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Application of DVR to Protect Steel Industry

Loads from Power Quality Problems


M.R.V.Murali 1 Aswani Kumar Eedara 2 A.Srinivas3

1,2&3 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering


SASI Institute of Technology and Engineering
Tadepalligudem,India

Abstract-- This paper presents the application of Dynamic connected in series with the distribution feeder between the
Voltage Restorer in a distribution network with steel industry supply & the loads. Its main function is to mitigate any supply
load. In industries like the steel industry induction furnace is one voltage disturbance, especially voltage sag, by injecting a
of the common types of load. Induction furnace is one of the voltage with the required magnitude and phase shift in order to
sensitive device which is vulnerable with power quality problem, restore the load voltage to its rated value.
it make the major loss for industry. This paper discusses
The performance of a DVR with the HFL (High
designing of induction furnace in Matlab/Simulink. Voltage sag
and swell are the major power quality problem, which are Frequency Link) transformer is discussed in [13]. In this
eliminated by using one of custom power devices, is Dynamic paper, the control and performance of a DVR are
voltage restorer .This paper presents protection of induction demonstrated with a reduced rating VSC (Voltage Source
furnace from power quality problems by Dynamic voltage Converter). The SRF (Synchronous Reference Frame) theory
restorer & THD. In this paper a novel hysteresis voltage control is used for the control of the DVR.
for a DVR is proposed to improve the Power Quality (PQ). The In this paper consider what problems power quality
proposed scheme has been verified through various simulations problems in steel plant are and explain compensation of Power
in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Finally, results showing
Quality problems with DVR by using hysteresis voltage
that DVR protect the steel industry load from voltage sag and
swell. control.

Index Terms-- DVR, Induction furnace, Power Quality, Voltage II. INDUCTION FURNACE
Sag, Voltage Swell, MATLAB/SIMULINK.
A. Working of Induction Furnace
An induction furnace is one of the electrical furnace in which
I. INTRODUCTION the heat is applied by induction heating of metal [2]. One of

N ow days power quality is crucial problem to the


companies which are operated highly competitive
business environment, because it affects profit in terms of
the most economic ways of producing steel is made through
the use of induction furnaces. Solenoid coil produces heat in
induction furnace by use of alternating current [3]. Induction
time and money. They always need good power quality. In furnaces are used in scrap metal industry. An induction
steel plant induction furnace is major load which is consists furnace works by the process of electromagnetic induction.
power electronic devices which are very sensitive for power During induction, a magnetic field creates in metal when AC
quality problems like voltage sag, swell, harmonics and current is passed through it, metal introduces in it, an electric
flickers [1]. Voltage sag and swell is considering the major current passes through metal & causes it to heat. Induction
disturbances from all power quality problems [2]. furnaces are two types. The first one is coreless and the second
At any instant of time voltage sags can occur, with one is called channel. The coreless induction furnace has a
amplitudes ranging from 10 90% for short period (half a steel protecting cover on copper coils and special cooling
cycle to one minute). An increase in rms voltage or current water is circulating in magnetic shield. Difficult to melt
short period (0.5 cycles to 1 min) at the power frequency is materials and layer of refractory is placed above the coils and
called voltage swell [7]. Typical magnitudes are between 1.1 heated to the desired temperature. A melting pot made of heat
and 1.9p.u. In common distribution voltage swells are less resistant material for crucible, is above refractory. Inside the
compared to voltage sags. Voltage sag & swell can cause crucible metal is placed for the melting and the
sensitive equipment (such as chemical plants or found in electromagnetic charge produces heat to melts the scrap.
semiconductor) to fail, or closed down, as well as create a Another name for channel induction furnace is core induction
large current imbalance that could blow fuses or circuit furnace. Except the addition of heated core, all it functions
breakers [3]. These effects can be very fancy for the customer, nearly equal to coreless furnace. Channel furnaces were useful
ranging from minor power quality variations to production for melting of low melt temperature metals.
equipment downtime and damage [7].
Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is the most B. Simulink model of the induction furnace
popular power electronic based device to mitigate voltage sag
[8-10]. This power electronic converter-based compensator is For the simulation of the Induction furnace first of all we
have to consider the system voltage, transformer type,

978-1-4799-4103-2/14/$31.002014 IEEE
2

transformer secondary voltage and furnace operating voltage. Non Linear


Here in this paper to simulate the induction furnace we will take Load
supply voltage of 415V, and it step up to 700V, after that the Step down FAULT
Transformer
rectifier is put for secondary winding to get DC conversion. Here SUPPLY
the rectification is done by the bridge rectifier circuit. The output Induction
of rectifier are connected in series and obtained high level of DC Zs Furnace

voltage. This DC is controlled by the gate pulses of the thyristors


of bridge. The gate pulses are generated with the help of discrete
6-pulse generator for bridge. The filter coil with mutual Injecting
Transformer
inductance is put in series which DC link and then it is connected
to the inverter circuit. Here the DC is converted in to the single
LC Filter
phase AC supply. But this supply has higher level of current. This INVERTER
AC supply is given to the furnace model made by the
combination of the basic components like capacitor, inductor and DC
resistance in proper meaner. Fig.1 shows induction furnace used
in steel industry.
PWM generator Controller

Fig.2 Schematic Diagram of DVR Configuration


The magnitudes of the injected voltages are regulated such as
to compensate any detrimental effect of a fault to the load
voltage VL. This means in AC feeder transient disturbances
cause any spike voltages will be eliminated by equivalent
voltage generated by an corresponding voltage generated by
the converter and through the inject transformer. The DVR
works autonomously of the type of fault or any event that
happens in the source side, provided that the whole system
remains connected to the supply grid, i.e. the line circuit
breaker doesn't trip. For most practical cases, a more
economical design can be achieved by only compensating the
positive and negative sequence components of the voltage
disturbance seen at the input of the DVR. This option is
feasible because for a typical distribution bus configuration,
Disturbance in zero sequence part will not pass through the
Fig. 1 induction furnace step down transformer because of infinite impedance for this
component.
Generally, the DVR has several operating states.
III. DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER 1) When a voltage sag/swell occurs on the line, the DVR
responds by injecting three single-phase voltages in
To maintain a constant voltage across a sensitive load, synchronism with the network voltages. Each phase of the
Dynamic voltage restorer is to be connected in series with injected voltages can be controlled independently or together
load. The DVR reside of: an injection / series transformer, a in magnitude and phase. The DVR draws active power from
harmonic filter, Voltage Source Converter (VSC), energy batteries and supplies this together with reactive power to the
storage and a control system. The main function of a DVR is load.
the protection of induction furnace from voltage sags/swells 2) When the voltage supply is operating under normal
coming from the circuit. Therefore as shown in Fig.2, the conditions, the DVR operates in a standby mode if the battery
DVR is located on approach of induction furnace. Therefore is fully charged; or the DVR operates in the self-charging
as shown in Fig.2, the DVR is located on approach of control mode if the batteries need to be recharged.
induction furnace. 3) In the event of a fault or short circuit downstream, the DVR
DVR injects series voltage VDVR and compensates load (specifically, the VSI) must be protected against over current
voltage to pre-fault value, when a fault occurs or any non flowing through the power semiconductor switches. The rating
linear load connected with other line. of the DVR inverters is the limiting factor for normal load
current seen in the primary windings and reflected in the
secondary windings of the series insertion transformer. For
line currents exceeding the inverter rating, a bypass scheme is
incorporated to protect the power electronics.
Fig.3 show the equivalent circuit of DVR when the source
voltages is drop or increase, the DVR injects a series voltage
Vinj through the injection transformer so that the desired load
3

voltages magnitude VL can maintained. Mathematical (4)


expressed the injection satisfies (5)
Reference DVR voltages in abc frame are obtained from a
reverse Parks transformation taking VDd from (4), VDq from
(5), VD0* as zero as,

DVR voltages (VDvra, VDvrb, VDvrc) are used in a Hysteresis


voltage control controller to generate gating pulses to a VSC
Fig.3 Equivalent circuit of DVR of DVR.

(1) V. MODELING AND SIMULATION


Where VL is load voltage, VS is supply voltage& is the
voltage injected The DVR test system consists of three phase supply,
injecting transformer, and induction furnace, and Non linear
(2) load (rectified connected resistance) show in fig.3 is modeled
in MATAB/SIMULINK environment along with SPS (Sim-
Power System) toolbox and is shown in Fig.5. Parameters of
IV. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY the considered system for the simulation study are given in
Appendix.
Fig.4 shows control method for the DVR & also
There is different type of controller available, for modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK. A Hysteresis controller is
designing of DVR hysteresis voltage controller is consider for used over the reference and sensed induction furnace voltages
inverter switching. Fig. 4 shows a control block of the DVR in to generate the gating signals for the IGBTs of the VSC of the
which SRF theory is used for reference signal estimation. First DVR.
consider per unit value of induction furnace load and load
voltages are converted to the rotating reference frame using VI. PERFORMANCE OF DVR SYSTEM
abc-dqo conversion using Parks transformation with unit
vectors (sin , cos ) derived using a PLL (phase locked
loop) as, The performance of the DVR to protect induction
furnace is demonstrated for different supply voltage
Vqref disturbances such as voltage sag, swell and Harmonics.
Vdref
A. Fault analysis
Vload
abc
dqo dq0
abc In test system fault is created on parallel non linear
load in order to create the voltage sag on induction furnace
0 form 0.1 to 0.2 sec. Fig.6 shows that due to the fault voltage
sag is create on source and non linear load. But particular
instant of time DVR is eliminates sag on induction furnace by
injecting proper instant of voltage. And also injects missing
Hysteresis voltages which differ from reference sinusoidal voltages. In
Band
Fig.6 and Fig.7 shows Matlab simulation results of per unit
line voltages of non linear load, injected DVR, induction
Fig.4 Control block of the DVR which uses the SRF method of control France and grid voltage at 3phase to ground fault and double
line to ground fault occurs on non linear load.

(3)

Consider reference value of Vdref, Vqref Then, the DVR


voltages are obtained in the rotating reference frame as,
4

Fig.5 A MATLAB/SIMULINK model of Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) with induction furnace
Distortion of induction furnace voltage is around
7.22% without DVR and without any fault. Fig.8 shows
%THD of induction furnace. Fig.9 shows % THD of
induction with DVR with fault. After compensation of fault
with DVR %THD is 0.77.

A. Effects of Total Harmonic Distortion


From the results of FFT analysis, Total Harmonic

Fig.6 line voltages of (a) non linear load, (b) DVR, (c) induction
furnace,(d) grid (Three phase to ground fault)

Fig.7 line voltages of (a) non linear load, (b) DVR, (c) induction
furnace,
5

(d) grid (Double line to ground fault) performance of DVR. Therefore, when it comes to
implementation, it is crucial to consider these factors, so that
the performance of DVR is optimized.
CONCLUSIONS
In this study, the modeling and simulation of induction APPENDIX
furnace & DVR Hysteresis controller has been developed
using Matlab/Simulink. For Hysteresis controller, the Operating voltage: 3, 415V, 50Hz.
simulation result shows that the DVR compensates the sag Non linear load: 3 uncontrolled bridge rectifier with
quickly, reduces THD levels and provides excellent voltage R=200
regulation. Lb=1mH, Rc=0.2 Cf=20
Injection Transformer: 1:10, r1= r2= 0.00001 pu, x1=x2=
0.0003 pu
Step down Transformer: 11KV /415V, r1= r2= 0.0003 pu,
L1=L2= 0.001p.u
Induction furnace f=123Hz, 700V
Mutual induction Li=100mH

REFERENCES

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[11] F.Jurado and M.Valverde,operation of the dynamic
DVR handles all types, balanced and unbalanced fault and voltage restorer with fuzzy logic control, Proceedings of the
injects the appropriate voltage component to correct any fault 4th International power electronics and motion control
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However, other several factors that can affect the performance [12] R.R.Errabelli,Y.Y.koihatkar, and S.P.Das . Experimental
of DVR need to be addressed for enhancement of the output Investigation of DVR with sliding mode control, power india
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6

HFL-DVR With Independently Controlled Phases, IEEE A.SRINIVAS He was born in Annavaram, India, in 1989. He
Trans on Power Electronics vol. 27, no.4, pp. 1706-1718, received his B.Tech. Degree from Pydah College of
April 2012. Engineering and Technology, Visakhapatnam, India, in 2010
M.R.V.MURALI was born in and his M.Tech. degree in Power
Kakinada, India, in 1991. He received Electronics and Electrical Drives
his B.Tech. Degree from Sri Sai Aditya from Gudlavalleru college of
institute of Science and Technology, Engineering, Gudlavalleru, India, in
Surampalem, India, in 2012 and his 2014. He is working as Assistant
M.E. degree in Power System Professor in EEE Department, SASI
Engineering from Thiagarajar college of institute of Technology and
Engineering, Madurai, India, in 2014. Engineering, Tadepalligudem. His
He is working as Assistant Professor in research interests include Power
EEE Department, SASI institute of Electronics and Electrical drives and Flexible AC
Technology and Engineering, Transmission System (FACTS) devices.
Tadepalligudem. His research interests include Power
Electronics, Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
devices and Custom Power Devices.

Aswani Kumar Eedara received the


B.Tech. degree in Electrical and
Electronics Engineering from the
JNTU college of Engineering
Hyderabad, India in 2005 and the
M.E. degree in Power Systems from
the University College of
Engineering Osmania university
Hyderabad in 2008. He worked as
Project Trainee at General Electric-consumer and Industrial
Hyderabad for one year. He has been on the faculty of SASI
Institute of Technology and Engineering at Tadepalligudem as
an Assistant Professor in Department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering Since 2008.He has been working as
Head of the Department of E.E.E. since MAY 2012. He is
presently doing his research in the area of Power Electronics
applications in Power systems at JNTU Kakinada. His areas of
interest are Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Electric
Vehicles, Modeling & simulation Tools, FACTS Controllers,
Evolutionary algorithms.