88M1
Presents the results of an experimental investigation into the rela Carrasquillo, Nilson, and Slate3 indicated that the
tive relationships between the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and ACI equation for predicting elastic modulus resulted in
the cylinder compressive strength of concrete, especially at early ages.
The applicability to concrete at early ages of some of the existing re
overestimation when applied to medium and high
lations between these properties was also examined. Tests were per strength concrete. They suggested that
formed on four different concrete mixes using conventional 6 x 12
in. cylinders. Test results were obtained for ages ranging from 6 hr to Ec = 40,000 (/:)05 + 1.0 X 1()6 (3)
28days.
Analyses of test results show that the compressive strength and the
elastic modulus are related, and an increase in one is, in general, sim
gave better results for normal weight concrete with me
ilarly reflected in an increase in the other. The commonly accepted dium or high strength.
relationship that the elastic modulus of concrete is proportional to the Shah and Ahmad4 conducted an investigation into
0.5 power of the cylinder compressive strength was found to be ac the physical properties of highstrength concrete. They
curate for the elastic modulus at ages 12 hr and above for all con discovered that the secant modulus of elasticity of me
crete mixes investigated. Poisson's ratio was found to be insensitive
to both the age and the richness of concrete mix and did not change
dium and highstrength concrete does not conform to
appreciably with compressive strength development. the conventional ACI formulation. A comparison of
experimentally determined values of the secant modu
Keywords: agestrength relation; compressive strength; cylinders; mix propor lus of elasticity with those predicted by the expression
tioning; modulus of elasticity; Poisson ratio; tests.
recommended by ACI 318 was done. This study re
vealed that the ACI 318 equation predicted lower and
Concrete researchers have established that a relation higher values of elastic modulus for concrete under and
ship exists between the elastic modulus and the com above 5000 psi, respectively. This conclusion agrees
pressive strength of concrete particularly at 28 days af with the observation of Carasquillo, Nilson, and Slate3
ter casting. Several elastic modulus prediction relations mentioned earlier. Consequent to this observation, the
have been proposed. elastic modulus relation was modified to read
The ACI Building Code 1 recommends an empirical
relationship between elastic modulus Ec and compres
sive strength J: as
(1) (4)
where w is the unit weight of concrete. According to the where w is the unit weight of concrete. This proposed
ACI Building Code, for normal weight concrete of equation is claimed to be applicable to both normal and
about 145 lb/ft3 highstrength concretes.
6 hr 1548 2.2677 0.1374 188 0.4123 0.1316 382 0.8465 0.1512 1461 2.230 0.1440
12 lir 2942 3.2875 0.1876 669 1.9446 0.1959 1772 2.7774 0.1805 3882 4.0707 0.1814
24 hr 35% 3.7994 0.1839 1134 2.3731 0.1982 2709 3.2357 0.1895 5211 4.5243 0.1886
2 days 3979 4.0057 0.1834 1768 2.8145 0.1990 3466 3.7396 0.1907 6413 5.0901 0.1878
3 days 4339 4.1840 0.1862 2075 3.1370 0.1876 3840 3.8448 0.1909 6702 5.1368 0.1834
7 days 5176 4.5960 0.1948 2694 3.5527 0.1924 5140 4.4385 0.1819 7268 5.2512 0.1832
28 days 6720 5.1316 0.1875 4060 4.5592 0.1856 6402 4.9785 0.1901 8842 5.8440 0.1902
concentrations during testing, the specimens were cap where S2 is the stress corresponding to 40 percent of the
ped prior to testing with a sulphurcontaining com ultimate stress, S1 is the stress corresponding to a strain
pound in accordance with the specifications of ASTM of .00005, and e2 is the longitudinal strain correspond
C 617. Compressivestrength testing was performed on ing to s2.
a 300,000 lb capacity testing machine that is capable of Poisson's ratio, the ratio of transverse strain to lon
loading at a rate of 20 to 50 lb/in. 2 /sec as recom gitudinal strain, was determined from the relation
mended by ASTM C 39. Compressivestrength tests
were performed in uniaxial compression up to failure.
(8)
Simultaneously with the compressivestrength test,
the longitudinal and lateral deformations were meas
ured with a deformation jacket equipped with six linear where e/2 and e/1 are transverse strains at midheight of
variable differential transformer transducers (LVDTs). the test specimen produced by S2 and S1, respectively.
Three of these LVDTs measure the axial strain while 82 , 8 1, and e2 are the same as previously defined in Eq.
the other three measure the lateral strain. The LVDTs (8).
were arranged at 60deg angles from each other, which
produced an average of three readings for strains in PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF
each direction, reducing the error in strain measure RESULTS
ment and insuring a higher degree of accuracy of phys The chord modulus of elasticity is defined as the
icalproperty evaluation. The strains in the two direc slope of the chord of the uniaxial stressstrain curve
tions were computed using dataacquisition software. between the point corresponding to 40 percent of max
The staticelastic modulus (Young's modulus) was imum stress and the point corresponding to a strain of
calculated from the stressstrain diagram. Of the three 0.00005. The chord moduli for all the mixes were ex
available methodsthe initialtangent, the secantmod perimentally determined for each testing age and re
ulus, and the chordmodulus methodsthe chord corded as shown in Table 2.
modulus method, as recommended by ASTM C 469, It has been generally accepted by concrete research
was used. The chord modulus is the slope of the line ers as well as by ACI that the staticelastic modulus of
drawn between two fixed points on the stressstrain di concrete is proportional to the 0.5 power of its com
agram. The lower point, established to eliminate the pressive strength. This relation was derived from re
effect of cracks on the initial portion of the stressstrain sults of tests performed on standard moistcured con
curve, is the point where strain is 0.00005, while the crete specimens by many concrete researchers. The
upper point is the point where stress is equal to 40 per study reported herein investigated the validity of the 0.5
cent of the ultimate stress. The chord modulus is cal power proportionality between the elastic modulus and
culated from the relation the compressive strength at all ages.
Fig. 1 is a plot of the staticelastic modulus versus the
compressive strength on a loglog scale for each testing
Ec = E2  0.00005 (7) age. The properties of the regression lines for each test
ACI Materials Journal I JanuaryFebruary 1991 5
Table 3  Properties of the rewession equation Table 4  Intercepts and slopes of regression
of loglog plot of elastic modu us versus equations of the loglog plot of elastic modulus
compressive strength for each age versus compressive strength for each mix
Concrete Slope Intercept Slope Intercept
age R K Mix R K
6 hr 0.7935 6884 A 0.4991 62,661
12 hr 0.5028 64,868 B 0.5074 60,308
1 day 0.5008 64,003 c 0.4928 63,826
2 days 0.5013 63,652 D 0.4993 62,738
3 days 0.5028 63,713 Combined 0.5019 63,096
7 days 0.4997 63,562
28 days 0.5012 63,768
ELASTIC MOOI.LUS VERSUS C!JN'RESSIVE STRENGTH ELASTIC MCDUI...US VERSUS CCM"RESSIVE STRENGTH
8.0 10
OI!IG.RB A1210.RB D241G.RB
...
Ul
A MIX B M1xc <>MIX D
i
I!!
1.0
/""'
..........
.......... ~
~
I!;
~
::E:
~
::E:
0.3 0
100 1!XX) 10000 100 1!XX) 10000 2Im)
C!JN'RESSIVE STREHJTH IN PSI CXM'RESSIVE STREHJTH IN PSI
Fig. 1Loglog plot of elastic modulus versus com Fig. 2Loglog plot of elastic modulus versus com
pressive strength (each age) pressive strength (each mix)
ing age are shown in Table 3. The slopes of the regres As shown in Fig. 3, the properties of the new regres
sion lines revealed that the elastic modulus is, in fact, sion line, which is included in Table 4, show that for
proportional to the 0.5 power of the compressive the mixes tested the elastic modulus and the compres
strength at all testing ages except, at the age of 6 hr, sive strength relation can be represented by
when the elastic modulus was found to be proportional
to the 0. 794 power of the compressive strength. The Ec = 63,096 (f:)O.S (9)
constants of proportionality for each age are reasona
bly constant. They vary slightly between 63,562 and for f: > SOO psi. Based 9n the average dry unit weight
64,868, except at the age of 6 hr with its constant of of the mixes tested
proportionality as low as 6884.
Fig. 2 is a loglog plot of the elastic modulus versus (10)
the compressive strength for each mix. Again, the
properties of the regression lines, as shown in Table 4, Further confirmation of the 0.5 power relation between
upheld the 0.5 power relationship between the elastic the elastic modulus and the compressive strength was
modulus and the compressive strength except for the obtained from the plot of elastic modulus versus the
very early age tests. The properties of the regression square root of compressive strength. Again, the slope
lines are so close that all the test data, irrespective of and intercept of the regression line implied that
mix proportion and age at testing, could be presented
by a single regression line. The properties of the result
ing single regression line still confirmed the 0.5 power
Ec .'
= 63,313 (.J1[}09973 (11)
relation between the elastic modulus and the compres from which
sive strength.
Due to poor correlation between the regression line Ec = 63,313 (f:)0.4987 (12)
and points corresponding to the 6 hr age (where the
compressive strength was less than 500 psi), points The 0.5 power relation between the elastic modulus and
lower than 500 psi compressive strength were deleted. the compressive strength appears to be valid for elastic
6 ACI Materials Journal I JanuaryFebruary 1991
ELASTIC MID.JLUS VERSUS CD~IVE STRENGTH ELASTIC MDOULUS VERSUS CCM'RESSIVE STRENGTH
10.0 8
..
Ul
FI..L MI)(ES.FI..L 
~
OMIX C .EXRC'T ACI 0 FPPRDXI!ftTE ACI
D.
,.,
ll
...' ,.,
ll II
~
~ ~
v v
~ ill ~
>
1 >
!:; 4
i:i !:l
im 1
Ul
~
I!! I!! 2
Ul Ul
::J ::J
~ 0.3
e
::E:
Fig. 3Loglog plot of elastic modulus versus com Fig. 5Comparison of measured elastic modulus with
pressive strength (for f; > 500 psi) ACI predictions (Mix C)
ELASTIC MID.JLUS VERSUS COIIPRESSIVE STRENGTH ELASTIC M!D..LUS VERSUS CCM'RESSIVE STRENGTH
Br, Br,
OMIX B .EXRC'T ACI 0 FPPRDXI!ftTE ACI OMIX D .EXRC'T ACI 0 FPPRDXI!ftTE ACI
II II

v 
v
2 2
Fig. 4Comparison of measured elastic modulus with Fig. 6Comparison of measured elastic modulus with
ACI predictions (Mix B) ACI predictions (Mix D)
modulus prediction for concrete with compressive 48.2 percent. The approximate ACI relation underesti
strength greater than 500 psi at any age. mated the elastic modulus values at all ages except at
Comparisons of experimentally determined values of the age of 6 hr (with compressive strength of 382 psi).
the staticelastic modulus with those predicted by the Fig. 6 for Mix D, a highstrength concrete mix, showed
expression recommended by ACI 31883, Section 8.15, slight overestimations at all ages by exact ACI formu
are given in Fig. 4 through 6 for three of the mixes lation, while the approximate formulation showed un
tested. Fig. 4 for Mix B, a normal strength concrete derestimations.
mix, shows that both the exact and the approximate re The percentage over /underestimations associated
lations of ACI for predicting the elastic modulus un with both the exact and approximate ACI formulations
derestimated the values of the elastic moduli corre compared to data obtained in this study are shown in
sponding to compressive strengths between 500 and Tables 5 and 6 for Mixes Band D. The exact formula
4100 psi. For the compressive strength values below tion showed an average underestimation of about 10.31
about 500 psi, the ACI relations overestimated the percent, while the approximate ACI formulation
elastic modulus values. Fig. 5 for Mix C, medium showed an average underestimation of 18.74 percent
strength concrete mixes, shows close ( < 5 percent) for Mix B, normal strength concrete. For the medium
agreement between the measured and the exact ACI strength concrete, the situation changed to an average
predicted values. of 3.26 percent overestimation and 9.41 percent under
The only exception was at the testing age of 6 hr in estimation attributable to the exact and approximate
Mix C, where there was an overestimation of about ACI relations, respectively. Mix D, a high.:strength mix,
ACI Materials Journal I JanuaryFebruary 1991 7

Table 5  Comparison of measured elastic modulus with ACI predictions,
Mix B
Compressive Ec,* Over/under Eo* Over/under
strength, Ec,* exact estimation, app~;Pximate estimation,
Age psi measured ACI percent ACI percent
6 hr 188 0.4123 0.8653 + 109.87 0.7820 +89.67
12 hr 669 1.9446 1.6309  16.13 1.4740 24.20
I day 1134 2.3731 2.1234  10.52 1.9192 19.13
2 days 1768 2.8145 2.6519  7.09 2.3969 14.84
3 days 2075 3.1370 2.8726  8.43 2.5964 17.23
7 days 2694 3.5527 3.2738  7.85 2.9589 16.71
28 days 4060 4.5592 4.0186  11.85 3.6321 20.33
75

v
v
.......
<lOoo o          o
~ 9J
' 2
0~~~~
0 10 20 311
FIGE OF CDIICRETE IN IJFIYS
0 2500 5000 7500 10000
ctM"RESSIVE STRENGTH IN PSI
Fig. 7Comparison of measure elastic modulus with Fig. 8Ratio of elastic modulus to 0.5 power of com
ACI predictions (all data combined) pressive strength versus age
ducers) has been found to be highly influential on elas As shown in Table 2, Poisson's ratio is found to be
tic modulus evaluation. 4 insensitive to steam curing. Generally, the measured
In a different study, conducted at the Concrete Poisson's ratio showed practically the same value for
Technology and Services Section of the Portland Ce all ages and conditions of cure. This observation agrees
ment Association, Freedman 19 agreed completely with with the previous observations of Higginson, 24 Han
the observations of Shah and Ahmad. 4 In addition, son, 25 and Klink. 17
Freedman noted that the elastic modulus of concrete
increased with increasing modulus of the paste, which,
in turn, increased with richness of the concrete mix. It CONCLUSIONS
was indicated that concretes may be expected to com Based on the results of the investigation reported
ply with the ACI formulations only to within 20 here, and in view of experimental variability in the
percent. The maximum average error observed from evaluation of elastic modulus, the following conclu
this study, 18.74 percent, is within this limit for normal sions are made:
strength concrete, and the average error of 9.41 percent 1. The elastic modulus of concrete is in fact propor
for medium/highstrength 'concrete is certainly well tional to the 0.5 power of the compressive strength.
within the limits. This 0.5 power relationship between the elastic modu
Whether or not the limit itself is acceptable should be lus and the cylinder compressive strength was found to
decided with due considerations for the influential fac be valid at all ages corresponding to a compressive
tors discussed earlier. One important observation about strength greater than 500 psi. The relations for the
these factors is that the elastic modulus increases with elasticmodulus prediction, especially the ACI formu
increase in aggregate size, whereas it has been lation, discussed earlier were considered satisfactory. It
shownw23 that compressive strength decreases with in was found that the relationship between elastic modu
crease in aggregate size. This implies that proportion lus and compressive strength is approximately constant
ing concrete mixes to favor the development of com from the age of 12 hr. The ACI 318 relation for elastic
pressive strength, as is usually done, may be at the ex modulus evaluation was found to be essentially valid at
pense of the elasticmodulus development. In this ages 12 hr and greater.
study, the coarse aggregate used was Number 67 with 1 2. The overestimation resulting from using the ACI
in. maximum size. The use, for example, of 1Y2 or 2 in. 318 elasticmodulus prediction relation for high
maximum size of coarse aggregate would probably have strength concrete is within tolerable limits. The ACI
resulted in higher values of elastic modulus but in lower 318 relation is therefore considered applicable to high
compressive strength values. There is thus generally a strength concrete as well as to conventional concrete.
tradeoff between the development of elastic modulus 3. As previously observed by Klink 17 and Higgin
and that of compressive strength. son, 24 Poisson's ratio was found to be insensitive to the
Therefore, based on the study reported here, the age and the richness of concrete mix and niay be taken
opinion of these writers is that, in view of the many as approximately 0.19.
possible variables affecting experimental data on mod
ulus of elasticity, it is likely that any of the relations
discussed earlier in this study can be reasonably used to NOTATION
D = diameter of test specimens
estimate elastic modulus at age 12 hr and above and E, = modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days
that the development of a mo~e accurate relation is Ea = modulus of elasticity of concrete at ages other than 28 days
perhaps unnecessary. 1: = compressive strength of concrete at 28 days
ACI Materials Journal I JanuaryFebruary 1991 9
/ex compressive strength of concrete at ages other than 28 days Properties of Concrete at Early Ages, SP95, American Concrete In
L length of test specimen stitute, Detroit, 1986.
w unit weight of ~oncrete in lb/ft' 11. Purr, H. L., and Fouad, F. H., "Bridge Slab Concrete Placed
v Poisson's ratio of concrete Adjacent to Moving Live Loads," Report No. FHWA/TX81
11 + 266IF, Texas T~;~msportation Institute, Texas Agricultural and
Mechanical University, College Station, 1981.
12. Gardner, N. J., "Shoring, Reshoring, and Safety," Concrete
CONVERSION FACTORS International: Design & Construction, V. 7, No.4, Apr. 1985, pp. 28
1 in. = 25.4 mm 34.
1 lb. (force) = 4.4482 N 13. Hindo, K. R., and Bergstrom, W. R., "Statistical Evaluation
1 psi = 6.895 kPa of the InPlace Compressive Strength of Concrete," Concrete Inter
1 kip = 4448.2 N national: Design & Construction, V. 7, No.2, Feb. 1985, pp. 4448.
1 ksi = 6.895 MPa 14. Leyendecker, E. V., and Fattal, S. G., "Investigation of the
1 ksi = 70.31 kgf/cm' Skyline Plaza Collapse in Fairfax County, Virginia," Building Sci
1 ft' = 0.2832 m' ence Series No. 94, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, 1977,
88 pp.
15. Parsons, T. J., and Naik, T. R., "Early Age Concrete Strength
Determination by Maturity," Concrete International: Design & Con
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