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IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan.

- June 2012 ISSN: 2348-0033 (Online) ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print)

Nanotechnology: A Review
Gurjas Kaur, 2Tanvir Singh, 3Amit Kumar
Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India

Dept. of ECE, I.E.T. Bhaddal Technical Campus, Ropar, Punjab, India
College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China

Abstract Drexler to put these concepts into motion [3].

Nanotechnology is an engineering of functional systems at the
molecular level, covers a broad range of topics and is focused on III. Nanoparticles
controlling and exploiting the structure of matter on a large scale Particles whose sizes range of 1-100 nm is called a nanoparticle,
below 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology is the future of advanced whether it is dispersed in gaseous, liquid or solid medium. These are
development. It is everything today from clothes to foods there number of atoms or molecules bonded together and intermediate
are every sector in its range we should promote it more for our in size between individual atoms and aggregates large enough to
future and for more developments in our current life. In this paper, be called bulk material [5].
we have discussed the concept of Nanotechnology along with its
history and various applications.

Nanotechnology, nanomaterial, Nanoparticles, Nano science,
Nanometer, Top-Down Approaches, Bottom-Up Approaches,
Nano scale, Nano sensors, Biosensors

I. Introduction
Nanotechnology is a theoretical and experimental field of applied
science and technology. It is an engineering of functional systems
at the molecular level, covers a broad range of topics and is
focused on controlling and exploiting the structure of matter on
a large scale below 100 nanometers. The word Nano derives
from the Greek word Nanos, which means dwarf or extremely
small. The prefix Nanoin word of nanotechnology means
a billionth (1 x 10-9) [1]. Nanotechnology is often referred to
as general purpose technology because it has significant impact Fig. 1: Nanoparticles
on almost all industries and all areas of society. Nano science
and nanotechnology are recent revolutionary development in Fig. 1, shows the picture of Nanoparticles. Nano science and
Science and Engineering that are evolving at a very fast pace nanotechnology are recent, revolutionary development in Science
[2]. It is driven by the desire to fabricate materials with novel and and Engineering that are evolving at a very fast pace. It is driven
improved properties that is likely to impact virtually all are of the by the desire to fabricate materials with novel and improved
physical and chemical sciences, biological and health sciences. properties that is likely to impact virtually all area of the physical
It offers better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer and smarter and chemical sciences, biological sciences and health sciences.
products for home, communications, medicine, transportation,
agriculture, etc.

II. History
The first time the idea of nanotechnology was introduced was in
1959, when Richard Feynman, a physicist at Caltech, gave a talk
called Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom [3]. He credited
with the concept and early exploration of quantum computing
and publicity envisioning nanotechnology, creation of devices
at the molecular scale.In his work Richard Feyman described
the idea of creatingthings out of tiny pieces instead of making
things smaller as so far at thattime [4]. Norio Taniguchi was
the man who first used the termnanotechnology(Professorof
Tokyo Science University) in 1974.He started his research on the Fig. 2:Comparison Quantum Dots
mainly free abrasive mechanisms of high precision machining
of hard and brittle materials. Kim Eric Dexler is known as the The dimensionality of different systems is shown in fig. 2. As the
father of nanotechnology. He is the man behind to theorize nanoparticles are larger than individual atoms and molecules but
nanotechnology in depth and popularized the subject. He is an are smaller than bulk solid, those obey neither absolute quantum
American engineer best known for popularizing the potential of chemistry nor the laws of classical physics and materials in the
molecular nanotechnology, from the 1970s and 1980s.In 1979, nanometer size regime show the behavior which is intermediate
Eric Drexler encountered Feynmans talk on atomic manipulation between that of a macroscopic solid and that of an atom or
and Nano-factories. The Caltech physicists ideas inspired molecular system.

50 International Journal of Education and Applied Research w w w. i j e a r. o r g

ISSN: 2348 0033 (Online) ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print) IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan. - June 2012

A. Properties of Nanoparticles surfactants, or dendrimers). This type of synthesis is termed as

1. They can be built by assembling individual atoms or the bottom-up method.
subdividing bulk materials [5].
2. Physically, materials can be characterized by some critical V. Applications
length, a thermal diffusion length or a scattering length [5]. Some of the applications are shown by fig. 4.
3. Size of nanoparticles is less than wavelength of light [7].
4. Critical characteristics are their very high surface-to-volume
ratio [7].
5. Vander wall forces or magnetic forces plays more important
role than gravitational forces [7].

IV. Nanoparticle Synthesis Strategies

A. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches

The technologies for making nanoparticles are categorized into
top-down and bottom-up approaches. Top-down (extreme
miniaturization) approach is that nanoparticles are produced by
breaking larger materials into fine particles. The miniaturization of
components for the construction of useful devices and machines
has been and still is pursued by the top-down approach.It is
becoming increasingly apparent, for example, that miniaturization
in computer technology, which relies on silicon-based chips [6]. Fig. 4: Applications of Nano Technology
In this method the bulk is machined down to the nanometer length
scale by lithographic or laser ablation-condensation techniques. A. Nanotechnology in Paints and Coatings
From the view point of mass production of metal nanoparticles, Paints & coating industry is growing day by day around the globe.
the chemical methods are more effective than the physical ones. Paints or coating not only serves the purpose of beautification
Fig. 3, shows the Schematic illustration of preparative methods but also a means to protect valuable metals and buildings from
of metalnanoparticles. corrosion. Nanotechnology in paint and coatings promises to fulfill
all desire properties [7]. New paint technology fights bacterial
and fungal growth with Nano scale silver.Silver Nanoparticles
in wall paint prevent the formation of mould inside buildings
and the growth of algae on outside walls.Silver interferes with
various stages of cell metabolism; it can destroy a wide range of
germs and make it difficult for microbes to develop resistance [8].
Nanoparticles are so small that they can organize themselves
closely enough and bond together to form a molecularly sealed
surface. The appearance and usefulness of nanoparticles brings
many advantages like better surface appearance, good chemical
resistance, easy to clean, anti-fogging, anti-fouling, anti-reflective,
anti-fingerprints, scratch resistance, UV resistance, hydrophobic
& oil repellent in nature, fire resistant, high performance coating,
self-cleaning etc.

B. Nanotechnology in Textiles and Clothing

The wave of nanotechnology has shown a huge potential in the
textile and clothing industry which is normally very traditional.
Nanotechnology also has real commercial potential for the
textile industry. The first work on nanotechnology in textiles was
undertaken by Nano-Tex, a subsidiary of the US-based Burlington
Industries. After sometime more textile companies began to invest
in the development of nanotechnologies. Coating is a common
Fig. 3: Schematic Illustration of Preparative Methods of technique used to apply Nano-particles onto textiles. Nano-
MetalNanoparticles particles have a large surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface
energy due to which nanotechnology can provide high durability
While bottom-up (building blocks) approach is that nanoparticles for fabrics [10] The future success of nanotechnology in textile
are built up from atoms or molecules. An alternative strategy to applications lies in areas where new functionalities are combined
exploit science and technology at the nanometer scale is done by into durable, multifunctional textile systems without compromising
the bottom-up approach, which starts from Nano- or sub Nano- the inherent favorable textile properties, including process ability,
scale objects to build up nanostructures [6]. In the synthesis of flexibility, wash ability and softness. The use of nanotechnology
metal colloids, controlling the size of shape is done by adjusting the allows textiles to become multifunctional and produce fabrics
ratio of the concentration of the chemicals making the nanoparticle with special functions, including antibacterial, UV-protection,
to that of the selected capping material (e.g., polymers, micelles, easy clean, water & stain repellent and anti-odor.

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IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan. - June 2012 ISSN: 2348-0033 (Online) ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print)

C. Nanotechnology in Cosmetics growth curve of Nano Technology.

The applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be
found in many cosmetic products including moisturizers, hair
care products, make up & sunscreen.A cosmetic covers different
products applied to skin or hair. Almost all the major cosmetic
manufactures use nonmaterial in their products. In cosmetics
there are currently two main uses for nanotechnology. The first
of these is the use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide
(TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the main compounds used in these
applications. The second use in nanotechnology is for delivery.
Liposomes and noisome, they both are used in the cosmetic
industry as delivery vehicles. Nano crystals, Nano emulsions,
solid lipid nanoparticles are being investigated for cosmetic
applications [11]. Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers have
also been considered for use. LOreal has a patent for a formulation
containing hyperbranched polymers or dendrimers which form a Fig. 5: Growth of Nano Technology
thin film when deposited on a substrate. This formulation could
be used for a wide variety of cosmetics. Nanotechnology has been A. Some Risks
used to study the mechanical characteristics of hair, which helps 1. There are effects of the various nanoparticles on the human
cosmetic companies to understand the difference between the hair body, and negative consequences on the human health.
types to create products to suit individual hair. 2. Nanoparticles are firmly embedded in the matrix which can
release and are harmful.
D. Nanotechnology in Food Science 3. Concentrations of nanoparticles at the workplace and in the
Complex set of engineering and scientific challenges in the food environment are dangerous.
and bioprocessing industry for manufacturing high quality and safe 4. Its waste very dangerous can causes the diseases like cancer
food through efficient and sustainable means can be solved through etc.
nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be used in agriculture and
food production in the form of Nano sensors for monitoring crop VII. Conclusion
growth and pest control by early identification of plant diseases. Nanotechnology has potential applications in many sectors
[12] These Nano sensors can help enhance production and improve including paints and coatings, textiles and clothing, cosmetics,
food safety. Bacteria identification and food quality monitoring food science, catalysis, etc. In addition, nanotechnology presents
using biosensors; intelligent, active and smart food packaging new opportunities to improve how we measure, monitor, manage.
systems; Nano capsulation of bioactive food compounds are Nanotechnology has emerged as a growing and rapidly changing
few examples. Companies are developing nanomaterials that field. New generations of nanomaterial will evolve, and with them
will make a difference not only in the taste of food, but also new and possibly unforeseen issues. Nanotechnology is the future
in food safety, and the health benefits that food delivers [9].A of advanced development. It is everything today from clothes to
Nano composite coating process could improve food packaging by foods there are every sector in its range we should promote it more
placing anti-microbial agents directly on the surface of the coated for our future and for more developments in our current life.
film. They can also improve the mechanical and heat-resistance
properties and lower the oxygen transmission rate. References
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52 International Journal of Education and Applied Research w w w. i j e a r. o r g

ISSN: 2348 0033 (Online) ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print) IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan. - June 2012

[7] A S Khanna,"Nanotechnology in High Performance Paint

Coatings", Vol. 21, No. 2, 2008: 25-32, [Online] Available: Amit Kumar received his bachelors degree in Mathematics from the
boon.pdf Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla,
[8] [Online] Available: India, in 2002 and Masters degree in
Press%20Release/Paint%20technology%20from%20 Computer Application from Kurukshetra
Nanovations.pdf University, Kurukshetra, India, in 2006.
[9] Understanding Nano, Nanotechnology Applications, [Online] He completed his M.Phil. in Computer
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applications.html Annamalai nagar, Tamilnadu, India,
[10] New paint technology fights bacteria and fungal growth with in 2010. He is currently pursuing his
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jayaram-co/doc/Selected_Appz_of_Nanotechnology_in_ working as a Lecturer in the Department of Computer Science,
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[11] Nanotechnology in Cosmetics (2009), [Online] Available: University, Nanjing, China. He has many publications in National/ International Conference proceedings and International Journals.
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at the Nano forum Workshop Nano & the Environment,
30 March 2006 in Brussels, [Online] Available: http://

Gurjas Kaur is pursuing Bachelors

degree in Nanotechnology from Sri
Guru Granth Sahib World University,
Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India. Her
research field is Nanotechnology.

Tanvir Singh is pursuing his bachelors

degree in Electronics and Communication
from I.E.T., Bhaddal, Ropar (Punjab
Technical University), Punjab, INDIA.
He is working as a budding researcher
in field of research on topics Green
Computing and Sustainability with a
dream to create a Technical Advanced
and eco- friendly world. He has
published many papers in International Journals and conference

w w w. i j e a r. o r g International Journal of Education and Applied Research 53