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1. Mathematics Used in Physics I-VI 1.23 Electric dipole 64
1.24 A dipole in an electric field 67
Partial differentiation ii 1.25 Force between two short dipoles 68
Uses of differentiation and integration iii 1.26 Quantisation of charge : Millikan oil drop
Area bounded by the curve iii experiment 70
Solid angle iv Review of formulae and important points 73
Exercise 1.1 - 1.6 77-106
Complex number and phasor) v
Hints & solutions 107-130
2. Electrostatics 1-130
2. Capacitance & Capacitors 131-216
1.1 Basics of electrostatics 02
2.1 Capacitor or condenser :
1.2 Earthing or grounding 04
1.3 Gold leaf electroscope 04 An introduction 132
1.4 Lightning and lightning conductor 05 2.2 Capacitance or capacity 132
1.5 Coulombs law 08 2.3 Charging a capacitor 133
1.6 Electric field 14 2.4 Calculating capacitance 133
1.7 Electric field lines (efl) 15 2.5 Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor 135
1.8 Electric potential energy (epe) 18 2.6 Energy stored in a capacitor 137
1.9 Potential difference 19
2.7 Force between the plates of a capacitor 139
1.10 Equipotential surface 22
2.8 Capacitors in series and parallel 142
1.11 Electric flux 23
2.9 Spherical capacitor 147
1.12 Gausss law or gausss theorem 26
1.13 Applying gausss law : spherical symmetry 30 2.10 Cylindrical capacitor 149
1.14 Applying gausss law : cylindrical symmetry 34 2.11 Dielectrics 153
1.15 Line charge of finite length 35 2.12 Induced or bound charge 154
1.16 Applying gausss law : planar symmetry 37 2.13 Total energy of the system 159
1.17 Conductor of any shape 39 2.14 Van de graff generator 161
1.18 Mechanical force on the charged conductor 39 2.15 Kirchhoffs laws 161
1.19 Energy density 40
Review of formulae & important points 178
1.20 Electric field due to charged ring 41
Exercise 2.1-2.6 180-200
1.21 Charged disc 44
Hints & solutions 201-216
1.22 Electric potential energy of system of charges 61
Chapter 1


Gauss's law is the very powerful tool of electrostatics. It can be used to find total flux
associated with the closed surface due to charges appearing in the space. By doing this we
can calculate electric field at any point of the surface. According to it, the total flux of the
net electric field through a closed surface (Gaussian surface) equals the net charge enclosed
by the surface divided by 0 . Thus if qin is the total charge inside the closed surface, then
r r

E.dA = .
Proof of Gauss's law
Consider charges q1, q2, ........., qn are inside a closed surface and charges q1, q2, ......., qn
are outside the surface.
r r r r r r
If E1, E2 ,........, En ; E '1, E '2 ,........, E 'n are the fields produced by the respective charges
; inside and outside the closed surface, then resultant electric field at any point P on it
r r r r r r r
E = ( E1 + E2 + ..... + En ) + ( E '1 + E '2 + ........ + E 'n )
The flux of the resultant electric field through the closed surface
r r
f= E.dA
r r r r r r r r r r r r
E1.dA + E2 .dA + ....... + En .dA + E '1 .dA + E '2 .dA + ..... + E 'n .dA (1)
r r r r Fig. 1.76
Here E 1 .dA is the flux due to charge q1 which is q1 / 0 and E '1 .dA is the flux to
charge q1, which is zero, because it is out off the closed surface. Thus equation (1) can be
written as ;
r r q1 q2 q
+ .... + n + [ 0 + 0 + ...... + 0]
E dA = +
0 0 0
= 0
r r qin
or E.dA =
. (2)

1. The net charge is the algebraic sum of all the enclosed positive and negative
charges, and it can be positive, negative, or zero.
2. The electric field appearing in the Gausss law is the net electric field due to all the
charges present inside as well as outside the closed surface. On the other hand, the
charge qin appearing in the law is only the charge inside the closed surface.
The following observations are useful in calculating total flux
1. If E is perpendicular to a surface area A ( q = 0) at all points, and has the same
ur ur
magnitude at all points of the surface, then E.d A = EA cos 0 = EA.
For spherical surface EA = E 4 pr 2 = 4pEr 2 .
2. If E is parallel to a surface at all points, E^ = 0 or q = 90 and therefore
ur ur
E.d A = EA cos 90 = 0 .
3. If E is zero at all points of a surface, the integral is zero.
4. The surface to which Gausss law is applied need not be a real physical surface, such
as the surface of a solid body. Indeed, in most applications of this law, one considers
an imaginary or geometrical surface that may be in empty space, embedded in a solid
body, or partly in space and partly within a body. Fig. 1.77
Conductor with excess charge
If an excess charge is placed on an isolated conductor, the charge will move entirely over
the surface of the conductor. It is because of the fact that like charges repel each other. An
internal electric field does appear as the conductor is being charged. However, the excess
charge quickly distributes itself such a way that the internal electric field is zero. The
movement of charge then ceases, and the net force on each charge is zero; the charges are
then in electrostatic equilibrium.
The fact can be verify by Gausss law. It has explained that the electric field E is zero at all
points within a conductor when the charges in the conductor are at rest. We may take an
imaginary surface in the interior of the conductor as shown in figure. Because E is zero
everywhere on the surface,
ur ur
\ E.d A = 0
ur ur qin
By Gausss law E.d A = 0

or 0 = 0
which gives qin = 0.

Cavity in the conductor

Suppose there is a cavity in the charged conductor, and there are no charges within the
ur ur
For the surface A, E.d A = 0
Fig. 1.78 ur
Since E is zero in the conductor,,
\ qin = 0.
Further more, consideration of a surface such as B shows that the net charge on the surface
of the cavity must be zero. Thus the entire charge on the conductor lies on its outer surface,
not on the cavity wall.

Charge placed inside the cavity

1. Suppose that there is a conductor inside the cavity but insulated from it and that the
inner conductor has charge q. By Gauss's law
Fig. 1.79 ur ur qin
E.d A = 0

or 0 = 0
Since E is zero inside the conductor, which gives qin = 0. As the charge inside the
cavity is q, so there must be a charge on the cavity wall, equal and opposite in sign
to the charge q. If outer conductor is initially uncharged before the charge q is
inserted, there must be a charge on its outer surface, equal and opposite to the
charge on the cavity wall, that is q.
Fig. 1.80 2. Consider a charged conductor having charge q' initially. A charge q is placed in a
cavity in the conductor. The charge on the outer surface of the conductor = q' + q.
3. Lines of field inside cavity due to charge at its centre
Case 1 : Spherical cavity Case 2 : Non-spherical cavity

Fig. 1.81
Conductor in external electric field Fig. 1.82
Consider an uncharged conductor is placed in an external electric field. The free electrons in
the conductor distribute themselves on the surface as shown. Reducing the net electric field
inside the conductor to zero and making the net field at the surface perpendicular to the
Potential of earthed conductor is zero
Let us consider two concentric conducting shells. Inner shell is given a charge q. The
charges are induced at outer shell, as shown in fig. 1.83. The potential of any point on the
surface of outer shell
1 q q q 1 q
V = - + = .
4p 0 b b b 4p 0 b
Now let outer shell is earthed. The charge on outer surface of outer shell neutralise by
electrons coming from earth. But negative charge on inner surface of outer shell remain in
tact because of attraction of charge of inner shell. Potential at any point on outer shell
1 q q
V = - =0. Fig. 1.83
4p 0 b b

Fig. 1.84
Ex. 28 A point charge q is placed on the apex of a cone of semi-
To find A, choose a surface element confined in angle da at an angle a .
vertex angle q . Show that the electric flux through the base of the
The area of the element strip
q ( 2pr ) ds
cone is ( 1 cos q ) . dA =
2 0
= 2pR sina ( Rd a ) [ r = R sin a]
Consider a Gaussian surface with its centre at the apex of the cone. The = 2pR 2 sina d a

q q
0 2pR
flux through the whole sphere is , so the flux through the base of the Surface area A = sin a d a

A q or A = 2pR 2 (1 - cos q)
cone f =
A0 0
A q 2pR 2 (1 - cos q ) q
where A = area of sphere below the base of the cone Thus desired flux f = = .
A0 0 4pR 2 0
and A0 = area of whole sphere which is 4pR 2 .
As the total lines of force emanating from q1 is equal to the total lines of
= (1 - cos q ) . force terminating to q2, so
2 0
q1 q2
Ex. 29 Two charges +q 1 and q 2 are placed at A and B 2p (1 - cos a ) = 2 p (1 - cos b )
4p 4p
respectively. A line of force emanates from q1 at an angle a with
the line AB. At what angle will it terminate at q2 ? q1 a q2 b
or .2sin 2 = .2sin 2
Sol. 2 2 2 2
The number of lines of force emerges is proportional to the amount of
b q1 a
charge. The line of force emanating from q1 spread out equally in all or sin = sin
2 q2 2
directions. Hence lines of force per unit solid angle are and the
q a
\ b = 2sin -1 1 sin Ans.
number of lines of force through cone of half angle a is q1 .2 p (1 - cos a ) . q2 2
Application of Coulomb's law and Gauss's law
Similarly the number of lines of force terminating on q2 at angle b is
Coulomb's law is the fundamental law of electrostatics, but for
q2 symmetric charge distribution Gauss's law can be used. For
2 p (1 - cos b ) electrostatics problems, Gauss's law is equivalent to Coulomb's
law. In Gauss's law, the closed surface is of any shape. The
Fig. 1.85

Gaussian surface will often be a sphere, a cylinder, or some other symmetrical form. But it
must always be a closed surface, so that a clear distinction can be made between points that
are inside the surface, on the surface, and outside the surface.

(i) Ch ar ged c on du c t i n g sh el l : Fig. 1.86 shows a charged spherical shell of

total charge q and radius R. The charge of the conducting shell will spread uniformly
over its outer surface, so charge inside the shell will be zero.
For the Gaussian surface, r R,
qin = q.

ur ur qin
Fig. 1.86
By Gauss's law E.d A = 0

ur q
or E.dA cos 0 = 0

or E
dA = 0

or E 4pr 2 = 0

1 q
\ E = 4 p 2
0 r

For r < R, the charge inside the closed surface, qin = 0, and so E = 0.

Note: Above obtained results are also applicable to the conducting sphere.
Electric potential :
For the potential at r R, the charge of the shell can be assumed at the centre of the
shell, and so electric potential at a distance r from the centre of the shell,

1 q
V = 4p r , r > R.

At surface of the shell, r = R, and so

1 q
V = 4p R , r=R

For r < R, the electric field is zero, and so electric potential remain constant from centre to
the surface of the shell.

1 q
\ V = 4p R , r<R

Self energy :
The work done in charging the body will store in term of its self energy. In the charging
1 q Fig. 1.88
process, the potential of the surface of the shell increases from zero to a value ,
4p 0 R
so the average potential during charging

1 q
0 +
4p 0 R 1 q
Vav = =
2 8p 0 R
Self energy. U = work done in charging
= Vav q
1 q
= 8p R q

1 q2
or U = .
8p 0 R
As there is no electric field inside the shell, so this energy resides from surface to infinity.

1. A body is given a charge q in air and isolated from the source, its potential

1 q
V = ,
4p 0 R
where R is the radius of the body. When this body is taken into a dielectric
medium of constant k (say in water), its potential becomes
Fig. 1.89
1 q V
V' = =
4p 0 k R k

2. A body is charged to a source of potential V and the source remains connected

with the body. When this body is taken into a medium its potential remain same
but charge increases to kq. The new potential of the body
Fig. 1.90

1 q'
V' =
4p 0 k R
Since V' = V,
1 q' 1 q
\ 4p 0 k R =
4p 0 k R
Fig. 1.91 q' = kq.
(ii) Uniformly charged sphere (non conductor)
Consider a charged sphere of total charge q and radius R. Choose a Gaussian surface
with r > R, the entire charge lies within it. The charge produces an electric field on the
Gaussian surface as if the charge were a point charge located at the centre, and so

1 q
E = , r>R
4p 0 r 2
For the Gaussian surface at r < R, charge enclosed in the sphere of radius r,

qin q 4 3 qr 3
= pr = 3
4 3 3 R
r r q 'in
Fig. 1.92
By Gauss's law E.dA = 0

qr 3 / R3
or 2 =
E 4pr 0

1 qr
\ E =
4p 0 R3
At r = 0, E = 0.

Electric potential :
For the potential at r R, the charge of the sphere can be assumed at its centre, and so
electric potential at a distance r from the centre of the sphere,
1 q
V = , r>R
4p 0 r
At the surface of the shell, r = R, and so

Fig. 1.93 1 q
V = , r =R
4p 0 R
Electric potential at r < R : If E1 and E2 are the electric fields outside and inside the sphere,
1 q 1 qr
E1 = and E2 = .
4p 0 r 2 4p 0 R3
Fig. 1.94 Electric potential at any point is defined as,
r ur r
V = - E .d r


R r
= - E1dr + E2 dr

R 1 q r 1 qr
= - 4p 2 dr + R 4p 3 dr
0 r 0 R

After simplifying, we get V = 1 3R 2 - r 2

4p q
0 2R 3
Fig. 1.95
1 3q
At the centre of the sphere, r = 0, V = 4p 2R

i.e., Vcentre = Vsurface
Self energy of the charged sphere
Fig. 1.95 shows a sphere of total charge q and radius R. Take an element of thickness dr at
a radial distance r all over the sphere. If q1 and q2 are the charges on the element and the
sphere inside, then the energy of this system,
1 q1q2
dU = 4p 0 r

q 2 3q r 2 dr
where q1 = 4 4 pr dr = ,
pR 3 R3
q 4 3 qr
and q2 = pr =
4 R3
pR3 3 Fig. 1.96
The total energy of the charged sphere

3q 2 qr 3
r dr
R 1 R R3 R3
U = 0 dU = 4p 0 0 r

3 1 q2
5 4p 0 R
3 q2
or U =
20 0 R

MCQ Type 1 E xercise 1. 1

( )
Only one option correct
5. A surface has the area vector A = 2i$ + 3 $j m 2 . The flux of an
1. Consider a neutral conducting sphere. A positive point charge is
placed outside the sphere. The net charge on the sphere is then, r V
(a) negative and distributed uniformly over the surface of the electric field through it if the field is E = 4i$ :
(a) 8 V-m (b) 12 V-m
(b) negative and appears only at the point on the sphere closest
(c) 20 V-m (d) zero
to the point charge
6. In figure a close surface encloses two of the four positively charged
(c) negative and distributed non-uniformly over the entire surface particles. Which of the particles contribute to the electric field at
of the sphere point P on the surface :
(d) zero.
(a) q1, q2
2. There is a point charge +q inside a hollow sphere and a point
charge q just outside its surface. The total flux passing through
(b) q1, q3
the sphere
-q q (c) q1, q2, q3
(a) 0 (b) 0
(d) q1, q2, q3, q4
2q 7. Figure shows five charged lumps of plastic and an electrically
(c) (d) zero.
0 neutral metal coin. The close surface S is indicated in the figure.
The net flux through the surface is :
3. Figure shows three electric field lines. If FA, FB and FC are the
forces on a test charge q at the positions A, B and C respectively, ( q1 - q2 - q3 - q4 + q5 )
then 0

( q1 - q2 - q3 )

( -q4 + q5 )
(a) FA > FB > FC (b) FA < FB < FC (d) zero
8. The figure shows three situations in which a Gaussian cube sits in
(c) FA > ( FB = FC ) (d) FA < ( FB = FC ) an electric field. The arrows and the values indicate the directions
4. In the figure the electric lines on the right have twice the separation of thefieldlinesandthemagnitudes(inN-m2/C) of the flux through
of those on the left. If a charge particle takes time t to move a the six sides of each cube. The dotted arrows are of the hidden
distance x in left region, then it will take time to travel the same faces. In which situation the cube enclose net positive charge :
distance in the right side region is :

(a) (b) t
(a) I (b) II
(c) 2t (d) 2t (c) III (d) none

A n sw er K ey 1 (d) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (c)

Sol. from page 107 5 (a) 6 (d) 7 (b) 8 (b)

S olutions Exercise 1.1Level -1

1. (d) Equal and opposite charges will appear on the sphere. So net r r
charge in the sphere becomes zero.
5. (a) f = E. A = 4i.(2i + 3 j ) = 8 V-m
+ 6. (d) Electric field at P is due to all the charges; either inside or
+ outside the close surface.
q +
+ qin q1 - q2 - q3
7. (b) f= = .
2. (b) The total flux passing through the sphere 0 0

qin q qin
f= = q 8. (b) We know that f =
0 0 q 0

3. (c) With the increase in the spacing between the field lines, \ q = 0 .f
intensity of electric field decreases. So For positive charge, f must be positive. In case II, total field
FA > (FB = FC) lines are (10 + 5 + 3) (4 + 6 + 3) = 5, are coming out of the
1 1 Eq cube.
4. (c) x = at 2 = t 2
2 2 m

1 Eq 2
and x= t
2 2m

\ t = 2 t.
Chapter 2
Capacitance & Capacitors
Kirchhoff's laws are very useful in analysing multiloops circuits.He provided two laws.
These are :
Junction rule :
The algebraic sum of the charges or currents at any junction is zero.
For charge : q = 0
At junction A as shown in fig. 2.66,
q1 + q2 + q3 = 0
or q3 = (q1 + q2).
For current : Si = 0
At A, i1 + i2 + i3 = 0 Fig. 2.65
or i3 = (i1 + i2).
Loop rule:
The algebraic sum of the potential differences across all the circuit elements in a closed
loop including with emfs must equal to zero.
or V = 0. Fig. 2.66
(a) Circuit having resistors and cells, then
x + iR = 0
(b) Circuit having capacitors and cells, then
x+ = 0
(c) Circuit having resistors, capacitors and cells, then
x+ + iR = 0.
The juction rule is an application of the principle of conservation of charge. The
loop rule is a consequence of conservation of energy.
For circuit analysis, the following procedures should be followed carefully.
First of all label all the known and unknown carefully, including an assumed sense
of direction for each unknown. Often one does not know in advance the actual
direction or sign of an unknown current, emf or charge, but this does not matter.
The solution is carried out using the assumed directions, and if the actual direction
of a particular quantity is opposite to the assumed direction, the value of the
quantity found with negative sign.
The following guidelines and sign conventions are useful in
analysing circuit problems.
1. One must remember that, the current in any resistor or charge on any capacitor is
the net response of all the sources present in the circuit. Don't think that only
nearest one is sending the current or charge.
2. Choose any closed loop in the network, and designate a direction (clockwise or
anticlockwise) to traverse the loop for loop rule.
3. Close loop may or may not have any cell, but one of the close loop must include Fig. 2.67
the cell. For a circuit having only one cell, choose a close loop, which include this
4. (a) The p.d. across any resistor can be taken negative when moves along the
direction of current and positive for reverse direction of current.
(b) The p.d. across capacitor can be taken negative when moves from positive
plate of capacitor to negative plate and positive for reverse sense. Fig. 2.68

Note: See the sign of charge of first coming plate of capacitor only..
(c) The emf of any cell/battery is taken as negative from its positive terminal to
negative terminal and positive for reverse sense.
5. It must be remembered that capacitor in steady state stop the direct current, and so
there will be no current in the branch in which capacitor is connected.
6. If capacitors are connected in series with the sources as shown, the charge on
each capacitor will be same. It must be remembered that the net charge supply by
cell will be zero.
Fig. 2.69 7. Finally, the number of equations obtained must always be equal to the number of
The R-C series circuit
(a) Charging
Consider the circuit as shown in fig. 2.73. If the capacitor is initially has no charge,
then the initial p.d. across the capacitor is zero, and the entire emf appears across
Fig. 2.70 resistor, causing an initial current i0 = . As the capacitor charges, its potential
increases, and p.d. across resistor decreases, corresponding to a decrease in current.
After a long time when capacitor becomes fully charged, the entire potential will
occur across capacitor and the current becomes zero.
Let at any instant the current in the resistor is i, then by loop rule
iR +x = 0
dq q
or - R- +x = 0
Fig. 2.71 dt C
dq q
R = x-
dt C
dq dt
\ =
q R
x -
Integrating above expression, we have
Fig. 2.72 q t

= R
x -
0 0
lnx -
C t
or =
1 R

q -t
or l n x - - lnx =
or l n 1 - = - t
C x RC
Substituting, C x = q0 , the maximum or steady state charge on the capacitor and
RC = t, capacitive time constant
\ l n 1 - = -
q0 t

or q = (
q0 1 - e -t / t )

dq 1
Current : i = = q0 e - t / t
dt t

q0 -t / t
= e
C x -t / t
= e

or i = i0 e -t / t as i0 = R

At t = 0, i = i0 e = i0
and at t = , = i0 e - i
= 0
It means initially capacitor offers no resistance in the circuit. But after charging
fully, it offers infinite resistance.
Potential of capacitor :

Potential, V = q q0 1 - e
-t / t
( )

or = V0 1 - e (
-t / t
Energy stored :
U = CV 2

( )
1 2
= C V0 1 - e -t / t

( )
1 2
= CV02 1 - e - t / t

( )
or U = U0 1 - e-t / t
-t / t -t / t -t / t -t / t 2
q = q0 (1 - e ); i = i0 e ;V = V0 (1 - e ); U = U 0 (1 - e )
Capacitive time constant (t) :

At t = t, q = (
q0 1 - e -1 )
; 0, 64 q0
or at t = t, = i0e1 i
; 0.37 i0
Therefore time constant is the time in which charge on the capacitor grows to 0.64
times the maximum charge or current decreases to 0.37 times the maximum current. Fig. 2.73
(b) Discharging
After charging the capacitor, let now source is removed from the circuit.
The energy stored in capacitor now used to flow the current. At t = 0, we have

q = q0 and U = U0 = .
Again by loop rule,
Fig. 2.74

iR = 0
where q is the charge on capacitor at any time t
dq q
or - R =
dt C
dq dt
or = -
q RC
Integrating above expression, we get
dq t
q = - RC
q0 0
q t
or lnq q = -
0 RC
q t
or ln = - [As RC = t]
q0 t
or q = q0 e -t / t

Current : i =
dq d
dt dt
q0 e - t / t )
= q0 e -t / t -
C x -t / t
= e
= -i0 e -t / t As R = i0

q q0 - t / t
Potential : V = = e
= V0 e t
Energy : U = CV 2

( )
1 2
= C V0 e - t / t
= CV02 e -2t / t
= U 0 e -2t / t .
Finding the time constant
If there are many resistors and capacitors are connected in the circuit, then time constant
Fig. 2.75 can be obtained by using following steps;
(i) make short circuit at the place of battery.
(ii) Find equivalent capacitance, if there are many capacitors in the circuit. Assuming
equivalent capacitor is Cnet.
(iii) Find net resistance across the capacitor, say it is Rnet .
(iv) Finally tnet = Rnet Cnet.

Finding the potential difference between any two points in

a circuit
Let we have to find the potential difference between P and R in above circuit
Step 1 : Connect an imaginary battery between the points, let it is VPR.
Step 2 : Choose close loop including the imaginary battery.
Step 3 : Use loop rule to find VPR.
Choose close loop P R y x P and applying loop rule, we have
+ 10 + VPR = 0
or - + 10 + VPR = 0
or VPR = 0.
Heat generated Fig. 2.76
It can be obtained by using conservation of total energy of the system. That is
Initial energy stored in capacitors + work done by sources
= Final energy stored in capacitors + heat generated
or Ui + W = Uf + H
or H = (Ui Uf) + W

Note: Work done will be positive if work is done by the sources and negative if
work is done on the sources.
(a) Positive work done by source :
If a capacitor C of potential V (V may be zero) is connected to a source of emf x
( x > V)

The work done by source will be = x ( Dq )

= (
x q f - qi )
= x ( C x - CV )

= C x (x -V ) .

(b) Negative work done by source :

If a capacitor C of potential V is connected to a source of emf x ( x < V)
The work done by source will be = xDq
= x (qf qi)
= x (Cx CV)
= Cx (V x).
Case 1. If Uf = Ui, the heat generated H = W.
Case 2. If capacitors remain the part of same circuit then there always be a positive