened to some music.
He went to a friends house.
4. Now ask questions to your classmate to find out if your sentences are
correct. Then change places. Example:
Did you play video games yesterday? To learn more
about this topic, go to
Yes, I did. /No, I didnt.
MINIGRAMMAR 31.

READING & SPEAKING

Who Is He and Who Is She?


1. Em casa, faa uma pesquisa na Internet, em livros ou revistas (de preferncia em ingls)
sobre um artista de sua preferncia.
2. Na aula, faa perguntas a um colega para tentar descobrir quem a personalidade
pesquisada por ele. Por fim, troquem os papis.

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WRITING

Comments and Suggestions


1. A rdio YHWM quer ouvir voc. Escolha um artista ou compositor do
passado sobre o qual voc gostaria de saber mais e escreva no website da rdio
pedindo que faam um programa sobre ele ou ela. Inclua tambm algumas
perguntas que voc gostaria que fossem respondidas nesse programa.
2. Voc pode escolher um dos artistas abaixo ou qualquer outro que
prefira. Mas lembre-se de que esse artista deve ser do passado.
Reproduo/<http://www.
beethoven-haus-bonn.de>

Gary Null/NBC/Getty Images

K & K Ulf Kruger OHG/


Redferns/Getty Images
Ludwig van Beethoven Elvis Presley John Lennon
Coleo particular/
Arquivo da editora

Carl de Souza/Agncia
France-Presse/Getty Images

David Redfern/Getty Images

Chiquinha Gonzaga Michael Jackson Ella Fitzgerald

3. Preencha o formulrio abaixo e escreva sua sugesto no local adequado.

H W M
Y 17, FM
2 HOME | RADIO | NEWS | LISTEN ON-LINE | CONTACT US

Full name:

E-mail:

Suggestions:
I want to know more about ...
Because he/she was ... I have some questions like ...

4. No final, troque o livro com seu colega e veja sobre qual artista ele
gostaria de saber mais. Se souber, responda a alguma pergunta dele.

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Another Look at...
The Mozart Effect
In pop culture, the Mozart Effect

Aaron Amat/Shutterstock/Glow Images


is a theory that is concerned with the
transformational powers of music (usually
classical) in areas of mental and physical health,
child development, and holistic well-being.
Why music?
Music is important for individual growth
and early-development because...
it helps in brain and language development;
it serves as a link in learning to read;
it provides mental tools for problem solving;
it enhances cognitive and behavioral skills;
it fosters self-esteem and greater emotional
awareness;
it improves spatial-temporal reasoning.

Lets go back to Mozart and why hes so special. Neurologist John Hughes
at the University of Illinois Medical Center proposes that because Mozart has a
habit of repeating certain melodic phrases with slight variation, it gave people
something interesting to listen to Our brain loves pattern. Mozarts melodies
tend to repeat every 20-30 seconds, which is about the same length of time as
brain-wave patterns and other functions of the central nervous system.
(Adapted from: The Mozart Effect. Available at: <http://mqjeffrey.hubpages.com/hub/The-Mozart-Effect>.
Access: Mar. 4, 2013.)

1. Em resposta a Por que a msica?, afirma-se que ela importante para o


crescimento do indivduo e seu desenvolvimento. Das 6 razes que justificam essa
afirmao, qual a nica que no mencionada? A msica
acentua as habilidades cognitivas e comportamentais.
serve como elo na aprendizagem da leitura.
ajuda no desenvolvimento lingustico e do crebro.
ajuda na aquisio de tcnicas de dana.
fornece ferramentas mentais para a resoluo de problemas.
promove a autoestima e maior conscientizao emocional.
melhora o raciocnio espaotemporal.

2. Segundo o neurologista John Hughes, o que nosso crebro ama?

3. Qual a tendncia de repetio das frases meldicas na obra musical de Mozart?

4. Onde isso acontece mais ou menos no mesmo espao de tempo?

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uvir Mozart, ou a msica de outros grandes mestres,

THINK
O uma conhecida fonte de prazer. Alm disso, alguns
cientistas afirmam que esse hbito pode melhorar
a memria e o desempenho na aprendizagem. Estudos
realizados nos anos 1990 na Universidade da Califrnia
ABOUT IT pelo neurofisiologista Gordon Shaw e a psicloga Frances
Rauscher concluram que ouvir a msica de Mozart torna
as pessoas mais inteligentes. Alunos da universidade, aps
ouvirem
10 minutos da
Sonata K 448 para dois pianos em
d maior, de Mozart, mostravam

Sergej Khakimullin/Shutterstock/Glow Images


uma clara melhoria na resoluo
de problemas de matemtica ou
de xadrez. o chamado Efeito
Mozart. Todos sabemos que ouvir
msica altamente recomendvel. Faz bem ao
esprito, afasta os pensamentos negativos, melhora a
disposio, inspira a criatividade, ilumina a nossa mente e,
segundo esses cientistas, pode melhorar o desempenho
intelectual. Vale a pena tambm explorar o mundo
que a msica clssica oferece. Como introduo
msica de Mozart, por exemplo, sugerimos
que oua Eine Kleine Nachtmusik. Voc vai se
surpreender, vai ver que Mozart j fazia parte
de sua vida. Continue sua descoberta da
obra desse gnio da humanidade.

Discuta esse assunto com seus colegas e professores, principalmente


os de Arte e de Filosofia.

Exploring Other Sources

CAMPBELL, Don. O Efeito Mozart. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco, 2001.


MAIZTEGUI Casas, Lincoln. Mozart por trs da mscara. So Paulo: Planeta, 2006.
AMADEUS. Direo: Milos Forman. Produo: Saul Zaentz. Distribuio: Orion Pictures
Corporation, 1984.
MOZARTHAUS Vienna. Available at: <www.mozarthausvienna.at/en>. Access: Mar. 4, 2013.
THE MOZART Effect Resource Center. Available at: <www.mozarteffect.com/InTheNews.php>.
Access: Mar. 4, 2013.

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Check Your English 2
1. Complete the dialogue with the words in 2. Read Text I and answer the questions that follow.
parentheses, as appropriate. Text I
When I was 5 years old,

George Stroud/Express/Getty Images


Mark: Susan, I a very simple
my mother always told me
question for you. (have am) that happiness was the key to
life. When I went to school,
Susan: Well, what is it, Mark? I
they asked me what I wanted
curious. (m have) to be when I grew up, I wrote
Mark: trees pollute the air? down happy. They told
me I didnt understand the
(Do Does)
assignment, and I told them
Susan: No, they . Of course not. they didnt understand life. John Lennon
(do dont) a. Segundo a me de Lennon qual era a chave, o
segredo, da vida?
Mark: Do make a lot of noise?
(they it)
b. O que perguntaram a ele na escola?
Susan: Mark! You know a tree
make any noise. (doesnt dont)
c. Qual foi a resposta dele para a pergunta acima?
Mark: Do they give us the oxygen that we
? (breathe spoil)
d. Na frase I told them they didnt understand life a
Susan: Yes, of course they do. What are you quem them e they se referem?
to say, Mark? (try trying)

Mark: Well, if the tree is friend, 0.25 point each /1

why do we destroy it? (ours our) 3. Complete the sentences with object pronouns.
Susan: Well, I dont know.
me him her us them

Susan have an answer to a. Santos-Dumont is the name of an airport in Rio.


that question. (dont doesnt) He was a national hero. What do you know about
?

What about you? Do you? Give the answer you b. Americans believe Orville and Wilbur Wright, the
Wright Brothers, were the first to fly a heavier-than-
think is right.
-air machine. Do you agree with ?
c. You and I need help with this exercise. Can the
teacher help ?
d. Ella Fitzgerald was a great singer. I really like
.
e. Tom Jobim was Brazilian, just like you and .

0.15 point each /1.5 0.2 point each /1

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4. Put the words below in the correct order to 6. Read Text III and answer the questions that
make questions. follow.
a. Mozart / career / a / did / enjoy / successful Text III
The Apple and The Moon
b. fly / the / aircraft / Santos-Dumont / first / did
One man Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
presented the world with three fundamental
c. live / Paris / did / Santos-Dumont / in discoveries: the method of calculus, which is
the basis for much of modern mathematics;
the spectral composition of light along with
d. many / musical / write / Mozart / did / compositions the fundamentals of optics; and the law of
universal gravitation and the basic laws of
mechanics. Newton was then twenty-three
e. Santos-Dumont / did / win / Paris / race / a / air
years old.
The story about Newton and the apple is
0.3 point each /1.5 not a legend. Newton frequently described
it himself. He saw an apple fall from a tree to
5. Read Text II and answer the questions that follow. the ground at a time when the moon was in
the evening sky. He asked himself if the moon
Text II was attracted by the same force the apple was
A Short Story the rest is history. But there is one part of
Ernest Hemingway, the author of The Old the story that is not true. When it fell, the
Man and the Sea, Farewell to Arms, For apple did not hit Newton on the head. That is
Whom the Bell Tolls, and many other great a legend.
novels, wrote in short, declarative sentences, a (Adapted from: ASIMOV, Isaac. Book of Facts. New York:
powerful style of writing that became famous for Grosset & Dunlap, 1979.)
its brevity and concision.
Once somebody challenged Hemingway to Choose the best sentence ending to complete
write a full story in no more than six words. each sentence.
Hemingway responded immediately, FOR SALE:
BABY SHOES, NEVER WORN. a. Newton made important contributions in all these
fields of science, except...
a. Cite uma das obras do escritor em questo que
tem a ver com o mar. mathematics.
optics.
b. Como se caracterizava o seu estilo literrio? mechanics.
medicine.
c. Qual o limite de palavras da histria que ele foi
b. The scientist was in the garden when he saw
desafiado a criar?
an apple...
fall on his head.
d. Que histria ele criou ento?
fall from the moon.
hit the evening sky.
e. A partir dessas palavras, como voc desenvolveria
a histria sugerida pela imaginao de Hemingway? hit the ground.
c. Newton... talked about the observations he made
when he saw that falling apple.
never
always
once
0.3 point each /1.5
often

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d. The scientist discovered that the same force that A reduo da mortalidade adulta e a criao
made the apple fall down (and not up) was also de parcerias globais.
attracting...
A promoo da igualdade de gneros e a
the sky. erradicao da pobreza.

the moon. A parceria global para o desenvolvimento e a


valorizao das crianas.
the laws.
A garantia da sustentabilidade ambiental e o
a legend.
combate ao trabalho infantil.
e. When Newton saw that apple fall from the tree, he
0.5 point each /0.5
was inspired to formulate his theory of...

the method of calculus. 8. (Unicamp-SP-2012)

the spectral composition of light.

gravitation.

the basic laws of mechanics.

0.3 point each /1.5

7. (Enem-2010)

(Adapted from: POST Secret Archive. Available at:


<http://postsecretarchive.com/2005/09/9-3-2005/>.
Access: Oct. 16, 2012.)

a. A que experincia o autor do post acima faz


referncia?

Disponvel em: <http://www.chris-alexander.co.uk/1191>.


Acesso em: 28 jul. 2010 (adaptado).

Definidas pelos pases-membros da


b. Por que motivo o autor da mensagem se sente
Organizao das Naes Unidas e por
agradecido?
organizaes internacionais, as metas de
desenvolvimento do milnio envolvem oito
objetivos a serem alcanados at 2015. Apesar
da diversidade cultural, esses objetivos,
mostrados na imagem, so comuns ao mundo
todo, sendo dois deles:
O combate AIDS e a melhoria do ensino
0.75 point each /1.5
universitrio.

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SELF-EVALUATION (UNITS 4, 5 AND 6) ( ) understand and use verbs in the Simple Present
Tense Interrogative Form, with or without
How did you do? What was your score? question words
Can ( ) understand and use verbs in the Simple Past
Excellent Good OK
do better ( ) distinguish between the several uses
Test total:
10-9 8-7 6-5 less than 5 of the -ing form
out of 10
( ) distinguish between the use of personal
pronouns and their function as reference words
How do you evaluate your own progress?
( ) listen to an interview and a radio program and
Check ( ) for Yes, (X) for No, or (R) for Review
understand their essence
Units 4, 5 and 6 after each of the topics below.
( ) role-play a dialogue and an interview
Now I can ( ) write a comment or a suggestion
( ) identify the meaning and use of the words in ( ) write a paragraph about a story
noun phrases ( ) reflect and debate about man's capacity for
( ) guess the meanings of new words from context improvement: invention and creativity in the past

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Can You Live Without It?
17 The Internet is the
worlds largest library.
Its just that all the
books are on the floor.
John Allen Paulos,
professor of Mathematics
at Temple University,
Philadelphia.
David Deas/Dk Stock/Getty Images

What do the Internet and a library have in common? Why does Professor Paulos say that in the
Internet all the books are on the floor? Is the information from the Net always well organized?
What do you know about the Internet? Develop hypotheses about the information in the text
and check it as you read.

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READING

Before You Read

The following words are all from Can You Live Without It? Find them in
the text and write P for positive meaning or N for negative meaning.

a. ( ) wise d. ( ) useful g. ( ) silly


b. ( ) fear e. ( ) garbage h. ( ) misinformation
c. ( ) darkness f. ( ) information i. ( ) clever

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

The Internet is a worldwide


medium for exchanging information
and opinions, from wise to silly. We
can read newspapers from distant
5 lands, see our own house from
ages
outer space, watch breaking news erstock
/Glo
w Im
hutt
3D/S
in real time via video. We can buy Bilan

and sell anything from houses to the clearing that we


automobiles, do on-line banking, have made in the dark
10 reserve a restaurant table, without jungle of ignorance and fear,
leaving home. 30 pushing away the surrounding
Planet Earth is now a really small darkness.
world. The connected generation What lies beyond that light is
sends and receives e-mail and text just a supposition. Nobody can offer
15 messages, shares audio and video more than clever suppositions.
files, exchanges pictures and 35 By definition, we cannot imagine
real-time video from cell phones what we cannot imagine. Many
and laptops almost anywhere on Web surfers are frustrated by the
the planet. enormous amount of content
20 Combining tools with language, the available. Its hard to distinguish
Internet is an enormous step toward 40 garbage from nutrition, useful
global connectivity. We now have the information from misinformation.
opportunity to create the so-called Searching for information on-line
global village. But what is the future is like trying to get a glass of water
25 of the Internet? Perhaps the Internet from Niagara Falls. But can you live
is our village campfire, illuminating 45 without it?

(Adapted from: Discovers 20 Things You Didnt Know About Everything. Discover Magazine, New York, 2008.)

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General Comprehension
Read the title of the text. What does it refer to? Choose the best answer.

library Planet Earth


glass of water from Niagara Falls the Internet

Finding the Main Idea


Which of the following sentences shows the main idea (not just the
details) of the text?

By using the Internet it is perfectly easy to separate relevant information


from information that has no value.
For people who live in the jungle, the Internet brings nothing but
ignorance and fear.
There are negative and positive sides to the use of the Internet, but it is a
powerful tool when you use it wisely.
By using the Internet you can read a great number of books but first you
have to pick them up from the floor.
We can read
newspapers from
Word Study distant lands.

In Other Words
Match the two columns finding the right definition for the following
words and phrases.
a. available ( ) move (something) away with force

b. breaking news ( ) is outside the limits of that area


c. clearing ( ) able to be obtained or used

es
d. garbage ( ) very recent news

ag
Im
low
e. lies beyond that light ( ) instruments, pieces of equipment
G
ck/
rsto
tte

f. misinformation ( ) incorrect or false information


hu
n/S
dri

g. push away ( ) sensible, based on good judgment


Be

h. tools ( ) an area in a forest where there is no vegetation


i. wise ( ) waste material that people throw away

Words in Context

Complete the sentences with the correct words, as adequate.

a. A campfire produces heat and .

fear darkness clearing light glass of water

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b. All that information is freely on the Internet.

surrounding largest available clever connected

c. Speech is a very important of communication.

step floor file amount tool

d. When you a video file with someone, you allow the other person to see
it too.

share distinguish buy sell push away

e. When you for information on-line, you try to find it on the Internet.

watch send search exchange receive

f. You can carry a around with you. Its a good tool of communication.

surfer outer space cell phone jungle connected generation

g. The future is our control. We can only offer suppositions about it.

toward beyond without almost perhaps

h. They made a decision when they voted for a reduction on the emissions
of CO2.

silly dark wise frustrated so-called

Discourse Markers
1. Complete the table with the ideas expressed by the discourse markers
that can be found in Can You Live Without It?. Choose from the box.

similarity possibility origin contrast range; variety absence; exclusion

Can Discourse
you live Line Portuguese Idea
without it? Marker
3, 8 from... to desde... at

4, 5, 7, from de
40, 41, 44

10, 45 without sem

24, 44 but mas

25 perhaps talvez

43 like como; igual a


Auremar/Shutterstock/Glow Images

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2. Now complete the sentences with those discourse markers, as adequate.
a. Professor Paulos compares the Internet to a very large library. Its
an enormous disorganized library.

b. When you go on-line you can do a lot of things leaving home.

c. You can now see your own house outer space.

d. The Internet is a marvelous tool of communication, there are


problems.

e. the future of Planet Earth is linked to the future of the


Internet. Thats a possibility.

Noun Phrases
Scan the text to find the adjectives or nouns that complete the following
phrases:
The world is just
a. of water copo-dgua a click away.

b. information informaes teis


c. medium meio (de comunicao) mundial
d. space espao exterior
e. of content quantidade de contedo
f. news notcias muito recentes
g. phones telefones celulares
h. of ignorance and selva de ignorncia e medo
i. darkness escurido em volta
j. Niagara cataratas do Nigara

Detailed Comprehension Austin Adams/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Identifying False Information

All the following statements are not true, according to Can You Live Without It?. Identify the
false word in each sentence and change it to make the statement true.
a. The Internet is a national medium for exchanging information and opinions.
b. Planet Earth is now a really enormous world.
c. We now have the opportunity to create the so-called global garbage.
d. Many Web surfers are frustrated by the small amount of content available.
e. Searching for misinformation on-line is like trying to get a glass of water from Niagara Falls.
f. The Internet is the worlds largest bookstore.
g. The Internet is an enormous step beyond global connectivity.

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STRUCTURE

Uses of the -ing Form


Em Can You Live Without It? voltamos a encontrar exemplos dos vrios usos
do sufixo -ing. Nesse texto h exemplos de uso do -ing em formas verbais que
correspondem ao gerndio, ao infinitivo, a substantivos e at a adjetivos.

Correlacione as colunas abaixo, encontrando na coluna da direita a


traduo adequada aos trechos que contm esses usos do -ing.

a. for exchanging ( ) buscar informaes


b. breaking news ( ) iluminando
c. without leaving home ( ) para trocar
d. on-line banking ( ) sem sair de casa
e. illuminating ( ) escurido em volta
f. the clearing ( ) a clareira
g. pushing away ( ) notcias muito recentes
h. surrounding darkness ( ) como tentar
i. searching for information ( ) transaes bancrias pela Internet
j. like trying ( ) afastando

Relative Pronoun What


What (que; o que; qual) usado como pronome interrogativo, em perguntas
de sentido geral.
But what is the future of the Internet?
What pode tambm ser usado como pronome relativo, neste caso
correspondendo a o que, aquilo que.
We cannot imagine what we cannot imagine.

O pronome relativo what usado com verbo no singular.


What lies beyond that light is just a supposition.
Complete a traduo das frases:

a. Mas o futuro da Internet?

b. Ns no podemos imaginar no podemos imaginar.

c. est alm dessa luz s uma suposio.

Rewrite the following sentences replacing the thing(s) that with the
relative pronoun what.
a. The thing that the world needs now is love, sweet love.

b. I want to know exactly the things that happened.

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c. Im sorry but I cant tell you the thing that she told me. Its a secret.

d. The thing that he said is not true. He is a liar.

e. The time is always right to do the thing that is right. (Martin Luther King, Jr.)

importante no confundir esse uso de what (o que, aquilo que) com o pronome relativo that, cujo
significado que. Compare:
The thing that we all admire is courage.
What we all admire is courage.
Depois dos indefinidos something, everything, anything, nothing, all e da expresso the only
thing, usa-se that e no what.
This information is now available and it is free. You can take anything that you want.
Complete the sentences with that or what.

a. Im sorry, but I cant give you you are asking me. Its beyond my control.
b. Its too late now. All we can do is wait and see.
c. Neymar can do with a soccer ball is really amazing.
d. Anything a man can imagine, other men can try to do.
e. a man can imagine, other men can try to do.

Can: Ability, Possibility, Permission, Requests To learn more


about this topic, go to
Observe as palavras em destaque nestas frases: MINIGRAMMAR 34.

We can read newspapers from distant lands, [] we can buy and sell anything from houses to
automobiles
Nobody can offer more than clever suppositions.
We cannot imagine what we cannot imagine.
But can you live without it?

Pelo contexto, conclui-se que as palavras em destaque so formas do verbo can, que corresponde a
poder, nesses casos usado para expressar capacidade ou possibilidade.
O mesmo verbo, ainda com o significado de poder, aparece em outros contextos, para:
expressar permisso: fazer um pedido:
You can go now, if you wish. I dont have a cell phone. Can I use yours?
He can park only in the parking lot. Can you help me with this problem?

Para expressar capacidade, habilidade (natural ou aprendida), can pode corresponder a:


poder
Can I help you?
Can you live without the Internet?
Mas mais comum como:
saber
If you can read this sentence, thank a teacher.
Can he speak English?

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Can tambm pode ser usado para expressar uma possibilidade em potencial, algo que acontece
esporadicamente.
Going to a funeral can be a sad experience.
Temperatures in Rio can reach above 40 C in summer.
Can, alm de expressar vrias ideias, tambm especial por pertencer ao grupo dos chamados
modal verbs, verbos com formas e caractersticas prprias. Os modal verbs (can, may, might, will, would,
should, must) tm forma nica, isto , no se acrescenta -s 3a pessoa do singular:

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they can use the Internet.

Alm disso, no podem vir antecedidos nem seguidos da partcula to; para expressar poder ou
saber no infinitivo, usa-se a expresso de sentido similar: to be able to.
I want to be able to (nunca to can) do something about that problem.
Por serem verbos auxiliares, no so usados com dont; no caso especfico de can, sua forma
negativa cant ou, em linguagem formal, cannot.
We cannot imagine what we cannot imagine.
Na forma interrogativa, can usado no incio da pergunta, sem o auxiliar do:
Can you live without it?

Can or Cant?
Look at the pictures, observe the situations and write can or cant + the verbs in parentheses.
Harry Engels/Getty Images

Jamie Grill/Blend Images/Getty Images

Helga Esteb/Shutterstock/Glow Images Tetra Images/Getty Images

a. Daniel Dias amazingly well! He won six gold medals in the Paralympic Games in
2012. (swim)

b. Lady Gaga and very well. (sing; dance)

c. My friend Debbie chess. (play)

d. Mom, I tonight? (go out)

No, you ! You have to tidy up your room.

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LISTENING

Search on The Net


1. Voc sabe o que so as extenses (por exemplo, .com, .org, .gov etc.)
nos endereos dos sites na Internet? Associe as extenses abaixo aos
tipos de sites/empresas e descubra.

a. .tur.br ( ) sites de faculdades nacionais


b. .art.br ( ) sites nacionais relacionados s Artes
c. .com.br ( ) sites nacionais relacionados a esportes em geral
d. .edu.br ( ) sites de instituies no governamentais nacionais
e. .esp.br ( ) sites nacionais de comrcio em geral
f. .org.br ( ) sites internacionais de comrcio
g. .com ( ) sites do governo brasileiro
h. .gov.br ( ) sites de empresas nacionais de turismo

18 2. Voc vai ouvir Susan e Mark conversando sobre pesquisa na


Internet. Oua a conversa entre eles e sublinhe as opes verdadeiras.

a. Mark precisa fazer uma pesquisa para o trabalho de (Histria / Geografia).

b. Ele j pesquisou na (biblioteca / Internet), mas ainda quer pesquisar na


(biblioteca / Internet).

c. Susan (conhece / no conhece) um bom website para indicar para Mark.

d. Mark acha (fcil / difcil) saber se um site confivel ou no.

19 3. Oua agora a continuao da conversa e marque as dicas


verdadeiras sobre pesquisa na Internet dadas por Susan.

Sites terminados em .edu so os nicos confiveis.

Procurar por artigos assinados e verificar se o autor conhecido uma boa dica.

Sites de universidades so em geral uma fonte confivel.

Podemos consultar qualquer site para uma pesquisa escolar.

Sites do governo so fontes confiveis de estatsticas e relatrios.

Sites de ONGs podem ser bons, mas preciso ter um certo cuidado ao
pesquisar neles.

Sites de jornais e revistas conhecidas so boas fontes de informao.

Os sites terminados em .gov so governamentais e no podemos acess-los.

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SPEAKING

Searching the Net


1. As palavras e locues abaixo foram usadas no dilogo entre Susan e
Mark. Associe-as aos significados.
a. crucial ( ) an informal way of saying yes
b. relevant ( ) something that is very significant,
valued or necessary
c. sure
( ) extremely important
d. important ( ) to look at (someone or something)
e. to take a look at ( ) a synonym for important

2. Observando as dicas de Susan na atividade da pgina anterior e alguns


itens abaixo converse com mais um ou dois colegas sobre outras dicas que
vocs acham relevantes ao fazer uma pesquisa na Internet. Tentem usar
pelo menos duas palavras do exerccio acima. Veja alguns exemplos:

What We Can What We


Examples Tips
Do Mustn't Do

I always check to check to navigate to use


the information the relevance on websites copyrighted
in other sources. I of the from material
think it is crucial information universities
for any research. to your topic to copy
to ask a texts from
Thats true! But to look teacher for sites to use
I think its also at a variety tips on what in a paper
important to look at of sources sites you without
a variety of sources before should visit mentioning
before choosing one. choosing one the source
to ask your
Yes, and for to check parents for to navigate
statistics and when the help on unreliable
reports it can be information sites
relevant to take was posted
a look at some
government sites. to verify the
information
Sure! in other
sources
And its important
to navigate on sites
from universities.

Sure, but we cant


use copyrighted
material.

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3. Fale para o restante da sala sobre as dicas que voc e os colegas do seu
grupo conversaram. Exemplo:

What our group concluded is that its important to use different sources before
picking one. Also, we think we can navigate on websites from universities, but
we cant use copyrighted material.

WRITING

Your Message on a Social Network


1. Para ampliar sua pesquisa na Internet, Mark postou uma mensagem
em uma rede social para que os amigos pudessem sugerir outras dicas de
pesquisa e de sites interessantes. Leia a mensagem e algumas respostas
com ateno.
Banco de imagens/Arquivo da editora

Mark L
Hi guys!
I need to write a paper about social inequality.
Any good tips for me?

Like Comment yesterday

2 people like this

Sarah Johnson
hi mark, how r u doing??? hmm... I'm not sure,
but you can try www.un.org?!
miss you!! :)
Ilustraes: Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora

about 4 hours ago Like


Daniel Souza
maybe a university website
about 4 hours ago Like

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2. Ao trocarmos mensagens com amigos e colegas pela Internet,
especialmente em redes sociais, utilizamos alguns recursos mais informais
da lngua. Enumere pelo menos trs desses recursos nas respostas dos
amigos de Mark.

a.

b.

c.

3. Escreva uma resposta para Mark. Em seguida, troque com um colega e


veja a resposta dele. Verifiquem se o texto est adequado.
Banco de imagens/Arquivo da editora

Mark L
Hi guys!
I need to write a paper about social inequality.
Any good tips for me?

Like Comment yesterday

2 people like this

write a comment
Ilustraes: Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora

seconds ago Like

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Another Look at...
An Extraordinary Invention

Tim Berners-Lee studied physics at Oxford

Andreas Rentz/Getty Images


University and by 1980 was writing software
at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle
Physics in Geneva. Dreaming of improved
communications between scientists, by 1990 he
invented the software for building web pages and
linking them to others via the Internet. In the CERN
cafeteria he came up with a name for his system:
World Wide Web. The inventor of such a wonderful
communication tool deserves to be considered
an extraordinary man. Can you think of other Tim Berners-Lee,
extraordinary people like him? World Wide Web inventor

1.6 BILLION: The estimated number of people across the world who surf the
Internet every month. Thats about one in four of the worlds total estimated 6.7
billion inhabitants.
(HART-DAVIS, Adam (ed.). Science - The Definitive Visual Guide. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2012.)

Com base nas informaes dos textos acima, responda:

a. Em que universidade Tim Berners-Lee estudou e qual a matria?


b. O que ele estava fazendo, antes de 1980, no Laboratrio de Fsica de Partculas,
em Genebra?
c. Quando ele inventou o programa que batizou de WWW e o que isso significa?
d. Em que local do Laboratrio estava o inventor quando criou o nome para o sistema?
e. Quantas pessoas, no mundo inteiro, utilizam a Internet a cada ms?

(Elbert Hubbard)

Ilike
/Sh
utte
rsto
ck/G
low
Ima
ges

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voc, can you live without it? Todos sabemos que

THINK
Ea Internet an amazing tool of communication, a
grande rede que mantm as pessoas ligadas entre
si e fornece informaes de todo o planeta, oferece
consulta e pesquisa para todos os tipos de servios e
ABOUT IT produtos, mas
Um estudo recente buscava saber qual das trs
invenes modernas seria mais importante na vida diria
das pessoas: o computador, a televiso ou o telefone celular.
Adivinhe quem foi o vencedor? Sim, o computador, of course,
seguido por pequena diferena pelo telefone celular. Voc concorda? Faria a
mesma escolha?
E que tipo de internauta voc declara ser? Exagerado (quase viciado),
moderado, controlado, desinteressado? Quanto do seu tempo voc passa
on-line? Buscando informaes, checando seu in-mail box, jogando video games,
assistindo a vdeos, participando de fruns ou no seu chat room preferido? Ficar
muitas horas sentado, de olho e mente na telinha, acaba tirando uma parte
importante do seu tempo, afastando-o da prtica de exerccios fsicos ou do
convvio com os amigos. Vamos

Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock/Glow Images


l, own up !
A Internet , sem dvida,
uma maravilha que veio para
revolucionar (for the better)
as nossas vidas e fazer deste
planeta uma pequena global
village. Mas, como todas as
maravilhas, too much of a
good thing pode ser demais.
Moderation, como sempre, is the
name of the game.

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores,


principalmente o de Filosofia.

Exploring Other Sources


BLUM, Andrew. Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet. New York: Ecco, 2012.
BRYANT, Stephen. The Story of the Internet. So Paulo: Longman do Brasil, 2010.
A REDE social. Direo: David Fincher. Produo: Columbia Pictures, Relativity Media.
Distribuio: Columbia Pictures, 2010.
GET Safe Online. Available at: <www.getsafeonline.org>. Access: Mar. 6, 2013.
25 SITES We Cant Live Without. Time. Available at: <www.time.com/time/business/
article/0,8599,1222769,00.html>. Access: Mar. 6, 2013.

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Robots R Us?
20 Robots are getting smarter
every day. Human beings better
be thinking about science fiction
becoming reality.
Album/20TH Century Fox / Latinstock

You are going to read a text about some incredible machines. First look at the picture and
the title of the text. What do you know about robots? Watching movies like I, Robot, and
Wall-E and reading science fiction novels of the past we see robots as helpers or servants of
humanity. But real robots are very different. They can do lots of jobs, perform lots of tasks,
they can even play soccer! What new information about robots do you expect to find in the
text? Make your own predictions and check them as you read the text.

109

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READING

Before You Read


The words below are all from Robots R Us?. Do those words have a
positive or a negative meaning? Write P for positive and N for negative
next to each word.
a. ( ) dangerous c. ( ) dirty e. ( ) champions
b. ( ) proud d. ( ) enhance f. ( ) worst

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

Robots are already The 17th annual RoboCup soccer tournament


Yoshikazu Tsuno/AFP/Getty Images

a part of our lives. will take place in July 2014 in Joo Pessoa,
They do jobs that are Paraba, Brazil. Teams composed of
too dirty, boring, autonomous robots (no joysticks or remote
risky, difficult or controls) will pass, kick, and shoot against
impossible for us: each other according to official soccer rules.
they are vacuuming RoboCups mission is to develop a robotic team
the floors in your that will play head-to-head with the World
home and exploring Cup soccer champions by the year 2050. Will
the surface of Mars. the robots win? Well have to wait and see.
Industrial robots Within a few more years we will build
are widely used in machines that not only equal but surpass
manufacturing. human intelligence well see cyborgs
Military and police organizations use robots to (machine-enhanced humans like the one in
assist in dangerous situations. I, Robot and the one in Robocop), androids
Within the next 10 years, says Joanne (human-robot hybrids like The Terminator), a
Pransky, a scientist who calls herself the worlds future we cant even imagine. Many scientists
first robotic psychiatrist, were going to see a think the robots of science fiction will soon
transformation between the industrial kind of become a reality. We will use the abilities of
robots, to personal robots. I will be the proud our machine creations to enhance and redesign
owner of a domestic robot that will do household ourselves. But what role will those machines
cleaning, and prepare and serve my meals, and play in human society? Cultural and ethical
will also carry me to the bathtub if I cant walk, values will be as important as the available
monitor my vital signs, and if I need a medical technology in developing future robots. Will
specialist from a distant town, will remotely robots become mans new best friends or our
become his or her eyes, hands, and ears. rivals? Or, worst scenario, our enemies?

(Adapted from: BAY, Michael; FORD, Matt. Available at: Robots: The Future Is Now. <http://edition.cnn.com/2006/TECH/
science/04/14/fs.roboticsprofile>; Forum: Robots R Us? Available at: <www.post-gazette.com/stories/opinion/perspectives/
forum-robots-r-us-434003/> Access: Mar. 6, 2013)

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General Comprehension
Reading Between the Lines
Observe the title of the text and choose the best answers.

a. Na criao do ttulo do texto, o autor usou a letra R porque


essa a letra inicial de robots, que o assunto do texto.
ela pronunciada como are, e com o sentido de are
que a pergunta feita.
b. O ponto de interrogao nesse ttulo sugere
a nossa profunda ligao com os robs.
um ponto de partida para um debate sobre a ligao entre robs e a
humanidade.
c. Mantendo o mesmo sentido, a pergunta do ttulo poderia ter sido feita
com outra estrutura. Qual?
Are they robots?
Are robots us?

Finding the Main Ideas


The text contains 4 paragraphs. Write the number of each paragraph next
to the heading you think contains its main idea.

a. ( ) Robots are super soccer players!


b. ( ) Robots in our lives tomorrow.
c. ( ) Robots in the Future: Our friends, rivals, or enemies?
d. ( ) Robots in our lives today.

Word Study
In Other Words
Match the two columns to find the right definition of each word or
phrase:

a. available ( ) improve, make better


b. by the year 2050 ( ) happen
c. enhance ( ) an influence, an action
d. head-to-head ( ) before 2050
e. machine-enhanced ( ) a series of games, a Cup
f. a role ( ) improved by a machine
g. surpass ( ) able to be obtained or used
h. take place ( ) competing directly
i. a tournament ( ) in, inside a period of time
j. within ( ) be even better than

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Finding Opposites
Match the columns with words of opposite meanings.

a. lose ( ) distant
b. safe ( ) proud
c. clean ( ) household
d. exciting ( ) risky
e. humble; modest ( ) friends
f. nearby ( ) win
g. enemies ( ) boring
h. public ( ) dirty

Discourse Markers
Observe the words in bold in the sentences below and mark the idea
expressed by each of them.
a. and will also carry me to the bathtub if I cant walk, monitor my vital
signs, and if I need a medical specialist from a distant town
addition; condition time; contrast result; time purpose; emphasis
es
tterstock/Glow Imag

b. Cyborgs (machine-enhanced humans like the one in I, Robot), androids


(human-robot hybrids like The Terminator), a future we cant even imagine.
cause effect purpose example
hu
lker/S

c. Will robots become mans new best friends or our rivals?


twa
Ca

addition alternative purpose condition

Detailed Comprehension

"Who ordered True or False?


orange juice?"
Mark each sentence T (for true) or F (for false).

a. ( ) Robots do jobs we dont like, dont want to do or simply cannot do.


b. ( ) Some future robots will be more intelligent than we are.
c. ( ) Joanne Pransky is the scientist who will use a robot to explore the
surface of Mars.
d. ( ) Human intelligence will never be surpassed by machines created by
human beings.
e. ( ) The robots of science fiction will never become a reality.
f. ( ) Cultural and ethical values are not really important in developing
new robots.

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STRUCTURE

That Quando o que invisvel Future Time be + going to, will,


shall, Present Progressive (ou
Em ingls possvel omitir o pronome relativo
Continuous)
que corresponde ao nosso que, quando ele se
refere ao objeto do verbo. Assim, em vez de dizer: Em ingls existem vrias formas verbais para
objeto sujeito descrever aes no futuro. Uma das mais comuns
est destacada nestas frases:
a future that we cant even imagine.
objeto sujeito You are going to read a text about some
incredible machines. First look at the picture and
the cyborgs and androids that you saw in the movies. the title of the text. What is it going to be about?
possvel, e na linguagem informal muito Within the next 10 years, says Joanne
comum, omitir-se o that e dizer: Pransky, who calls herself the worlds first
a future we cant even imagine. robotic psychiatrist, were going to see a
the cyborgs and androids you saw in the movies. transformation between the industrial kind of
robots, to personal robots.
O mesmo that, traduzido por que, mas
funcionando como conjuno, depois de verbos Usa-se o presente do verbo to be + going
como think (achar que), know (saber que), to + a forma bsica do verbo principal para
believe (acreditar que), say (dizer que), falar de aes, planos, intenes quanto a um
tambm frequentemente omitido. futuro prximo ou previses, fatos que, pelas
evidncias (no presente), parece que vo
Many scientists think (that) the robots of acontecer (no futuro).
science fiction will soon become a reality. A forma be + going to corresponde, em
Em todas as frases abaixo, that foi omitido. portugus, ao uso do verbo ir, em expresses
Em cada frase, reescreva o trecho em que como eu vou fechar a janela, vai chover, voc
that poderia ter sido includo. vai cair, ela vai ter um beb etc.

a. Dr. Hansen believes what is happening to Im tired. Im going to take a rest.


the penguins is a disaster. Look at those dark clouds! Its going to rain!
Shes going to have a baby in June.

b. The factories that produce our computers Complete the sentences with the correct
and televisions, the planes we fly, and the form of to be + going to and the verbs in
cars we drive parentheses. Use the contracted form of to be
('m, 're, 's).

c. Trees make the oxygen we need to take in a. Careful! You !


from the air. (to fall)

d. Do you think the Amazon Forest has a b. Look at those cats! They
future? a fight. (to have)

c. Im thirsty. I
e. The Amazon Forest is a victim of the some water. (to drink)
attraction it holds for international groups
greedy for natural resources. d. Look at that car! It
crash! (to crash)

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Outra forma muito comum de expressar aes A forma interrogativa feita usando-se will no
no futuro com will, um modal verb que usado incio da pergunta, antes do sujeito.
antes do infinitivo (sem to) de outro verbo. Como
todos os modal verbs, will tem caractersticas Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they
remember that day?
especiais. Da mesma forma que o modal verb can
(Unit 7), will pode expressar mais de uma ideia. Scan the text to complete the sentences with
Alm de previso ou informao a respeito de the missing phrases, according to Robots
uma ao futura, will pode tambm expressar
R Us?.
a deciso, vontade, firme inteno ou promessa
de faz-la e pode ainda ser usado em perguntas a. What new information about robots
(com you) para fazer um pedido de maneira
in the text?
educada.

In the future, everybody will have a personal b. The 17th annual RoboCup soccer tournament
robot. in Brazil in July 2014.
I will survive!, thought the little boy after his
first day at school. c. the robots
Will you close the window, please? ? and

Como todos os modal verbs, will tem see.


caractersticas prprias. Assim, will (ou a forma
d. Within a few more years we
contrata ll) usado antes da forma bsica
machines that not only
(infinitivo sem to) do verbo principal. igual para
todas as pessoas. equal but surpass human intelligence.

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will always e. cyborgs, androids,


remember that first day at school. amazing companions in an amazing future.
I/you/he/she/it/we/you/theyll never
forget that day. Como vimos, quando o sujeito da orao
primeira pessoa (I ou we), shall poder ser usado
Com I e we possvel substituir will por shall
(em vez de will) para expressar ao futura, mas
(que tem a mesma forma contrata: ll), mas esse
s na linguagem formal. O emprego de shall
uso prprio da linguagem formal. Compare:
comum, no entanto, em perguntas com I ou we,
We will go to the party tomorrow.
quando se pedem instrues ou, ento, quando se
Well have a lot of fun, Im sure.
oferece, sugere ou convida.
We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in
France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans Its cold in here. Shall I close the window?
We shall never surrender. (Winston Churchill) Dinner is ready. Shall we eat now?

A forma negativa ocorre com o uso de not aps Outra forma verbal para expressar aes
will (will not ou a forma contrata wont, muito comum futuras o Present Progressive. Ele usado
em conversao), antes da forma bsica (sem to) do para indicar planos ou compromissos acertados
verbo principal. igual para todas as pessoas.
em relao a um futuro prximo. Em geral
I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will not menciona-se o tempo ou o contexto em que a
forget that first day at school. ao vai acontecer.
I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they wont What are you doing this weekend?
forget that day.
Were giving a surprise party for John.

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Match the columns with the correct questions and answers.
a. Lucky you! When are you leaving? ( ) Yes, lets go.
b. I cant see anything. Shall I turn on the light? ( ) Yes, please. A cup of coffee.
c. How are you getting there? ( ) Were going to Brazil!
d. Where are you going on holiday? ( ) Yes, please. Its dark in here.
e. You look tired. Shall I get you something to drink? ( ) Tomorrow morning.
f. Its getting late and I feel tired. Shall we go now? ( ) By plane, of course!

Reflexive Pronouns & Reciprocal Pronouns To learn more


about this topic, go to
Observe as palavras em destaque nestas frases: MINIGRAMMAR 32.

Joanne Pransky, a scientist who calls herself the worlds first robotic psychiatrist
We will use the abilities of our machine creations to enhance and redesign ourselves.
Herself, no primeiro exemplo, um pronome reflexivo que corresponde a Joanne Pransky ou, se
usssemos um pronome, she. Ourselves um pronome reflexivo que corresponde a we.
Os pronomes reflexivos so usados logo depois do verbo e de acordo com o sujeito, para indicar que
o sujeito faz e recebe os efeitos da ao. Na primeira frase Joanne Pransky se autodenomina the worlds
first robotic psychiatrist. Na segunda frase, ns usaremos a capacidade das mquinas que criarmos de
modo a melhorar e redesenhar a ns prprios.
Veja no quadro a relao entre os pronomes pessoais e os pronomes reflexivos.

Personal
Reflexive Pronouns
Pronouns
I myself me; a mim; eu mesmo
you yourself te; a ti; voc mesmo
he himself se; a si; ele mesmo
she herself se; a si; ela mesma
it itself se; a si; ele/ela mesmo/a
we ourselves nos; a ns; ns mesmos
you yourselves vos; a vs; vocs mesmos/as
they themselves se; a si; eles/elas mesmos/as

Fill in the blanks with reflexive pronouns, as adequate.

a. A friend is a present you give . (Robert Louis Stevenson)

b. When you eat garlic, it speaks for . (Russian proverb)

c. Tact is the ability to describe others as they see . (Abraham Lincoln)

d. It is by teaching that we teach . (Henri Frederic Amiel)


Os pronomes reflexivos podem tambm ser usados para dar nfase ao sujeito. Nesse caso, o pronome
vem aps o sujeito ou no final da orao. Observe a posio do pronome em destaque nas frases a seguir
e a consequente diferena de sentido. Na primeira frase o uso reflexivo, na segunda enftico.
Santos-Dumont killed himself in 1932. Santos-Dumont himself never flew an aircraft in warfare.

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Um outro sentido ainda possvel quando o pronome reflexivo precedido da
preposio by, numa expresso que significa sozinho, sem ajuda ou companhia.
Santos-Dumont was living by himself when he committed suicide.
Finalmente, observe nas situaes e legendas abaixo a diferena entre os pronomes
reflexivos e os pronomes que indicam reciprocidade (each other = one another),
que correspondem a um ao outro; uns aos outros

Thomas Perkins/Dreamstime.com

Jacek Chabraszewski/Dreamstime.com
They are painting themselves. They are painting each other/one another.

Complete the sentences with themselves or each other/one another.

a. The penguins protect from the Antarctic cold by


staying together, very near .

b. When the female returns from the sea, the two birds greet
.
To learn more
about this topic, go to c. Trees do not die, actually. They recycle for our
MINIGRAMMAR 7. benefit.

LISTENING

Interviewing a Robot
21 1. A revista I Love Robots est gravando uma entrevista com uma
personagem fora do comum: um rob! Oua um trecho dessa entrevista e
depois responda s perguntas sobre ele.

a. Qual o nome do rob?

b. Esse nome corresponde, em portugus, a rob mal-humorado,


rabugento. Pelo que percebemos na entrevista, esse nome adequado?

c. O rob capaz de caminhar? Em quantas pernas?

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d. Quantos microcontroladores funcionam como crebro e sistema nervoso
do rob?

e. Quais partes do rob permitem que ele fale?

f. Quantos motores eltricos possibilitam a locomoo dele?

g. O que o rob acha da ltima pergunta do entrevistador?

2. Complete o resumo da entrevista abaixo com as palavras do quadro. Em


seguida, escute o texto novamente para verificar as suas respostas.

Uh-oh talk magazine ridiculous motors ability

A reporter from I Love Robots has interviewed a robot called


Snappy Bot. Among its most amazing features is the to walk
on two legs. Snappy Bot is equipped with speakers so it can .
Besides, it has several used for different functions.
At the end of the interview the reporter asked the robot a question
and Snappy Bot gave him a snappy answer. The reporter just said .

SPEAKING

Interviewing a Friend
1. Todos ns aprendemos com o passado, vivemos o presente e fazemos
planos para o futuro. Neste exerccio vamos ser um pouco indiscretos com
relao ao futuro.
Entreviste um colega a respeito dos planos dele para o futuro imediato,
aquilo que ele planeja fazer daqui a pouco. Inicie as perguntas sempre com
Are you going to? e complete-as com as aes sugeridas no quadro. As
respostas podem ser positivas (Yes, I am.), negativas (No, Im not.) ou
incertas (I dont know./ Im not sure.).

go home right after school meet someone after class go to the movies tonight
study in the library this afternoon have lunch at home tomorrow
go on the computer this evening work out at the gym tomorrow
go to the shopping mall this afternoon

2. Agora, a vez de o seu colega fazer as perguntas a voc. Depois,


concluam:
a. Qual de vocs tem planos imediatos mais definidos?
b. Quem respondeu I dont know./ Im not sure mais vezes?

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WRITING

Movie Release
1. Observe a ficha abaixo e complete-a com os dados do quadro.

Real Steel When Who future boxing replace Action

INTERFOTO/Interfoto/Latinstock
Original name:
Movie name in Portuguese: Gigantes de Ao
Genre:
: 2011
: Hugh Jackman, Evangeline Lilly and Dakota Goyo
What: In the (2020), robots
humans in the popular sport of .

2. Complete a sinopse abaixo usando as palavras do box.

is set original title released in action movie stars replaced by

The movie Gigantes de Ao, whose in English is Real Steel is


an which was 2011. The movie in the
year 2020 when humans will be robots. Real Steel
are Hugh Jackman, Evangeline Lilly and Dakota Goyo.

3. Observe os aspectos da ficha e da sinopse acima e crie, em seu caderno,


uma ficha e uma sinopse semelhantes para um filme fictcio. As palavras e
as imagens abaixo podem ajud-lo na produo da ficha.

animation science fiction horror war fight create scare


fall in love protect family friends enemies terminate
Charles Taylor/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Lobke Peers/Shutterstock/Glow Images


Greglith/Shutterstock/Glow Images
Ociacia/Shutterstock/Glow Images

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Another Look at...
Robots

Find the phrases in the box that rhyme with each sentence beginning
with "When I say...". Write them down to complete the poem.

washes the car cleans the floor gets me something to drink walks the dog
makes the bed gets me something to eat takes a rest paints the wall

My Robot
My robot works every day,

Javier Pierini/Stone/Getty Images


Hes like a dream come true.
He does everything I say,
All the things I hate to do.

When I say one-two-three-four,


My robot .

When I say blue-green-white-red,


My robot .

When I say John-Mary-Peter-Paul,


My robot .

When I say Robot, youre so sweet!,


He .

When I say white-red-blue-pink,


He .

When I say Robot, youre a star!,


My robot .

And when I say Robot, youre the best!,


My robot .

And when I say Robot, look at the fog!,


My robot .

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s benefcios da robtica so conhecidos e

THINK
O promissores. No entanto, a possibilidade de
a integrao entre a robtica e a inteligncia
artificial vir a ser em breve uma realidade um tema para
debate. Questes culturais e ticas devem ser levadas em
ABOUT IT considerao quando abordamos os avanos da robtica.
Em maio de 2007, o governo da Coreia do Sul, um dos
pases que mais investem no desenvolvimento de robs,
encomendou a um grupo de cientistas, advogados e mdicos a
elaborao de um cdigo de
Digital Domain/20Th Century Fox/Bureau
L.A. Collection/Corbis/Latinstock

tica para a boa convivncia


entre humanos e robs. Esse
grupo apontou padres para
fabricantes e usurios e deve
basear suas normas nas trs
leis da robtica propostas por
Isaac Asimov, autor de fico
cientfica, em seu conto
Runaround, publicado em
1942, da coletnea I, Robot.

Three Laws of Robotics


A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come
to harm.
A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would
conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with
the First or Second Law.

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores,


principalmente o de Filosofia.

Exploring Other Sources

ASIMOV, Isaac. Eu, rob. Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro, 2004.


MEADOWS, Mark Stephen. Ns, robs: como a fico cientfica se torna realidade. So Paulo: Cultrix, 2011.
GIGANTES de ao. Direo: Shawn Levy, 2011. Produo: Shawn Levy. Distribuio: Walt Disney Pictures.
EU, ROB. Direo: Alex Proyas, 2004. Produo: John Davis e outros. Distribuio: Twentieth Century Fox
Entertainment.
TOP 10 Robots. Available at: <www.hollywood.com/static/top-10-robots>. Access: Mar. 6, 2013.
NEWSCIENTIST. Robots. Available at: <http://www.newscientist.com/topic/robots>. Access: Mar. 6, 2013.

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A Colony in the Sky?
22After humans get to Mars, theyll start
doing what comes naturally terraforming
Mars, turning it into another Earth.
Steven Hobbs/Stocktrek Images/Getty Images

Look at the image, read the title and


the lead. On which planet are the
astronauts? What are they doing? What
connection is there between that activity
and the title? What is your opinion
about that? Do you consider that a real
possibility in the near future? Or is it
possible only in science fiction? What do
they mean by terraforming Mars? Make
predictions, read the text and find out if
they were correct.

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READING

Before You Read


Fill in the blanks with 5 of the terms from the box. Careful! There is one
extra term in the box.

Solar System atmosphere Sun polar ice caps terrestrial planet planet

Mars is the fourth from the Sun in the .


It is a with a thin , volcanoes,
valleys, deserts, and .

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

Mars does resemble Earth in make it clear that

Reproduo/ 1996 Newsweek Inc.


several important ways general the process could
size, presence of water, length of take centuries. But
day, range of temperatures so it is an idea that
many similarities, in fact, that operates within
some people are beginning to ask physical reality as
if it might be possible to make we know it. But
Mars even more like Earth than it may work, its
it is now. And thats the question possible to do it.
that will shift us to the next level The recipe
of our fascination with the place: is simple. Add
the idea that we could live there, nitrogen and oxygen
that Mars could be terraformed. to the atmosphere; pump water be perfect for terraforming. So,
To terraform means to alter to the surface, cook for decades, because we have all the life forms
a planets surface until Earths spicing first with cyanobacteria, here at hand, we can try replaying
life forms can survive there. Its then with all the rest of Earths evolution at extreme fast forward.
a hypothetical discipline at this plants and animals, adding Of course it will be more
point, born in science-fiction them in the order they evolved complex than the recipe it
stories. But in the last 30 years a here. Mars is blessed with all always is. But its possible. Think
number of scientists have taken the ingredients called for in the of that! A colony in the sky, a new
up the concept. Their studies recipe; indeed Mars turns out to thing in history.

(ROBINSON, Kim Stanley. Colony in the Sky. Newsweek, Sep. 23, 1996. Available at: <http://www.thedailybeast.com/
newsweek/1996/09/22/a-colony-in-the-sky.html>. Access: Mar. 1, 2013.)
Reproduo/Wikimedia Commons

Kim Stanley Robinson is the author of a series


of award-winning science fiction novels (Red
Mars, Green Mars, Blue Mars, The Martians),
all about the large-scale human colonization of
Mars starting in 2026 and spanning 200 years.

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General Comprehension
Whats the Main Idea?
Read the sentences below and underline the main idea in the text.

a. The scientific community believes terraforming Mars is possible only in


science-fiction novels.
b. The idea that humans could live on Mars can become a reality in just a few years.
c. The idea of transforming the Martian environment into one that resembles
our planets environment is a real possibility.
d. There is neither oxygen nor nitrogen in Mars atmosphere.

Word Study
In Other Words
Match the columns to find the right definitions of the words or phrases on
the left:

a. turning it into ( ) set of instructions (for cooking etc.)


b. resemble ( ) necessary
c. length of day ( ) adopted, accepted
d. range ( ) is, in fact
e. shift us ( ) transforming it into
f. taken up ( ) how many hours a day has
g. recipe ( ) look like, appear similar to
h. evolved ( ) limits within which something varies
i. called for ( ) changed
j. turns out to be ( ) move us

Transparent Words
Scan the text to find at least 20 transparent words.

Words in Context
Choose the best alternative to complete each sentence.

a. When water freezes it ice.


turns out pumps turns into cooks adds

b. I thought the meeting would be boring, but it to be excellent.


shifted turned out blessed lived spiced

c. Like father, like son. Roy his father in many ways.


evolves survives resembles alters replays

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d. A teachers job a lot of patience.
calls for gets to takes up operates thinks

e. Its summer in Rio. Temperatures will be in the of 30 to 40 degrees.


size length range level surface

f. This for orange cake calls for a dozen eggs.


concept recipe presence sky process

Noun Phrases

Scan the text to find the missing words and complete the following phrases:

a. general tamanho geral

b. of day durao do dia

c. next prximo nvel

d. a planets superfcie de um planeta

e. forms formas de vida

f. physical realidade fsica

g. of temperatures variao de temperaturas

Looking for Reference

Observe the following sentences, especially the words in bold. Then


complete the statements about them.

a. In the sentence After humans get to Mars, theyll start doing what comes
naturally terraforming Mars, turning it into another Earth.
they refers to

it refers to
Stocktrek/Getty Images

b. In the sentence [] the idea that we could live there, that Mars could be
An astronaut terraformed.
working to
terraform a there refers to
Martian hillside.
c. In the sentence [] then with all the rest of Earths plants and animals,
adding them in the order they evolved here.
them and they refer to

here refers to

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Discourse Markers
1. Complete the table with the ideas expressed by the discourse markers from A Colony in the
Sky?. Choose from the box.

contrast emphasis similarity time conclusion

Discourse Marker Portuguese Idea


even more ainda mais
Paragraph 1
like como, igual a
Paragraph 2 until at que
Paragraph 3 so por isso, portanto
Paragraph 4 but mas, porm

2. Now complete the sentences with the discourse markers above.

a. Terraforming Mars means making that planet Earth.

b. It is a possible enterprise, it is very complex.

c. Mars is a desolate, lifeless planet, terraforming it is the only way it could serve as a
human colony.

d. There are more than seven billion people on Earth, and there will be in the future.

e. 2012 there had been no manned mission to Mars.

Detailed Comprehension
Identifying False Information
All the following statements are false, according to A Colony in the Sky?. Identify the false
word(s) in each sentence and replace it/them to make the statement true.

a. Mars looks like Earth in no important ways.

b. Humans will try to alter Mars surface until Earths plants and animals can replay there.

c. The idea of terraforming an alien planet was born in science-fiction decades.

d. In the last three decades a number of scientists have rejected the concept.

e. Mars has all the life forms called for in the recipe for terraforming.

f. There is no water on Earths surface, so it has to be pumped to the surface.

g. The idea of living in a colony in the sky is without physical reality as we know it. Its possible to
do it.

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STRUCTURE

Do as an Emphatic Auxiliary

Alm do uso como verbo principal (fazer) e do importante uso como verbo
auxiliar, do (ou does) pode tambm aparecer em frases afirmativas, antes do
verbo principal, para dar nfase afirmao. Nesse caso, pode ser traduzido
como realmente, de fato.

Do you believe in colonizing Mars?


Yes, I do believe its possible.
Mars does resemble Earth in several important ways.

O mesmo pode ser feito com did, em frases afirmativas, quando a frase
estiver no passado.

NASAs curiosity robotic probe did land successfully on Mars in August 2012.
Nesse sentido, do, does ou did equivalem ao advrbio really.

Sublinhe os trechos em que do, does ou did tm uso enftico.


a. Did you notice what he did with those documents?

b. Yes, I did notice that.

c. Fred thinks Sally does not love him, but she does love him.

d. Im sorry. I do apologize for what I did.

e. I do hope they can do better than that.

f. Do me a favor and do not do business with those people. They do seem to


be a gang of thieves.

Modal Verbs Used to Express Certainty or Possibility

Observe os verbos em destaque:

After humans get to Mars, theyll start doing what comes naturally
and thats the question that will shift us to the next level of our fascination
with the place...
Of course it will be more complex than the recipe it always is.

Will (forma contrata ll) um verbo auxiliar, sem traduo prpria, usado
para expressar certeza a respeito de aes ou eventos no futuro. comum em
previses, promessas, algo que achamos ou sabemos que acontecer. O will em
si no tem traduo, mas sinaliza que o verbo seguinte (usado no infinitivo sem
to) est no futuro. Assim, theyll start (eles comearo); the question that will
shift us (nos levar); it will be (ser).

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Colonies on Mars will flourish and we will eventually conquer
the universe, says Stephen Hawking
By Tamara Cohen
UPDATED: 01:53 GMT, 7 January 2012

I believe that we will eventually establish self-sustaining colonies on Mars


and other bodies in the Solar System, but not within the next 100 years,
says the scientist.
(Available at: <www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2083084/
Stephen-Hawking-We-colonise-Mars-universe.html>. Access: Mar. 20, 2013.)

Quando a ideia expressar apenas uma possibilidade, podem ser usados trs
verbos modais: may, might e could. Veja o primeiro em destaque neste exemplo:

but it may work, its possible to do it.

May significa poder e usado para indicar permisso em linguagem formal.

May I help you? (formal) = Can I help you? (informal)

Alm disso, may tambm usado para expressar uma possibilidade presente
ou futura, algo que pode ser verdade no presente ou poder acontecer.

Terraforming Mars is a complex process, but it may work.

Might tambm significa poder, mas no expressa permisso e sim


possibilidade, quando esta menos definida, mais remota. Observe o
exemplo:

some people are beginning to ask if it might be possible to make Mars even
more like Earth than it is now.

Compare agora o uso de will, may e might em um contexto de previso


meteorolgica. Escreva C para certainty, P para possibility e RP para remote possibility.
Iadams/Shutterstock/Glow Images

This is the weather forecast for the weekend

FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY

It will be cold, It may rain, and It may snow in


with some clouds in the north it the evening.
in the afternoon. might even snow.

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In Other Words

Banco de Imagens/Arquivo da editora


CAUTION

Marcin Balcerzak/Shutterstock/Glow Images


HARD HATS
REQUIRED
IN THIS AREA

Thomas Barwick/Getty Images


When you enter the factory, you will
be required to wear a hard hat in areas Gloves might also be
where objects may fall on your head. required to protect hands.

Volte legenda das fotos e encontre os trechos explicados na parfrase abaixo:


As there is a possibility of objects falling, it is certain that you need to wear
a hat for protection. There is a remote possibility of having to wear gloves
because it depends on the task.
As there is a possibility of objects falling...
it is certain that you need to wear a hard hat for protection
There is a remote possibility of having to wear gloves because it depends
on the task.
Could usado como passado de can (para expressar capacidade no passado:
podia; sabia), mas tambm pode expressar possibilidade, como vemos em
dois exemplos do texto:
the idea that we could live there, that Mars could be terraformed.
their studies make it clear that the process could take centuries.

Caractersticas dos verbos modais


So usados antes de um verbo principal, sempre no infinitivo sem
to, para expressar vrios sentidos especficos: certeza, possibilidade,
capacidade, permisso, etc.
Tm uma nica forma para todas as pessoas e no so flexionados.
A forma negativa feita pelo simples acrscimo de not; a forma
interrogativa feita pelo uso do verbo no incio da pergunta.
Rodrigo Santoro can speak English.
Will humans land on Mars in the next century?
You may not park your car here.
Ask Jane. She might know the answer.
Brazil could be a world power soon.

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Certainty, possibility, remote possibility or permission? Identify the idea
expressed by the verbs in bold:

a. The future will be wonderful.

b. Jack is a good man. He may lend you the money.

c. He is a rich man. He might even give you the money.

d. Climate change could affect people, animals and plants.

e. May I use the telephone, Mr. Roberts?

f. Nothing is impossible. Anything could happen.

g. Can I have some more cake, Mom?

h. To the world you may be one person, but to one person you may be the
world.
Bruce Ayres/Stone Sub/Getty Images

To learn more
about this topic, go to
By working faithfully eight hours a day you may eventually get
to be boss and work twelve hours a day. (Robert Frost) MINIGRAMMAR 35.

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LISTENING

Science Predictions for the Future


23 1. Cinco cientistas fizeram previses sobre o futuro. Oua o que eles
tm a dizer sobre o que acontecer daqui a 10 anos e identifique o autor de
cada previso. Escolha os nomes do quadro abaixo.

Malcolm Fink Marion Waters Simon Cohen Sima Said Antnio Saldanha
Banco de Imagens/Arquivo da editora

Sebastien Desarmaux/Godong/Corbis/Latinstock

Television
By Mary Marten|Jan 21, 2013|Comment

Predictions for the future


TV English

Scientists say what will happen


in the next ten years

share e-mail

a. We will have personalised medicine, designed specifically for our genetic


make-up.

b. We will send robotic probes to Mars to discover water.

c. After smallpox and polio, we will kill off another major disease.

d. We will finally set foot on Mars, and I will retire there!

e. We will discover other planets outside our Solar System.

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2. Oua novamente a gravao e identifique os nomes das pessoas do
quadro (p. 130) de acordo com sua profisso.

a. Hes a cosmologist:
b. Hes an astrobiologist:
c. Shes a space scientist:
d. Hes an evolutionary biologist:
e. Shes an engineer and an expert in space technology:

SPEAKING

Talking About the Future


Look at the picture and talk to a classmate about it. Use the dialogue
below for reference. Choose Yes or No, according to your opinion on the
subject. Then make new dialogues using the phrases in the box.
Detlef van Ravenswaay/Picture Press/Getty Images

set foot on Mars send robotic probes to Mars discover water on Mars
discover new life on Mars live on Mars someday

Do you believe those scientific predictions will come true?

Yes, I do. The future will be wonderful./ Yes, of course. Im an


optimist!

No, I dont. Im not so optimistic./No way! Thats pure fantasy!

Will we colonize Mars in the next ten years?

Yes, we will. Everything is possible for science./Well we may. Its


possible.

No, we wont. Thats possible only in science fiction./ Well we


might but I doubt it.

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READING & WRITING

Looking for a Pen Pal


1. O e-mail abaixo foi enviado a um site internacional de estudantes de
ingls. Leia e complete com as frases do quadro.

Im interested in to hear from I also like Id like to


wishes from My favorite This is to listening to
Banco de Imagens/Arquivo da editora

E-MAIL SEND SAVE DISCARD

Inbox (2)
To: students@org.com
Sent
Drafts Cc:
Trash
Subject: Looking for a pen pal

Hi! Leandro.

Im 16 and Im looking for a pen pal. I live


in So Paulo, Brazil, and
correspond in English, of course.
everything
soccer science fiction. I love science
fiction. Books, movies
authors are Isaac Asimov (I, Robot) and
Arthur C. Clarke (2001: A Space Odyssey), but
Ray Bradbury (Fahrenheit
451). And now Ive discovered Kim Stanley
Robinson and his Mars trilogy (Red Mars,
Green Mars, Blue Mars). Fantastic reads
Well, not only that. I also like to go surfing,
rock music (U2, Legio
Urbana), and hanging out with my friends.
I hope you soon.
Best !

2. Agora escreva um e-mail parecido com o da atividade 1. Observe as


construes, palavras e expresses que podem ajud-lo a compor um
e-mail parecido.

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Another Look at...
Mars

The Best Job in a Mars Colony


Looking for a big career change? Robert Zubrin, president of the Mars Society and
author of How to Live on Mars, offers some suggestions on how to get ahead on the
Red Planet.

Youve just landed on Mars and are looking for a fresh start. Heres the secret: Go
into construction. Youll learn useful skills and get to spend time out on the surface,
where the action is. Explore the landscape. Make friends with the engineers working
to terraform the Martian hillsides. Its their job to turn all that red dust into Earthlike
soil that can support robust vegetation and seed the atmosphere so it will rain and
form lakes and oceans.
Of course, this prosperous career
Stocktrek Images/Getty Images

path has its risks. Youll be outdoors


a lot, and Marss atmosphere is pretty
thin, so cosmic radiation could fry
your DNA. Things could fall on you at
construction sites. You could get lost or
fall into a crater. You could play it safe in
the colony, working at the Spacemart.
But youre on Mars take a chance!
(Abridged from: CAREY, Bjorn. FYI: 229 Curious
Questions Answered by the Worlds Smartest
People. San Francisco: Weldon Owen Inc., 2011.)

Qual o conselho de Robert Zubrin, autor de How to Live on Mars, a quem quiser um
bom emprego em uma colnia em Marte?

a. ( ) evitar envolvimento com a chamada Terraformao do Planeta Vermelho,


com todos os riscos dessa iniciativa.

b. ( ) procurar trabalho na construo, explorando a superfcie do planeta, sem se


preocupar com a radiao csmica e seus efeitos.

c. ( ) arranjar um emprego seguro, dentro da colnia, num shopping espacial.

d. ( ) aproveitar a oportunidade de trabalhar na transformao de Marte em um


planeta semelhante Terra, tornando o solo marciano apropriado para o
plantio de vegetao que possibilite a chuva e, com ela, o desenvolvimento
das formas de vida que existem no nosso planeta.

e. ( ) fazer amizade com os engenheiros locais e trabalhar na conteno das


encostas para a manuteno da atmosfera de Marte.

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s nmeros so impressionantes: a populao

THINK
O mundial j passa a marca dos 7 bilhes. E esse
nmero deve ultrapassar 10 bilhes at o final do
sculo. A exploso demogrfica, a ameaa de uma possvel
catstrofe planetria, os velhos problemas ambientais
ABOUT IT (global warming, pollution, food and water shortages, failure
to attain sustainable development) podem fazer com que
a humanidade passe a considerar projetos que a princpio
eram possveis apenas em livros e filmes de fico cientfica. A
pretenso de encontrar uma nova casa em nosso sistema solar,
mais precisamente em Marte, tornando esse planeta habitvel para a espcie
humana, esbarra, entretanto, em srias barreiras ticas. Sabe-se que a histria do
ser humano uma histria de expanso, de conquista de novos espaos, mas por
enquanto dentro das fronteiras do nosso pequeno planeta. Para muitas pessoas,
parece lgica a tendncia de buscar no espao exterior a soluo para os problemas
da Terra. Para outras, ideias como essa tm como base uma certa arrogncia e
prepotncia de cunho imperialista. Qual a sua opinio sobre esse assunto? Which
side are you on? Concorda com estas palavras do autor Kim Stanley Robinson?

We are the consciousness of the

Detlev van Ravenswaay/Picture Press/Getty Images


universe, and our job is to spread that around,
to go look at things, to live everywhere we can.
Its too dangerous to keep the consciousness
of the universe on one planet: it could be
wiped out. Mars will always remain Mars,
different from Earth, colder and wilder. But it
can be Mars and ours at the same time. And it
will be. There is this about the human mind: if
it can be done, it will be done.

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores,


especialmente os de Geografia e de Filosofia.

Exploring Other Sources


ROBINSON, Kim Stanley. Blue Mars. Colorado: Spectra, 1997.
VIDIGAL, Marina. Prximo destino: Marte. So Paulo: Panda Books, 2005.
GUERRA dos mundos. Direo: Steven Spielberg. Produo: Kathleen Kennedy; Paula Wagner.
Distribuio: Paramount Home Entertainment Ltda., 2005.
PROMETHEUS. Direo: Ridley Scott. Produo: Tony Scott. Distribuio: Fox Film do Brasil Ltda., 2012.
KIM Stanley Robinson Info. Available at: <http://kimstanleyrobinson.info/index.php?limitstart=35>. Access:
Mar. 7, 2013.
MARS Science Laboratory. Available at: <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/index.html>. Access:
Mar. 7, 2013.

134 UNIT 9 A Colony in the Sky?

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Check Your English 3

1. Complete the sentences. Use the verbs in the Paul: Hello Bia, this is Paul. Say, what are you
box with the correct form of be + going to. The doing?
first one is done for you.
Bia:

fly cut eat open see rain

a. Look at those clouds! Its going to rain. Paul: I see. Youre always online. Cant you live
b. Its hot in this room. I without the Internet?
the window. Bia:
c. Theres a good movie on Channel Ten tonight. We
it.

d. Careful! You Paul: Well, for me the Net is a great source of


yourself with that knife. information, and I use it a lot. But I try not to be a
slave to it.
e. Im hungry. I a hot
dog. Would you like one, too? Bia:

f. My brother to Paul: Well, I like to make my own decisions and to


Australia tomorrow. His companys headquarters be the master of my time. There are a lot of other
are in Sydney. cool things to do. I like to go out, play sports, hang
out with my friends, go to the movies. I refuse to
0.2 point each /1
spend the day sitting in front of a monitor screen.
2. Complete the telephone conversation. Choose Bia:
from the sentences in the box.
Paul: Theres a new movie at the Realodeon.
They say its great. Im going to see it tonight, but I
thought we could go together. What do you say?

I guess youre right, Paul. Bia:


No, I dont think I can. What about you?
Can you live without it?
Great idea, Paul. I love going to the
movies. And, you know what? Im taking
my laptop with me. You never know, an
emergency
Working on the computer. Im sending
an e-mail to a friend of mine.
What do you mean?
Paul: Oh, no

0.2 point each /1

135

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3. Write the opposites of the adjectives in bold. c. In the future, we have to do
boring or risky jobs. Robots will do them for us.
a. Billy, your hands are dirty. Go wash them now!
d. Kangaroos be cute animals,
but Australian farmers consider them pests.
b. Some people think classical music is boring.
e. You visit a foreign country
c. Chicken meat is low in fat. without a passport.

0.2 point each /1


d. Mom is a sensible person and she always takes
6. Read the text and answer the questions on it.
wise decisions.

After Marie Curie became famous as the


e. Robots can be used to assist people in risky or discoverer of radium, she was plagued by
dangerous situations. autograph collectors. After tolerating them for
years, she finally decided not to give another
autograph under any circumstance.
0.2 point each /1
One autograph collector, knowing about her
4. Choose the appropriate discourse marker decision, sent her a personal check for twenty-
in parentheses to complete the following five dollars with instructions for her to donate the
sentences. amount to any charity she chose. He figured
a. Searching for information online is trying to the endorsed check would be an addition to his
get a glass of water from Niagara Falls. (without) collection of rare autographs.
(within) (or) (like) Curie, however, saw through his scheme, and
she had her secretary send him the following
b. Many scientists think the robots of science fiction
note: Madame Curie has asked me to thank you
will become a reality. (but) (soon) (because) (so)
most kindly for your check, which, however, she
c. To terraform means to alter a planets surface
is not going to cash. It so happens that she is an
Earths life forms can survive there. (until) (after)
autograph collector and therefore will add your
(because) (unlike)
signature to her collection.
d. Some scientists believe terraforming Mars is
(CLARO, J. The Random House Large Print Book of Jokes
quite possible. The Red Planet might be made and Anecdotes. New York: Random House, 1990.)
more Earth than it is now. (already) (instead of)
(like) (so many) a. What final decision did Marie Curie make about
giving autographs?
e. The Internet is the worlds largest library, all
the books seem to be on the floor. (because)
(like) (or) (but)

0.2 point each /1

5. Complete the sentences with the modal verbs b. What did the autograph collector send her?
from the box, as adequate.

will wont may can cant


c. Why did he do that?
a. Martin, you speak Spanish?
Of course! Dont forget I was born in Buenos Aires.
My name is Martin Fierro.
b. Calvin, get out of bed, now! You
be late for school!

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d. Did Marie Curie cash the check or did she keep it? I told my robot to brew some tea.
Was she, in fact, an autograph collector? Why did He said, Why dont you make some
she do that, then? tea for me?
I told my robot to boil me an egg.
He said, First lemme hear you beg.
I told my robot, Theres a song you can
play me.
He said, How much are you gonna
pay me?
0.25 point each /1
So I sold that robot, cause I never knew
7. Leia o poema My Robot, de Shel Silverstein, e Exactly who belonged to who.
responda em portugus s perguntas sobre ele. (SILVERSTEIN, Shel. Falling Up: Poems and Drawings.
New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1996. p. 36)
lemme: let me
gonna: going to a. A personagem do poema d vrias ordens ao rob.
Essas ordens foram atendidas?

MY ROBOT
I told my robot to do my bidding.
He yawned and said, You must b. Quando ela manda o rob atender o telefone, o
be kidding. que ele responde?
I told my robot to cook me a stew.
He said, I got better things to do.
I told my robot to sweep my shack. c. Quando ela pede que ele faa um ch, o que ele
He said, You want me to strain responde?
my back?
I told my robot to answer the phone.
He said, I must make some calls of
my own. d. O que ela finalmente decidiu fazer com o rob?

e. Por que ela fez isso?


Osamu Honda/AP Images; Daniel Benassi/Arquivo da editora

0.2 point each /1

Check Your English 3 137

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8. Leia o texto a seguir e responda em portugus.

2003 Tim Burton, Inc./Dark Horse Comics


The fact that I can plant a seed and it becomes
a flower, share a bit of knowledge and it becomes
anothers, smile at someone and receive a smile
in return, are to me continual spiritual exercises.
Leo Buscaglia

Daquilo que o autor considera exerccios espirituais,


cite dois em que h interao entre pessoas.

0.5 point each /0.5

9. Read the poem and choose the best answer to


complete the sentence.

THE GIRL WITH MANY EYES


One day in the park 10. Leia o dilogo do filme Eu, Rob e responda s
I had quite a surprise.
perguntas.
I met a girl
who had many eyes.

Digital Domain/20th Century Fox/


Bureau L.A. Collection/Corbis/Latinstock
She was really quite pretty
(and also quite shocking!)
and I noticed she had a mouth,
so we ended up talking.
We talked about flowers,
and her poetry classes,
and the problems shed have
if she ever wore glasses.
Its great to know a girl
who has so many eyes,
but you really get wet
when she breaks down and cries.
Digital Domain/20th Century Fox/
Bureau L.A. Collection/Corbis/Latinstock

BURTON, Tim. The Girl with Many Eyes. In: The


Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy & Other Stories.
New York: Rob Weisbach Books, 1997.
The girl would have a lot of problems if she
tried to wear glasses because
she was really quite pretty.
she had a mouth.
she talked about her poetry classes.
she had many eyes. Spooner (detective): Robots dont feel fear.

she got wet when she broke down and cried. They dont feel anything. They dont get hungry,
they dont sleep.
0.5 point each /0.5
Sonny (robot): I do. I have even had dreams.

138 Check Your English 3

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Spooner: Human beings have dreams. Even 12. (Enem-2011)
dogs have dreams, but not you. You are just a

Dist. By Atlantic Syndication/Universal Uclick


2011 Jim Davis/Paws, Inc. All Rights Reserved/
machine. An imitation of life. Can a robot write
a symphony? Can a robot turn a canvas into a
beautiful masterpiece?
Sonny: Can you?

a. Pelo tom depreciativo usado por Spooner no


dilogo acima, o que o ser humano pretendia
provar ao rob?

b. O que sugere a pergunta feita pelo rob no final


do dilogo?

A tira, definida como um segmento de histria


0.25 point each /0.5
em quadrinhos, pode transmitir uma mensagem
11. (Enem-2010) com efeito de humor. A presena desse efeito no
dilogo entre Jon e Garfield acontece porque
THE WEATHER MAN Jon pensa que sua ex-namorada maluca e
They say that the British love talking about que Garfield no sabia disso.
the weather. For other nationalities this can
Jodell a nica namorada maluca que Jon
be a banal and boring subject of conversation,
teve, e Garfield acha isso estranho.
something that people talk about when they
have nothing else to say to each other. And yet Garfield tem certeza de que a ex-namorada de
the weather is a very important part of our lives. Jon sensata, o maluco o amigo.
That at least is the opinion of Barry Gromentt, Garfield conhece as ex-namoradas de Jon e
press officer for the Met Office. This is located in
considera mais de uma maluca.
Exeter, a pretty cathedral city in the southwest
of England. Here employees and computers Jon caracteriza a ex-namorada como maluca
supply weather forecasts for much of the world. e no entende a cara de Garfield.
Speak Up. Ano XXIII, no 275.
0.5 point each /0.5
Ao conversar sobre a previso do tempo, o texto
13. (Unicamp-SP-2012)
mostra
o aborrecimento do cidado britnico ao falar
sobre banalidades.
a falta de ter o que falar em situaes de
avaliao de lnguas.
a importncia de se entender sobre
meteorologia para falar ingls.
as diferenas e as particularidades culturais
no uso de uma lngua.
o conflito entre diferentes ideias e opinies ao
se comunicar em ingls. (Adapted from: Federal Spending Waste. Available at:
<http://politicalhumor.about.com/od/politicalcartoons/
0.5 point each /0.5 ig/Political-Cartoons/Federal-Spending-Waste.htm>.
Access: Oct. 16, 2012.)

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a. Indique dois tipos de gastos especficos do governo How do you evaluate your own progress?
federal norte-americano explicitados no cartum. Check ( ) for Yes, (X) for No, or (R) for Review
Units 7, 8 and 9 after each of the topics below.

Now I can

( ) use the different reading strategies to be able to


understand a text in English.

( ) identify the meaning and function of discourse


markers.

( ) get the meanings of new words from context.

b. Qual a crtica feita pelo cartum ao norte-americano ( ) understand and practice modal verbs used to
mdio? express ability (can), possibility (may, might,
could), permission (may, might), requests (can),
certainty (will).

( ) understand and use verbs and verb structures


used to express future time: be going to, will,
shall, present continuous.

( ) distinguish between reflexive pronouns and


reciprocal pronouns.

( ) listen to dialogues, interviews and TV news


programs and understand their gist.
0.25 point each /0.5
( ) talk about the way you use the Internet.

SELF-EVALUATION (UNITS 7, 8 AND 9) ( ) talk to a classmate about his plans for the future
and about present issues.
How did you do? What was your score?
( ) write an e-mail, a message or a movie release.
Can
Excellent Good OK ( ) reflect and debate about mans capacity for
do better
Test total: improvement: invention and creativity in the past
10-9 8-7 6-5 less than 5
out of 10 and in the future.

140 Check Your English 3

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How to Live
a Better Life
24 What you should do to
lead a happy life 20 easy
tips. These are the first three:
Step 1: When you wake up
in the morning complete the
following statement: My
purpose is to today.
Step 2: Take a 10-30 minute
walk every day. A brisk walk
in the morning can help you
feel good all day. And while
you walk, smile. It is the best
antidepressant.
Step 3: Sit in silence for at
least 10 minutes each day.
Maridav/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Look at the photo, read the title and the opening paragraph. What type of text do you think it is
a narrative, a scientific article, a romantic fiction, an item of news, a list of advice? Which of
the first three steps is about physical exercise? Which of them is related to your spirit instead
of the physical world? What else do you think the text is about? Make some predictions about
it, read the text and check if they were right.

141

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READING

Before You Read


The words below are all from How to Live a Better Life. Do they have a
positive or a negative meaning in the text? Write P (for positive) or N (for
negative) next to each word.
a. ( ) laugh e. ( ) spoil i. ( ) worry
b. ( ) waste f. ( ) win j. ( ) fair
c. ( ) peace g. ( ) lose k. ( ) confidence
d. ( ) accomplish h. ( ) thankful l. ( ) learn

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to understand the main idea and check your
predictions.

Banco de Imagens/Arquivo da editora


Step 4: Learn. If you are alive, there are lessons to be learned.

Stockbyte/Getty Images
Step 5: You should eat more foods that grow on trees and plants
and eat less food that is manufactured in plants.
Step 6: Spend time with people over the age of 70 and under the age
of 6.
Step 7: You should drink green tea and plenty of water.
Step 8: You must not waste your precious energy on gossip or
issues of the past, negative thoughts or things you cannot
control. Instead invest your energy in the positive present
moment.
Step 9: You must make peace with your past so it wont spoil the
present.
Step 10: Each night before you go to bed you ought to complete the following statements: I am thankful
for... Today I accomplished
Step 11: Dream more while you are awake.
Step 12: You dont have to win every game. Sometimes you win, sometimes you lose. And in both cases you
must remember its only a game.
Step 13: You must eat to live. You must not live to eat.
Step 14: Dont eat junk food. Dont smoke. Dont drink alcohol. Dont drink soft drinks.
Step 15: You must wear your seat belt. Its the law.
Step 16: You have to believe in yourself. You have got to have confidence in your own powers.
Step 17: Life isnt fair, but its still good.
Step 18: Enjoy the ride. Remember this is not Disney World. You only have one ride through life. You have
got to make the most of it and enjoy the ride.
Step 19: Laugh when you can, apologize when you should, and let go of what you cant change.
Step 20: Dont worry, be happy.

(Abridged from: How to Live a Better Life 40 Easy Tips. Available at: <www.ehow.com/way_5199917_tips-live-better-life.
html> and <www.ehow.com/how_5185944_make-better-life.html>. Access: Mar. 8, 2013.)

142 UNIT 10 How to Live a Better Life

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General Comprehension
Whats the Main Idea?
Choose the sentence that contains the most important idea in How to Live a
Better Life.
The type of life you lead, the type of activities you like doing should be healthy,
both for your body and your mind.
A healthy outdoor lifestyle is much more important than spiritual activities.
The importance of food and water is vital for growth, energy, and health.

Word Study
In Other Words
Match the columns to find the right definition of each word or phrase on the left.
a. apologize ( ) stop sleeping
b. at least ( ) a useful suggestion
c. awake ( ) at the same time as
d. fair ( ) not sleeping
e. let go of ( ) reasonable, just, morally right
f. a purpose ( ) one of a series of actions that you do
g. a step ( ) as a minimum, possibly more
h. a tip ( ) stop holding
i. wake up ( ) say you are sorry
j. while ( ) a goal, an objective
k. gossip ( ) made in factories
l. spoil ( ) conversation about other peoples private lives
m. accomplish ( ) try to get the best possible result
n. manufactured in plants ( ) make it worse
o. make the most of it ( ) be able to do

Discourse Markers
1. Complete the table with the ideas expressed by the discourse markers that can
be found in How to Live a Better Life. Choose from the box.

alternative purpose contrast time condition

Discourse Marker Portuguese Idea


Steps 2, 11 while enquanto
Step 4 if se
Step 8 instead em vez disso
Step 9 so de modo que
Step 17 but mas

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2. Now complete the sentences with those discourse markers, as
appropriate.

a. I like to listen to soft music I work on the computer.


b. I take a walk every morning I can feel good all day.
c. you want to be healthy, you should not drink soft drinks.
d. Soft drinks are refreshing, they have a lot of sugar.
e. You should not drink soft drinks. , you should drink green tea
or water.

Detailed Comprehension
Body or Mind?
Write B if the statements below refer to the body or M if they refer to the
mind. In two of the statements, both B and M are possible.
a. ( ) You must make peace with your past so it wont spoil the present.
b. ( ) Learn. If you are alive, there are lessons to be learned.
c. ( ) Dream more while you are awake.
d. ( ) Laugh when you can, apologize when you should, and let go of what
you cant change.
e. ( ) Dont eat junk food. Dont drink soft drinks.
f. ( ) Dont worry, be happy.
g. ( ) You dont have to win every game. Sometimes you win, sometimes
you lose. And in both cases you must remember its only a game.
h. ( ) A brisk walk in the morning can help you feel good all day.
i. ( ) You should drink green tea and plenty of water.
j. ( ) Take a 10-30 minute walk every day.

STRUCTURE

Modal Verbs Used to Express Advice, Obligation, Necessity


Observe os verbos em destaque nos exemplos:

What you should do to lead a happy life.


You should eat more foods that grow on trees and plants and eat less food that
is manufactured in plants.
You should drink green tea and plenty of water.
Laugh when you can, apologize when you should, and let go of what you cant change.
Each night before you go to bed, you ought to complete the following statements
Para expressar conselho, dever, recomendao, obrigao moral, the right
thing to do, usa-se should ou ought to que correspondem a dever em
portugus. importante observar que ought to (muito menos comum do que
should) o nico modal verb que seguido de infinitivo com to.

144 UNIT 10 How to Live a Better Life

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Observe the examples given on page 144. Como alternativa a must, muito comum,
How do you say...? principalmente na linguagem informal, o uso de
have to ou have (ve) got to. Veja como esses
a. Pea desculpas quando voc deve. verbos tm o mesmo sentido de must nestas frases:
You have to believe in yourself. You have got to
have confidence in your own powers.
Youve got to make the most of it and enjoy the
b. O que voc deve fazer
ride.
You dont have to win every game.
How do you say.... ?
c. Voc deve completar
a. Voc tem de acreditar em si prprio.

d. Voc deve beber ch verde.

b. Voc no tem de ganhar todos os jogos.

Agora observe as ideias expressas pelo verbo


modal em destaque nestas frases:
You must make peace with your past so it wont Um ponto muito importante a esclarecer:
spoil the present. must e have to tm o mesmo sentido nas formas
you must remember its only a game. afirmativa e interrogativa:
You must eat to live. You must not live to eat. You must remember. = You have to remember.
You must wear your seat belt. Its the law. Must I tell you this? = Do I have to tell you this?
You must not waste your precious energy on
Mas na forma negativa eles expressam ideias
gossip
claramente diferentes:
Para expressar necessidade, obrigao forte,
You must not (mustnt) forget this.
ordem, que em portugus corresponde a dever,
ideia de proibio voc no pode esquecer
ter de, precisar de, usamos must. importante
You dont have to remember this.
observar que a forma negativa de must (must not
ideia de ausncia de necessidade voc no
ou mustnt) tem sentido de proibio, corresponde
precisa lembrar
a no poder, no ter permisso para.
Anatoliy Samara/Shutterstock/Glow Images

And how do you say...?

a. Voc tem de comer para viver. Voc no pode


viver para comer.

b. Voc tem de usar seu cinto de segurana.

c. Voc no pode desperdiar a sua preciosa energia.

You must wear a helmet when riding a bike.

How to Live a Better Life UNIT 10 145

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1. Read the sentences below and choose the idea that corresponds to each of the modal verbs in bold.
a. We must eat to live. g. You dont have to buy a camera.
(certainty possibility necessity) Ill lend you mine.
(advice no necessity ability)
b. Its late. You should call your family.
(advice ability permission) h. Im your doctor and Im telling you once and
for all: youve got to stop eating junk food.
c. You must stop at the red light.
(order advice ability)
(strong obligation advice remote possibility)
i. Im your friend and I think you should stop
d. We dont have to wake up early tomorrow.
eating junk food. Big burgers and French
Its Sunday.
fries are bad for you.
(necessity prohibition no necessity)
(order advice permission)
e. I must get to the bank before it closes.
j. I know I should get up now, but Im so tired
(advice necessity capacity)
(moral obligation permission possibility)
f. You must not drink before driving. Its the
law. (necessity obligation prohibition)

2. Number each sentence according to the pictures.

1 2 3
Andrey Artykov/Vetta/Getty Images
Priscilla Gragg/Getty Images

Reza Estakhrian/The Image Bank/Getty Images


4 5 6
Blend Images/Getty Images

oliveromg/Shutterstock/Glow Images
Peter Dazeley/Getty Images

a. ( ) Hmm... Chocolate cake! But I mustnt eat too much of it.

b. ( ) You should see the girls on the beach. They just love it!

c. ( ) Today is the big day. The bride should be very happy.

d. ( ) Jack and Joan must have a good sense of balance to hold in that position.

e. ( ) You dont have to be a pilot if you want to fly, Jimmie. Just gimme your hands!

f. ( ) You dont have to win a race to have a lot of fun.

146 UNIT 10 How to Live a Better Life

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Should, ought to e must pertencem ao grupo dos modal verbs, verbos
auxiliares que tm caractersticas especiais, j apresentadas na Unit 9.
Vale a pena ver de novo:
so usados antes de um verbo principal, sempre no infinitivo sem to (
exceo de ought, j explicado), para expressar vrios sentidos especficos:
certeza, possibilidade, capacidade, permisso, conselho, necessidade etc.
tm uma nica forma para todas as pessoas, portanto no so flexionados
quando o sujeito he, she ou it.
a forma negativa feita pelo simples acrscimo de not; a forma
interrogativa feita pelo uso do verbo no incio da pergunta.
Im too fat. What should I do?
Should he get more exercise?
You ought to go on a diet. To learn more
She must not forget that. about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 37.
I must water those plants, or they will die.

LISTENING

Enjoy Your Life!

Uma editora de Nova York est realizando uma pesquisa de opinio


como parte da campanha de publicidade de Enjoy Your Life!, seu
ltimo lanamento.
25 1. Listen to the CD and identify the people who took part in the poll.
Write down their names below each photo.
Bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Blend Images/Shutterstock/Glow Images

a. c.
thinks there believes love
must be a balance is the most
between the time important thing
and energy you in life. And shes
invest on physical in love with
activities and Louie.
those related to
your mind.
Visage/Stockbyte/Getty Images

Rick Gomez/Blend Images/Getty Images

b. d.
believes the most thinks human
important thing relationships are
is to have a good very important
diet. He says if you want to
You are what live a happy life.
you eat. Live in peace
and respect the
others.

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2. The question is What is the most important thing for a better life?
What is your answer?
health
a healthy balance between body and mind
healthy food
money
love
people
other things What, exactly?

3. Listen again and identify the answers given by each person to the
question In your opinion what is most important if you really want to
live a better life?
Salim October/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Paul Jones
a. health
b. human relationships
c. money
Tina Parker
a. a good balance between mind and body
b. love
c. beauty
John Washington
a. learning
b. a good job
c. a good diet
Anita Mrquez
a. money
b. love
c. family

4. Discuss your answers with a classmate.

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SPEAKING

Healthy Habits
1. Interview two classmates and find out if they have healthy habits. Then
change places.
You can use the following structures:
Do you + do something
Do you drink a lot of water?

How often do you + do something


How often do you drink water?

Use actions in the box as a suggestion or make your own questions.

eat fruit and vegetables take a walk in the park


eat junk food drink soft drinks read a good book
watch TV go to the dentist listen to good music

2. Using your notebook, sketch a chart with two columns, one for Good
Habits, the other for Bad Habits.
3. Tell your classmates what you think they should do to improve their
habits. Observe these examples:
Matheus, you read lots of good books. Thats a good habit and you
should stick to it. But you also drink lots of soft drinks. Thats bad.
You should drink more fruit juice or plain water instead.

Ana, you never eat junk food. Thats a good habit and you should
stick to it. Also, you take a walk in the park every other day. Thats
why you look so fit! Well done! Thats a good habit and you should
keep it, too.
CandyBox Images/Shutterstock/Glow Images

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WRITING

Some Good Advice A Blog


A editora de Enjoy Your Life! criou um blog para conhecer os leitores
adolescentes. O prximo lanamento ser Enjoy Your Life!, Teens, com dicas
especialmente criadas para adolescentes.
1. Read Sandra's post and the comments her friends made about it. Then
write down your own tip. Think about your daily habits and write about
something your friends might find interesting.

Enjoy Your Life!


Hey, guys
This is your chance to give advice on how to live a better life!
Share your thoughts and dont forget to add your comments too!

October
Helena, 16

1. Karina Mansfield/Flickr/Getty Images. 2. Jaimie Duplass/Shutterstock/Glow Images. 3. Bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock/Glow Images


Mike, 17
November
Sandra, 15
,
(your name) (your age)

November
1
I think you should spend some time with your
grandparents or old folks. I love listening to my
grandmas stories!

2
I dont know. I want to spend time
with my friends

3
I think its a good idea but
hanging out with friends is good
as well.

your comment

| SUBMIT

2. Now change places with a classmate and read his or her tip. Do you
agree with it? Do you find it interesting? Write a brief comment on it. Use
the comments on Sandras post as reference.

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Another Look at...

A Beautiful Work of Art

Your life is up to you. You have all the tools and resources you need. What
you do with them is your decision. Life gives you the canvas. You do the
painting. We are all painters, artists, creators. Let your life be a beautiful work
of art.

Responda em portugus:
1. A que a vida est sendo comparada?

2. O que a vida nos d?

3. O que cada um de ns deve fazer?

4. Por fim, o que se deseja?

Edward Bock/Corbis

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Q uando o tema to rico como Sugestes para
uma vida melhor, grande a variedade de
respostas, aparecem muito mais do que as 20
easy tips selecionadas em How to Live a Better Life.
THINK Parece que todos ns temos a nossa receita especial,
ABOUT IT sugestes de atividades simples mas interessantes e
muitas vezes criativas. E j que o assunto sugestes,
aqui fica a proposta de um debate sobre isso a ser
desenvolvido pela classe.
Dividida em grupos, a turma discute, elabora frases sobre
o tema Suggestions on How to Live a Happy Life, e os vrios grupos
compartilham as mais votadas. Frases simples, em ingls na sua forma final, in
English, of course!, como estas:
Bew/Other Images

Be optimistic.
Sing in the shower.
Say thank you a lot.
Say please a lot.
Help your family with the housework.
Dont expect money to bring you happiness.
Learn.
Dont worry. Be happy.

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores,


especialmente os de Filosofia e de Sociologia.

Exploring Other Sources

MINC, Carlos. Ecologia e cidadania. 2. ed. So Paulo: Moderna, 2005.


HISTRIAS Cruzadas. Direo: Tate Taylor, 2011. Produo: DreamWorks Pictures. Distribuio:
Walt Disney Pictures.
14 WAYS to live a better life... starting today. Available at: <www.lifeoptimizer.org/2010/08/13/
ways-to-live-a-better-life>. Access: Mar. 8, 2013.
THE BRAIN: 6 Lessons for Handling Stress. Available at: <www.time.com/time/
printout/0,8816,1580401,00.html>. Access: Mar. 8, 2013.

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Yes, We Have Bananas
26Bananas are abundant in Brazil and
easily accessible to every Brazilian. There
is even an interesting idiom used to express
that something is very inexpensive when
a Brazilian buys something dirt cheap,
he says he buys it a preo de banana. This
popular fruit should be included in your
daily diet, and for more reasons than you
could imagine.

Ersler Dmitry/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Making predictions
Observe the picture, read the title and the opening text. Do you like bananas? What do you
mean when you say you can buy something a preo de banana? Is that the only reason
why bananas are so popular? Do you find them tasty? Are they good for your health too?
Should they be included in your daily diet? What kind of benefits do you think the text
attributes to that fruit? Make predictions about the text and check them as you read.

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READING

Before You Read


Bananas are good for your health in several ways. Check () the illnesses
or medical conditions you think bananas can help you overcome or
prevent.

a. ( ) depression c. ( ) cancer e. ( ) constipation


b. ( ) nerves d. ( ) blood pressure f. ( ) malaria

Time to Read
Now read the text quickly to get the main idea and check your
predictions.

Banco de imagens/Arquivo da editora


Anaemia: High in iron, Stress: Potassium is a vital
bananas can stimulate the mineral, which helps normalize
Eduardo Delfim/Editora Abril

production of haemoglobin in the heartbeat, sends oxygen


the blood and so they help in to the brain and regulates your
cases of anaemia. bodys water balance. When we
Blood pressure: Bananas are are stressed, our metabolic rate
extremely high in potassium but rises, reducing our potassium
low in salt, so they can reduce the levels. Bananas are high in
risk of blood pressure problems. potassium.
Brain power: Research shows Mosquito bites: Before
that bananas can assist learning reaching for the insect bite cream,
Bananas must be one of the
by making students become try rubbing the affected area with
most popular fruits in the world,
more interested and alert. the inside of a banana skin.
but some people say they are
Constipation: If you suffer When you compare a
not good for you. That cant be
from constipation you should banana to an apple, it has four
true. Scientifically, that is not true.
drink lots of water and include times the protein, twice the
In fact, bananas contain three
bananas in your diet, because carbohydrate, three times
natural sugars sucrose, fructose
they are high in fiber. the phosphorus, five times the
and glucose combined with fiber
Depression: Bananas contain vitamin A and iron, and twice
and they give you an instant,
tryptophan, a type of protein that the other vitamins and minerals.
sustained and substantial boost
the body converts into serotonin, Maybe we should change that
of energy. But energy isnt the
known to make you relax, well-known phrase so that we
only way a banana can help us
improve your mood and generally say, A banana a day keeps the
keep fit. It can also help overcome
make you feel happier. doctor away!
or prevent a great number of
Nerves: Bananas are high P.S. Bananas must be the
illnesses, making it a must to add
in B vitamins that help calm the reason monkeys are so happy
to our daily diet.
nervous system. all the time!

(Adapted from: MEDICAL Uses. Available at: <www.banana.com/medicinal.html>. Access: Mar. 11, 2013.)

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General Comprehension
Whats the Main Idea?
Mark the statement that best summarizes the main idea of the text.
Everyone has to eat bananas to live.
Bananas are good for all kinds of illnesses.
Bananas are good for you, both as a food and as a natural remedy.
Some people say bananas are not good for you, but that cant be true.

Word Study
In Other Words
Write down words or phrases from the text which are similar in meaning
to those in bold:

a. an increase in the amount of energy


Paragraph 1 b. can help us keep healthy, strong, in shape
c. stop a great number of illnesses
d. improve the way you feel at a
Paragraph 6
particular time
Paragraph 8 e. our metabolic rate goes up
f. try moving your hand backward and
Paragraph 9 forward the affected area
g. the inside of the outer layer of a banana

Synonyms and Antonyms


Many of the following pairs of words and phrases are from Yes, We Have

Mama Mia/Shutterstock/Glow Images


Bananas! If they are synonyms, write S. If they are antonyms, write A.

a. ( ) plentiful abundant
b. ( ) really in fact
c. ( ) fit in shape
d. ( ) reason cause
e. ( ) stressed calm
f. ( ) high low
g. ( ) cheap inexpensive
h. ( ) overcome defeat
i. ( ) prevent stop something from happening
j. ( ) illnesses diseases

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Function Words
1. Match each word listed below with its corresponding word in
Portuguese.

Introduction a. even ( ) porque

Paragraph 2 b. so ( ) talvez

Paragraph 5 c. because ( ) assim, por isso, portanto

Paragraph 6 d. into ( ) por dia

e. away ( ) at (mesmo)

Paragraph 10 f. maybe ( ) (transformao) em

g. a day ( ) to + adjetivo

Paragraph 11 h. so + adjective ( ) longe

2. Now complete the sentences using a function word, as adequate.

a. Athletes eat bananas they give them a boost of energy.


(maybe because into)

b. Bananas are not expensive, they are easy to buy.


(so because away)

c. Bananas are cheap that poor families


can buy them.
(so; even into; so away; so)

d. A banana day keeps the doctor .


(so; into a; away even; maybe)

e. The body converts a certain protein serotonin.


(away into even)

Noun Phrases
Scan the text to find the nouns that complete the following phrases:
a. pressure presso sangunea
b. mosquito picada de mosquito
c. power poder do crebro
d. of energy aumento de energia
e. banana casca de banana
f. high in com alto teor de ferro
g. low in com baixo teor de sal
h. potassium nveis de potssio
i. nervous sistema nervoso

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Looking for Reference
In each sentence, choose the alternative to which the word in bold refers.

a. High in iron, bananas can stimulate the production of haemoglobin in the


blood and so they help in cases of anaemia.
the production of haemoglobin high in iron bananas
b. When we are stressed, our metabolic rate rises, reducing our potassium levels.
These can be balanced with the help of a high-potassium banana snack.
our metabolic rate our potassium levels a banana snack
c. When you compare a banana to an apple, it has four times the protein []
a banana an apple a protein
d. The banana can also help overcome or prevent a great number of illnesses,
making it a must to add to our daily diet.
our daily diet the banana a great number of illnesses

Detailed Comprehension
Finding Specific Information
Scan the text and match the beginnings with the endings, according to
Yes, We Have Bananas.

a. If a mosquito bites you, ( ) sends oxygen to the brain.

b. B vitamins ( ) you buy it at preo de banana.

c. Serotonin improves your ( ) because they are high


mood and in fiber.
d. Bananas are low ( ) try rubbing the affected area
in salt, with the inside of a banana skin.
e. If you buy something dirt ( ) our metabolic rate rises.
cheap,
es
ter Imag

f. If you suffer from constipation ( ) help calm the nervous


bananas are good for you, system.
rary/Jupi

g. Potassium helps normalize ( ) so they can reduce the risk of


Liquidlib

the heartbeat and blood pressure problems.


h. A banana a day ( ) keeps the doctor away.

i. When we are stressed, ( ) makes you feel happier.

j. A banana gives you ( ) an instant boost of energy.

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LISTENING

Myth or Reality?
1. In pairs, read the statements below and decide whether they are true or
false.
Drinking a glass of water before breakfast can help you lose weight.
Avocados and bananas are fattening.
Eating carbohydrates in the evening makes you fatter.

27 2. Susan and Michael are talking about an article that one of them
read on the Internet. Listen to the dialogue and identify who said what.

a. No gosta muito de bananas.

b. Est comendo uma banana.

c. Est fazendo dieta.

d. Acha que as bananas engordam.

e. Leu sobre as bananas na Internet.

f. Afirma que as bananas contm acar natural.

g. Afirma que as bananas no engordam.

h. Aceita uma banana.

3. Listen again and underline the right word


to complete each sentence.

a. Michael tells Susan that she should eat


bananas every day / weekend.
b. Bananas help you reduce / prevent
illnesses.
c. Susan says that bananas have a little / a lot
of sugar.
d. Besides having natural sugar bananas have a
lot of fiber / sodium.
e. The conversation takes place on Monday /
Sunday.

Astral232/Shutterstock/Glow Images

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STRUCTURE

Adjectives Ending in -ed or -ing


Observe os adjetivos em destaque nestas frases:
by making students become more interested and alert.
There is even an interesting idiom
Os dois adjetivos derivam do verbo to interest (interessar). Com alguns
verbos, como esse, possvel formar adjetivos com o sufixo -ed e tambm com o
sufixo -ing, que tem sentido diferente. Enquanto a terminao -ed indica efeito,
a terminao -ing indica causa. Veja:
interest + ing = interesting interessante; que causa, provoca interesse (causa)
interest + ed = interested interessado; que ficou interessado (efeito)
Muitos outros verbos formam adjetivos com esses sufixos e assim expressam
causa ou efeito.
Complete each sentence with the correct adjective in the parentheses.

a. It was a long trip from Porto Alegre to Manaus. Everybody was .


(tired tiring)

b. Movies with scenes of violence obviously promote more violence.


(shocked shocking)

c. Bananas are really an fruit.


(amazing amazed)

d. I was at the variety of uses of that fruit.


(amazing amazed)

e. Nobody likes washing dishes. Its a activity.


(boring bored)

f. It was raining and the kids had nothing to do. They were
. (bored boring)

g. After such a trip all I needed was a bed.


(tired tiring)

h. When we are , our metabolic rate rises.


Przemyslaw Ceynowa/
(stressing stressed) Shutterstock/Glow Images

i. My friend Richard is a firefighter. He has a very job.


(stressing stressed)

Uses of the -ing Form


No texto principal desta Unidade tambm podemos observar usos da forma
terminada em -ing. Veja estas frases:

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1. It can also help overcome or prevent a great number of illnesses, making it a must
2. Before reaching for the insect bite cream
3. Research shows that bananas can assist learning
4. by making students become more interested and alert.
5. Eating a banana every day helps to keep the doctor away
6. There is even an interesting idiom

Match the -ing forms in the examples above with their corresponding uses.
Translate the -ing forms in bold into Portuguese.

a. gerndio, que equivale terminao -ndo em portugus

b. substantivo

c. gerndio, usado como sujeito da orao, que equivale ao infinitivo em


portugus

d. adjetivo, antes de um substantivo

e. gerndio, depois de by, que indica o modo de executar a ao

f. gerndio, depois de qualquer preposio, que equivale ao infinitivo em


portugus

Alguns verbos em ingls, como to like, podem vir seguidos de gerndio (forma
-ing) ou infinitivo, sem mudana de sentido. Assim:
We all like listening to good music. = We all like to listen to good music.
Outros s podem ser seguidos de uma dessas formas. To enjoy (gostar de),
por exemplo, s pode ser seguido de gerndio.
We enjoy listening to good music.
Outros s podem ser seguidos de infinitivo, por exemplo, to want (querer):
We want to listen to music.
Finalmente, h alguns (poucos) verbos que podem ser seguidos de gerndio
para expressar um sentido e de infinitivo para expressar outro. No texto desta
Unidade encontramos try + -ing form. Nesse caso, to try significa experimentar,
fazer uma experincia:
try rubbing the affected area experimente esfregar a rea afetada

To learn more
To try pode ser seguido de infinitivo, mas nesse caso o sentido de tentar,
about this topic, go to fazer um esforo para, e no de experimentar, fazer uma experincia.
MINIGRAMMAR 40. I always try to stay calm when a mosquito bites me, but this time it was impossible.

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Modal Verbs Used to Express Deduction: Must, Cant
Observe os exemplos. Qual a ideia expressa pelos verbos modais em destaque:
conselho, possibilidade ou capacidade?

This popular fruit should be included in your daily diet conselho


and for more reasons than you could imagine. possibilidade
Energy isnt the only way a banana can help us keep fit. It can also help
overcome or prevent a great number of illnesses, making it a must to add to our
daily diet. capacidade

Must, basicamente um verbo modal que expressa necessidade ou uma


obrigao forte ou uma ordem, que equivale a dever, ter de, aparece na ltima
frase como um substantivo.
making it a must to add to our daily diet.
No trecho acima, a banana considerada uma necessidade, algo que no
pode deixar de ser acrescentado nossa dieta de todos os dias.
Alm dessa ideia, must, como modal verb, pode tambm ser usado para
expressar uma deduo, concluso lgica, algo que deve, s pode ser verdade, em
face das evidncias:
Bananas must be the reason monkeys are so happy all the time!
Para expressar a ideia contrria a must, nesse sentido de deduo, concluso
lgica, usa-se can't (no poder, no ser possvel).
That cant be true. Scientifically, that is not true.
1. Read the comic strip and observe the modal verbs in bold. Then choose
from the box the ideas expressed by those verbs. Be careful! You will need
to mention two ideas only, and one of them is used twice.

necessity deduction, logical conclusion


permission possibility capacity advice
Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora

My son is five years old


and he can speak five
foreign languages!

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Ilustraes: Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora
Wow! He must
be a genius!

And she must


be a big liar!

2. Use the same box to choose the ideas expressed by the modal verbs in
the sentences below.

a. High in iron, bananas can stimulate the production of haemoglobin in the


blood.

b. If you suffer from constipation you should drink lots of water and include
bananas in your diet, because they are high in fiber.

c. Bananas must be one of the most popular fruits in the world.

d. Bananas are grown in hot countries, where the temperatures can reach 40
degrees Celsius in the summer.

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e. I must remember to include that fruit in my daily diet.

To learn more
f. Mom, can I have a banana milkshake?
about this topic, go to
MINIGRAMMAR 37.

WRITING

Creating a Poster
1. In groups, scan the main text in this Unit (p. 154) and find the right
words to complete this poster.

1. Blend Images/Shutterstock/Glow Images 2. Dundanim/Shutterstock/Glow Images 3. Prudkov/Shutterstock/


Glow Images 4. iQoncept/Shutterstock/Glow Images 5. Andre Blais/Shutterstock/Glow Images
FIVE GREAT REASONS TO EAT
A BANANA EVERY DAY!
It helps to calm down the
.

It improves your
1
and makes you smile. 2

3
It can reduce the risk of
problems.

It is high in iron, so it helps


in cases of .
4

It helps solve the problem


PLEASE of constipation, because it
is high in .
REMEMBER:
A BANANA A DAY
5

2. Make a list of at least 3 common features of a poster. How is the text presented? What kind of
sentences are used? What kind of images go with them?

3. In groups, create a poster about the benefits of some fruit or any other kind of food of your
choice. Find information about that in books, magazines or the Internet.

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SPEAKING

What Should I Do?


Discuss with a classmate about what you, your family, friends, or
classmates should eat and drink in order to have a balanced diet. Observe
the examples and use the box below as reference.
I have high blood pressure, but I love eating French fries with lots of
salt. What should I do?

You should stop it! You should eat fruit and vegetables instead.

My sister has high cholesterol, but she loves drinking soda. What
should she do?

Thats not good. She should stop drinking soda and start drinking
fruit juice instead.

Name Health Problem Eating Habits

loves eating French fries


high blood pressure
with lots of salt

anaemia has only one meal a day

high cholesterol drinks a lot of soda

diabetes loves ice cream

constipation drinks very little water

A banana a day... Unverdorben/Shutterstock/Glow Images

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Another Look at...

Bananas

1. Look at the picture, read the poem and complete the lines with words from the
box. Be careful! There are 4 extra words in the box.

civilization seem investigation moon


sky soon team monkey's sun
Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora

Is that a banana or the


?
Thats up to your imagination.
But if you are a hungry baboon
it sure requires .

Things arent always what they


.
And imagination makes you fly.
A hungry wildest
dream:
Its dinner floating in the
.

2. Which of these key words do you think best describes the situation in the poem?

a. investigation b. dinner c. baboon d. imagination e. sky

3. Choose a title for the poem, then use your imagination and create your own title for it.

A hungry monkeys dream


A poor baboon reaching for the moon
Reaching out to grab that yummy prize
Another monkey goes bananas

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B
ananas para despoluir o ambiente
As cascas de banana podem ter um destino muito
mais nobre e til do que ir para o lixo. Um estudo
realizado pela qumica Milena Rodrigues Boniolo [...]
THINK
THINK mostrou que elas podem ser usadas para remover metais
ABOUT
ABOUTIT IT pesados como o urnio da gua.
A qumica conta que a ideia de usar casca de
banana para remover metais pesados da gua surgiu
da tentativa de dar uma destinao til para as vrias
toneladas de casca que so descartadas anualmente no pas e
acabam se tornando lixo poluente. []
Para desenvolver o estudo, Boniolo preparou um p com as cascas de
banana. Durante uma semana, as cascas foram colocadas em uma assadeira
no telhado da casa da pesquisadora, debaixo de sol forte. Depois de secas,
elas foram batidas em um liquidificador e peneiradas. O p foi colocado em um
recipiente fechado com gua contendo grandes quantidades de metais pesados,
como o urnio, sob agitao constante, por 40 minutos. Segundo a qumica, a
banana, que tem carga negativa, combina-se com os metais pesados, que tm
carga positiva. Ao fim desse processo de agitao, o p contaminado deposita-
-se no fundo do recipiente. Em mdia, o p da casca de banana consegue
remover 65% dos metais pesados da gua []

Bananas
are really
good for you.
And banana
skins can be
good for the
environment. Ajt/Shutterstock/Glow Images

(Adapted from: FERNANDES, Thas. Cincia hoje On-line. Available at: <http://cienciahoje.uol.com.br/noticias/
quimica/bananas-para-despoluir-o-ambiente/>, Oct. 2009. Access: Mar. 19, 2013.)

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores, principalmente


com os de Qumica e de Biologia.

Exploring Other Sources

LANDAU, Elaine. Bananas. EUA: Grolier Publishing, 1999.


VALLE, Heloisa de Freitas; CAMARGOS, Marcia. Yes, ns temos bananas: histrias e
receitas com biomassa de banana verde. So Paulo: Senac, 2003.
ARE Bananas Good for Lowering Cholesterol? Health Benefits of Bananas. Available at:
<www.controllingcholesterol.org/faq/bananas-for-cholesterol.html>. Access: Mar. 19, 2013.

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Why Are We
So Fat?
28 Americans enjoy one of the
most luxurious lifestyles on Earth:
Our food is plentiful. Our work is
automated. Our leisure is effortless.
And its killing us.

(NEWMAN, Cathy. Why Are We So Fat? National Geographic


Magazine, August 2004, p. 46. Available at: <http://science.
nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/
human-body/fat-costs/#page=5>. Access: Mar. 11, 2013.)

Obesity is a serious health problem


worldwide. According to the AMB
(Brazilian Medical Association), about
40% of the Brazilian population is now
overweight, and more than 10 million
Andrei Zarubaika/Shutterstock/Glow Images

of these are obese. What information


do you expect to find in the text? What
are the causes of the problem, what
are the ways to solve it? Make some
predictions, read the text and check
them as you read.

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READING

Before You Read


Some foods are good for your health. Others are not. Check the pictures
that show junk food, food that is not good for you, because it contains a
lot of fat, salt, or sugar.
Nayashkova Olga/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Yeko Photo Studio/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Africa Studio/Shutterstock/Glow Images


Gena73/Shutterstock/Glow Images

a cheeseburger a salad an ice cream a fruit salad

Time to Read
Read the text quickly to get the main idea and check your predictions.
Then read the whole text.

TEENS LIFE Dear Billy,


December, 2012
First of all, dont be desperate. You can lose weight. Everybody can.
HEALTH Letters to Doc And you dont have to starve yourself to do that. Thats not necessary.
You see, when you deprive your body of sufficient calories, it
Dear Doc,
loses weight at first but in a few weeks your metabolism slows
I know I am too fat and I must do
down to conserve energy. Worse, it starts accumulating fat. So,
something about it. I really have to
when you stop your diet and start eating normally again, your new,
lose weight and do it fast. The trouble
slower metabolism is much more efficient at converting food to
is no crash diet seems to work with
me. I may lose a little weight at first,
fat. And your body adds a few extra pounds to its original weight
I might even lose a few pounds in the as insurance against the next famine. Each time you diet, your
first weeks, but then I see a bag of body is more efficient at this cycle.
potato chips or a vanilla ice cream The only way to lose weight without causing this famine
I know I mustnt eat those things, but reaction from your body is to do it gradually. Your goal should be
I simply cant resist temptation. So, to make your body burn up its precious reserves of fat. But you
a few months after starting a new have to do that little by little.
crash diet, I am fatter than I was Heres what you should do: Avoid foods that are high in fat and
before. My friends say I shouldnt calories. Instead, you should eat lots of fruit and vegetables. You
despair, but I am sixteen years old should also increase your physical activity, like swimming or working
and I weigh 186 pounds*. What out in the gym. Or exercising outside: running, biking, even walking.
should I do? Walking an extra mile** every day will also help. Fresh air is good not
Desperate Billy only for the body but also for the soul. Do you play any sports? Join
Orlando, Florida a club or a league such as basketball or tennis. You ought to reduce
the time you spend watching television. And Billy, stay away from
those chips!
*1 pound = 0.454 kilograms
Doc ** 1 mile = 1.609 kilometers

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General Comprehension
What's the Main Idea?
1. Choose the only alternative that is NOT an answer to the question
Why Are We So Fat?.
Americans are so fat because
a. their food is plentiful. c. their work is automated.
b. their leisure is effortless. d. their lifestyle is healthy.

2. In Americans enjoy one of the most luxurious lifestyles on Earth: Our


food is plentiful. Our work is automated. Our leisure is effortless. And its
killing us, two statements present a paradox. Can you identify those two
statements?

Word Study
In Other Words
Match each word or phrase in bold with its meaning.

a. avoid foods ( ) doing physical exercise to keep fit

b. our work is automated ( ) become thinner


( ) present in large quantities
c. working out in the gym
( ) time when we are not working
d. our leisure is effortless It's hard to resist the
is done without any effort
appeal of junk food,
e. our food is plentiful ( ) done by machines but you have to!

f. you can lose weight ( ) stay away from

Words In Context
Nayashkova Olga/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence.

a. Life is a wise precaution to protect your family.

chips leisure insurance crash diet gym

b. When you your body of sufficient calories, you starve yourself.

deprive burn up slow down lose increase

c. Because of the lack of rain there was no food for a long time.
It was a terrible .

weight famine soul reaction goal

Why Are We So Fat? UNIT 12 169

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Discourse Markers
Identify the idea expressed by the discourse markers in bold in the
following sentences. Choose from the box.

contrast alternative excess example(s) consequence intensity time

a. So, a few weeks after starting a new crash diet []


b. [] it loses weight at first
c. [] but I simply cant resist temptation.
d. [] increase your physical activity like swimming or working out
in the gym.
e. Why are we so fat?
f. I know I am too fat.
g. Or exercising outside.

Looking for Reference


In each of the sentences below, choose the alternative that shows what
the words in bold refer to in the text.
a. (title) Why are we so fat? d. (Docs answer) Thats not
Brazilians necessary.
people on Earth losing weight
Americans becoming desperate
starving yourself
b. (introduction) And its killing us.
food Brazilians e. [] its precious reserves of fat.
that lifestyle Americans your goal
our food people on Earth your body
your weight
c. (Billys letter) I know I mustnt
eat those things. f. But you have to do that little by
a bag of potato chips little.
a vanilla ice cream make your body convert food to fat
a bag of potato chips or a vanilla make your body conserve energy
ice cream make your body burn up fat

Detailed Comprehension
1. Scan the text to find this information. Answer the questions in Portuguese.
a. Por que Billy acaba sempre desistindo de fazer dieta?

b. Qual a idade e o peso de Billy?

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Jag_cz/Shutterstock/Glow Images

c. Por que, em geral, as pessoas engordam quando deixam de fazer dieta?

d. Como se pode evitar essa reao do corpo?

e. Quais so os alimentos que Billy deve evitar, segundo Doc?

f. A que atividade Billy no deve dedicar tanto tempo?

2. Match the beginnings and the endings of the sentences. "You should eat
lots of fruit and
vegetables."
a. When you deprive your body of ( ) like swimming or working out
sufficient calories, in the gym.
b. Each time you diet,
( ) he is fatter than he was before.
c. He knows he mustnt eat those
things, ( ) your body is more efficient at
this cycle.
d. So, a few weeks after starting a
new crash diet, ( ) you spend watching television.
e. When you go on a diet, your ( ) but he simply cant resist
metabolism slows down
temptation.
f. You ought to reduce the time
( ) it loses weight at first.
g. You should also increase your
physical activity, ( ) to conserve energy.

Comprehension Check

Choose the alternative that best completes each sentence, according to the text.

a. Americans enjoy one of the most luxurious lifestyles on Earth.


Their lifestyle is really .
sufficient expensive and comfortable efficient slower
b. Their food is plentiful. It is in large quantities.
necessary physical available desperate
c. Their work is automated. It is done by machines, people.
instead even such as instead of
d. Their leisure is effortless. It is done any effort.
against again without before
e. And its killing them. That lifestyle is bad for their .
famine health insurance goal

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LISTENING

On the Phone
1. As expresses abaixo foram retiradas de conversas telefnicas. Com
um colega, classifique-as de acordo com o momento da conversa em que
geralmente aparecem:
AP (answering the phone); IY (introducing yourself); AS (asking to
speak to someone); CS (connecting someone); TM (taking a message);
LM (leaving a message); FC (finishing a conversation).
( ) May I speak to Mr. Wright, please?
( ) Hello?
( ) Hang on one second.
( ) Thank you for calling Wright & Sons. Sarah speaking. How can I help you?
( ) Hey John. Its Sandra calling.
( ) Edwards not in. Whos this?
( ) Hello, this is William Sanderson calling.
( ) Is Fred in?
( ) Please hold and Ill put you through to his office.
( ) Yes, its James from Ottawa. When do you expect her back in the office?
( ) Im afraid hes stepped out. Would you like to leave a message?
( ) Its Will, could you ask him to call me when he gets in?
( ) Ok, Bye!
( ) Thanks for calling. Bye for now.

292. Oua a conversa ao telefone entre Doc, o mdico colunista de um


jornal de Nova York, e Billy, um leitor com problemas de nutrio que
escreveu uma carta para a coluna de Doc. Depois responda s perguntas.
a. Por que Billy ligou para Doc?

b. Que tipo de alimentos Billy ingeria antigamente?

c. O que Billy aprendeu?

d. O que ele come agora?

e. Que tipo de exerccio fsico ele faz?

f. Que convite Billy faz a Doc?

g. O que os dois combinaram?

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STRUCTURE

Modal Verbs: Review


Observe os verbos modais e reveja o significado e a ideia expressa por eles.

can poder capacity; possibility; (informal) permission

cant no poder no capacity; impossibility; no permission

may poder possibility; (formal) permission

might poder (remote) possibility

should/ought to dever advice; moral obligation; the right thing to do

must/have to* ter de necessity; strong obligation; order

must not/mustnt no poder prohibition

dont/doesnt have to no ter de, no precisar no necessity

will certainty; predictions; decisions; promises

* A rigor have to no verbo modal, mas est associado a must.

1. We can find many examples of modal verbs usage both in Billys letter and in Docs answer.
Identify the idea expressed by each modal verb in the sentences below.
Sweet colors that
a. I must do something about it. you can eat...
in moderation!
b. I really have to lose weight.
c. I may lose a little weight at first
d. I might even lose a few pounds.
e. I know I mustnt eat those things
f. But I simply cant resist temptation.
g. What should I do?
h. You can lose weight.
i. And you dont have to starve yourself
j. Your goal should be
k. But you have to do that little by little.
l. Heres what you should do
m. You ought to reduce the time
n. Walking will also help.

Vorobyeva/Shutterstock/Glow Images

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2. Finish the second sentence in accordance with the situation presented in the first one. Use
the verbs in the box for reference.

drive at night study harder be careful waste it


speak in a loud voice see a doctor take your umbrella

a. You have a test tomorrow. You should .


b. Mary is ill. She should .
c. Doug is in the library. He ought not to .
d. We have very little money. We should not .
e. Phil cant see very well. He ought not to .
To learn more
f. Its going to rain. You should . about this topic, go to
g. Today is Friday the 13th, a bad luck day. We ought to . MINIGRAMMAR 37.

Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal verbs so locues compostas de um verbo e uma partcula (preposio ou advrbio) que tm
um significado prprio. Em muitos casos, o significado dessas locues acompanha o dos elementos que
a formam. Assim, jump significa pular, saltar; up significa para cima; em jump up a partcula adverbial
apenas refora o sentido do verbo. Muitas outras phrasal verbs, no entanto, tm um sentido no previsvel,
que precisa ser memorizado. Assim, look significa olhar, for significa para ou por, mas look for
significa procurar. As locues verbais vo sendo incorporadas medida que as encontramos nos textos.
Observe as locues verbais em destaque nestas frases:
[] in a few weeks your metabolism slows down to conserve energy.
Your goal should be to make your body burn up its precious reserves of fat.
You should also increase your physical activity, like swimming or working out in the gym.

slow down: reduce speed


burn up (fat): get rid of fat from your body by doing physical activity
work out: do physical exercise as a way of keeping fit, staying in good shape

Some common phrasal verbs with call are included in the following story. Check the meaning
of the phrasal verbs and their use in context.

call for:
1 demand, require Some situations call for a lot of patience.
2 go to get (somebody I promised to call for Mary at 7 yesterday.
or something)
We were going to call on some friends. But I had
call on: visit
traveled to So Paulo and it was raining hard.
Because of the bad weather all flights to Rio were
call off: cancel
called off. So I couldnt come.
call up: telephone I called her up to explain, and then she called me
call down: reprimand down!

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Estdio 1+2/Arquivo da editora

Now complete the sentences with phrasal verbs with call.

a. Being a firefighter a lot of courage.

b. I wanted to my mother but I had no cell phone and there


was no public phone nearby.

c. The Olympic Games had to be because of the war.

d. I always my cousins when I go to So Paulo even when


I have very little time.

e. John asked me to keep his books here until tomorrow. Hell


them tomorrow afternoon.

f. If you dont stop talking, the boss will you .

SPEAKING

Healthy Habits
1. Use your notebook and make a list of your bad habits. Think of the foods you
eat, the time you devote to studying, the time you spend in front of the TV etc.
2. Now take turns with two of your classmates, asking and answering
questions about the bad habits on your list. Use the ideas from the box on
page 176 for reference, but you can also make your own questions. Follow
the example:
Could you give me some advice?
Sure. Whats the matter?
Im getting so fat
Well, you should stop eating junk food. You should eat more fruit
and vegetables. And you should get more exercise.
Youre right. Ill try to follow your advice. Thanks a lot.
Youre welcome/Anytime.

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follow a healthy diet do physical exercise study harder
need to change your
have to lose weight read more books
habits
like ice cream like fatty foods go to the park
eat rice and beans eat junk food go out with friends
drink a lot of water drink milk visit new places
like fruit and vegetables drink green tea watch good movies

WRITING

My Secret Diet

KEY
Fat (naturally occurring and
Fats, Oils & Sweets
added)
USE SPARINGLY
Sugars (Added)
These symbols show fats
and added sugars in food

Milk, Yogurt &


Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry
Cheese Group
Beans, Eggs & Nuts Group
2-3 SERVINGS
2-3 SERVINGS

Vegetable Group
3-5 SERVINGS Fruit Group
2-4 SERVINGS

Fac-smile/Arquivo da editora
Bread, Cereal, Rice &
Pasta Group
6-11 SERVINGS

Use the food pyramid for inspiration and write a paragraph about your
healthy diet, but make it a secret diet, do not reveal the foods. Exchange
your paragraph with a classmate, you both have to guess what foods the
other one eats every day. Use the paragraph below only for reference,
make all the alterations necessary to fit your healthy diet.
I follow the food pyramid so I have a very healthy diet. I have 6 to 11 servings
of and 3 to 5 servings of every day. I love
so I have 4 servings of daily. I always
have 2 servings of or mixed with some
. I have 2 to 3 servings of every day. I
know , , are to be used
in moderation, so I rarely have them.

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Another Look at...
Healthy Diets
Para combater a obesidade infantil, as autoridades norte-americanas
mudaram as regras da merenda escolar. Na edio de 14/9/2012, a revista
Time publicou, na seo Healthland, um artigo sobre essas novas regras,
que visam a uma alimentao mais saudvel para os estudantes dos EUA.

Observe the photo, read the title and the text. Then choose the alternatives that
best complete the following statements.

FOOD & DRINK

Hans Pennink/Associated Press/Glow Images


Mixed Grades for New, Healthy
School Lunch Rules
By ASSOCIATED PRESS | September 14, 2012 | 2

(ROTTERDAM, N.Y.) One student complains


because his cafeteria no longer serves chicken
nuggets. Another gripes that her school lunch just
isnt filling. A third student says hes happy to eat an
extra apple with his lunch, even as hes noshing on
his own sub.
Leaner, greener school lunches served under
new federal standards are getting mixed grades
from students piling more carrots, more apples and
fewer fatty foods on their trays.

(Mixed Grades for New, Healthy School Lunch Rules. Available at: <http://healthland.time.com/2012/09/14/mixed-grades-
for-new-healthy-school-lunch-rules/#ixzz26acrCfi7>. Access: Oct. 2, 2012.)

a. A expresso mixed grades usada no ttulo do artigo sinaliza que essas medidas
tiveram aprovao geral.
foram bem recebidas por alguns estudantes, mas no por outros.
tiveram reprovao geral.
b. O novo menu da merenda escolar norte-americana
ainda inclui alimentos tpicos dos restaurantes de fast food.
inclui alimentos gordurosos, mas uma variedade maior de verdes.
segue novos padres estabelecidos pelo governo federal.
c. Um dos estudantes entrevistados pela revista gostou de poder comer uma ma adicional
mas no deixou de trazer o seu prprio sanduche para o almoo.
mas achou que o novo menu no consegue saciar a fome.
e elogiou o novo sanduche, mais saudvel do que o que serviam anteriormente.

Why Are We So Fat? UNIT 12 177

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obesidade um problema de sade pblica que afeta mais

A de 300 milhes de pessoas em todo o mundo. Em 2008,


nos Estados Unidos, mais de 1,4 bilho de adultos estavam
overweight ou sofriam de obesidade.
THINK E, no Brasil, como estamos? A fome deixou de ser o grande
ABOUT IT problema de sade pblica do pas na rea alimentar. Atualmente,
a obesidade preocupa mais do que a desnutrio. Dados
estatsticos oficiais mostram que enquanto a desnutrio caiu, o
nmero de brasileiros obesos aumentou. Quase cinquenta por cento
dos brasileiros esto acima do peso.
Maus hbitos alimentares, sedentarismo, estresse, tudo isso causa
sobrepeso ou, pior, obesidade. Ensinar um estilo de vida melhor, mostrar s pessoas a
necessidade de consumir alimentos saudveis, comer menos e melhor, convenc-las a se
exercitar mais, a campanha do Eat Less, Exercise More,
tudo isso importante, mas no o bastante. Mudanas
sociais mais amplas so necessrias, entre elas fazer
com que a indstria de alimentos oferea opes
mais saudveis. O consumo de produtos alimentares
industrializados a principal causa do aumento da

Angela Hawkey/Shutterstock/Glow Images


obesidade. As vendas desses produtos aumentaram
20% nos Estados Unidos nas ltimas duas dcadas.
Entretanto, os interesses comerciais de um setor, seja
ele qual for, nunca deveriam estar acima da sade. What
is your opinion about that? Which side are you on big
business or good public health?
H uma expresso inglesa que vem muito a
propsito: food for thought algo para pensar, assunto
que merece reflexo. Esperamos que essas palavras lhe
ofeream food for thought.

Debata esse assunto com seus colegas e professores,


principalmente com os de Qumica, de Biologia e de Sociologia.

Exploring Other Sources

STENZEL, Lcia Marques. Obesidade: O peso da excluso. 2. ed. Porto Alegre: ediPUCRS, 2003.
NAO fast food: Uma rede de corrupo. Direo: Ridhard Linklater. Produo: Chris
Salvaterra. Distribuio: Five Stars Distribuidora de Filmes Ltda, 2006.
SUPER size me: A dieta do palhao. Direo: Morgan Spurlock. Produo: Jr. Morley/
Heather Winters. Distribuio: Imagem Filmes Distribuidora Ltda., 2004.
STAYING at a healthy weight. Available at: <http://kidshealth.org/teen/your-body/take-care/
healthy-weight.html>. Access: Mar. 11, 2013.
WHY our food is making us fat. Available at: <www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/jun/11/
why-our-food-is-making-us-fat>. Access: Mar. 11, 2013.

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Check Your English 4
1. Find the sentences in the box that make sense a. If you are traveling by car, bus or plane, your
after each of the sentences below. will protect you in case

She should see a doctor. I must go now. of an accident.


You cant smoke here. You should go on a diet. b. When a is yellow, you
You must not read it.
know that the fruit is ripe and good to eat.

a. Im too fat. What should I do? c. If your is too high or too


low, you should see a heart doctor.

d. Potato chips, French fries, big burgers, all that

b. Thats a confidential document. is bad for your health.

e. Many kids prefer to spend hours pressing buttons


to move images on a screen than to go out and
play sports. are one of
c. Sorry, this is a no smoking area.
the factors in child obesity.

0.1 point each /0.5

d. Sally isnt feeling well. What should she do? 3. Complete the dialogues. Find the sentences
in the box that make sense as an answer or
comment to each of the sentences below.

e. Its after midnight and theyre probably worried It must be Michael. He always calls me around
about me. this time. He must be getting old. You cant be
hungry! I saw you eat a big sandwich ten minutes
ago! They must be crazy! He must be lonely.

0.1 point each /0.5 a. Mark: My cousin Debbie is going to have another
baby in June. They have a big family already.
2. Find the correct nouns in the box to complete Exactly twenty children, twenty-one when that new
the noun phrases below. Then use those noun
baby is born.
phrases to complete the sentences.
Susan:
blood banana junk video seat

food b. Bia: I read somewhere they invited the new


belt James Bond to come to Rio for the Carnival and

pressure he said no.

games Paul:

skin

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c. Matt: I must go and visit my grandfather. He lives But
alone in the farmhouse no pets, no telephone,
no TV, no computer. Hes a funny character, my
Grandpa.
Phil:

was all he could do.


d. Amanda: Ana, thats your cell phone.
Good-bye then, Donald, Im leaving you.
Ana: But

e. John: Im so hungry. Do you know any good


restaurant around here? was all he did do.
Aretha: And she left forever so she never knew
that

0.2 point each /1

4. Leia o texto Deaf Donald, poema e ilustrao means I love you.


de Shel Silverstein, e responda em ingls (SILVERSTEIN, S. A Light in the Attic: Poems and
Drawings. HarperCollins Publishers, 1981.)
questo a seguir.
Mark (T) (for true) or (F) (for false). Make the
false statements true.
DEAF DONALD
Deaf Donald met Talkie Sue a. Sue was able to talk and she talked a lot.
But b. Sue could talk and Donald could talk too.
c. Donald was not able to speak but he could hear.
d. When Sue said Donald, I sure do like you. she
was being emphatic.
e. Sue did not understand sign language, Donalds
way of communicating with her.
was all he could do.
f. Donald was not able to say the words the way Sue
And Sue said, Donald, I sure do like you.
wanted.
But
g. The girl said good-bye and left him forever.
h. She probably thought he did not like her.
i. Sign language is a powerful form of
communication, but sometimes it doesnt work.
j. Talkie Sue never realized Deaf Donald loved her.
was all he could do.
0.1 point each /1
And Sue asked Donald, Do you like me too?

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Observe a foto, leia o artigo e responda Leia o texto para responder questo 6.
questo 5.
Youth
Ilolab/Shutterstock/Glow Images

Peter Dazeley/Getty Images


Why We Should Hold the Fries
The solution to the American health crisis lies
less in reorganizing medical treatment than in
improving public health, such as steering kids
away from french fries. We should launch a series of
initiatives to confront obesity and lack of exercise.
Some suggestions: ban soda, potato chips, and other
unhealthy snacks from schools; tax junk foods, The world is passing through troubled
particularly high-fructose corn syrup, a major
times. The young people of today think
culprit in the fattening of America; promote jogging
of nothing but themselves. They have no
and biking, and encourage exercise breaks; expand,
respect for parents or old age. They dont
not cut back, physical-education programs. Its
ridiculous that schools have been cutting back on have any discipline. They talk as if they knew
P.E. when students need more of it. A War on Sloth everything, and what passes for wisdom with
isnt as dramatic as a War on Terrorism. But there is us is foolishness with them.
no area of public policy where it would be easier to As for the girls, they are foolish, immodest
save lives than in promoting public health. and not feminine in speech, behavior and
KRISTOF, Nicholas D. Why We Should Hold the Fries. dress.
Available at: <www.scholastic.com/browse/article.
jsp?id=10909>. Access: Jan. 30, 2013. 6. The passage above was extracted from a
5. Segundo o autor do artigo, o governo norte- sermon preached by Peter the Hermit in A.D.
-americano deveria 1274. It proves that

a. reorganizar o tratamento mdico do sistema a. in the past the behavior of young people was
de sade. praised by everybody.
b. reduzir os programas de educao fsica nas b. adults throughout history have been alarmed
escolas pblicas. by the behavior of young people.
c. substituir a guerra ao terrorismo pela guerra
c. if Peter the Hermit lived today he would
indolncia.
probably have a different opinion about youth.
d. promover a sade pblica pela adoo de uma
d. the young people of today have great respect
srie de medidas confrontando a obesidade e
a falta de exerccio fsico. for their parents.

e. proibir o consumo de batatas fritas e e. many of the problems of yesterday do not exist
refrigerantes em geral. today.

0.5 point each /0.5 0.5 point each /0.5

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Leia o texto para responder questo 7. 7. Assinale True or False, com base nas
declaraes do fsico Stephen Hawking.
Colonies on Mars will flourish and we will
eventually conquer the universe, says a. Essas colnias podero ser realidade dentro de
Stephen Hawking pouco tempo.

Professor Stephen Hawking has predicted that


b. Stephen Hawking considera que, dentro de um
milnio, quase certa a destruio total do nosso
humans will colonise Mars but not for at least a
planeta.
century.
The physicist, who has decoded some of c. Hawking admite a possibilidade de uma guerra
the greatest mysteries of the universe, said it is nuclear, mas no v o aquecimento global como
essential for man to spread across the galaxy in ameaa humanidade.
case Earth is destroyed. d. O fsico est confiante na possibilidade de
He suggested that it was almost certain colonizar Marte, assim como outros corpos
that a disaster such as nuclear war or global celestes, e acha que isso pode acontecer nos
warming would obliterate the planet within a prximos cem anos.
thousand years. e. Segundo Hawking, graas aos avanos da cincia
e tecnologia, os seres humanos um dia podero
chegar alm da nossa galxia.
David Parry/PA Wire/Press Association Images/Efevisual

0.1 point each /0.5

8. (Enem-2011)

Confident: Professor Stephen Hawking has said that


we will one day colonise Mars - and beyond.

It is essential that we colonise space, he


stressed. For an interesting attempt to measure cause
and effect try Mappiness, a project run by the
I believe that we will eventually establish
London School of Economics, which offers a
self-sustaining colonies on Mars and other phone app that prompts you to record your mood
bodies in the solar system, but not within the and situation.
next 100 years. The Mappiness website says: Were
particularly interested in how peoples happiness
Adding that humanitys extinction was
is affected by their local environment air
possible but not inevitable, Professor Hawking pollution, noise, green spaces, and so on which
said: I am optimistic that progress in science the data from Mappiness will be absolutely great
and technology will eventually enable humans to for investigating.
Will it work? With enough people, it might.
spread beyond the Solar System and into the far
But there are other problems. Weve been using
reaches of the universe. happiness and well-being interchangeably. ls
(COHEN, Tamara. Colonies on Mars will flourish and we
that ok? The difference comes out in a sentiment
will eventually conquer the universe. Available at: <www.
like: We were happier during the war. But was
dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2083084/Stephen-
our well-being also greater then?
Hawking-We-colonise-Mars-universe.html>. Access: Disponvel em: http://www.bbc.co.uk.
Jan. 30, 2013.) Acesso em: 27 jun. 2011 (adaptado).

182 Check Your English 4

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O projeto Mappiness, idealizado pela London (ITA-SP 2012) As questes de 10 a 12 referem-
School of Economics, ocupa-se do tema -se ao seguinte texto:
relacionado
ao nvel de felicidade das pessoas em tempos de Thursday, Feb. 10, 2011
2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal
guerra.
By Lev Grossman
dificuldade de medir o nvel de felicidade das
pessoas a partir de seu humor.
[], Kurzweil believes that were approaching a
ao nvel de felicidade das pessoas enquanto
moment when computers will become intelligent,
falam ao celular com seus familiares.
and not just intelligent but more intelligent than
relao entre o nvel de felicidade das pessoas e
humans. When that happens, humanity our bodies,
o ambiente no qual se encontram.
5 our minds, our civilization will be completely
infuncia das imagens grafitadas pelas ruas no and irreversibly transformed. He believes that
aumento do nvel de felicidade das pessoas. this moment is not only inevitable but imminent.

0.5 point each /0.5 According to his calculations, the end of human
civilization as we know it is about 35 years away.
9. (Enem-2011) 10 Computers are getting faster. Everybody knows
that. Also, computers are getting faster faster that is,
the rate at which theyre getting faster is increasing.
True? True.
So if computers are getting so much faster,
15 so incredibly fast, there might conceivably come
a moment when they are capable of something
comparable to human intelligence. Artificial
intelligence. All that horsepower could be put in
the service of emulating whatever it is our brains
20 are doing when they create consciousness not just
doing arithmetic very quickly or composing piano
music but also driving cars, writing books, making
ethical decisions, appreciating fancy paintings,
making witty observations at cocktail parties.
25 If you can swallow that idea, and Kurzweil and a
lot of other very smart people can, then all bets are
off. From that point on, theres no reason to think
GLASBERGEN, R. Todays Cartton. Disponvel em:
http://www.glasbergen.com. Acesso em: 23 jul. 2010.
computers would stop getting more powerful. They
would keep on developing until they were far more
Na fase escolar, prtica comum que os 30 intelligent than we are. Their rate of development
professores passem atividades extraclasse e
would also continue to increase, because they would
marquem uma data para que as mesmas sejam
take over their own development from their slower-
entregues para correo. No caso da cena
thinking human creators. Imagine a computer
da charge, a professora ouve uma estudante
apresentando argumentos para scientist that was itself a super-intelligent computer.
35 It would work incredibly quickly. It could draw on
discutir sobre o contedo do seu trabalho j entregue.
huge amounts of data effortlessly. It wouldnt even
elogiar o tema proposto para o relatrio solicitado. take breaks to play Farmville.
sugerir temas para novas pesquisas e relatrios. []
reclamar do curto prazo para entrega do trabalho.
convencer de que fez o relatrio solicitado. (Adapted from: GROSSMAN. Lev. 2045: The Year Man
Becomes Immortal. Time Magazine. Available at: <http://
0.5 point each /0.5 www.time.com/printout/0,8816,2048138,00.html>.
Access: Oct. 11, 2012.)

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10. De acordo com o texto, (Unifesp-2012) Leia o texto para responder s
questes de nmero 13 a 18.
a. Kurzweil est convencido de que os novos
computadores podero conduzir nossa mente
Longevity: Habits May Extend Life Only So
e nosso corpo.
Much
b. possvel que, num futuro prximo, By Nicholas Bakalar
August 8, 2011
supercomputadores se desenvolvam
independentemente de seus criadores
The eating, drinking and exercise habits of
humanos. extremely old but healthy people differ little from
those of the rest of us, a new study has found.
c. Kurzweil acredita que o fim da civilizao
Gerontologists at the Albert Einstein College of
humana poder acontecer em 35 anos.
Medicine recruited 477 Ashkenazi
Jews ages 95 to 112 who were living
d. computadores, cada vez mais rpidos, igualar-
independently. The researchers took blood
-se-o ao crebro humano.
samples, did physical examinations and obtained
e. a Cincia da Computao ocupa-se, detailed personal and medical histories from
each participant. Then they compared them
atualmente, do desenvolvimento de
with 1,374 non-Hispanic white adults, ages 65 to
superinteligncias.
74, from the general population. For both men
11. From that point on (linha 27) refere-se a and women, consumption of alcohol, amount of
physical activity and the percentage of people
a. whatever it is our brains are doing. on low-calorie or low-salt diets were almost
identical in the two groups.
b. all bets are off.
Long-lived men were less likely to be obese
c. Kurzweil and a lot of other very smart people than their younger counterparts, although no
can. less likely to be overweight. The oldest women
were more likely to be overweight and less
d. if you can swallow that idea. likely to be obese. More men among the oldest
were nonsmokers, but smoking habits were not
e. they would keep on developing. significantly different among the women.
__16__ that it all depends on genes, and
12. Na sentena They would keep on developing
we might as well eat, drink and be merry? No,
until they were far more intelligent than we are
according to the senior author, Dr. Nir Barzilai,
(linhas 28 a 30), o vocbulo grifado poderia ser director of the Institute for Aging Research at
substitudo por Albert Einstein College of Medicine. For most
of us who __17__ genes for longevity, he said,
a. far away.
if you follow the healthy lifestyle the medical
b. incredible. community has put forth, you are __18__ to live
past 80.
c. much. The study was published online last week in
The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
d. distant.

e. many. (Adapted from: BAKALAR, Nicholas. Longevity: Habits


May Extend Life Only So Much. The New York Times.
Available at: <www.nytimes.com/2011/08/09/health/
0.5 point each /1.5
research/09longevity.html?_r=0>. Access: Oct. 13, 2012.)

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Instruo: Assinale as alternativas que 15. No trecho do segundo pargrafo Long-lived
completam correta e respectivamente as men were less likely to be obese than their
lacunas numeradas no texto. younger counterparts, although no less likely to
13. According to the text, be overweight. a palavra although pode ser
substituda, sem alterao de sentido, por
a. independent elderly people are more likely to live
a. but.
more and in a healthy way.
b. so.
b. the research compared two groups: one of men
c. or.
aged from 95 to 112 and one of women aged from
65 to 74. d. since.

e. thus.
c. the study concluded that extremely old people
do not have significantly different eating, 16.
drinking and exercise habits from the rest of the
a. Do you talk
population.
b. Have they done
d. women in the oldest group were more likely to be
c. Has it said
nonsmokers when compared to women in the 65
to 74 group. d. Does this mean

e. Is he showing
e. non-Hispanic white adults tend to live less than
Ashkenazi Jews, probably because of their 17.
lifestyle. a. doesnt express

14. Os homens que fizeram parte do grupo da b. do not have


faixa etria mais velha c. had been living
a. eram todos antitabagistas. d. shows

b. apresentaram propenso obesidade e ao e. will present


sobrepeso.
18.

c. no consumiam bebidas alcolicas e faziam dieta a. less likely


com restrio de calorias e de sal. b. cant like

d. no eram sedentrios, mas tambm no c. much more likely


praticavam exerccios fsicos. d. even more like

e. apresentaram uma tendncia ao sobrepeso e. least probable


semelhante dos homens na faixa dos 65 a 74
0.5 point each /3
anos.

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SELF-EVALUATION (UNITS 10, 11 AND 12) ( ) understand and practice modal verbs used to
express advice, obligation (should, ought to),
How did you do? What was your score? necessity (must), deduction (must / cant)

Can ( ) distinguish between the suffixes -ed and -ing


Excellent Good OK
do better
with participles used as adjectives
Test total:
10-9 8-7 6-5 less than 5 ( ) distinguish between the several uses of the
out of 10 -ing form

How do you evaluate your own progress? ( ) identify and use phrasal verbs with call
Check ( ) for Yes, (X) for No, or (R) for Review ( ) listen to dialogues, telephone conversations,
Units 10, 11 and 12 after each of the topics and opinion polls
below.
( ) talk to a classmate about good and bad habits
Now I can
( ) write a poster or a short text
( ) use the different reading strategies to be able to
( ) understand and complete the information of a
understand a text in English
food pyramid
( ) identify the meaning and function of discourse
( ) reflect and debate about lifestyle habits: healthy
markers
food, physical exercise, and the ways to keep fit
( ) get the meanings of new words from context and have a better life

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Minigrammar

1. Artigo definido No se usa the antes de nomes prprios ou de


pronomes possessivos:
O artigo definido tem uma nica forma escrita: the. John is in Rio.
The book. The pen. The books. The pens. (O John est no Rio.)
(O livro. A caneta. Os livros. As canetas.) My brother is in Marys car.
(O meu irmo est no carro da Mary.)
Usa-se the para falar de um substantivo j conhecido
Usa-se the antes dos nomes de rios, instrumentos musicais
pelo contexto:
e de sobrenomes (no plural) para designar uma famlia.
The car is in the garage.
The Browns went on a trip down the Mississippi river. I saw
(O carro [voc j sabe qual] est na garagem.)
Mr. Brown playing the piano on the ship.
No se usa artigo definido quando se emprega um (Os Browns fizeram uma viagem descendo o rio Mississippi.
substantivo em sentido geral: Eu vi o Mr. Brown tocando piano no navio.)

Man and Nature.


(O homem e a natureza.) MINITEST
Milk is good for babies.
(O leite bom para os bebs.) Complete com the, quando for necessrio.
Mas, quando o mesmo substantivo tem sentido 1. Fernanda Montenegro is most famous actress in
especfico, usa-se artigo: Brazil.

The man spoke about the nature of the project. 2. All living things share Earth.
(O homem falou sobre a natureza do projeto.) 3. man sees planet as something to conquer. Thats
attitude of modern man.
The milk in the bottle is for the baby.
4. Flintstones is a TV cartoon program about a family
(O leite [que est] na mamadeira para o beb.) from Stone Age.
O artigo definido tambm usado antes de um 5. evolution of human race began some 150,000
substantivo concreto no singular para designar toda uma years ago.
classe ou espcie, em geral:

The banana is the worlds most popular fruit. 2. Artigo indefinido


(A banana [todas as bananas] a fruta mais popular do mundo.)
Existem duas formas de artigo indefinido em ingls: a e an.
Esse uso uma opo ao emprego do substantivo no
plural, tambm com sentido geral, caso em que, em ingls, An ocean. A tree. An hour. A university. An heir.
no se usa artigo. (Um oceano. Uma rvore. Uma hora. Uma universidade. Um
herdeiro.)
Bananas have no seeds.
(As bananas no tm sementes.) O artigo indefinido em ingls no tem plural. S se usa
a/an antes de substantivos no singular. No plural, ou no
Usa-se o artigo the antes de substantivos que se usa artigo ou emprega-se o pronome indefinido some
designam seres nicos em sua espcie: (alguns, algumas, uns, umas).
The world. The universe. The Earth. The Sun. A pen. An egg. Pens. Some eggs.
(O mundo. O Universo. A Terra. O Sol.) (Uma caneta. Um ovo. Umas canetas. Uns ovos.)
O artigo the tambm usado antes de um adjetivo Usa-se a ou an de acordo com o som inicial da palavra
(sempre no singular) com funo de substantivo, seguinte. Assim, emprega-se a antes de consoante ou som
designando todo um grupo ou classe: de consoante:

The poor. The old. The young. The blind. The dead. A town. A house. A year. A unit.
(Os pobres. Os velhos. Os jovens. Os cegos. Os mortos.) (Uma cidade. Uma casa. Um ano. Uma unidade.)

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Usa-se a, portanto, antes de palavras comeadas por h 4. human being needs affection. human being
aspirado: youre looking at needs lot of affection.

A horse. A head. A human being. 5. One of my favorite movies is Lord of Rings.


(Um cavalo. Uma cabea. Um ser humano.)

Antes de palavras que comeam com u ou eu, sendo a 3. Pronomes demonstrativos


pronncia equivalente a you:

A uniform. A useful instrument. A European car. Quando nos referimos a algo/algum que est perto,
(Um uniforme. Um instrumento til. Um carro europeu.) usamos this para o singular e these para o plural:

E tambm antes de substantivos compostos iniciados This magazine [in my hand] is new.
por one: (Esta revista [na minha mo] nova.)
These pictures [in the magazine] are great.
A one-way street. A one-hour film. (Estas fotos [que esto na revista] so timas.)
(Uma rua de mo nica. Um filme de uma hora.)
Para nos referirmos a algo/algum que est longe,
Usa-se an antes de som de vogal: usamos that para o singular e those para o plural:
An animal. An epidemic. An opportunity. That car [in the garage] is new.
(Um animal. Uma epidemia. Uma oportunidade.) (Aquele carro [na garagem] novo.)
Those trucks [on the road] are old.
Ou antes de palavras iniciadas com h mudo:
(Aqueles caminhes [na estrada] so velhos.)
An hour. An honor. An heir. An honest man.
That e those so tambm usados quando nos
(Uma hora. Uma honra. Um herdeiro. Um homem honesto.)
referimos a algo/algum que est perto da pessoa a quem
Ao contrrio do portugus, usa-se o artigo indefinido nos dirigimos, com quem estamos falando:
antes de substantivos que designam profisso,
That book [in your hand] is excellent.
nacionalidade ou religio:
(Esse livro [na sua mo] excelente.)
Dustin Hoffman is an actor/an American/a Jew. Those words [from the book] are beautiful.
(Dustin Hoffman ator/norte-americano/judeu.) (Essas palavras [que esto no livro] so belas.)

Tambm se usa o artigo a/an em frases com sentido Observe a tabela:


exclamativo ou enftico, quando o substantivo est no
singular e contvel: Singular Plural Indicam...
... o que est
What a beautiful song! this: these:
aqui, perto de
(Que bela cano!) este; esta; isto estes; estas
mim.
I had never had such a terrible experience. that: those:
... o que est ali
(Eu nunca tinha tido uma experincia to terrvel.) aquele; aquela; aqueles; aquelas;
ou l, longe.
aquilo aquilo
O artigo indefinido tambm usado com sentido
equivalente a por ou a, em portugus, em expresses que that: those:
... o que est a,
indicam frequncia, velocidade ou preo: esse; essa; isso esses; essas;
perto de voc.
isso
Three times a week. Twice a day.
(Trs vezes por semana. Duas vezes por dia.) Os pronomes demonstrativos podem ser usados:

Two dollars a gallon. Fifty cents a kilo. como adjetivos, antes dos substantivos:
(Dois dlares o galo. Cinquenta centavos o quilo.)
This exercise is easy. That lesson is difficult.
A hundred-twenty miles an hour. (Este exerccio fcil. Aquela lio difcil.)
(Cento e vinte milhas por hora.)
como pronomes substantivos:

This is easy. That is difficult.


MINITEST (Isto fcil. Isso/Aquilo difcil.)

Complete com a/an ou the, quando for necessrio. A conjuno que tambm tem a forma that, e em
ingls pode ser omitida da frase, principalmente na
1. Be optimist and you will be happier person. linguagem informal:
2. One of drugs in chocolate is caffeine.
You know (that) the choice is yours.
3. caffeine is stimulant. (Voc sabe [que] a escolha sua.)

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MINITEST MINITEST

1. Complete com this ou these. Complete com one ou ones.


a. island is called Manhattan. 1. He has a small car, she has a big .
2. never knows what to do in those situations.
b. And day by day my thanks I give
That with common things I live. 3. The red man drew a big circle around the small .
c. The scientist said that many of worlds could be 4. I want two chocolate bars. The small .
inhabited by simple life forms. 5. I cant come to the first night of your play, but I may
come to the second if there is .
d. The white man drew a small circle in the sand and told
the red man, is what the Indian knows.

2. Agora complete com that ou those. 5. Pronomes pessoais


a. The lion realized that cows were smart and went away. Os pronomes pessoais retos so usados antes do
verbo, como sujeito:
b. In Brazil, the name of movie was Tropa de Elite.

c. book is about nations. Retos (Sujeito) Oblquos (Objeto)


I eu me me; a mim
d. What lesson, or moral, does fable teach?
you tu; voc you te; a ti; a voc
he ele him o; lhe; a ele
4. Pronome one/ones she ela her a; lhe; a ela
it ele/ela it o/a; lhe; a ele/ela
Alm de seu uso como numeral, one funciona tambm
we ns us nos; a ns
como pronome, em lugar de um substantivo contvel j
you vs; vocs you vos; a vs; a vocs
mencionado na frase, para evitar sua repetio. Nesse
os/as; lhes;
caso, one no tem traduo prpria. they eles/elas them
a eles/elas
Id like a sandwich a big one, please.
Jane loves John. She loves John.
(Eu gostaria de um sanduche um grande, por favor.)
sujeito
Quando o substantivo substitudo est no plural, usa- Os pronomes pessoais oblquos so usados depois do
-se ones. verbo ou de uma preposio, como objeto:

Which shoes did you buy? I bought the black ones. Jane loves John. She loves him.
(Que sapatos voc comprou? Comprei os pretos.) objeto
This is a message for John. This is a message for him.
Observe o quadro: objeto

which one?: qual?


MINITEST
which ones?: quais?
this one: este/esta (aqui)
Escolha os pronomes pessoais adequados para
that one: esse/essa (a); aquele/aquela (ali)
completar as lacunas.
1. We have to do something about pollution. hurts all of
Esse uso de one/ones no deve ser confundido com o
. (They; we It; us It; we)
de one (sem forma plural) como sujeito indeterminado, em
2. This is a secret between you and . Lets keep it a secret
frases de sentido geral e impessoal.
between the two of . (I; we me; them me; us)
How can one avoid that problem? 3. After the oxens quarrel it was easy for the lion to kill
(Como uma pessoa/se pode evitar esse problema?) all. (they it them)

Esse uso de one um tanto formal. Em linguagem 4. Language makes the difference for the human being. It
sets or apart from other creatures who share this
informal, usa-se you.
planet. (him; her he; she they; we)
How can you avoid that problem? 5. Give the money that has been spent in war and will
(Como voc/se pode evitar esse problema?) clothe every man, woman, and child. (I; me me; I I; I)

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6. Pronomes possessivos MINITEST

Os pronomes possessivos com funo adjetiva vm Complete as frases com os pronomes adequados.
antes do substantivo. 1. These are not glasses. Are they , John?
2. They love country, we love .
Pronomes Pronomes
Pronomes
Possessivos Possessivos 3. I never take laptop to school, but she always takes .
Pessoais
(Adjetivos) (Substantivos)
4. You dont have to buy a dictionary, you can use . I
meu(s); have another at home.
I my mine
minha(s)
5. Your mother wants to sell car, but engine is too
teu(s); tua(s); old.
you your yours seu(s); sua(s)
de voc
seu(s); sua(s) 7. Pronomes reflexivos
he his his
dele
seu(s); sua(s) Pronomes
she her hers Pronomes Reflexivos
dela Pessoais
seu(s); sua(s) me; a mim; eu mesmo/a;
it its * I myself
dele/dela a mim mesmo/a

nosso(s); te; a ti/voc; (a) ti/voc


we our ours you yourself
nossa(s) mesmo/a

seu(s); sua(s) he himself se; a si; (a) si/ele mesmo


de vocs; she herself se; a si; (a) si/ela mesma
you your yours
vosso(s); se; a si; (a) si/ele/ela
vossa(s) it itself
mesmo/a
seu(s); sua(s) nos; a ns; (a) ns
they their theirs we ourselves
deles/delas mesmos/as
vos; a vs/vocs; (a) vs/
That is not my baggage. Those are not my suitcases. you yourselves
vocs mesmos/as
(Essa no a minha bagagem. Essas no so as minhas
se; a si/eles/elas; (a) si/
malas.) they themselves
eles/elas mesmos/as

Os pronomes possessivos com funo de substantivo Os pronomes reflexivos so usados logo aps o verbo e
so usados no lugar do substantivo. de acordo com o sujeito, para indicar que esse sujeito faz e
recebe os efeitos da ao:
That baggage is not mine. Those suitcases are not mine.
We enjoyed ourselves immensely at the party last Saturday.
(Aquela bagagem no a minha. Aquelas malas no so as
(Ns nos divertimos muito na festa sbado passado.)
minhas.)
Os mesmos pronomes, quando usados logo aps o
importante observar que, em ingls, diferentemente sujeito, tm sentido enftico:
do que acontece em portugus, os possessivos: We ourselves decorated the room.
(Ns mesmos decoramos o salo.)
 tm forma nica para o masculino e o feminino, no
singular e no plural, concordando com o possuidor e no A mesma expresso de nfase dada pela colocao
do pronome no final da frase.
com o que possudo.
We decorated the room ourselves.
John and his father/mother/brothers/sisters. (Ns mesmos decoramos o salo.)
(John e seu pai/sua me/seus irmos/suas irms.)
Esses pronomes podem ainda ter um sentido
 no so usados com o artigo definido: idiomtico quando vierem precedidos da preposio by,
formando uma expresso que significa sozinho/a, sem
My sister and her friends went to our farm yesterday. ajuda ou companhia.
(A minha irm e os amigos dela foram nossa fazenda I prepared the appetizers by myself. No one helped me.
ontem.) Eu preparei os aperitivos sozinho. Ningum me ajudou.

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Alive estaria incorreto na frase anterior, mas est
MINITEST
correto em:
Complete com os pronomes reflexivos adequados. Those animals are still alive.
1. You should not expose to the sunlight without (Aqueles animais ainda esto vivos.)
protection.

2. The rich countries cannot isolate from the poor ones.


MINITEST
3. Everyone has problems. The Queen has problems.

4. I say to I dont have any enemies, and I mean it. Reordene as palavras para formar frases corretas.
5. My uncle is very talkative. When there is no one 1. the / is / awake / baby / ?
around, he talks to .

8. Adjetivos caractersticas gerais 2. chocolate / that / delicious / looks / .

Em ingls, os adjetivos qualificativos ou descritivos tm


uma s forma para o masculino e o feminino, no singular e 3. visited / museum / we / History / the / Natural / of / .
no plural:

A small car. Two small cars.


(Um carro pequeno. Dois carros pequenos.) 4. is / problem / a / warming / serious / global / .
A big city. Two big cities.
(Uma cidade grande. Duas cidades grandes.)
5. being / a / life / of / human / is / miracle / a / .
Quando usado junto de um substantivo, com funo
atributiva, o adjetivo o antecede, ao contrrio do que
acontece em portugus:

The blue sky. A special tool.


(O cu azul. Uma ferramenta especial.)
9. Verbo to be presente e passado
Mas, no caso de alguns verbos, chamados verbos de
ligao (be, seem, look etc.), o adjetivo vem depois deles, A. Presente
com funo predicativa.
As formas do presente do verbo to be so apenas trs:
The sky is blue.
am, are e is.
(O cu est azul.)

That tool looks special. Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa


(Aquela ferramenta parece especial.) I am I am not Am I?
The problem seems difficult. You are You are not Are you?
(O problema parece difcil.) He is He is not Is he?
She is She is not Is she?
Alguns adjetivos no so usados com funo atributiva It is It is not Is it?
(antes do substantivo). Muitos desses adjetivos comeam We are We are not Are we?
com o prefixo a-: You are You are not Are you?
They are They are not Are they?
afraid (receoso/a, com medo)
alive (vivo/a, com vida) Em conversao comum o uso de formas abreviadas:
awake (acordado/a)
asleep (adormecido/a, dormindo) Afirmativas: m = am; re = are; s = is
ashamed (envergonhado/a)
Negativas: arent = are not; isnt = is not
aware (ciente, sabendo de)

B. Passado
Compare:

Scientists make experiments with living animals. As formas do passado (pretrito perfeito ou imperfeito)
(Os cientistas fazem experincias com animais vivos.) do verbo to be so apenas duas: was e were.

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Para expressar existncia no passado:
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
I was I was not Was I? Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
You were You were not Were you? Havia, There was
He was He was not Was he? There was Was there?
existia not
She was She was not Was she?
Havia, There were
It was It was not Was it? There were Were there?
existiam not
We were We were not Were we?
You were You were not Were you? Para expressar existncia no futuro:
They were They were not Were they?
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
No passado apenas as formas negativas podem ser
abreviadas: Haver,
There will
existir, There will be Will there be?
wasnt = was not not be
existiro
werent = were not
Formas abreviadas:

isnt = is not
MINITEST
wasnt = was not
Complete com as formas adequadas de to be, no wont = will not
presente ou no passado.
arent = are not
1. Van Gogh and Rembrandt born in Holland. They
Dutch. werent = were not

2. Global warming the most urgent problem facing


human beings today. MINITEST
3. Many tropical plants in danger because of
deforestation. Complete com there is/are, there was/were ou
4. Great Britain and the United States allies during the there will be.
Second World War. 1. thousands of bees in a hive.
5. Oscar Niemeyer one of the architects who built 2. While life hope.
Brasilia.
3. more than 8 billion people living on Earth by 2020.

4. 13.7 billion years ago, when time and space collided,


10. Verbo haver presente, a huge explosion, we call it the big bang.
passado, futuro 5. two other capitals in Brazil before Brasilia.

Para dizer haver no sentido de existir, em ingls usa-se


uma expresso formada por there + uma forma do verbo 11. Tempos verbais: Simple Present
to be.
forma afirmativa
There is an urban tropical forest in Rio de Janeiro.
(H/Existe/Tem uma floresta tropical urbana no Rio de Veja a seguir alguns exemplos de conjugao no
Janeiro.) Simple Present na forma afirmativa:
Ao contrrio do portugus, em que, na linguagem
To live To go To play
popular, usa-se o verbo ter para expressar existncia, o
verbo to have no usado nesse sentido. I I I
live go play
You You You
Para expressar existncia no presente:
He He He
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa She lives She goes She plays
H, It It It
There is There is not Is there?
existe We We We
H, There are You live You go You play
There are Are there?
existem not They They They

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O Simple Present Tense equivale ao Presente do c. We more laws to control the use of guns.
Indicativo em portugus. Ele tem a mesma forma bsica
d. Jane Goodall the behavior of chimpanzees in an
do infinitivo do verbo, sem a partcula to.
African jungle.
Essa forma bsica usada para todas as pessoas, com e. Chocolate small amounts of three drugs.
exceo da terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it), caso
em que, em geral, se acrescenta um -s (he/she/it lives). 2. Complete as frases com as formas do Simple
A terminao em -s muda para -es no caso dos verbos
Present dos verbos entre parnteses.
terminados em: a. Experience is a good teacher, but it us some hard
lessons. (teach teaches)
to go he/she/it goes
o b. John and Peter tennis every Saturday. What sports
to do he/she/it does
do you play? (play plays)
ss to pass he/she/it passes
c. We go to the shopping mall in the morning, but Jane
ch to teach he/she/it teaches there in the afternoon. (go goes)
sh to wash he/she/it washes
d. Alisha is an old-fashioned nice girl. She
her
x to fix he/she/it fixes homework regularly and then she helps her mother
with the housework. (do does)
Quando o verbo termina em -y precedido de vogal,
acrescenta-se -s forma bsica da terceira pessoa do
singular, como em: 12. Tempos verbais: Simple Present
to play: I play (he/she/it plays) formas negativa e interrogativa
to buy: I buy (he/she/it buys)
Exemplos de conjugao nas formas negativa e
Mas quando o -y precedido de consoante, ele interrogativa:
trocado por -ies, como em:
Negativa Interrogativa
to try: I try (he/she/it tries)
to cry: I cry (he/she/it cries) I I
do not Do
You you

Usos do Simple Present He he


does
She Does she
not know. know?
Aes, situaes ou atividades permanentes: It it
We we
Tropical forests cover only two percent of the Earths surface.
You do not Do you
(As florestas tropicais cobrem apenas dois por cento da
They they
superfcie terrestre.)

Verdades universais, fatos cientficos ou da natureza: Na forma negativa do Simple Present dos verbos
principais, dentre os quais to know um exemplo, usa-se o
Plants absorb carbon from the air. verbo auxiliar do + not antes da forma bsica (infinitivo sem
(As plantas absorvem carbono do ar.) to) do verbo principal. Na terceira pessoa do singular (he/
Aes habituais, repetidas, no presente: she/it), usa-se does em vez de do. Na linguagem coloquial,
do ou does (sem traduo nesse uso) geralmente so
Winter arrives in Antarctica in March. contrados com not, formando dont ou doesnt.
(O inverno chega Antrtida em maro.)
I go to school by bus. I dont go to school by subway.
(Eu vou para a escola de nibus. Eu no vou para a escola de
MINITEST metr.)
She plays the piano. She doesnt play the guitar.
1. Complete as frases com uma das formas do (Ela toca piano. Ela no toca violo.)
Simple Present dos verbos do quadro. Lembre- Na forma interrogativa do Simple Present dos verbos
-se da flexo em -s, -es ou -ies quando o sujeito principais usa-se do (does na terceira pessoa do singular)
for da terceira pessoa do singular. no incio da pergunta, antes do sujeito, e o verbo principal
fica em sua forma bsica.
need study contain smile drink Do you go to school by bus? Does he go by subway?
(Voc vai escola de nibus? Ele vai de metr?)
a. People all over the world in the same language.
Do they play the piano? Does she play the guitar?
b. I at least five glasses of water every day. (Eles tocam piano? Ela toca violo?)

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MINITEST Casos especiais

Complete as frases negativas escolhendo dentre O advrbio que corresponde a good (bom) well (bem).

os verbos do quadro e usando dont ou doesnt, Alguns advrbios de modo mantm a mesma forma dos
antes de cada um, adequadamente. adjetivos:

fast: rpido/a, veloz; rapidamente, velozmente (no


live have need eat know existe a forma fastly)

1. We any more shootings or wars. We need more peace He is a fast driver. He drives fast.
and harmony. (Ele um piloto veloz. Ele dirige velozmente.)
2. Some people how to react when times are difficult. hard: duro; duramente; muito

That is hard work. You work hard.


3. That philosopher says he any enemies and thats (Isso trabalho duro. Voc trabalha muito.)
true.
Existe o advrbio hardly, que significa mal,
4. Emperor penguins in the Arctic. They live in
dificilmente, quase no.
Antarctica.
He is not my friend. I hardly know him.
5. For about two months, the male emperor penguin .
(Ele no meu amigo. Eu mal o conheo.)
I was so tired I could hardly walk.
(Eu estava to cansado que mal podia andar.)
13. Advrbios de modo E existe a expresso hardly ever (quase nunca).

Os adjetivos qualificativos descrevem o substantivo e, We hardly ever go out in the evening these days.
em geral, vm antes dele: (Ns quase nunca samos noite atualmente.)

Turtles are slow animals. early: primeiro/a; adiantado/a; cedo


(As tartarugas so animais lentos.)
I often get the early train. I arrive early.
Os advrbios de modo descrevem a forma como a ao do (Eu frequentemente tomo o primeiro trem. Eu chego cedo.)
verbo praticada e vm depois dele. Em geral, os advrbios de
late: ltimo/a; tarde
modo so formados pelo acrscimo de -ly ao adjetivo.
I never get the late train. I never arrive late.
Turtles move slowly.
(Eu nunca tomo o ltimo trem. Eu nunca chego tarde.)
(As tartarugas movem-se lentamente.)
Existe o advrbio lately, que significa ultimamente,
Quando o verbo acompanhado de objeto, o advrbio
recentemente.
vem depois deste, e no entre o verbo e o objeto, como
pode acontecer em portugus: I havent seen you lately. Where have you been?
(Eu no tenho visto voc ultimamente. Onde voc tem
Turtles move their bodies slowly.
estado?)
(As tartarugas movem lentamente o corpo.)
low: baixo/a; baixo, a pouca altura
Notas ortogrficas We were able to see the low clouds. The plane was flying
low.
O sufixo -ly acrescentado, normalmente, aos (Ns pudemos ver as nuvens baixas. O avio estava voando
adjetivos que terminam em -l: baixo.)
final finally natural naturally Existe a palavra lowly, mas um adjetivo (humilde,
Quando o adjetivo tem duas slabas e termina em -y, baixo/a).
essa letra trocada por i antes do acrscimo de -ly: Pel is justly proud of his lowly origin.
easy easily happy happily (Pel tem justo orgulho de sua origem humilde.)

No caso dos adjetivos de uma nica slaba, o -y permanece: Existem outros adjetivos, tambm terminados em
-ly, que merecem ateno e cuidado, como lovely
shy shyly coy coyly sly slyly
(maravilhoso/a; belo/a; lindo/a).
Quando o adjetivo termina em -e, em geral essa letra
It was a lovely day. A lovely surprise. She has a lovely smile.
omitida antes do acrscimo de -ly:
(Foi um dia maravilhoso. Uma bela surpresa. Ela tem um
probable probably simple simply true truly sorriso lindo.)

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Para expressar modo, maneira, usamos a locuo in a Jane never takes a cold shower.
lovely way/manner. (Jane nunca toma banho frio.)

They treated us in a lovely way. Alm desse uso, o advrbio always pode aparecer com
(Eles nos trataram maravilhosamente.) o Present Progressive quando se quer expressar uma
crtica a respeito da frequncia com que a ao acontece.
O mesmo acontece com os adjetivos friendly
Compare:
(amistoso/a) e lively (vivo/a, animado/a). Para expressar
modo, maneira, usamos a locuo in a friendly way/ He always asks me for some money.
manner, in a lively way/manner. (Ele sempre me pede dinheiro.)
He is always asking me for money. Thats annoying.
Outra palavra terminada em -ly, mas que no
(Ele est sempre me pedindo dinheiro. Isso irritante.)
advrbio de modo, e sim um adjetivo, deadly (mortal).
As posies mais comuns dos advrbios de
Stroke is a potentially deadly disease.
frequncia so:
(O derrame cerebral uma doena potencialmente mortal.)
antes dos tempos simples dos verbos principais:
Para expressar modo, maneira, usamos o advrbio
fatally (fatalmente, mortalmente). We seldom visit our relatives in Curitiba.
(Ns raramente visitamos nossos parentes em Curitiba.)
Martin Luther King, Jr. was fatally shot in Memphis,
Tennessee in 1968. depois de am, are, is, was ou were:
(Martin Luther King., Jr. foi mortalmente atingido por uma I am always at your disposal.
bala em Memphis, Tennessee, em 1968.) (Eu estou sempre sua disposio.)

depois do verbo auxiliar, no caso dos tempos


MINITEST compostos, ou dos modal auxiliary verbs:

I have never seen a white tiger.


Sublinhe as alternativas entre parnteses que (Eu nunca vi um tigre branco.)
completam adequadamente cada frase. You can always count on me.
1. I always plan . (my work carefully) (carefully my (Voc sempre pode contar comigo.)
work) (carefully work my) Para efeito de nfase, alguns advrbios de frequncia
2. The Titanic was considered unsinkable but after hitting podem ocupar outras posies na frase, como o incio:
an iceberg it sank . (hard) (hardly) (fast)
Sometimes I watch the news on TV in the evening.
3. George doesnt believe in working hard. On the contrary, (s vezes eu assisto ao noticirio na televiso noite.)
he . (hardly works) (works hardly) (works hard)
Tambm para efeito de nfase, os advrbios de
4. The number of natural disasters has increased . (late) frequncia de sentido negativo (never, seldom, rarely,
(lately) (last) hardly ever) podem vir no incio da frase. Nesse caso,
5. Mozart managed and was in debt when he died, at a estrutura da frase alterada, ficando com a mesma
the age of 35. (badly his money) (his money badly) (his estrutura de uma pergunta. Compare:
money well)
I had never felt so happy in my whole life.
(Eu nunca tinha me sentido to feliz em toda a minha vida
[estilo normal].)
14. Advrbios de frequncia Never had I felt so happy in my whole life.
(Nunca, em toda a minha vida, tinha me sentido to feliz
Para expressar a frequncia com que certas aes so
[estilo enftico, potico ou formal].)
praticadas, usam-se advrbios de:

1. sentido positivo: always (sempre); frequently


(frequentemente); often, usually, generally (geralmente) MINITEST
e sometimes (s vezes).
Sublinhe as alternativas entre parnteses que
2. sentido negativo: never (nunca); hardly ever (quase
nunca) e seldom, rarely (raramente).
completam adequadamente cada frase.
1. Mozart wrote a great number of symphonies but he
Os advrbios que indicam frequncia em geral
asked anyone how to write them. (always) (often)
acompanham as formas simples dos verbos, principalmente (never)
o Simple Present, e costumam vir antes do verbo:
2. My robot is an excellent worker. It makes the beds
I always drink a glass of milk at breakfast. and forgets to clean the floor. (often; seldom)
(Eu sempre bebo um copo de leite no caf da manh.) (sometimes; hardly ever) (always; never)

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3. With the Internet, we can reserve a seat at a movie 16. Verbo to have Simple Present
theater, without leaving home. (never) (always) (rarely)
Tense
4. A tree does not die. It dies, as it recycles its substance
for the benefit of all animal and plant life. (never) Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
(sometimes) (seldom)
I I do not I
5. I was very impressed by the beauty of the English have. Do have?
You You have. you
countryside. Never such a lovely landscape. (I had
He He he
seen) (had I seen) (I saw) does not
She has. She Does she have?
have.
It It it
15. Imperativo We We
do not
we
You have. You Do you have?
have.
O modo imperativo, usado para expressar ordens, They They they
instrues, sugestes ou pedidos, tem a mesma forma do Na linguagem informal, e principalmente em ingls
modo infinitivo do verbo, sem to: britnico, bastante comum o uso de formas com got
to come (sem traduo, neste caso). Compare:

Come here. You have a car. You dont have a bike. Do you have a boat?
(Venha c.) (EUA)
Youve got a car. You havent got a bike. Have you got a
Please come here. boat? (GB)
(Por favor, venha c.)
Alm do sentido de ter, possuir, have tambm
Come here, please. usado para expressar vrias aes, como:
(Venha c, por favor.)
Have breakfast, lunch, dinner, coffee, a pizza etc.
Para formar o imperativo negativo, usa-se do not (Tomar o caf da manh, almoar, jantar, tomar caf, comer
(dont, na linguagem informal): uma pizza etc.)
to sit down Have a bath; a shower (have a shower [GB] = take a shower
[EUA])
Dont sit down.
(Tomar banho [de imerso; de chuveiro])
(No se sente.)
Have a good time, a nice day
Please dont sit down. (Divertir-se, ter um dia agradvel)
(Por favor, no se sente.)

Dont sit down, please. MINITEST


(No se sente, por favor.)

Outra forma (mais suave, polida) de apresentar Complete com have, has, dont have ou doesnt
sugestes sobre aes que incluem a pessoa que fala have.
usar lets + infinitivo do verbo sem to:
1. The type of banana that we eat no seeds.
Lets walk. 2. Worldwide, more than one billion people access to
(Vamos caminhar.) the Internet.
3. Brasilia any beaches.
MINITEST
4. According to some astronomers, our galaxy billions
of earths.
Complete as frases escolhendo as formas de
imperativo do quadro. 5. An invertebrate a backbone.

Please close dont drive shut


Lets take care of dont forget 17. Substantivos contveis e no
contveis
1. This is our planet. it.
2. If youre going to the beach, to wear a hat. Os substantivos contveis podem ser usados tanto
no singular quanto no plural. Quando usados no singular,
3. Come in! And the door. podem ser precedidos de artigo indefinido (a/an); no plural
4. Its cold in here. the window. so usados sem artigo ou com some:

5. This road is dangerous. so fast! a boy boys an apple some apples

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Quando usados no plural, com sentido genrico, esses Id like some information, please.
substantivos no so precedidos de artigo, nem indefinido (Gostaria de umas informaes, por favor.)
(a/an), nem definido (the):
My fathers advice is always good.
Are girls smarter than boys? (Os conselhos do meu pai so sempre bons.)
(Garotas [em geral] so mais inteligentes do que garotos?)

So precedidos de artigo definido (the) quando usados MINITEST


em sentido especfico:

Are the girls in your class smarter than the boys? Sublinhe as alternativas entre parnteses que
(As garotas da sua classe so mais inteligentes do que os completam adequadamente cada frase.
garotos?) 1. The Internet is a worldwide medium for exchanging .
J os substantivos no contveis no tm forma (information and opinions) (libraries) (garbage)
plural, concordam sempre com verbos no singular. 2. As a boy, Alberto Santos-Dumont dreamed of
Quando expressam uma quantidade indefinida, podem ser conquering . (balloons) (novels) (the skies)
precedidos de some, mas no de a/an. 3. Albert Einstein said that imagination is more important
Esto nesse grupo os substantivos abstratos (courage, than . (knowledge) (know) (known)
patience, love, life, freedom etc.) e os concretos, que 4. some interesting news about the next Olympic
dizem respeito a substncias ou materiais, quando Games. (There is) (There are) (There were)
considerados em seu sentido geral (water, sugar, money,
5. For breakfast I always have . (a bread with a butter
paper, air, bread etc.) and an orange juice) (a slice of bread with cheese and
Bread is made from flour, water, and yeast. a glass of orange juice) (a bread with jam and a coffee
with milk)
(O po feito de farinha, gua e fermento.)
Mandela showed immense courage.
(Mandela mostrou uma coragem imensa.)
18. Substantivos formao do
Muitos substantivos no contveis referem-se a coisas plural
que, em portugus, podem ser contadas, referidas como
uma unidade. Veja como se expressa nmero, em ingls, 1. Em geral, acrescenta-se -s ao singular:
com esses substantivos, no quadro abaixo:
a word two words
bread a loaf of bread (um po) a problem two problems
money some money (algum dinheiro) 2. Acrescenta-se -es quando o substantivo termina em:
(um pedao de
paper a piece of paper s a bus two buses
papel)
ss a class two classes
a piece/word of
advice (um conselho) z a quiz two quizzes
advice
a piece/bit of sh a dish two dishes
information (uma informao)
information ch a church two churches
(seus x a box two boxes
knowledge your knowledge
conhecimentos) 3. Troca-se o y final por -ies quando ele for precedido
a piece of de consoante:
furniture (um mvel)
furniture
a city two cities
news a piece of news (uma notcia)
Quando o y for precedido de vogal, simplesmente
(uma pea
acrescenta-se -s:
a piece of musical/uma
music
music/a song msica, uma a day two days
cano)
4. Acrescenta-se -es a alguns substantivos terminados
a piece of em -o:
equipment (um equipamento)
equipment
a potato two potatoes
No se esquea de que os substantivos no contveis
no tm forma plural e concordam com verbos no singular. a tomato two tomatoes
a hero two heroes
There is some interesting news...
an echo some echoes
(H notcias interessantes...)

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A outros acrescenta-se apenas -s:
MINITEST
photos kilos videos
pianos radios avocados Complete as frases com a forma plural dos
E existem outros em que as duas formas de plural so substantivos entre parnteses.
possveis: 1. are already a part of our , using their to do that
mosquitoes ou mosquitos are too boring for or . (Robot - life - ability - job -
volcanoes ou volcanos man - woman)
mangoes ou mangos 2. Mozart wrote more than 600 , including that
and continue to love after his death. (composition
Aos que terminam em oo acrescenta-se somente -s:
- symphony - adult - child - century)
zoos shampoos bamboos

5. Existem dez substantivos bem comuns, terminados em 3. Mars and Earth have many and the idea of having
-f ou -fe, cujo plural feito com a troca dessas letras por -ves: on the red planet, born in science-fiction , is now
being considered by a number of . (similarity - colony
A life two lives - story - scientist)
A knife two knives 4. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse are making hot
A loaf two loaves hotter, and more violent and more frequent. (gas
- day - stom - drought)
A thief two thieves
A half two halves 5. Those show that are good for you; they can help
prevent a number of , maybe thats why are so
A wife two wives happy all the time! (video - banana - Illness - monkey)
A leaf two leaves
A wolf two wolves
A shelf two shelves
19. Plural dos substantivos casos
A calf two calves
especiais
A grande maioria dos outros substantivos com essa
Alguns substantivos tm uma s forma para o singular
terminao sofre o simples acrscimo de -s:
e o plural:
A roof two roofs
A sheep two sheep
A belief some beliefs
A deer three deer
A chief two chiefs
A fish ten fish
A safe two safes
An aircraft two aircraft
A cliff two cliffs
A spacecraft some spacecraft
A proof two proofs
A series several series
Estes substantivos fazem o plural de duas formas: A means some means

A dwarf two dwarves/dwarfs A species some species

A scarf some scarves/scarfs O plural de person people. A palavra persons existe,


A hoof two hoofs/hooves mas prpria da linguagem formal. People tem dois
significados: pessoas e povo, indivduos de uma mesma
6. H muitos substantivos de uso frequente que tm nao. Com ambos, o verbo usado no plural:
formas irregulares de plural. Os mais importantes so:
The people are waiting outside.
A man two men (As pessoas esto esperando l fora.)
A child two children The Brazilian people share a common language.
(O povo brasileiro compartilha uma lngua comum.)
A tooth two teeth
A goose two geese No se usa people com -s final, a no ser com o sentido
de povos, naes:
A woman two women
A foot two feet The peoples of the world are represented at the United
Nations.
A mouse two mice
(Os povos do mundo esto representados nas Naes
A louse two lice
Unidas.)

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Alguns substantivos so sempre usados no singular, I need to buy some warm clothes.
concordando com verbo e pronomes no singular, mesmo (Preciso comprar [uma] roupa quente.)
quando o sentido plural. Esses substantivos no so
possivel dizer a cloth, mas isso significa um pano.
imediatamente precedidos do artigo indefinido a/an.
Assim, para dizer: I need a cloth to clean the table.
(Preciso de um pano para limpar a mesa.)
uma a piece of information
Quando se pretende falar de uma pea de vesturio
informao (nunca an information)
usa-se (formalmente) an article of clothing, ou fala-se
a piece/word of advice de forma indefinida em something to wear, ou ento
um conselho
(nunca an advice) especifica-se o tipo de roupa:
a piece of furniture A dress is an article of clothing. (formal)
um mvel
(nunca a furniture) (Um vestido uma pea de vesturio.)
Mary wants to buy something to wear. She is looking for a
a piece/bit of news
uma notcia blue dress.
(nunca a news)
(Mary quer comprar uma roupa. Ela est procurando um
um a piece of equipment vestido azul.)
equipamento (nunca an equipment)
Glasses
Can you give me some information/advice? My glasses are broken. I have to buy a new pair of glasses.
(Voc pode me dar umas informaes/uns conselhos?) (Meus culos esto quebrados. Tenho de comprar uns culos
Here is the news. I hope the news is good. novos.)
(Aqui esto as notcias. Espero que as notcias sejam boas.) Police e cattle concordam com verbo no plural.
That old bookcase is a beautiful piece of furniture.) Policeman/policewoman concordam, naturalmente, com
(Aquela velha estante um belo mvel.) verbo no singular.

A computer is a very useful piece of equipment. The police in that city are very efficient.
(Um computador um equipamento muito til.) (A polcia daquela cidade muito eficiente.)
That policewoman is a friend of mine.
Outros substantivos s so usados no plural, com (Aquela policial minha amiga.)
verbo e pronomes tambm no plural. Esses substantivos Cattle are raised for meat.
no so usados com o artigo a/an. Esse uso contrasta com (O gado criado para corte.)
o portugus e abrange algumas peas de vesturio, como
pants, trousers, jeans e pajamas .

Those pants/trousers/jeans/pajamas are old.


MINITEST
(Aquela cala/aquele jeans/pijama est velha/o.)
1. Sublinhe o item que completa corretamente
Seria incorreto, portanto, dizer that trouser ou a jeans,
cada lacuna.
por exemplo.
a. There are 290,000 species of beetles on Earth, but
Quando se especifica a unidade, essas palavras so there is only one human . (specie kinds species)
usadas com a expresso a pair of. E, quando se fala de
b. The people happy because the news excellent. (is;
mais de uma cala, pijama etc., o plural feito na palavra
are are; is is; is)
pair. Assim:
c. I cant read without my glasses. Where ? (is it are
I want to buy a pair of pants/trousers/jeans/pajamas. they was it)
(Eu quero comprar uma cala/uma cala jeans/um pijama.)
d. I bought a T-shirt and jeans. (some pair of a pair of
She bought a pair/two pairs of pants. two pair of)
(Ela comprou uma cala/duas calas.)
e. The latest is that the police looking for him
Seria incorreto dizer a pant, two jeans, three pajamas, everywhere. (information; is - news; are - advice; was)
por exemplo.

Clothes
20. Dozen, hundred, thousand,
Clothes sempre plural e, em contraste com o million, billion, trillion
portugus, no tem forma singular.

John is wearing new clothes. Dozen, hundred, thousand, million, billion e trillion,
(John est de roupa nova/est usando roupa nova.) quando precedidos de um nmero definido, no variam no
plural:

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2. Acrescentando-se apenas um apstrofo ao
two dozen eggs (duas dzias de ovos)
substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no plural e
three hundred cars (trs centenas de carros)
terminar em -s.
four thousand trees (quatro mil rvores)
five million stars (cinco milhes de estrelas) the girls school (a escola das garotas)

six billion people (seis bilhes de pessoas) the teachers room (a sala dos professores)

seven trillion dollars (sete trilhes de dlares) the Simpsons adventures (as aventuras dos Simpsons)

Quando essas mesmas palavras indicam um plural 3. Quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um


vago, sem nmero definido, passam a ter -s final e a serem ser inanimado, em princpio no se usa s, mas sim a
seguidas da preposio of: preposio of (de), em uma estrutura semelhante quela
que usamos em portugus.
dozens of eggs (dzias de ovos)
The door of the car. The color of the walls. The end of the
hundreds of cars (centenas de carros) road.
thousands of birds (milhares de pssaros) (A porta do carro. A cor das paredes. O fim da estrada.)

millions of people (milhes de pessoas) 4. H uma tendncia cada vez maior de se usar s com
os nomes de alguns seres inanimados, personalizando o
billions of stars (bilhes de estrelas)
substantivo/possuidor que tem sentido nobre. o caso dos
trillions of atoms (trilhes de tomos) correspondentes a mundo, Sol, mar, nomes de planetas,
pases, cidades etc.

MINITEST the worlds population the Earths surface


the population of the world the surface of the Earth
(a populao do mundo) (a superfcie da Terra)
Sublinhe as palavras que completam cada frase
corretamente. Natures plan Rios beaches
the plan of Nature the beaches of Rio
1. More than 40 people are infected with HIV. (million
(o plano da natureza) (as praias do Rio)
millions millions of)
2. 1,3 people still exist on less than 1 dollar a day.
(billion billions billions of) Casos especiais
3. Tropical forests are the means of survival for people.
Acrescenta-se s ltima palavra, no caso dos
(million millions millions of)
substantivos compostos.
4. There are more than seven people on Earth today.
And there are galaxies in the Universe. (billion; My daughter-in-laws car
billions of billions; billion billions of; billions of) (O carro da minha nora)

5. That recipe calls for two eggs. (dozen dozens Acrescenta-se s apenas ao ltimo possuidor, no caso
dozens of) de haver dois possuidores de uma mesma coisa:

Homer and Marges family (a famlia dos dois)


21. Substantivos caso possessivo Homer and Marges (os problemas que os
problems dois tm em comum)
Quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um ser
vivo (pessoa ou animal), as expresses possessivas so Mas acrescenta-se s a cada possuidor, no caso de
formadas assim:
haver posse em separado:
1. Acrescentando-se s ao substantivo/possuidor,
Homers and Marges voices
singular ou plural, desde que no seja terminado em -s.
(a voz de cada um)
mans body (o corpo do homem)
Usa-se s (ou apenas ) em expresses que indicam
the birds wings (as asas do pssaro) tempo:
Agatha Christies (os romances de
Todays paper. (O jornal de hoje)
novels Agatha Christie)
The womens jobs (os empregos das mulheres) Two months journey. (Viagem de dois meses)

The oxens horns (os chifres dos bois) Yesterdays news. (As notcias de ontem)

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Pode-se deixar de expressar o substantivo/a coisa
possuda quando, pelo contexto, ele for bvio. Isso muito climate change (mudana climtica)
comum com o nome de marcas ou estabelecimentos research center (centro de pesquisa)
comerciais: soccer game (jogo de futebol)

She bought those clothes at Lucys. O primeiro desses substantivos (modificador) qualifica
(Ela comprou aquela roupa na [loja] Lucys.) o segundo (ncleo), informando de que tipo se trata.
We live in a mans world, but apparently we dont live in a Para entender claramente a expresso, importante
boys. lembrar que o principal substantivo (o ncleo) o que
(Ns vivemos num mundo dos homens, mas aparentemente aparece por ltimo, sendo por ele que devemos iniciar a
no num [mundo] dos garotos.) traduo. O substantivo que aparece primeiro funciona
Cuidado para no confundir as vrias possibilidades de como se fosse um adjetivo, qualificando aquele que o
sentido de s: mais importante na expresso. H expresses em que as
duas palavras podem aparecer em posies diferentes e
1. Caso possessivo:
expressando sentidos diferentes.
Marys hair is too long.
Compare:
(O cabelo da Mary est comprido demais.)
A horse race uma corrida de cavalos. [um tipo de corrida]
2. Forma contrata de is:
A race horse um cavalo de corridas. [um tipo de cavalo]
Shes washing it now.
Ou ento:
(Ela o est lavando agora.)
A flower garden (um jardim com flores).
3. Forma contrata de has:
A garden flower (uma flor de jardim).
Shes got beautiful hair.
(Ela tem cabelo bonito.)
MINITEST
4. Forma contrata de us:

Lets go and talk to her. 1. Encontre nos quadros os substantivos


(Vamos [ns] falar com ela.) que formam as expresses nominais
correspondentes s definies a seguir.
MINITEST Modificadores Ncleos
cable winter organ TV research wave
1. Sublinhe as alternativas que completam cada
building heat stem-cell months donor tool
frase corretamente.
a. o perodo do ano em que faz muito frio.
a. paintings are beautiful and send a powerful message.
b. So estudos feitos por cientistas sobre clulas-tronco.
(Portinaris) (Portinaris) (Portinariss)
c. um moderno meio de entretenimento.
b. MASP is one of most famous museums. (So Paulos)
d. uma pessoa que potencialmente doa parte(s) de seu
(So Paulo) (So Paulo)
corpo.
c. melodies tend to repeat every 20-30 seconds, which e. uma ferramenta de construo.
helps to explain why they are so special. (Mozarts)
(Mozarts) (Mozart)
f. um perodo anormal de temperaturas extremamente
quentes.
d. Santos-Dumont built his 14-Bis in 1906, three years
after the initial flight. (Wright Brothers) (Wright
2. Agora complete as frases com a expresso
Brotherss) (Wright Brothers) nominal adequada, pelo contexto.
e. To terraform means to alter a surface until life a. Global warming is synonymous with . (heat wave)
forms can survive there. (planets; Earths) (planets; (climate change) (weather report)
Earth) (planets; Earth) b. You need a ball to play a . (video game) (card game)
(soccer game)
c. Joo works as a waiter during the day and has classes
22. Substantivos expresses in the evening. He goes to . (night school) (night shift)
nominais (night watch)
d. The large areas of ice that cover the land around the
comum, em ingls, aparecerem dois substantivos North or South Pole are called . (ice cubes) (ice caps)
juntos, sem preposio entre eles, em expresses como: (ice skates)

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23. Question Words: what, which, How many people died in that accident?
(Quantas pessoas morreram naquele acidente?)
who, whom, whose, when, where,
why, how, how often, how much, Perguntas sobre o objeto
how many, what time
Who(m) did Jorge Amado write about?
What? O qu? Which? Qual? (Sobre quem Jorge Amado escreveu?)

Where? Onde? How? Como? He wrote about the people of Bahia.


Com que (Ele escreveu sobre o povo da Bahia.)
When? Quando? How often?
frequncia? What did those people think of him?
Why? Por qu? How much? Quanto? (O que essas pessoas pensavam sobre ele?)
Who(m)? Quem? How many? Quantos? Those people loved him.
Whose? De quem? What time? A que horas? (Essas pessoas o amavam.)

A estrutura da pergunta abaixo, comum maioria dos


interrogativos, usada quando se pergunta sobre o objeto
Notas sobre alguns interrogativos
do verbo:
 what: o que; qual (geral)
interrogativo sujeito
What do you want?
What do you study? (O que voc quer?)

What is your e-mail address?


verbo (Qual o seu e-mail?)
verbo auxiliar principal  which: qual (especfico)
Resposta: I study History. Which is your house, the white one or the blue one?
(Qual a sua casa, a branca ou a azul?)
objeto
Quando a pergunta sobre o sujeito do verbo, no
 whom: quem
se usa verbo auxiliar, sendo o interrogativo seguido da Whom/Who did you see there?
mesma ordem de palavras de uma frase afirmativa. (Quem voc viu l?)

Afirmao: The President lives in the Alvorada Palace. A rigor, whom o pronome a ser usado quando
perguntamos sobre pessoas, no caso do objeto, mas isso
Pergunta: Who lives in the Alvorada Palace?
s acontece na linguagem formal. Informalmente, usa-se
Resposta: The President lives in the Alvorada Palace.
who em lugar de whom, mas, quando o interrogativo
precedido de preposio, usa-se whom:
Perguntas sobre o sujeito To whom did you give the book?
(A/Para quem voc deu o livro?)
 Who e what so os interrogativos mais comuns nas

perguntas sobre o sujeito. Em linguagem informal, a pergunta acima seria feita


com who afastado da preposio:
Who wrote Jorge Amado wrote Tieta.
Who did you give the book to?
Tieta?
sujeito (A/Para quem voc deu o livro?)
(Quem escreveu
Tieta?) (Jorge Amado escreveu Tieta.)  whose: de quem. Pode vir seguido de substantivo ou

ento como pronome, separado do substantivo.


What happened to the The writer died in 2001. Whose car is that?/Whose is that car?
writer in 2001? (De quem aquele carro?)
sujeito
(O que aconteceu ao
(O escritor faleceu em  how much: quanto (dinheiro); quanto (+ substantivo
escritor em 2001?)
2001.) no contvel, sempre singular)

Which e how many tambm so usados nesse tipo


 How much is that shirt?
de perguntas: (Quanto aquela camisa?)

Which came first, the chicken or the egg? How much sugar do you take in your coffee?
(Qual veio primeiro, a galinha ou o ovo?) (Quanto acar voc pe no seu caf?)

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MINITEST Adjetivos e advrbios de duas slabas

Complete as perguntas com o interrogativo Os adjetivos e advrbios de duas slabas merecem um


estudo mais detalhado, j que a regra no claramente
adequado ao contexto.
definida e em alguns casos podem formar o comparativo e o
1. is causing climate change? There are several superlativo ou com -er e -est ou com more e most. Assim:
factors, but the primary cause is the impact of human
activities. os dissilbicos em geral e os que terminam em sufixo
(-ful, -less, -ing, -ed) fazem o comparativo com more e o
a. What b. Which c. Whose d. Who superlativo com most.
2. bags are these? Im not sure, but I guess theyre
Johns. modern more modern most modern
famous more famous most famous
a. Which b. Who c. What d. Whose
careful more careful most careful
3. . am I so fat? should I do?, asked Desperate
careless more careless most careless
Billy.
charming more charming most charming
a. Why ; What c. What; Which
surprised more surprised most surprised
b. How; Where d. When; Why
os de duas slabas terminados em -y seguem a regra
4. of these T-shirts will you take, the black one or the
dos adjetivos curtos, trocando-se o y por i antes de se
blue one?
acrescentar -er ou -est:
a. What b. Which c. Whose d. Where
easy easier easiest
5. do you think colonies in space will become
reality?, the reporter asked Professor Hawking. busy busier busiest
One day, but not within this century, the scientist funny funnier funniest
answered.
Mas possvel encontrar alguns dissilbicos
a. Why b. How c. When d. Where
terminados em -y (happy, friendly, lovely e likely) que
aceitam as duas formas:

24. Adjetivos e advrbios Brazilians are one of the friendliest peoples in the world.
comparativo e superlativo de (Os brasileiros so um dos povos mais amistosos do mundo.)
[Mais comum do que the most friendly]
superioridade
People are happier in times of peace.
(As pessoas so mais felizes em tempos de paz.)
Adjetivos e advrbios curtos, de uma [Mais comum do que more happy]
slaba
Mas, por razes de estilo, a forma com more pode
aparecer em uma frase como esta:
Os adjetivos e advrbios curtos, de uma s slaba,
fazem o comparativo de superioridade com o acrscimo de People prefer to live in a more happy and peaceful environment.
-er, e o superlativo com o acrscimo de -est: (As pessoas preferem viver em um ambiente mais feliz e
pacfico.)
long longer longest
Existem outros adjetivos e advrbios dissilbicos bem
old older oldest
comuns que tambm aceitam as duas formas:

terminados em -ow: narrow; shallow


Adjetivos e advrbios longos, de mais
de duas slabas terminados em -le: simple; gentle; humble

terminados em -er: clever; tender


Os adjetivos e advrbios longos, de mais de duas
slabas, formam o comparativo e o superlativo antepondo- com vrias terminaes: common; pleasant; polite;
-se more e most ao grau normal dos adjetivos e advrbios. handsome; cruel; quiet; stupid.

mais provvel encontrarmos as formas -er e -est em


intelligent more intelligent most intelligent
alguns dos dissilbicos citados:
comfortable more comfortable most comfortable
Are women cleverer than men?
expensive more expensive most expensive
(As mulheres so mais inteligentes do que os homens?)
seriously more seriously most seriously [mais comum do que more clever]

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Living in the country is quieter than in a big city. Uso dos graus dos adjetivos e advrbios
(A vida no campo mais sossegada do que em uma
cidade grande.) Comparativo de superioridade
[mais comum do que more quiet]
Usa-se -er ou more nas comparaes que expressam
Em contrapartida, em alguns desses dissilbicos a superioridade de uma pessoa, lugar ou coisa em relao a
forma com more e most uma tendncia atual. Isso outra:
acontece, por exemplo, com os dissilbicos mais longos,
The Amazon River is longer than the So Francisco.
como pleasant e handsome. (O rio Amazonas mais comprido do que o So Francisco.)
Living in the country is also more pleasant than in a big city, Superlativo de superioridade
so I think.
(A vida no campo tambm mais agradvel do que em uma Usa-se -est ou most para destacar uma pessoa, lugar
ou coisa em relao a todas as outras:
cidade grande, penso eu.)
[mais comum do que pleasanter] The Amazon is one of the longest rivers in the world.
(O Amazonas um dos rios mais compridos do mundo.)
Most women would agree that George Clooney is one of the
most handsome men in the world. Comparativo e superlativo de inferioridade
(A maioria das mulheres concordaria que George Clooney
O comparativo de inferioridade (less ... than: menos ... do
um dos homens mais bonitos do mundo.) que) e o superlativo de inferioridade (the least ...: o menos ...)
[mais comum do que handsomest] so formados com adjetivos curtos ou longos, mas so pouco
usados, sendo geralmente substitudos assim:
Notas ortogrficas
The So Francisco is less long than the Amazon.
[pouco comum]
Quando o adjetivo ou advrbio terminar em -e,
(O So Francisco menos comprido que o Amazonas.)
acrescenta-se apenas -r ou -st.
The So Francisco is not as long as the Amazon.
wide wider widest [mais comum]
late later latest (O So Francisco no to comprido quanto o Amazonas.)

Quando o adjetivo ou advrbio monossilbico terminar The Amazon is longer than the So Francisco. [mais comum]
em -y precedido de consoante, troca-se o y por i, antes do (O Amazonas mais comprido que o So Francisco.)
-er ou -est, como acontece com os dissilbicos: Casos especiais

dry drier driest Para expressar aumento gradual, equivalendo em


portugus a cada vez mais..., usam-se dois comparativos
dirty dirtier dirtiest
separados por and:
Mas shy pode ter as duas formas: shyer/shyest ou He is getting fatter and fatter.
shier/shiest. (Ele est ficando cada vez mais gordo.)
Quando o adjetivo ou advrbio tiver como ltimas We became more and more interested in the story.
letras a sequncia consoante/vogal/consoante, dobra-se (Ns ficamos cada vez mais interessados na histria.)
a consoante final antes do acrscimo de -er ou -est.
Para expressar uma relao entre duas aes ou
hot hotter hottest acontecimentos paralelos, equivalendo em portugus
a quanto mais... mais..., usam-se dois comparativos
thin thinner thinnest
precedidos de the:
big bigger biggest
The older we get, the wiser we should become.
(Quanto mais velhos ficamos, mais sbios deveramos nos
Formaes irregulares tornar.)

The sooner I finish this, the better.


good better best
(Quanto mais cedo eu terminar isto, melhor.)
bad worse worst
The more you read, the more you learn.
much more most
(Quanto mais voc l, mais voc aprende.)
many more most
Money is relative the more money, the more relatives.
little less least
(O dinheiro relativo quanto mais dinheiro, mais
far farther/further farthest/furthest
parentes.)

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MINITEST stop stopping
put putting
Complete as frases com a alternativa entre swim swimming
parnteses, adequadamente.
1. Its the same old story. I start a new diet but a few Os verbos de duas ou mais slabas tambm terminados
months I am than I was before. (later; fatter) em consoante-vogal-consoante tm a consoante final
(latest; fattest) (sooner; thinner) dobrada quando a slaba tnica for a ltima:
2. Bananas are than apples and too. (most healthful;
cheapest) (more healthful; cheaper) (healthier; begin beginning
inexpensive) omit omitting
3. Funny World is one of the places for kids of all ages. refer referring
(more attractive) (most attractive) (less attractive) prefer preferring
4. Santos-Dumont was the son of a Brazilian occur occurring
millionaire. (youngest) (older) (younger) permit permitting
5. Antarctic winter months are among the in the world.
(cold) (colder) (coldest)
Usos do Present Progressive

25. Tempos verbais: Present 1. Para expressar uma ao que est acontecendo no

Progressive (ou Continuous) momento em que se fala:

I am writing now.
O Present Progressive um tempo verbal composto
(Eu estou escrevendo agora.)
de am/are/is + forma de final -ing do verbo principal.

Adele is singing now. 2. Para expressar uma ao que est ocorrendo na


(Adele est cantando agora.) atualidade, mas no necessariamente no momento em
que se fala:
We are listening to her.
(Ns a estamos escutando.) I am taking a course in American literature.
(Eu estou fazendo um curso de literatura norte-americana.)
She is not singing a Brazilian song.
Negativa (Ela no est cantando uma msica 3. Alm de indicar aes no presente, pode tambm ser
brasileira.)
usado em frases que denotam futuro, para indicar aes
Is she singing Someone Like You?
que temos inteno de praticar ou certeza de que vo
Interrogativa (Ela est cantando Someone Like
acontecer.
You?)
On Monday, the USA is commemorating the life and dream
Notas ortogrficas of Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Na prxima segunda-feira, os EUA vo comemorar/
Quando o verbo principal termina em -e, suprime-se comemoram a vida e o sonho de Martin Luther King, Jr.)
essa ltima letra e acrescenta-se -ing:

live living have having Casos especiais


Os verbos die, tie e lie tm as formas dying, tying e
lying, respectivamente. Alguns verbos, chamados stative verbs ou non-
progressive verbs, expressam no uma ao, mas um
The forests are dying.
(As florestas esto morrendo.) estado ou uma situao. Em geral, eles no so usados
nas formas contnuas ou progressivas:
Thats not true. You are lying.
(Isso no verdade. Voc est mentindo.) I dont like this situation.

Os verbos de uma nica slaba cujas trs ltimas letras (Eu no estou gostando desta situao.)
forem, por ordem, consoante-vogal-consoante, dobram a What do you want?
consoante final antes do acrscimo de -ing:
(O que voc est querendo?)
run running
Esses verbos sero estudados no tpico 26, a seguir.

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Alguns verbos podem expressar um estado, condio
MINITEST
ou situao permanente (no sendo ento usados em
tempos progressivos), mas tambm podem aparecer
Complete as frases com o Present Progressive
em frases que denotam uma ao temporria e, nesse
dos verbos entre parnteses.
caso, so usados nos tempos progressivos. Observe essa
1. Global warming now. (to happen) diferena nos exemplos abaixo.
2. Temperatures , sea levels , sea ice . (to increase; to
rise; to melt) State (Non- Action
progressive) (Progressive)
3. Americans have a luxurious lifestyle, but it them. (to kill)
achar, ter certa opinio
4. Some scientists the possibility of colonising Mars. (to (= think) sentir-se
feel
consider) I feel your decision is That girl is feeling sick.
5. I on the computer now, as I do every day. (to work) wrong.
1 estar tendo; 2 comer,
beber
26. Os Stative Verbs ter, possuir Im having trouble with
have They have a lot of the car.
Os stative verbs, tambm chamados non-progressive money. We are having
verbs, so verbos que expressam no uma ao temporria, breakfast now. Call me
mas um estado, condio ou situao permanente. Em geral, later, please.
esses verbos no so usados nos tempos progressivos ou entender o que algum
contnuos. Know e understand so dois dos mais comuns. ouvir
diz
hear I cant hear a word hes
Para dizer, por exemplo, Eu estou sabendo, usamos a forma Youre not hearing me. I
saying.
simples de know: I know. Para dizer No estou entendendo, said No!
usamos a forma simples: I dont understand. estar amando,
amar, ter amor por
Entre os stative verbs mais comuns, nunca usados nas love achando timo
She loves children.
formas progressivas, esto: Im loving this book.
1 encontrar com, estar
know: saber; conhecer 1 ver 2 entender
com 2 ter consulta com
I see my mother every
I know the answer to that problem. Im seeing my girlfriend
see day.
tonight.
prefer: preferir Now I see what you
Jane is seeing the
mean.
Mary prefers jazz to pop music. dentist tomorrow.
seem: parecer cheirar, experimentar o
cheirar, ter cheiro cheiro de
That movie seems to be excellent. smell This cheese smells Im smelling the cheese
understand: entender, compreender bad/awful. and I think we should
not eat it.
I dont understand a word she says.
provar, experimentar o
ter gosto ou sabor de
Outros geralmente no so usados nas formas gosto ou sabor de
This pineapple tastes
progressivas: taste Im tasting the best
good/sweet/delicious/
pineapple in the world.
agree: concordar like sugar.
Delicious!
I dont agree with what youre saying. achar, ter certa opinio pensar, meditar
like: gostar (de) think (= feel) What are you thinking
I think youre wrong. about?
I dont like this situation.

need: precisar (de)


MINITEST
She needs our help.

recognize: reconhecer How do you say this in English?


Do you recognize anyone in this picture? 1. Eu no estou entendendo.
want: querer 2. Eu estou sabendo.
What does he want? 3. Voc est se sentindo mal/doente?

206 Minigrammar

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4. Eu estou preferindo parar agora. Quando o verbo terminar em -y precedido de
consoante, troca-se o y por i e acrescenta-se -ed:
5. Este emprego est parecendo muito bom.
6. Ele est tendo problema com o computador. To classify classified

7. Eu acho que ela est certa. Quando o verbo regular for monossilbico e suas
ltimas letras forem consoante-vogal-consoante, dobra-se
8. Eles esto precisando de ajuda.
a consoante final e acrescenta-se -ed.
9. O que ele est querendo?
To stop stopped
10. Ela est pensando em voc.
O mesmo acontece com verbos de mais de uma slaba,
desde que a ltima seja a slaba tnica:
27. Tempos verbais Simple Past
to prefer preferred to occur occurred
verbos regulares
to permit permitted to refer referred
A maioria dos verbos em ingls faz o passado e o
particpio passado de forma regular, pelo acrscimo de -ed
sua forma bsica:
MINITEST
to work worked worked
to wash washed washed
Complete as frases com o Simple Past dos
verbos entre parnteses.
to call called called
1. Oscar Niemeyer hard all his life, and died at age 104.
Esta forma nica para todas as pessoas: no varia (to work)
na terceira pessoa do singular:
2. Aesop was a Greek writer who in the sixth century
I/ you/ he/ she/ B.C. He the author of several traditional stories about
worked, washed, called
it/ we/ you/ they animals, called fables. (to live to be)

Os verbos que tm formas semelhantes s dos verbos


3. A lion by a field where four oxen lived. (to pass)
em portugus, em geral de origem latina, so regulares: 4. The lion to attack them, but when he came near the
oxen their tails to one another for protection. (to try
to protest protested protested to turn)
to construct constructed constructed
5. So, every time the lion the oxen, he met the horn