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Chapter

5
The Working Cell

m
m
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PowerPoint Lectures created by Edward J. Zalisko for

Campbell Essential Biology, Sixth Edition, and


m
Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology, Fifth Edition
m Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, Kelly A. Hogan, and Jane B. Reece
Enzymes
Enzymes are specialized protein molecules that
____________(speed up) chemical reactions.
Few reactions within cells could proceed without
the help of enzymes.
Enzymes are very selective for the reactions that
they catalyze.
The __________of an enzyme recognizes only
certain substrate (reactant) molecules, based on
their shapes.
Enzymes are continually reused to catalyze reaction
after reaction.
1 Ready for Substrate (lactose)
substrate
Active site
2 Substrate
binding

Enzyme
(lactase)

Galactose
H2O
Glucose

4 Product 3 Catalysis
release
Energy
Energy is defined as the capacity to perform
work.
_____________is the energy of motion.
_____________is the energy of location or
position.

Animation: Energy Concepts


The First Law of Thermodynamics
Like matter, ________________________
_______________.
Energy can only be converted from one form to
another.
_____________: Greatest
stored energy potential _____________:
energy
energy of motion

Climbing
converts kinetic
energy to Diving converts
potential energy. potential
energy to
kinetic energy.

Least
potential
energy

2016 Pearson Education, Inc.


Heat
Heat is a product of _____________________.
Heat is a form of kinetic energy.
The random motion of atoms and
molecules.
Heat is the _________________, least useful
form of energy.
It is difficult to harness heat for work.
Chemical Energy
Chemical energy is the potential energy of atoms
_____________________.
Due to the arrangement of their atoms,
certain molecules have high chemical
(____________) energy.
Fuel rich in Waste products
chemical Energy conversion poor in chemical
energy energy

Heat
energy

Octane
(from gasoline) Combustion Carbon dioxide
Kinetic
energy of
movement
Oxygen Water
Energy conversion in a car

Heat
energy

Cellular
Glucose respiration Carbon dioxide
(from food) ATP

Energy for cellular work Water


Oxygen
Energy conversion in a cell
ATP
_______ (adenosine triphosphate) is the
molecule directly used by cells for their work.
ATP consists of an adenosine molecule
bonded to ________________________.
ATP is high in chemical energy, releasing
energy for cellular work when it is broken
down to _______ (adenosine diphosphate).
Energy

___________ ____________

Adenosine P P P Adenosine P P P

Phosphate
(transferred to
ATP ADP another molecule)
ATP

_________________: _________________
chemical energy _________________:
harvested from Phosphate released
ADP P
fuel molecules giving off energy; that
energy is harnessed by
cell.
Motor protein

ATP ADP P
ADP P

Protein moved
(a) Motor protein performing mechanical work (moving a muscle fiber)

Transport Solute
protein
P P

ATP ADP P

Solute transported
(b) Transport protein performing transport work (importing a solute)

ATP X P X Y ADP P
Y

Reactants Product made


(c) Chemical reactants performing chemical work (promoting a chemical reaction)