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FOR APPROVAL

A FOR APPROVAL Oct.2015

REV. DESCRIPTION DATE DESIGNED BY CHECKED BY REVIEWED BY APPROVED BY

OWNER

POWER GENERATION CORPORATION 3

VINH TAN THERMAL POWER MANAGEMENT BOARD

CONSULTANT

POWER ENGINEERING CONSULTING JOINT STOCK COMPANY 3

CONTRACTOR

THE CONSORTIUM OF DOOSAN-MITSUBISHI-PECC2-PACIFIC

SUBCONTRACTOR

THE CONSORTIUM OF COEC-SUNPRO

PROJECT: VINH TAN4 THERMAL POWER PLANT CONTRACT NO.:

PROJECT

DOCUMENT NAME:
CALCULATION SHEET FOR ANTI-EROSION STRUCTURE

PROJECTCONTROL NO.:

DOCUMENT NO. : REV: A


CONTENTS
1. General .......................................................................................................................................... 1
2. Codes of Practice and References ................................................................................................. 1
3. Wave Force .................................................................................................................................... 1
3.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 1
3.2 S Wave ................................................................................................................................. 2
3.3 SW Wave ............................................................................................................................. 3
3.4 SSE Wave ............................................................................................................................. 3
3.5 Summary ............................................................................................................................. 4
4. Reactive Thrust Force Due to Discharge Flow ............................................................................... 4
5. Earth Pressure ............................................................................................................................... 4
5.1Passive Earth Pressure.......................................................................................................... 4
5.2Active Earth Pressure ........................................................................................................... 6
6. Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 7
1. General
The concrete anti-erosion structure is necessary for holding the backfill material in the
trench near the pipeline outlets. The concrete anti-erosion structure shall be capable of
withstanding the wave force and the active earth pressure acting on it.

2. Codes of Practice and References


Coastal Engineering Research Center of the USA:Shore Protection Manual
American Bureau of Shipping(1980): Rules for the Classification and Construction of
Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
California Department of Transportation (2004):Bridge Design Specifications

3. Wave Force
3.1 General
Concrete Anti-Erosion Structure size:
Length l 1 =3.5m
Width l 2 =22m
Height l 3 =5.8m
The concrete Anti-Erosion Structure is located on the seabed.
Design life T=30year.
Design return wave period T=50year.
Wave height cumulative frequency F=1%
There isno need to consider E, ESE and SE wave because these directional waves will be
blocked bythe breakwater,while S and SW wave will not be affected by breakwater and
should be taken into account.
When consideringSSE wave, wave diffraction due tothe effect of breakwater need to be
considered. The incident angle is 120 .The height of diffraction wave:
Hd = Kd Hi
H d , The height of diffraction wave, m
K d , Diffraction coefficient, K d =0.6
H i , The height of incident wave, m
Angle between concreteAnti-Erosion Structure and S wave 1 =78
Angle between concrete Anti-Erosion Structure and SW wave 2 =33
Angle between concrete Anti-Erosion Structure and diffraction SSE wave 3 =90
For security, use extremely low water depth. d=5.8+8.2-1.37=12.63m.

1
Fig 3.1 Model for Wave Force
The horizontal wave force acting on the concrete Anti-Erosion Structure.
l3 l3
Hl sinh kl3
=Fx CH =pnx dS CH l2 p1dz = p2 dz CH g 2 cos ( kx1 t ) cos ( kx2 t )
S 0 0 2k cosh kd
Hl sinh kl3 1
= CH g 2 sin kl1 sin t
k cosh kd 2
H, Design wave height, m
k, Wave number.
, Seawater density, g/cm3
C H , Horizontal diffraction coefficient:

2 l3 ( l2 / l3 )
2

CH =1.0 +
l1 1 + ( l2 / l3 )2

The distance between the horizontal wave force and seabed:


cosh kl3 1
e= l3
k sinh kl3

Since seabed permeability varies,the vertical wave force acting on the concrete
anti-erosion structureshall be consideredin the following two cases:
A. If undersurface is well-permeable
l1 / 2 l1 / 2
Hl cosh kl3 1 1
CV pnz dS =
Fz1 = CV l2 p3 dz + p4 dz =CV g 2 sin kl1 cos t
S l1 / 2 l1 / 2 k cosh kd 2

Or, B. If undersurface is bad-permeable


l1 / 2 Hl cosh kl3 1
CV pnz dS =
Fz 2 = CV l2 p3 dz =CV g 2 sin kl1 cos t
S l1 / 2 k cosh kd 2

C V , Vertical diffraction coefficient,C V =2.7


3.2 S Wave
UseD1-4 control point which position is close tothe concrete Anti-Erosion Structure.
= =
H1% 3.92 =
m, T 6.42 s, L 51.1m

2 l3 sin 1 ( (l2 / sin 1 ) / (l3 sin 1 ) )


2

CH 1 =
1.0 + =3.99
1 + ( (l2 / sin 1 ) / (l3 sin 1 ) )
2
l1

2
C V1 Vertical diffraction coefficient of S wave, C V1 =2.7
The x direction component of horizontal S wave force
FxS= sin(1 ) FxS= 188t

The y direction component of horizontal S wave force


FyS= cos(1 ) FxS= 40t

Vertical S wave force of well-permeable bottom surface Fz1S = 44.5t

Vertical S wave force of bad-permeable bottom surface Fz 2 S = 212.4t

Distance between the horizontal S wave force and seabed eS = 3.02m


3.3 SW Wave
Use D1-4 control point which position is close tothe concrete Anti-Erosion Structure
= =
H1% 4.89 =
m, T 7.88 s, L 66.2m

2 l3 sin 2 ( (l2 / sin 2 ) / (l3 sin 2 ) )


2

CH 2 =
1.0 + =
2.79
1 + ( (l2 / sin 2 ) / (l3 sin 2 ) )
2
l1

C V2 Vertical diffraction coefficient of SW wave, C V2 =2.7.


The x direction component of horizontal SW wave force:
FxSW = sin( 2 ) FxSW = 93.3t

The y direction component of horizontal SW wave force:


FySW= cos( 2 ) FxSW= 143.7t

Vertical SW wave force of well-permeable bottom surface Fz1SW = 44.6t

Vertical SW wave force of bad-permeable bottom surface Fz 2 SW = 331t

Distance between the horizontal SW wave force and seabed eSW = 2.97 m

3.4 SSE Wave


Use D1-2 control point which position is close tothe Breakwater.
H1% = 5.7 0.6 = 3.42m, T = 8.9 s, L = 84.6m

2 l3 sin 3 ( (l2 / sin 3 ) / (l3 sin 3 ) )


2

CH 3 =
1.0 + =
4.03
1 + ( (l2 / sin 3 ) / (l3 sin 3 ) )
2
l1

C V3 Vertical diffraction coefficient of SSE wave, C V3 =2.7


The x direction component of horizontal SSE wave force
FxSSE = sin(3 ) FxSSE = 160t

The y direction component of horizontal SSE wave force


FySSE = cos(3 ) FxSSE = 0

Vertical SSE wave force of well-permeable bottom surface Fz1SSE = 23.2t

Vertical SSE wave force of bad-permeable bottom surface Fz 2 SSE = 270t

Distance between the horizontal SSE wave force and seabed eSSE = 2.94m

3
3.5 Summary
The maximum x direction component of horizontal wave force is 188t
The maximum y direction component of horizontal wave force is 143.7t
The maximum vertical wave force is 331t

4.Reactive Thrust Force Due toDischarge Flow


D, Pipe diameter, D=3800mm.
According to the theorem of momentum, the reactive thrust force of flow discharged from
three pipelines:
Mv r 2 vt
Fr= 3= v 3= 139425 N =14.2t
t t
r,Radius of the pipe, m.
,Fluid density, g/cm3.
v, Velocity of pipe flow, v=2m/s.

5.Earth Pressure
5.1Passive Earth Pressure
Assumes that the wave force and other external force is large enough, the concrete
Anti-Erosion Structure will move to the backfill soiluntil the soilbegin to slide. The
maximum force is passive earth pressure.
In this project, the concrete anti-erosion structure is rigidity and vertical placed on a
prepared gravel foundation, backfill surface could be assumedas horizontal. The
Rankin theory could be applied.
Passive earth pressure:
P zK p + 2c K p
=

c,Cohesion of the sand, kPa.


K p , Coefficient of passive earth pressure:

=
K p tan 2 45 +
2

, Angle of internal friction.


The thickness of backfill soil, h 1 =2.5m.
The thickness of rubble layer,h 2 =3.3m.
Concrete thrust block is located in layer 6.
Effective unit weight of backfill sand:
1 = ( 1 w ) g = (2.12 1.025) 9.81= 10.74kN / m3

1 , Saturation density of backfill sand, 1 = 2.12 g / cm3

w , Density of seawater, w = 1.025 g / cm3

4
Effective unit weight of rubble layer:
2= ( 2 w ) g= (2.4 1.025) 9.81= 13.49kN / m3

1 , Saturation density of backfill sand, 2 = 2.4 g / cm3

w , Density of seawater, w = 1.025 g / cm3

1 , Angle of internal friction for backfill sand. =


1 3633

2 , Angle of internal friction for rubber layer. =


2 45

c 1 , Cohesion of backfill sand, c1 = 0.456kPa

c 2 , Cohesion of the rubber layer, c2 = 0

pA

pBup
pBdown

pC
Fig 5.1 Passive Earth Pressure Distributionon Structure
Calculation of passive earth pressure
=
Layer AB: pA 2=
c1 K p1 1.8kPa

pBup = 1h1 K p1 + 2c1 K p1 =107.7 kPa

Layer BC: pBdown = 1h1 K p 2 + 2c2 K p 2 =156.5kPa

( 1h1 + 2 h2 ) K p 2 + 2c2 K p 2 =
pC = 416kPa

Passive earth pressure of layer AB:

=FS 1
( pA + pBup ) h1
= l2 3012kN =307t
2
Passive earth pressure of layer BC:

=FS 2
( pBdown + pC ) h2
= l2 20781kN =2118t
2
Total of Passive earth pressure F P =2425t
Acting position of concentrated force 1 (offset from the top of Anti-Erosion Structure):
1 2 pA + pBup
e1 =h1 h1 =1.65m
3 pA + pBup
5
Acting position of concentrated force 2 (offset from the bottom of Anti-Erosion Structure):
1 2 pBdown + pC
e2 = h2 =
1.4m
3 pBdown + pC

F S1 +F S2 >F Xs +Fr
Factor of safety against passive earth pressure:
Fs1 + Fs 2
=Q = 12 , OK
FxS + Fr

Wave force won't destroy the backfill soil.


5.2Active Earth Pressure
The gravity of the soil and cohesive force acting on concrete Anti-Erosion Structure:
Active earth pressure
a zK a 2c K a
=

c, Cohesion of the sandkPa.


K a , Coefficient of active earth pressure,

=K a tan 2 45
2

The concrete Anti-Erosion Structure is placed onlayer 6

aA

aBup
aBdown

aC
Fig 5.2Active Earth Pressure DistributiononStructure
Taking moment about point P.
Calculation of active earth pressure
Layer AB: aA =
2c1 K a1 =
0.46kPa

aBup = 1h1 K a1 2c1 K a1 =6.3kPa

Layer BC: aBdown = 1h1 K a 2 2c2 K a 2 =4.6kPa

( 1h1 + 2 h2 ) K a 2 2c2 K a 2 =
aC = 12.2kPa

6
aBup ( h1 z0 )
=
Active earth pressure of layer AB: FS 1 = l2 163kN =16.6t
2
( aC + aBdown ) h2
=
Active earth pressure of layer BC: FS 2 = l2 612kN =62.4t
2
2c1
=
Zero pressure depth: z0 = 0.169m
1 Ka

Acting position of concentrated force 1 (offset from the top of Anti-Erosion Structure):
1
e1 =h1 ( h1 z0 ) =1.72m
3
Acting position of concentrated force 2(offset from the bottom of Anti-Erosion Structure):
1 2 + aC
e2 = h2 aBdown =
1.4m
3 aBdown + aC

6. Summary
Assumptions:
The friction between the bottom of Anti-Erosion Structure and the gravel foundation is
neglected conservatively.
The bonding force between pipelines and Anti-Erosion Structure is
neglectedconservatively.
Underwater weight of the Anti-Erosion Structure:
D2
G = ( l1 l3 + 2 0.4 0.65 ) l2 3 l1 ( 2.4 1.025 )= 459.4t
4
The resisting moment resulting from gravity of the Anti-Erosion Structure:
M G = G x1 = 459.4 2.25 = 1034t m

The overturning moment resulting from active earth pressure:


M s = Fs1 ( l3 e1 ) + Fs 2 e2 = 155t m < M G

Factor of safety against overturning:


MG
=
Q = 6.7 , OK
MS

Therefore, active earth pressure wont tumble the Anti-Erosion Structure.


Table 6.1 Summary of Calculation and Result

No. Force/Moment Symbol Value Unit


1 Wave Force F xS 188 ton
2 Reactive Thrust Force Fr 14.2 ton
3 Passive Earth Force FP 2425 ton
4 Moment of Active Earth Pressure About Point P MS 155 tm
5 Moment of Gravity About Point P MG 1034 tm

7
Friction Force between Bottom of Structure and Neglected
6
Foundation conservatively
Bonding Force between Structure and Steel Neglected
7
Pipelines conservatively
Passive Earth Pressure against Wave Force FP/
Case 1 12 OK!
and Reactive Thrust Force F xS +F r
Moment of Gravity against Moment of Active
Case2 M G /M S 6.7 OK!
Earth Pressure