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FUNGSI ANALISIS GIS

GIS Analysis Functions


4 Katagori Umum
Retrieval/Klasifikasi/Pengukuran
Overlay (tumpang susun)
Neighborhood (Kedekatan)
Connectivity (Konektivitas)
RETRIEVAL
/KLASIFIKASI
/PENGUKURAN
Retrieval, Klasifikasi, & Fungsi
Pengukuran
Retrieval
Pencarian selektif (Selective Search)
Klasifikasi/Classification (Overlays,
combine)
Mengidentifikasi satu set obyek yang
merupakan bagian dari grup obyek yang sama
Mendefinisikan sebuah pola
Pengukuran/Measurement
Jarak, panjang, luasan/area, dsb
Retrieval: Pencarian selektif
(Selective Search)

Sebuah alamat terpilih karena berada dalam lingkaran


Reklasifikasi (Vector)
Dissolving untuk agregasi polygons
Reklasifikasi berdasarkan Luasan

Bekerja dengan luas > 80 ha


Reklasifikasi berdasarkan hubugan
(Contiguity)

Bekerja dengan obyek individu, bukan


dengan klas obyek secara keseluruhan
Reklasifikasi Nilai

Bekerja dengan elevasi


antara 20 and 40 m

Ubah feet ke meters


Operasi Jarak Vektor:
Buffers & Setbacks

Gambar sederhana dari operasi buffers dan setback.


NOTE: buffers go outward from lines or areas; setbacks run inside of areas (not
lines).

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 154. fig. 6-1 .
Buffer: Illustrasi

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 60. fig. 6-3 .
OVERLAY
(TUMPANG SUSUN)
2. Fungsi Overlay (Tumpang Susun)
Aritmatika
penambahan, pengurangan, pembagian, perkalian
Logika
menemukan di mana kondisi tertentu terjadi (and,
or, >, <, etc.)
Perbedaan metode Raster & Vector
Vektor baik untuk data yang tidak terlalu
komplek/jarang
Raste mudah dalam kalkulasinya
Overlay (demo addition)
Overlay untuk Vector
3 tipe utama vector overlay
point-in-polygon
line-in-polygon
polygon-on-polygon
Vector based overlay

Contoh point-on-polygon
Vector based overlay

Contoh line-on-polygon
Vector based overlay

Contoh polygon-in-polygon
Overlay Dasar Raster:
Penjumlahan sederhana (Simple Addition)

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 144. fig. 5-12 .
Raster Overlay:
Kombinasi Boolean

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 125. fig. 5-3 .
Fungsi Neighborhood membentuk keluaran nilai dari setiap
sel lokasi sesuai dengan kedekatan dengan yang lainnya.

NEIGHBORHOOD
(LINGK-SEKITAR)
3. Fungsi Neighborhood
Fungsi Dasar
Rata-rata, perbedaan, mayoritas,
minimum/maksimum, dan total
Parameter yang dicari:
Lokasi Target
Spesifikasi dari lingkungan sekitar
Fungsi untuk melaksanakan dalm neighborhood
element
3. Neighborhood Function (cont)
Operasi pencarian
most common neighborhood operation
Contoh
Menghitung jumlah dari pelanggan yang
berjarak 2 km dari sebuah toko.
3. Neighborhood Functions (cont)
Point atau Line dalam Operasi Poligon
Fungsi pencarian spesifik
Buffers (demo - point, line, polygon)
Thiessen Polygons Operation
defines the individual area of influence around
a point
used to predict values at surrounding points
from a single point observation
Example: Neighborhood Function

Thiessen Polygons
Fungsi Neighborhood:
Contoh

Tema Zona: Watersheds (DAS)


Nilai tema: Elevasi
Statistic type: Mean

Output:
Rata-rata elevasi dari tiap
watershed
Fungsi Neighborhood:
10x10 filter rata-rata dalam DEM
CONNECTIVITY
4. Fungsi Connectivity
Digunakan untuk akumulasi nilai di atas
sebuah area yang di analisis
Parameter yang dicari:
Spesifikasi bagaimana cara element2 spasial
terkoneksi
Aturan yang secara spesifik membolehkan
pergerakan antar koneksi
Unit ukuran
4. Fungsi Connectivity (cont).
Operasi Proximity
Pengukuran jarak antara dua obyek
Tidak terbatas pada jarak saja; bisa noise, time,
pollution, etc.
Parameter yang dicari:
Lokasi target
Unit dari pengukuran
Fungsi untuk menghitung proximity
(distance/time/noise)
Area yang akan di analisis
Example: Connectivity (Vector)

Proximity Operation: Road Buffer


Example: Connectivity (Vector)

Proximity Operation: Buffer Generation


Example: Connectivity (Vector)

Points Lines Polygons

Proximity Operation: Buffer Types


Example: Connectivity (Vector)
Proximity Operation - Buffers & Setbacks

Diagram of simple buffers and a setback.


NOTE: buffers go outward from lines or areas; setbacks run inside of areas (not lines).

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 154. fig. 6-1.
4. Fungsi Connectivity (cont).
Operasi Contiguity
spatial units are connected - defines
unbroken area
Contiguity measures:
size of neighboring area(s)
shortest/longest straight line distance across
adjacent area(s)
specific shape of neighboring area(s)
Contiguity Functions

Combines adjacent units together when they share a common attribute


4. Fungsi Connectivity (cont).
Operasi Jaringan (Network Operations)
set of interconnected lines that represent a
set of features through which resources flow
Fungsi jaringan umum (Common network functions)
Permasalahan shortest path
location-allocation modeling (resource
allocation)
traveling salesperson problem (route
optimization)
route tracing (prediction of network loading)
4. Connectivity Functions (cont).
Operasi Analisis Visibiliti
identification of areas of terrain that can be
seen from a particular point on the surface
Viewshed Operation
uses digital elevation model data (DEMs) or.....
digital terrain model data (DTMs) or......
triangulated irregular network data (TINs)?
Connectivity Function Example:
Viewshed Analysis

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 198. fig. 8-14 .
Viewshed aka Intervisibility
Environmental Impact Analysis

3D landscape model impact on natural beauty


Another term: Surface Analysis
Surface functions
density, contour, interpolation functions
aspect, slope, hillshade, etc.
watershed analysis and modeling (flow
direction, flow accumulation, flow length,
watershed delineation, stream ordering)
visibility modeling/mapping
determine the area that can be "seen" from the
target location
The 3rd Dimension: Height Analysis

Contours
Hill shading
Spot height symbols
Cliff & slope symbols
Viewpoint symbols
Analysis: Summation
GIS does not always provide exact
answers to problems, but by identifying
trends based on geography, GIS can reveal
patterns that can help us make informed
decisions.
A GIS can improve decision-making; it
cannot make decisions for us.
Flood Risk

3D height data changing water levels-danger areas


Derived Mapping: Data from images

Numerical Values Color Representation


Derived Mapping: Data from images

Aerial Imagery Digitized Buildings


Derived Mapping: Data from images

Satellite Imagery Derived Area Map

This is a goal: Not there yet!


Retail: Site Selection

Existing stores, 15 min. drive time, demograhics


Airport Noise Pollution

noise complaints mapped by address location