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Title no.

88-M1

Elastic Modulus, Poisson's Ratio, and Compressive Strength


Relationships at Early Ages

by Francis A. Oluokun, Edwin G. Burdette, and J. Harold Deatherage

Presents the results of an experimental investigation into the rela- Carrasquillo, Nilson, and Slate3 indicated that the
tive relationships between the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and ACI equation for predicting elastic modulus resulted in
the cylinder compressive strength of concrete, especially at early ages.
The applicability to concrete at early ages of some of the existing re-
overestimation when applied to medium and high-
lations between these properties was also examined. Tests were per- strength concrete. They suggested that
formed on four different concrete mixes using conventional 6 x 12-
in. cylinders. Test results were obtained for ages ranging from 6 hr to Ec = 40,000 (/:)05 + 1.0 X 1()6 (3)
28days.
Analyses of test results show that the compressive strength and the
elastic modulus are related, and an increase in one is, in general, sim-
gave better results for normal weight concrete with me-
ilarly reflected in an increase in the other. The commonly accepted dium or high strength.
relationship that the elastic modulus of concrete is proportional to the Shah and Ahmad4 conducted an investigation into
0.5 power of the cylinder compressive strength was found to be ac- the physical properties of high-strength concrete. They
curate for the elastic modulus at ages 12 hr and above for all con- discovered that the secant modulus of elasticity of me-
crete mixes investigated. Poisson's ratio was found to be insensitive
to both the age and the richness of concrete mix and did not change
dium and high-strength concrete does not conform to
appreciably with compressive strength development. the conventional ACI formulation. A comparison of
experimentally determined values of the secant modu-
Keywords: age-strength relation; compressive strength; cylinders; mix propor- lus of elasticity with those predicted by the expression
tioning; modulus of elasticity; Poisson ratio; tests.
recommended by ACI 318 was done. This study re-
vealed that the ACI 318 equation predicted lower and
Concrete researchers have established that a relation- higher values of elastic modulus for concrete under and
ship exists between the elastic modulus and the com- above 5000 psi, respectively. This conclusion agrees
pressive strength of concrete particularly at 28 days af- with the observation of Carasquillo, Nilson, and Slate3
ter casting. Several elastic modulus prediction relations mentioned earlier. Consequent to this observation, the
have been proposed. elastic modulus relation was modified to read
The ACI Building Code 1 recommends an empirical
relationship between elastic modulus Ec and compres-
sive strength J: as

(1) (4)

where w is the unit weight of concrete. According to the where w is the unit weight of concrete. This proposed
ACI Building Code, for normal weight concrete of equation is claimed to be applicable to both normal and
about 145 lb/ft3 high-strength concretes.

Ec = 57,000 (/:)05 (2)

The ACI equation for elastic modulus prediction was


suggested by Pauw2 and is based on accumulated test ACI Materials Journal, V. 88, No. I, January-February 1991.
results from several investigators. Most of the tests Received Sept. 18, 1989, and reviewed under Institute publication policies.
Copyright 1991, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including
covered a compressive strengt_h range of about 2000 to the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright propri-
etors. Pertinent discussion will be published in the November-December 1991
6000 psi. ACI Materials Journal if received by Aug. I, 1991.

ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991 3


ACI member Francis A. Oluokun is a post-doctoral fellow at the University of OBJECTIVES
Tennessee, Knoxville, where he received his PhD degree in May 1989. He has To the best of these writers' knowledge, the interre-
worked as a lecturer at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, and as a structural lationship between the various physical properties of
engineer in both the U.S. and Nigeria. The information presented here is based
on the research he did for his doctoral dissertation. concrete at early. ages has not been clearly established.
The relations discussed earlier for predicting elastic
ACI member Edwin G. Burdette is the Fred N. Peebles Professor of Civil En- modulus were derived primarily from concrete tested at
gineering at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He has been active in con-
crete research since 1970, particularly in the area of bridges and steel anchor- maturity (28-day strength). Their applicability to early-
ages to concrete. He is a member of ACI Committee 355, Anchorage to Con- age strength development has not been very well estab-
crete.
lished. Therefore the objectives of this investigation are
J. Harold Deatherage is an associate professor of civil engineering at the Uni- as follows:
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville. He has worked as a structural engineer for 1. To evaluate the existing ACI prediction relation
McDonnell Douglas Corporation and as a contractor. Since 1986, he has been between the elastic modulus and compressive strength
actively engaged in research related to concrete structures.
and their applicability to concrete at early ages and
perhaps develop and propose an alternate relation.
Other empirical relations proposed for predicting the 2. To determine whether or not the existing ACI pre-
elastic modulus included diction relation is valid for predicting elastic modulus
in high-strength concrete, especially at early ages.
(5) 3. To determine the relationship between Poisson's
ratio and compressive strength at early ages.
proposed by Ahmad 5 in his dissertation, and

(6) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION PRODECURE


Fabrication of test specimen-Four series of test
proposed by Jobse and Moustafa. 6 A thorough litera- specimens were cast using Type I cement which satis-
ture review related to this subject is presented in Ref- fied the requirements of ASTM C 150. Aggregates were
erence 7. selected in accordance with the specifications of ASTM
C 33. Three of the four series were laboratory mixes
SIGNIFICANCE OF EARLY AGE prepared in a 7. 5 ft 3 capacity mixer, and one sample
CONSIDERATIONS was precast prestressed concrete from a concrete pro-
Contrary to optimum curing requirements and in po- ducer. The 28-day compressive strengths of the con-
tential detriment to the structural integrity of concrete, crete mixes used ranged approximately from 4000 to
recent pressure on the concrete construction industry to 9000 psi.
provide shorter construction schedules has led to flex- The specimens for each series were cast from a single
ural actions on immature structural members. The batch of concrete. Standard 6 x 12 in. plastic molds
shorter construction schedules accommodate the need were used in accordance with ASTM C 470, and mold-
for earlier occupancy of structures and construction ing was done according to the specifications of ASTM
cost savings. C 31. The coarse aggregate used was ASTM No. 67
The static-elastic modulus is an important character- with 100 percent of the crushed stone smaller than 1 in.
istic of concrete. It is a basic parameter necessary for and 90 to 100 percent about .1 in. Fine aggregate was
estimating prestress losses, and immediate and time-de- crushed limestone. Mix proportions are as shown in
pendent deformations due to early loading. Early-age Table 1.
concrete researchers 8 11 have established that early-age Curing procedure-Wet burlap was used to cover the
flexural actions on immature concrete have resulted in molds, and a polyethylene sheet was placed over the
cracking, excessive immediate and long-term deflec- burlap to minimize evaporation. About 20 to 24 hr af-
tions, and some other associated serviceability prob- ter casting, specimens were stripped and transferred to
lems. These problems related to immature concrete the standard moist room where curing continued at
have been attributed to the relatively low physical about 73 F (23 C) in accordance with ASTM C 192.
properties of concrete at the age at which it is first sub- Most of the test results on which strength design rela-
jected to flexural actions. tions are based were performed on moist-cured con-
Gardner 12 observed that concrete slabs of high-rise crete specimens, hence the choice to use moist curing at
buildings have shown some excessive deformation ten- 73 F (23 C) in this study. Thus, results obtained andre-
dencies when forms and shoring were removed before lations proposed from this study would be comparable
concrete had its final cure. Additionally, recent cata- to the existing physical property relations.
strophic failures of concrete structures 13 - 16 under con- Testing procedures-Three specimens from each mix
struction revealed the inherent danger in applying were tested for each of the parameters investigated at
significant loads to immature concrete. Therefore, ver- the ages of 6 and 12 hr and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28 days.
ification of the relationship between the static-elastic Compressive strength, elastic modulus, and Pois-
modulus and the compressive strength of concrete with son's ratio tests- The cylinders that were tested for
a high degree of confidence is .important during the compressive strength also provided the data for static-
critical early days following concrete placement. elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. To prevent stress
4 ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991
Table 1 - Concrete mix proportions
Quantities per yd' of concrete
Gravimetric Water-
Water Cement Aggregate, lb
Cement ..Ur cement Slump,
Mix type Gal. lb Bags lb Fine Coarse content, percent ratio in.
A I 35.00 292 8.00 752 1242 1730 2.0 0.388 3.50
B I 32.00 267 3.72 350 1400 1900 4.50 0.763 3.50
c I 32.00 267 5.32 500 1400 1900 4.50 0.534 2.50
D I 34.00 286 9.27 872 1113 1762 5.00 0.329 1.50

Table 2 - Summary of test results


Mix A (wlc = 0.388) Mix B (w/c = 0.763) Mix C (wlc = 0.534) Mix D (wlc = 0.329)
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
fa, E"', Average fcx, E"', Average Jcx, E"', Average fa, E"', Average
Age psi 10" psi p psi 10" psi p psi 10" psi p psi 10" psi p

6 hr 1548 2.2677 0.1374 188 0.4123 0.1316 382 0.8465 0.1512 1461 2.230 0.1440
12 lir 2942 3.2875 0.1876 669 1.9446 0.1959 1772 2.7774 0.1805 3882 4.0707 0.1814
24 hr 35% 3.7994 0.1839 1134 2.3731 0.1982 2709 3.2357 0.1895 5211 4.5243 0.1886
2 days 3979 4.0057 0.1834 1768 2.8145 0.1990 3466 3.7396 0.1907 6413 5.0901 0.1878
3 days 4339 4.1840 0.1862 2075 3.1370 0.1876 3840 3.8448 0.1909 6702 5.1368 0.1834
7 days 5176 4.5960 0.1948 2694 3.5527 0.1924 5140 4.4385 0.1819 7268 5.2512 0.1832
28 days 6720 5.1316 0.1875 4060 4.5592 0.1856 6402 4.9785 0.1901 8842 5.8440 0.1902

concentrations during testing, the specimens were cap- where S2 is the stress corresponding to 40 percent of the
ped prior to testing with a sulphur-containing com- ultimate stress, S1 is the stress corresponding to a strain
pound in accordance with the specifications of ASTM of .00005, and e2 is the longitudinal strain correspond-
C 617. Compressive-strength testing was performed on ing to s2.
a 300,000 lb capacity testing machine that is capable of Poisson's ratio, the ratio of transverse strain to lon-
loading at a rate of 20 to 50 lb/in. 2 /sec as recom- gitudinal strain, was determined from the relation
mended by ASTM C 39. Compressive-strength tests
were performed in uniaxial compression up to failure.
(8)
Simultaneously with the compressive-strength test,
the longitudinal and lateral deformations were meas-
ured with a deformation jacket equipped with six linear where e/2 and e/1 are transverse strains at midheight of
variable differential transformer transducers (LVDTs). the test specimen produced by S2 and S1, respectively.
Three of these LVDTs measure the axial strain while 82 , 8 1, and e2 are the same as previously defined in Eq.
the other three measure the lateral strain. The LVDTs (8).
were arranged at 60-deg angles from each other, which
produced an average of three readings for strains in PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF
each direction, reducing the error in strain measure- RESULTS
ment and insuring a higher degree of accuracy of phys- The chord modulus of elasticity is defined as the
ical-property evaluation. The strains in the two direc- slope of the chord of the uniaxial stress-strain curve
tions were computed using data-acquisition software. between the point corresponding to 40 percent of max-
The static-elastic modulus (Young's modulus) was imum stress and the point corresponding to a strain of
calculated from the stress-strain diagram. Of the three 0.00005. The chord moduli for all the mixes were ex-
available methods-the initial-tangent, the secant-mod- perimentally determined for each testing age and re-
ulus, and the chord-modulus methods-the chord- corded as shown in Table 2.
modulus method, as recommended by ASTM C 469, It has been generally accepted by concrete research-
was used. The chord modulus is the slope of the line ers as well as by ACI that the static-elastic modulus of
drawn between two fixed points on the stress-strain di- concrete is proportional to the 0.5 power of its com-
agram. The lower point, established to eliminate the pressive strength. This relation was derived from re-
effect of cracks on the initial portion of the stress-strain sults of tests performed on standard moist-cured con-
curve, is the point where strain is 0.00005, while the crete specimens by many concrete researchers. The
upper point is the point where stress is equal to 40 per- study reported herein investigated the validity of the 0.5
cent of the ultimate stress. The chord modulus is cal- power proportionality between the elastic modulus and
culated from the relation the compressive strength at all ages.
Fig. 1 is a plot of the static-elastic modulus versus the
compressive strength on a log-log scale for each testing
Ec = E2 - 0.00005 (7) age. The properties of the regression lines for each test-
ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991 5
Table 3 - Properties of the rewession equation Table 4 - Intercepts and slopes of regression
of log-log plot of elastic modu us versus equations of the log-log plot of elastic modulus
compressive strength for each age versus compressive strength for each mix
Concrete Slope Intercept Slope Intercept
age R K Mix R K
6 hr 0.7935 6884 A 0.4991 62,661
12 hr 0.5028 64,868 B 0.5074 60,308
1 day 0.5008 64,003 c 0.4928 63,826
2 days 0.5013 63,652 D 0.4993 62,738
3 days 0.5028 63,713 Combined 0.5019 63,096
7 days 0.4997 63,562
28 days 0.5012 63,768

ELASTIC MOOI.LUS VERSUS C!JN'RESSIVE STRENGTH ELASTIC MCDUI...US VERSUS CCM"RESSIVE STRENGTH
8.0 10
OI!IG.RB A1210.RB D241G.RB
...
Ul
A MIX B M1xc <>MIX D

f.... 2 DAVII +3 DAV11


D..
....
II
~
~
...,-
211 DAVII <> 7 DAVII
-
...,
i!i
,....:"' 3
IJ. ..........
>- .......... ....>-
!:; i:i
..........

i
I!!
1.0
/""'
..........
.......... ~
~
I!;

~
::E:
~
::E:
0.3 0
100 1!XX) 10000 100 1!XX) 10000 2Im)
C!JN'RESSIVE STREHJTH IN PSI CXM'RESSIVE STREHJTH IN PSI

Fig. 1-Log-log plot of elastic modulus versus com- Fig. 2-Log-log plot of elastic modulus versus com-
pressive strength (each age) pressive strength (each mix)

ing age are shown in Table 3. The slopes of the regres- As shown in Fig. 3, the properties of the new regres-
sion lines revealed that the elastic modulus is, in fact, sion line, which is included in Table 4, show that for
proportional to the 0.5 power of the compressive the mixes tested the elastic modulus and the compres-
strength at all testing ages except, at the age of 6 hr, sive strength relation can be represented by
when the elastic modulus was found to be proportional
to the 0. 794 power of the compressive strength. The Ec = 63,096 (f:)O.S (9)
constants of proportionality for each age are reasona-
bly constant. They vary slightly between 63,562 and for f: > SOO psi. Based 9n the average dry unit weight
64,868, except at the age of 6 hr with its constant of of the mixes tested
proportionality as low as 6884.
Fig. 2 is a log-log plot of the elastic modulus versus (10)
the compressive strength for each mix. Again, the
properties of the regression lines, as shown in Table 4, Further confirmation of the 0.5 power relation between
upheld the 0.5 power relationship between the elastic the elastic modulus and the compressive strength was
modulus and the compressive strength except for the obtained from the plot of elastic modulus versus the
very early age tests. The properties of the regression square root of compressive strength. Again, the slope
lines are so close that all the test data, irrespective of and intercept of the regression line implied that
mix proportion and age at testing, could be presented
by a single regression line. The properties of the result-
ing single regression line still confirmed the 0.5 power
Ec .'
= 63,313 (.J1[}09973 (11)

relation between the elastic modulus and the compres- from which
sive strength.
Due to poor correlation between the regression line Ec = 63,313 (f:)0.4987 (12)
and points corresponding to the 6 hr age (where the
compressive strength was less than 500 psi), points The 0.5 power relation between the elastic modulus and
lower than 500 psi compressive strength were deleted. the compressive strength appears to be valid for elastic-
6 ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991
ELASTIC MID.JLUS VERSUS CD~IVE STRENGTH ELASTIC MDOULUS VERSUS CCM'RESSIVE STRENGTH
10.0 8

..
Ul
FI..L MI)(ES.FI..L -

~
OMIX C .EXRC'T ACI 0 FPPRDXI!ftTE ACI

D.
,.,
ll
..-.--' ,.,
ll II

~
~ ~
v v

~ ill ~
>
1- >
!:; 4
i:i !:l
im 1-
Ul

~
I!! I!! 2
Ul Ul
::J ::J

~ 0.3
e
::E:

100 . 1000 10000 20000 0 2600 5aXl 7500


ID'PRESSIVE STRENGTH IN PSI ID'PRESSIVE STRB'IGTH IN PSI

Fig. 3-Log-log plot of elastic modulus versus com- Fig. 5-Comparison of measured elastic modulus with
pressive strength (for f; > 500 psi) ACI predictions (Mix C)

ELASTIC MID.JLUS VERSUS COIIPRESSIVE STRENGTH ELASTIC M!D..LUS VERSUS CCM'RESSIVE STRENGTH
Br------------------------------------, Br---------------------------------,
OMIX B .EXRC'T ACI 0 FPPRDXI!ftTE ACI OMIX D .EXRC'T ACI 0 FPPRDXI!ftTE ACI

II II
-
v -
v

2 2

0 1260 2600 3750 0 2600 5aXl 7500 10000


ID'PRESSIVE STRENGTH IN PSI ID'PRESSIVE STRENGTH IN PSI

Fig. 4-Comparison of measured elastic modulus with Fig. 6-Comparison of measured elastic modulus with
ACI predictions (Mix B) ACI predictions (Mix D)

modulus prediction for concrete with compressive 48.2 percent. The approximate ACI relation underesti-
strength greater than 500 psi at any age. mated the elastic modulus values at all ages except at
Comparisons of experimentally determined values of the age of 6 hr (with compressive strength of 382 psi).
the static-elastic modulus with those predicted by the Fig. 6 for Mix D, a high-strength concrete mix, showed
expression recommended by ACI 318-83, Section 8.15, slight overestimations at all ages by exact ACI formu-
are given in Fig. 4 through 6 for three of the mixes lation, while the approximate formulation showed un-
tested. Fig. 4 for Mix B, a normal strength concrete derestimations.
mix, shows that both the exact and the approximate re- The percentage over /underestimations associated
lations of ACI for predicting the elastic modulus un- with both the exact and approximate ACI formulations
derestimated the values of the elastic moduli corre- compared to data obtained in this study are shown in
sponding to compressive strengths between 500 and Tables 5 and 6 for Mixes Band D. The exact formula-
4100 psi. For the compressive strength values below tion showed an average underestimation of about 10.31
about 500 psi, the ACI relations overestimated the percent, while the approximate ACI formulation
elastic modulus values. Fig. 5 for Mix C, medium showed an average underestimation of 18.74 percent
strength concrete mixes, shows close ( < 5 percent) for Mix B, normal strength concrete. For the medium
agreement between the measured and the exact ACI strength concrete, the situation changed to an average
predicted values. of 3.26 percent overestimation and 9.41 percent under-
The only exception was at the testing age of 6 hr in estimation attributable to the exact and approximate
Mix C, where there was an overestimation of about ACI relations, respectively. Mix D, a high.:strength mix,
ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991 7
----------------------
Table 5 - Comparison of measured elastic modulus with ACI predictions,
Mix B
Compressive Ec,* Over/under- Eo* Over/under-
strength, Ec,* exact estimation, app~;Pximate estimation,
Age psi measured ACI percent ACI percent
6 hr 188 0.4123 0.8653 + 109.87 0.7820 +89.67
12 hr 669 1.9446 1.6309 - 16.13 1.4740 -24.20
I day 1134 2.3731 2.1234 - 10.52 1.9192 -19.13
2 days 1768 2.8145 2.6519 - 7.09 2.3969 -14.84
3 days 2075 3.1370 2.8726 - 8.43 2.5964 -17.23
7 days 2694 3.5527 3.2738 - 7.85 2.9589 -16.71
28 days 4060 4.5592 4.0186 - 11.85 3.6321 -20.33

Table 6 - Comparison of measured elastic modulus with ACI predictions,


Mix D
Compressive c,* Over/under- c,* Over/under-
strength, Ec,* exact estimation, approximate estimation,
Age psi measured ACI percent ACI percent
6 hr 1461 2.230 2.5049 + 12.33 2.1785 - 2.31
12 hr 3882 4.0707 4.0831 +0.D3 3.5511 -12.76
1 day 5211 4.5243 4.7314 + 4.58 4.1148 - 9.05
2 days 6413 5.0901 5.2484 + 3.11 4.5646 -10.32
3 days 6702 5.1368 5.3231 + 3.63 4.6295 - 9.88
7 days 7268 5.2512 5.5872 + 6.40 4.8593 - 7.46
28 days 8842 5.8440 6.1626 + 5.45 5.3597 - 8.29
*E, in 106 psi.

Table 7 - Comparison of measured elastic mulation resulted in an overestimation of the elastic


modulus with ACI prediction 18 modulus of concrete with compressive strength lower
Compressive E" E" Over/under than about 1500 psi, a small underestimation when
Age, strength, 10' psi, 10' psi, estimation, compressive strength was between 1500 and 5000 psi,
days psi Measured Approximate ACI percent and overestimation for compressive strengths greater
I 1330 3.32 2.078 -37.39 than 5000 psi. The approximate ACI formulation con-
2 1990 3.03 2.543 -16.08 sistently resulted in underestimation of the elastic mod-
3 2190 3.28 2.667 -18.68 ulus for concrete with compressive strengths greater
5 2590 3.76 2.901 -22.85
7 2890 3.66 3.064 -16.28
than about 1000 psi.
14 3230 3.65 3.239 -11.25 Fig. 8 shows that for ages greater than approxi-
21 3330 3.91 3.289 -15.88 mately 6 hr, the ratio of the static-elastic modulus to
28 3560 4.48 3.401 -24.09 the square root of the compressive strength is approxi-
mately constant at an average of about 64,000. This
observation is also clearly shown in Table 3, in which
the intercepts of plots of Fig. 1 were very close.
indicated an average of 5.08 percent overestimation and From this study, it can be concluded that the ap-
8.58 percent underestimation for the exact and approx- proximate ACI formulation, which is most widely used
imate ACI formulations, respectively. These observa- for the elastic-modulus evaluation, can result in as high
tions are in agreement with earlier research find- as 18.74 percent underestimation or 9.41 percent over-
ings. 3,4,17 estimation in normal and medium/high-strength con-
Table 7 shows the comparison of measured elastic cretes, respectively. Whether or not these percentages
moduli with ACI predicted values for tests done by Lew are acceptable is debatable and is dependent on the
and Reichard. 18 The mix used by Lew and Reichard is purpose for which the predicted elastic modulus is to be
comparable (in terms of the 28-day strengths) to Mix B used.
of this study. Comparing the percentage underestima- Shah and Ahmad4 observed that the values of exper-
tion at 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28 days showed close agreement imentally determined moduli of elasticity depend on the
with the data reported here (Tables 5 and 7). The dif- properties and proportion of coarse aggregate. It was
ference in percentage underestimation was less than 5 observed that, with the same consistency and water-ce-
percent at each age except at 1 day. ment ratio, the larger the maximum size of coarse ag-
When all the elastic modulus data obtained from this gregate and the coarser the grading, the higher the elas-
study, irrespective of mix proportion and age at test- tic modulus. It was also noted that the drier the con-
ing, are combined and plotted against compressive crete at the time of the test, the lower the elastic
strength, as shown in Fig. 7, a general comparison with modulus-wet concrete is stiffer although often
the predictions of the ACI formulations can be made. weaker. The method of measuring the deformation
As illustrated in Fig. 7, the use of the exact ACI for- (strain gage, mechanical compressometer, and trans-
8 ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991
ELASTIC MCD.LUS VERSUS CCJH>RESSIVE STRENGTH Eo>C/SGRT. CFax) VERSUS FIGE
Br---------------------------------~ IDDr-------------------------------~

75

-
v
v
.......-----------
<lO-o-o-- -o-- - - - - - - - - - -o--

~ 9J

' 2

0~--------~----------~--------~
0 10 20 311
FIGE OF CDIICRETE IN IJFIYS
0 2500 5000 7500 10000
ctM"RESSIVE STRENGTH IN PSI

Fig. 7-Comparison of measure elastic modulus with Fig. 8-Ratio of elastic modulus to 0.5 power of com-
ACI predictions (all data combined) pressive strength versus age
ducers) has been found to be highly influential on elas- As shown in Table 2, Poisson's ratio is found to be
tic modulus evaluation. 4 insensitive to steam curing. Generally, the measured
In a different study, conducted at the Concrete Poisson's ratio showed practically the same value for
Technology and Services Section of the Portland Ce- all ages and conditions of cure. This observation agrees
ment Association, Freedman 19 agreed completely with with the previous observations of Higginson, 24 Han-
the observations of Shah and Ahmad. 4 In addition, son, 25 and Klink. 17
Freedman noted that the elastic modulus of concrete
increased with increasing modulus of the paste, which,
in turn, increased with richness of the concrete mix. It CONCLUSIONS
was indicated that concretes may be expected to com- Based on the results of the investigation reported
ply with the ACI formulations only to within 20 here, and in view of experimental variability in the
percent. The maximum average error observed from evaluation of elastic modulus, the following conclu-
this study, 18.74 percent, is within this limit for normal sions are made:
strength concrete, and the average error of 9.41 percent 1. The elastic modulus of concrete is in fact propor-
for medium/high-strength 'concrete is certainly well tional to the 0.5 power of the compressive strength.
within the limits. This 0.5 power relationship between the elastic modu-
Whether or not the limit itself is acceptable should be lus and the cylinder compressive strength was found to
decided with due considerations for the influential fac- be valid at all ages corresponding to a compressive
tors discussed earlier. One important observation about strength greater than 500 psi. The relations for the
these factors is that the elastic modulus increases with elastic-modulus prediction, especially the ACI formu-
increase in aggregate size, whereas it has been lation, discussed earlier were considered satisfactory. It
shownw-23 that compressive strength decreases with in- was found that the relationship between elastic modu-
crease in aggregate size. This implies that proportion- lus and compressive strength is approximately constant
ing concrete mixes to favor the development of com- from the age of 12 hr. The ACI 318 relation for elastic-
pressive strength, as is usually done, may be at the ex- modulus evaluation was found to be essentially valid at
pense of the elastic-modulus development. In this ages 12 hr and greater.
study, the coarse aggregate used was Number 67 with 1 2. The overestimation resulting from using the ACI
in. maximum size. The use, for example, of 1Y2 or 2 in. 318 elastic-modulus prediction relation for high-
maximum size of coarse aggregate would probably have strength concrete is within tolerable limits. The ACI
resulted in higher values of elastic modulus but in lower 318 relation is therefore considered applicable to high-
compressive strength values. There is thus generally a strength concrete as well as to conventional concrete.
trade-off between the development of elastic modulus 3. As previously observed by Klink 17 and Higgin-
and that of compressive strength. son, 24 Poisson's ratio was found to be insensitive to the
Therefore, based on the study reported here, the age and the richness of concrete mix and niay be taken
opinion of these writers is that, in view of the many as approximately 0.19.
possible variables affecting experimental data on mod-
ulus of elasticity, it is likely that any of the relations
discussed earlier in this study can be reasonably used to NOTATION
D = diameter of test specimens
estimate elastic modulus at age 12 hr and above and E, = modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days
that the development of a mo~e accurate relation is Ea = modulus of elasticity of concrete at ages other than 28 days
perhaps unnecessary. 1: = compressive strength of concrete at 28 days
ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991 9
/ex compressive strength of concrete at ages other than 28 days Properties of Concrete at Early Ages, SP-95, American Concrete In-
L length of test specimen stitute, Detroit, 1986.
w unit weight of ~oncrete in lb/ft' 11. Purr, H. L., and Fouad, F. H., "Bridge Slab Concrete Placed
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10 ACI Materials Journal I January-February 1991