Anda di halaman 1dari 74

Simple English Learning

Kata Pengantar

Segala puji bagi Allah, Pemelihara sekalian


alam, shalawat dan salam semoga sentiasa
tercurah atas Nabi kita Muhammad bin
Abdullah, amma ba'du.
Alhamdulillah, akhirnya kelar juga penulisan
buku kami yang sebenarnya sudah kami
rencanakan terbitnya sejak sdua tahun lalu.
Kami menyadari bahwa bagaimanapun
bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa yang digunakan
oleh dunia internasional. Kami setidaknya
mengerti bahwa mempelajari bahasa Inggris
merupakan sebuah keutamaan, mengingat
banyaknya urusan-urusan dakwah yang
memerlukan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris.
Setelah sekian lama mempelajari bahasa ini,
kami merasa tergugah untuk mencoba
menyampaikan sedikit ilmu kami kepada orang
lain melalui buku yang kami susun sendiri. Kami
coba sharing, dan akhirnya kami sepakat untuk
menulis sebuah buku yang berisi grammar,
cerita dan percakapan berbahasa Inggris.
Dan sebagai manusia, kami yakin bahwa
karya kami ini masih sangatlah jauh dari
sempurna. Oleh karenanya kami sentiasa

i
Kata Pengantar

membuka pintu saran dan masukan demi


perbaikan buku ini pada cetakan berikutnya.
Demikian, semoga Allah membalas segala
amal kita dengan balasan yang sebesar-
besarnya.

ii
Simple English Learning

Daftar Isi
Kata Pengantar................................................. i
Daftar Isi ...................................................... iii
VERBAL SENTENCES........................................... 1
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE .................................. 1
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE .......................... 4
SIMPLE PAST TENSE....................................... 6
PRESENT FUTURE TENSE................................. 8
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE............................... 11
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE .............................. 14
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE .............. 17
PAST PERFECT TENSE ................................... 19
PAST FUTURE TENSE .................................... 20
NOMINAL SENTENCES ........................................ 21
Simple Present Tense .............................. 21
Simple Continuous Tense.......................... 21
Simple Past Tense .................................. 22
Present Future Tense .............................. 22
Present Perfect Tense ............................. 22
PASSIVE VOICE................................................ 24
Simple Present Tense .............................. 24
Present Continuous Tense......................... 24
Simple Past Tense .................................. 24
Present Future Tense .............................. 25
Present Perfect Tense ............................. 25
AUXILIARY SENTENCE........................................ 27
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH............................. 29
1. Statement ........................................... 29
2. Question (pertanyaan)............................. 30
3. Command (Perintah) ............................... 31
CLAUSES ....................................................... 34
1. Adjective Clause.................................... 34
2. Noun Clause ......................................... 36

iii
Daftar Isi

3. Adverb Clause ...................................... 36


ACTIVE PARTICIPLE.......................................... 38
1. Kata kerja ........................................... 38
2. Kelompok kata (Adjective Phrase). .......... 38
3. Adjective ............................................ 38
4. Adverb Phrase ...................................... 39
GERUND ....................................................... 41
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES .................................. 43
1. Present Real Condition ............................ 43
2. Present Unreal Condition ......................... 43
3. Past Unreal Condition ............................. 44
QUESTION TAG QUESTION.................................. 46
1. Dalam kalimat berita .............................. 46
2. Dalam kalimat perintah dan larangan .......... 47
3. Dalam kalimat ajakan. ............................ 47
CAUSATIVE VERBS ........................................... 49
REQUEST ...................................................... 51
NOUN PHRASE................................................ 53
1. Determiner .......................................... 53
2. Opinion .............................................. 53
3. Adjective tentang pemberian secara umum. .. 53
4. Adjective yang berasal dari noun................ 54
5. Noun.................................................. 54
PREFERENCE.................................................. 55
1. Prefer ................................................ 55
2. Would Rather ....................................... 55
3. Would Prefer........................................ 55
4. Like................................................... 56
DEGREE OF COMPARISON ................................... 58
a. Bentuk perbandingan .............................. 58
b. Susunan dalam perbandingan .................... 59
Suplemen ..................................................... 62

iv
Simple English Learning

VERBAL SENTENCES
Reading
Many children like to keep animals as pets. The
young boy puts his rabbits back into their cage.
Rabbits are friendly and fun to play with. Children who
have pets must learn to take care of them. They must
be sure that the pets has food and water everyday
and clean warm place to live.
(Taken from: Animals Helping People)

Difficult word:
Pet : binatang kesayangan
Friendly : jinak (jika dipakai untuk hewan)
Cage : kandang

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


Simple present tense adalah suatu bentuk kalimat
yang tidak menggunakan auxiliary pada pola positifnya.
Kegunaan :
1. Menceritakan sesuatu yang menjadi kebiasaan.
2. Menceritakan sesuatu yang hampir selalu
terjadi
3. Menceritakan sesuatu ketetapan Allah (biasa
disebut General Truth).
4. Menceritakan sesuatu yang telah terjadwal
(scheduled).

1
Simple Present Tense

Formula:
(+) S + V1/V1+s/es + O
(-) S + do/does + V1 + O
(?) do/does + S + V1 + O ?
Q.word + do/does + V1 + O ?

Example :
Many children like to keep animals as pets.
The young boy puts his rabbits back into their
cage.
Catatan :
Imbuhan s/es pada verb atau auxiliary
diperuntukkan bagi kalimat yang menggunakan
subjek berkata ganti/berupa to be: He she it.

Adverb of Frequency yang biasa digunakan :


Always (selalu), usuallly (biasanya), often (sering), frequently
(sering kali), habitually (biasanya) dan sometimes (kadang-
kadang),.
Sedang Adverb of Time-nya :
- every (setiap ) - twice a (2x se )
- on (pada ) - three times a (3x se )
- once a (sekali se )

Dialogue
A Poor Cat
A : Look! There is little cat under that mangoes
tree. It`s look cold.

2
Simple English Learning

B : Shes a sweet cat. I want to keep her as my


pet.
A : Never mind. Keep her, but let me see her next
time!
Ok. By the way do you know what a cat
needs?
B : I think she need a warm place, water and
A : Not about that, but I ask you about her food?
B : Oh, according to me a cat usually likes to look
for mouses in a home.
A : I see, thank you for your information.
B : Youre welcome.
A : I will learn to take care of her. I love her very
much!

3
Present Continuous Tense

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


Present Continuous Tense merupakan suatu bentuk
kalimat yang digunakan untuk mengungkapkan:
1. Sesuatu yang sedang terjadi dan mungkin
masih terjadi.
2. Sesuatu yang akan terjadi dalam waktu dekat.
3. Sesuatu yang terjadi secara bertahap.

Formula
(+) S + is/am/are + V1+ing + O
(-) S + is/am/are + not + V1+ing + O
(?) is/am/are + S + V1+ing + O ?
Q.word + is/am/are + S + V1+ing + O ?
Examples:
Listen to her! She is reading the Holy Quran
now.
When are you going to see that doctor?
How about him? He is getting well.
Adverb of Time yang biasa digunakan dalam bentuk ini
adalah :
Now (sekarang), at this time dan at this moment (saat ini).

Dalam bahasa Inggris kita mengenal beberapa


Non Progressive Verbs, antara lain : like, know,
belong, mean, suppose, understand, want, think,
remember, believe, hear, appreciate, have, own,
taste, love, hate, possess, smell.

4
Simple English Learning

Meski tanpa imbuhan ing, verb-verb di atas


pasti bermakna sedang.
Example : Now, I know that I dont know what you
know (correct).
Now, Im knowing that I dont know so
much (incorrect).
Keep her (cat), kata ganti tersebut tidak salah
karena kata ganti hewan atau benda dalam
keadaan tertentu disamakan kata ganti orang
(his / her / them).

Reading
Dad was very proud of his corn patch in the
back yard. We think he counted the ears of corn
every day. One day some ears were missing. He told
mother that she was picking the corn too green. But
she said she hadnt gathered any any yet. Dad asked
me about it, but I hadnt taken any. Nexy day more
corn was gone. The boys next door were blamed, but
they said they hadnt been near the patch. Again more
corn was stolen. The family were puzzled. Dad
promised a dollar to the one who solved the mystery.
The next morning Dad yelled, There goes the corn
thief! we looked out and saw a squirrel making of with
an ear of corn from the patch.
Difficult word :
Pick : memetik Next door : tetangga
Gathered : mengumpulkan Squirrel : bajing, tupai
Blamed : disalahkan Make of with : mencuri

5
Simple Past Tense

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

Simple Past Tense adalah suatu pola kalimat yang


biasa digunakan untuk menceritakan/mengungkapkan
sesuatu yang terjadi pada suatu waktu tertentu di waktu
lampau.
Formula :
(+) S + V2 + O.
(-) S + did+not + V1 + O.
(?) Did + S + V1 + O ?
Q.word + did + S + V1 + O ?
Example :
Dad asked me about his corn.
He counted the ears every day.
The boys next door were blamed.
Adverb of Time yang biasa digunakan antara lain:
This ( ini.) this morning
Last ( lalu) last sunday
ago ( yang lalu) five years ago
yesterday (kemarin)

Reading

W hen mother sent me to the store for milk, she


warned me not to spill it. On my home I thought
of the picture we have at school of a lovely lady
carrying a jug on her shoulder. I decided that I would
carry the milk home that way. As I swung the bottle up
it slipped out of my hand and flew into the air. I was
scared to look. When I finally did, there stood a man

6
Simple English Learning

laughing as he held out the milk. Im a good catcher,


he said. But your pitching could certainly be
improved.
Difficult words :
Spill : menumpahkan Swung : mengayunkan
Jug : kendi Slipped : lepas
Shoulder : bahu Scared : ketakutan
Held out : memegang Pitching : lemparan

7
Present Future Tense

PRESENT FUTURE TENSE


Formula :
(+) S + will + V1 + O.
(-) S + will+not + V1 + O
(?) Will + S + V1 + O ?
Q.word + will + S + V1 + O ?
Present Future Tense mempunyai beberapa
kegunaan, yaitu:
1. Menyatakan aktifitas yang akan dilakukan
pada waktu mendatang.
Ex : The students will attend the meeting to night.
2. Mengungkapkan keinginan yang hendak
dilakukan.
Ex : Anis want to know more.
Afifah plans to study English tomorrow.
3. Mengungkapkan prediksi atas suatu
kemungkinan.
Ex : Hans will see his friend soon
Muttaqin will get a letter next Sunday
4. Menunjukkan rencana yang merupakan
kelanjutan dari rencana/perbuatan tertentu
yang terjadi sebelumnya (dalam hal ini kita
pakai bentuk is/am/are-going to).
Ex : Why did Friya study in the boarding school ?
She is going to teach her people.
Why did Khodijah buy a new pen?
She is going to write some story.
5. Mengungkapkan suatu permintaan atau
perintah dengan halus.
Ex : Will you turn the light on, please?
Will you please be careful?

8
Simple English Learning

We plan to have a reunion. Will you come?


Adverb of Time yang biasa digunakan:
o Tomorrow o next ( depan) next
o To night week, etc.
o Later / next time o the following (
o Soon later ( berikutnya) the following
lagi/mendatang) 2 day
days later, etc.

Etc (et cetera)= berarti dan sebagainya,


dan lain-lain. Dalam penulisannya tidak
memerlukan tambahan and.

Reading
LITTLE AMBULANCE
Quick ! Out of the way ! shouts little
ambulance to all the cars.
Please let me pass.
Nah-nah! Nah-nah! goes her sirene all the
cars move aside as little ambulance rushes past. Little
ambulance reaches Tommys house. Tommy tortoise is
very ill. He needs to go to the hospital. Little
ambulance takes Tommy there.
You will soon be better, she says
now little ambulance is rushing down the road
again
Nah-nah! Nah-nah! goes her sirene.
Daisy doll fells dizzy little ambulance takes care
of Daisy and she soon fells better. Little ambulance

9
Present Future Tense

takes care of Daisy and she soon fells better. Topsy


tiger has fallen out of a tree and hurt her leg. Little
ambulance takes Topsy to hospital. Now little hospital
is at the circus. She is there just in case anyone needs
her help. Now the busy day is over. Little ambulance
snoozes. She dreams of day. just watching the
butterflies in the garden.
Difficult words :
Rush : Bergegas, sibuk, kerepotan
Case : panggilan
Snoozes : tidur sebentar

10
Simple English Learning

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


Present Perfect Tense biasa digunakan untuk:
1. Mengungkapkan sesuatu yang telah
terjadi/dilakukan.
2. Mengungkapkan sesuatu hal/aktifitas yang
sudah dimulai sejak beberapa waktu yang lalu,
tetapi masih ada hubungan dengan saat ini.
Formula
(+) S + has/have + V3 + O.
(-) S + has/have +not + V3 + O
(?) has/have + S + V3 + O ?
Q.word + has/have + S + V3 + O ?
Example :
Burhanuddin has spoken with his father.
Muttaqin has studied in Mahad since Des, 12, 2003
Adverb of Frequency yang biasa digunakan antara lain:
- Already (telah) - Just (beberapa waktu
- Ever (pernah) lalu)
- Recently (baru-baru - Yet (for negative form)
saja) - Never
- Before

Using numbers to write the date.


MM/DD/YY
07 / 29 / 91 : July 29, 1991
10 / 20 / 91 : Oct 20, 1991

11
Present Perfect Tense

Saying Dates

Usually written form Spoken


January 01 January first or the first of january
March 03 March third or the third of march.
etc.

Reading
A pretty carpet
We have moved into a new house and I have
working hard all morning. I have been trying to get my
new room in order. This has not been easy because I
own over a thousand books. To make matters worse,
the room is rather small, so I have temporality put my
book on the floor. At the moment, they cover every
inch of floor space and I actually have to walk on them
to get in or out of the room. A short while ago,
mysister helped me to carry one of my old book case
up the stairs. She went into my room and got a big
surprise when she saw all those books on the floor.
This is the prettiest carpet I have ever seen, she said.
She gazed at it for sometimes then added you dont
need bookcase at all. You can sit here in your spare
time and read the carpet!
Taken from: Developing Skills
Difficult word
Temporality : (yang bersifat) sementara
Stairs : tangga
Gazed : memandang/menatap

Maybe (one word) vs. May be (two words)

12
Simple English Learning

Ex : Will Hans go to Jackshouse tomoorow?.


I dont know may be. Maybe Hans will go to
Jacks house tomorrow and maybe he wont.
Bedain sekali lagi :
first, Maybe Alicia will visit me again
tomorrow.
then, DJ may be there next time.
In first sentence maybe is an adverb means
possibly
It comes in front of a subject and verb.
then may be is used as a verb of sentence.
As a verb, it acts as part of verb and comes
after n subject.
Begitu pula dalam tulisan, keduanya harus
dibedakan.
Maybe = possibly vs May be (may one
of auxiliary verb)

13
Past Continuous Tense

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


Past Continuous Tense adalah bentuk kalimat yang
biasa digunakan untuk:
1. Mengungkapkan sesuatu yang sedang terjadi
ketika peristiwa lain terjadi.
2. Menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang terjadi di
masa lampau.
3. Menyatakan suatu kejadian atau keadaan yang
terjadi secara bertahap.
Formula :
(+) S + was / were + Ving + O
(-) S + was / were +not + Ving + O
(?) was / were + S+Ving + O ?
Q.word + was/were + S + Ving + O ?
Ex : 1. Etin was sweeping the floor when Khodijah called
her.
2. Anis was standing when the door opened last
time.
3. Afifah was getting well when the nurse came in

Reading
Nasredin was cutting a brach of a tree. While
he was sawing, another man passed in the street. He
stopped and said, Excuse me, but if you continue to
saw that brach like that, yaou will fall down with it.
He said this, because Nasredin was sitting on
the branch and cutting it at place between himself and
the trunk of the tree.

14
Simple English Learning

Nasredin said nothing. He thought, This is


some foolish person who no work to do and goes
about telling other people what to do and what not to
do.
The man continued his way. Of course, after a
few minuter, the branch fell and Nasredin fell with it.
Subhanalloh, he cried The man knows the
future !!!!! and he ran after him to ask how long he
was going to live. But the man had gone.
Difficult words
branch: cabang future : masa depan
trunk : pokok pohon foolish : bodoh, tolol

Conversation
Nadin : Hi, yas. How about you ?
Yasmin : Hi, you. Who tell you about my name ?
Nadin : Rina has told me and also ever showed
me your picture.
Yasmin : What ! Rina ??!!
Nadin : Ya, Rina. She is my friend and also my
cousin.
Yasmin : Well, I have just remember that, pleased
to meet you !
Nadin : Me too. I hear that you become fmous
enough because of your good articles.
Yasmin : I dont think so. I only like to pour out what
in my opinion in hand writing. I dont know
whats in interesting in them.
Nadin : Oh, proud of you.
Yasmin : Thank you very much.

15
Past Continuous Tense

How about you merupakan kalimat sapaan


yang biasa diucapkan untuk orang yang
kurang dikenal or bahkan barusan dikenal,
dan tidak memerlukan jawaban.

16
Simple English Learning

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


Formula :
(+) S + has/have + been + V1+ing + O
(-) S + has/have + not + been + V1+ing + O
(?) has / have + S + been + V1+ing + O ?
Q.word + has/have + S + been + V1+ing + O ?

Kegunaan :
Mengungkapkan suatu keadaan/aktifitas yang
sudah terjadi/dilakukan beberapa waktu yang lalu,
yang hingga saat ini masih terjadi/dilakukan.

Note : Pada mulanya have/has dalam kalimat


berfungsi untuk menyatakan yang telah
terjadi/dilakukan, akan tetapi tatkala
didalam kalimat ditambahkan been + Ving
maka kalimat itupun berfungsi menyatakan
sesuatu yang sampai sekarang masih terjadi /
dilakukan.

Bila kalimat introgatifnya berbentuk negatif, maka


strukturnya adalah : have/has + S + not + been
+ Ving or
Havent/hasnt + S been + Ving ..

Examples:
- Ozaq has been studying here since 12 December 2003.
- Burhan has been trying this way for about 10 minutes
now.
- Afifah hasnt been cooking for more than 2 hours.
- Anis hasnt been sitting for an hour now.
- Has Etin been cleaning for more than 20 minutes ?

17
Present Perfect Continuous Tense

- What has Khodijah been writing all the time ?

Adverb of Time : Since .


For more than (+now)
For (+now)

From : Grolier
Abu Nawas
The Arabic poem Abu Nawas, Father of the
Forelocks, got this nickname from two locks of hair that
reached to his shoulders. His real name was Hasan ibn
Hani. Although he composed a variety of poems in
traditional style, such as panegyrics, satires, hunting
verses, and elegies even religious poems his fame
rests on his wine (khamr) poetry called khamriyat and
on his love poems addressed to young boys.

18
Simple English Learning

PAST PERFECT TENSE


Past Perfect Tense adalah formula kalimat yang
biasa digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu hal/aktifitas yang
telah terjadi/dilakukan sebelum batas waktu tertentu
diwaktu lampau.

Formula :
(+) S + had + V3 + O.
(-) S + had + not + V3 + O.
(?) had + S + V3 + O?
Q.word + had + S + V3 + O ?

Reading
Too Late
The plane was late and detectives were at the
airport all morning. They were expecting a valuable
parcel of diamonds from South Africa. A few hours
earlier, someone had told the police that thieves would
try to steal the diamonds. When the plane arrived,
some of the detectives were waiting inside the main
building while others were waiting on the airfield. Two
men took the parcel of the plane and carried it into
the customs house. While 2 detectives were keeping
guard at the door, two others opened the parcel. To
their surprise, the precious parcel was full of stones
and sand!

19
Past Future Tense

PAST FUTURE TENSE


Past Future Tense adalah pola kalimat yang berguna
untuk menyatakan aktifitas yang pada waktu lampau
hendak dikerjakan.

Formula :
(+) S + would + V1 + O.
(-) S + would + not + V1 + O.
(?) Would + S + V1 + O ?
Q.word + Would + S + V1 + O ?

It was Saturday, exactly at May 27th 2006.


That morning I was finishing my cooking. I would recite
the Holy Quran. I was climbing the water-tower when I
felt a vibration. I looked around. There was nothing.
After few second I felt a bigger vibration. It was
getting bigger and bigger. In the yard one of my
teacher shouted. Boys!!! Go out, quickly!!! At the
afternoon my English teacher told that there was an
earthquake in Jogjakarta that morning.

20
Simple English Learning

NOMINAL SENTENCES
Nominal sentences adalah kalimat yang tidak
berpredikat kata kerja. Predikat dalam sebuah nominal
sentence bisa berupa kata benda (noun), kata sifat
(adjective), ataupun kata keterangan (adverb). Kegunaan
dan pemakaian nominal sentences sama dengan kegunaan
dan pemakaian verbal sentences. Berikut ini beberapa
contoh bentuk nominal sentences.

Simple Present Tense


Formula :
(+) S + is/am/are + Noun/adj/adv
(-) S + is/am/are +not + Noun/adj/adv
(?) is/am/are + S + Noun/adj/adv ?
Q.word + is/am/are + S + Noun/adj/adv ?
Contoh: The teacher is Mrs. Endang
tobe N
S Predicate

Ozaq and Burhan are students in 1st Aly


tobe Noun
S P AP

Simple Continuous Tense


(+) S + is/am/are + being + N/adj/adv.
(-) S + is/am/are + not + being + N/adj/adv.
(?) is/am/are + S + being + N/adj/adv ?

21
Nominal Sentences

Q.word + is/am/are + S + being +


N/adj/adv ?
Ex : Afifah is being a leader

Simple Past Tense


(+) S + was/were + N/adj/adv.
(-) S + was/were + not + N/adj/adv.
(?) was/were + S + N/adj/adv ?
Q.word + was/were + S + N/adj/adv ?
Ex : Anis was a plumpang student last year.

Present Future Tense


(+) S + will be + N/adj/adv.
(-) S + will+not + be + N/adj/adv.
(?) will + S + be + N/adj/adv ?
Q.word + will + S + be + N/adj/adv ?
Ex : Khodijah will be a teacher.

Present Perfect Tense


(+) S + have/has + been + N/adj/adv.
(-) S + have/has + not + been + N/adj/adv.
(?) have/has + S + been + N/adj/adv ?
Q.word + have/has + S + been +
N/adj/adv ?
Ex : Etin has been a student for more than a year.

AN EXCITING TRIP
I have just received a letter from my brother.
Tim. He is in Australia. He was been there for six
months. Tim is an enginer. He is working for a big firm
and he has already visited a great number of different

22
Simple English Learning

places in Australia. He has just bought an Australian


car and has gone to Alice springs, a small town in the
centre of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From
there, he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been
abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting.

Conversation
An Examination
Via : Hi Cha. Had you studied chemistry ?
Cha : Will we have a chemist examination ?
Via : Dont you know before ? We will have the
exam two days later.
Cha : Oh, my God !! I must study hard tonight.
Thank you for your reminding.
Via : Youre welcome. Do we have another
exam, Cha ?
Cha : I dont know. But I hope its none.

2
Passive Voice

PASSIVE VOICE
Selain untuk menunjukkan suatu perbuatan/kejadian
yang dikerjakan/terjadi pada waktu lampau, verba bentuk
ketiga juga berfungsi untuk membuat kalimat pasif. Dalam
kalimat pasif subjek selalu dikenai pekerjaan. Berikut ini
beberapa contoh bentuk kalimat pasif dalam bahasa Inggris.

Simple Present Tense


Formula :
(+) S + is/am/are + V3 + by + O.
(-) S + is/am/are + not + V3 + by + O.
(?) Is/am/are + S + V3 + by + O ?
Q.word + is/am/are + S + V3 + by + O ?
Ex : The water pump is used every day.

Present Continuous Tense


Formula :
(+) S + is/am/are + being + V3 + by + O.
(-) S + is/am/are + not + being + V3 + by + O.
(?) is/am/are + S + being + V3 + by + O ?
Q.word + is/am/are + S + being + V3 +
by + O ?
Ex : How is the message being written ?

Simple Past Tense


Formula :
(+) S + was/were + V3 + by + O.

24
Simple English Learning

(-) S + was/were + not + V3 + by + O.


(?) was/were + S + V3 + by + O ?
Q.word + was/were + S + V3 + by + O ?
Ex : Was the job done by the clerks ?

Present Future Tense


Formula :
(+) S + will + be + V3 + by + O.
(-) S + will + not + be + V3 + by + O.
(?) Will + S + be + V3 + by + O ?
Q.word + will + S + be + V3 + by + O ?
Ex : The program will be discussed next week.

Present Perfect Tense


Formula :
(+) S + have/has + been + V3 + by + O.
(-) S + have/has + not + been + V3 + by
+ O.
(?) have/has + S + been + V3 + by + O ?
Q.word + have/has + S + been + V3 +
by + O ?
Ex : Has the book been hidden twice ?

Note :
1. Kalau kita hendak memasifkan sebuah kalimat
aktif, sedangkan dalam kalimat (aktif) itu ada 2
buah objek (direct and indirect object), maka
kita boleh memilih salah satu objek tersebut
untuk dijadikan subjek.
2. Kalau subjek dalam kalimat aktif adalah
someone (tanpa ada sebutan yang jelas), maka

2
Passive Voice

kita boleh tidak mencantumkan objek dalam


kalimat pasifnya.

26
Simple English Learning

AUXILIARY SENTENCE
Formula :
(+) S + can/may/must + V1 + Obj.
(-) S + can/may/must + not + V1 + Obj.
(?) can/may/must + S + V1 + Obj ?
Q.word + can/may/must + S + V1 + Obj ?

Untuk Pasif :
(+) S + can/may/must + be + V3 + by + Obj.
(-) S + can/may/must + not + be + V3 + by +
Obj.
(?) can/may/must + S + be + V3 + by + Obj ?
Q.word + can/may/must + S + be + V3 + by
+ Obj ?
Example :
- The students can do the quiz.
- The quiz may be done by the student.

Reading
How to learn a language ?
To learn to speak a foreign language well, a
student must not be afraid of making mistakes.
Language is for communication, the mistakes are a
secondary consideration. While youre communicating,
you will realize your mistakes. You can use these
mistakes to improve your communicate skills. The way
you say something may be different from what a native
speaker says. Here is an example, a Spanish student
may say, I do it. To mean he is going to do
something in the hear future, while communicating with

2
Auxiliary Sentence

a native speaker, the student will hear Ill do it, and


so correct his mistakes. The student who doesnt speak
will probably not notice the difference; this student will
never speak good English.

Little about Time


On time : tepat waktu
Out time : late
In time : pas-pasan
waktunya
Early : terlalu awal

28
Simple English Learning

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH


Kalimat langsung dan tidak langsung dalam bahasa
Inggris pada dasarnya sama dengan kalimat langsung dan
tidak langsung dalam bahasa Indonesia.
Perbedaan mendasar kalimat langsung dan tidak
langsung dalam bahasa Inggris dengan bentuk kalimat
(lampau, sedang dan yang akan dating) yang sama dalam
bahasa Indonesia adalah adanya perubahan bentuk kalimat
tersebut dalam bahasa Inggris.
Sebagaimana kita ketahui, jenis kalimat yang
digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari ada 3 macam, yaitu
: pernyataan (statement), pertanyaan (question) dan
perintah (command). Oleh karenanya perubahan bentuk
kalimat langsung menjadi tidak langsung dalam bahasa
Inggris pun dibagi menjadi tiga.

1. Statement
Pada kalimat pernyataan ada beberapa hal yang perlu
disesuaikan jika kita hendak mengubah dari kalimat
langsung menjadi tidak langsung.
a. Mengganti tanda petik dengan that.
b. Menyesuaikan pronoun dalam kalimat inti dengan
pronoun dalam kalimat pengantar.
c. Mengubah tenses dalam kalimat inti.
Kalau kalimat pengantar pada kalimat langsung
bukan berupa Simple Present Tense, maka kita perlu
mengubah tenses dalam kalimat inti sesuai dengan
daftar dibawah ini :
Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense
Simple Past Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Simple Present Perfect Tense

2
Direct and Indirect Speech

Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense


Present Prefect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Tense Tense
Present Future Tense Past Future Tense
Kalau kalimat pengantar dalam direct speech adalah
Simple Present Tense, maka tense dalam main
sentences tidak perlu diubah kalau kita mengubahnya
menjadi indirect speech.
d. Beberapa kata lain yang perlu diubah :
This / these that / those
Here there
Yesterday the day before
Last the ..before / previous
. ago before / earlier
now then / at the time
today that day
tomorrow the next / following day
next the following / next.
2. Question (pertanyaan)
Karena kalimat tanya dalam bahasa Inggris dibagi
menjadi verbal question dan pronominal question, maka
perubahan kalimat tanya dalam Direct and Indirect Speech
pun dibedakan berdasarkan pembagian tersebut.
a. Verbal Question
Dalam verbal question (yang biasa disebut yes no
question), kalau kita hendak mengubah dari direct speech
menjadi indirect speech, maka langkah-langkah yang harus
kita tempuh adalah:
Mengganti tanda petik dengan if (apakah) atau
whether (apakah).
Mengganti tanda tanya (?) dengan titik (.)

30
Simple English Learning

Menyesuaikan pronoun dalam kalimat inti dengan


pronoun dalam kalimat pengantar.
Untuk perubahan tenses dan lain-lain, sama dengan
statement.
b. Pronominal Question
Pronominal Question juga biasa disebut WH Question.
Untuk mengubah Pronominal Question dari direct speech
menjadi indirect speech, kita harus melalui langkah-langkah
berikut :
Menghilangkan tanda petik ().
Mengganti tanda Tanya (?) dengan titik (.)
Menyelesaikan pronoun dalam kalimat inti dengan
pronoun dalam kalimat pengantar.
Untuk perubahan tenses dan lain-lain, sama dengan
statement.

3. Command (Perintah)
Pada kalimat perintah ada beberapa langkah yang perlu
dilakukan jika kita hendak mengubah dari kalimat langsung
menjadi tidak langsung.
a) Mengganti tanda petik dengan to.
b) Kalimat sesudah to predikatnya selalu V1.
c) Mengganti tanda seru (!) menjadi titik (.)
NB : Untuk bentuk negatifnya, kita perlu
menambahkan not didepan to.

Info:
Future Tense murni dinyatakan dengan shall untuk
orang pertama (I,we), will untuk orang ke-2 dan ke-3.
Namun, sekarang will lebih sering digunakan untuk
semua orang kecuali dalam kalimat interrogative.
Shall dan will bisa disingkat ll

31
Direct and Indirect Speech

Reading
Be Careful When Walking In The Street
It was cold and wet afternoon. I went home
from school. I felt cold and hungry. The traffic was
heavy. Now and then a careless driver drives very
close to the pavement. I was quite careful. Suddenly I
heard a car from behind. I stepped on to the
pavement quickly..but it was too late. I fell on the
pavement. I tried to get up but my leg heart. Soon
people gathered around me. Then an ambulance
came and took me to hospital. The doctor said You
have broken a leg in the accident. I had to stay in
hospital for a month.
When my parents heard of the accident, they
came to the hospital immediately.
What happened to you, my child? my mother
cried. Who did this to you?. Then she asked me a lot
of questions. Why werent you careful? My poor boy,
why didnt you telephone us immediately?.
I just close my eyes because I still could not
think clearly. The hospital bell rang. My parents had to
leave the hospital. Mother kissed me on the forehead
and said Im sorry to leave you here. Be a good boy.
Assalamualaikum.

Info : Using Today, Tonight and this (-morning, -


afternoon, -evening, -week, -month, -year).
Those words can express present, past or
future time.

32
Simple English Learning

Conversation
Im very busy now.
Al : What are you doing, Fan?
Fan : Im reading this interesting book.
Al : Whats the book about?
Fan : About the bottle of Surabaya.
Al : Can you tell me how is the story ?
Fan : Oh, sorry I cant. Im still reading it.
Al : May I borrow for a minute?
Fan : Very sorry, you may not.
Al : OK, I think thats better to red together, deal ?
Fan : Oh, come on, Al. Let me read it myself. Im very
busy now. I still have much main jobs. I must read this
book fastly, OK.
Al : Im sorry to disturb you
Fan : Never mind.

3
Clauses

CLAUSES
Klausa adalah konstruksi yang mempunyai subjek
dan predikat. Ditinjau dari klausa pembentuknya, kalimat
dalam bahasa Inggris dibagi menjadi:
a. Compound sentences (kalimat majemuk setara)
b. Complex sentences (kalimat majemuk bertingkat).

Sementara itu, Complex Sentence dalam bahasa


Inggris dibagi dengan meninjau klausa sematannya. Klausa-
klausa tersebut adalah:
1. Adjective Clause
Sesuai dengan sifat adjective, adjective clause
adalah klausa yang berfungsi menerangkan katabenda.
Kata benda yang diterangkan selalu mempunyai posisi
dalam main clause (klausa utama), sehingga kedudukan
adjective clause selalu tergantung pada kata benda yang
diterangkan.
Untuk menghubungkan kata benda dalam main
clauses dengan depend clause (klausa semata),
digunakan konjungsi sebagai berikut:
Who, whom, whose + noun, which, of which,
that.
Berdasarkan fungsinya, adjective clause dibedakan
menjadi dua macam : Resrictive Clause dan Non
Restrictive Clause.
Restrictive clause adalah adjective clause yang
menentukan atau membatasi kata benda yang
diterangkan, oleh karenanya klausa ini harus selalu ada
dalam kalimat.
Non Restrictice clause adalah adjective clause yang
tidak bersifat membatasi kata benda yang diterangkan.

34
Simple English Learning

Non restrictive clause hanya berfungsi sebagai keterangan


tambahan, oleh karena itu klausa ini boleh dihilangkan dari
kalimat. Dalam penulisan, Non Restrictive Clause
dibedakan dari Restrictive Clause dengan adanya tanda
koma (,) pada Non Restrictive Clause.

Example :
Restrictive Clause a person who makes the
wooden part of building is
carpenter.
Non Restrictive Clause Mrs. Anis, who is sitting
next tome, will go to see a
doctor next week.
Tambahan :
Ciri-ciri lain yangmembedakan keduanya ialah
Restrictive Clause :
- Hubungan antara klausa Induk dengan
Adjective clause sangat erat, sehingga tanpa
adjective clause, kalimat tersebut kurang
lengkap artinya.
- Diucapkan dengan tidak memakai jeda
antara klausa induk dengan adjective clause.
- Konjungsi (that, what, dkk) yang berfungsi
sebagai subjek dari adjektif klausa dapat
dihilangkan.
Misal: I know the boy we saw yesterday.

Non Restrictive Clause


- Hubungan antara klausa induk dengan
klausa adjective tidak erat.
- Dibaca dengan jeda antara klausa induk
dengan klausa adjective.

3
Clauses

- Klausa adjektif jenis ini dituliskan dalam suatu


kalimat, maka konjungsi yang ada dalam
klausa adjective itu tidak dapat dihilangkan.

2. Noun Clause
Noun clause adalah klausa yang berfungsi sebagai
kata benda. Karena fungsinya sebagai kata benda, maka
dalam complex sentences, noun clause bisa berposisi
sebagai:
Subject
Object / objective complement
Predicate complement
Examples:
Mona answered the questions correctly made her
teacher surprised.
Vifa wondered where her eraser gone.
Jogja is where Dj lives.
The teacher didnt tell Fiya what we had to study
again.
3. Adverb Clause
Adverb clause adalah klausa yang berfungsi sebagai
adverb dalam kalimat. Ditinjau dari fungsinya adverb
clause dibagi menjadi :
Adverb of Time
Adverb of Place
Adverb of Cause / Reason
Adverb of Condition
Adverb of Concession / contrast.
Adverb of Result
Adverb of Manner.

36
Simple English Learning

Reading
Reward for Virtue
My friend, Syilfi, she always been fat, but things
got so bad recently that she decided to go on diet.
She began her diet a week ago. First of all, she wrobe
out long list of all the foods which were forbidden. The
list included most of the things she loves: butter,
potatoes, rice, milk, chocolate and sweets.
Yesterday, I paid her a visit. I rang the bell and
was not surprised see that Syilfi was still as fat as ever.
She led me into her room and hurriedly hid a large
parallel under her desk. It was obvious that she was
very embarrassed. When I asked her what she was
doing, she smiled quickly and put the parallel on the
desk.
She explained that her diet was so strict that
she had to reward her self occasionally. Then she
showed me the comments of parcel.
It contained five large bars of chocolate and
three bags of sweets.

3
Active Participle

ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
Active participle adalah bentuk V1+ing yang memiliki
fungsi sebagai:
1. Kata kerja
Active Participle yang berfungsi sebagai kata kerja
sebenarnya telah kita pelajari pada bagia terdahulu. Active
participle yang berfungsi sebagai kata kerja terdapat
pada:
a. Present Continuous Tense
Contoh : Hans is playing with the children.
Jack is talking to his friends.
b. Past Continuous Tense
Contoh : Viva is playing with the children.
Ani was listening murottal when Dj tells
her.
c. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Contoh : He hasnt been saying anything for more
than 2 hours.

2. Kelompok kata yang menerangkan kata benda


(Adjective Phrase).
Adjective jenis ini selalu terletak dibelakang kata
benda yang diterangkan.
Misal : People studying in the morning go to school
at seven oclock or eight.

3. Adjective
Active participle jenis ini selalu dikatakan didepan
kata benda yang diterangkan (seperti adjective pada
umumnya). Penggunaan V1+ing sebagai active participle

38
Simple English Learning

jenis ini terkadang rancu dengan Gerund karena


bentuknya yang hamper sama.
Misalnya : Swimming pool (Gerund)
Swimming boy (Active participle)

4. Adverb Phrase
Active participle yang membentuk suatu kelompok
kata yang berkedudukan sebagai adverb dalam sebuah
kalimat biasanya terbentuk dari 2 kalimat yang
dihubungkan oleh sebuah konjungsi. Hubungan kedua
kalimat tersebut adalah:
o Sebab akibat (konjungsi: because)
o Terjadi bersamaan (konjungsi: when)
o Terjadi berurutan (konjungsi: when, while).
Kalimat yang akan diubah menjadi adverb phrase
harus berupa kalimat aktif. Selain itu subjek kedua
kalimat harus sama.
Contoh : Mrs. Atik cannot write because the pen has
gone.
Mrs. Ismi said the pen is not her while we
asked her about it.

Reading
WALKING is A SPORT
Sport help us to become strong and healthy.
There are many kinds of sport : walking, running,
hunting, cycling, swimming and soon. It is not important
what kinds of sport we are going to do, as long as we
are strong enough to do it.
Healthy people should exercise regularly, no
matter how old they are. The simplest the best sport is
walking. It is also the cheapest one, because we do

3
Active Participle

not need money to do it. A long walk in the evening


may help us sleep than any medicine.
But people today do not like walking. They
prefer to drive a car, thought they are not in a hurry
or traveling a long distance.
This kind of disease come from our laziness.

Dialogue
Lets go to the garden.
Via : Lets go to garden.
Liy : I wish I could, but I cant.
Via : What keeps you so busy ? You have been
sitting there for hours.
Liy : Well, Im very busy. I have to finish this writing
today.
Via : I understand that, but you must take a coffee
break, though for just a short time.

40
Simple English Learning

GERUND
Gerund adalah V1+ing yang diperlakukan seperti
kata benda. Oleh karena itu, gerund dalam kalimat
menduduki posisi kata benda, antara lain:
1. Subject,
2. Predicate (dalam kalimat nominal)
3. Object
4. Passive Voice
Dalam kalimat yang subjeknya bermakna pasif ada
beberapa verb yang bila diikuti oleh verb lain, maka verb
yang mengikuti tersebut harus berbnetuk V1+ing
(Gerund). Verbs tersebut adalah: Need, want
(ingin/perlu), require (ingin/perlu).
Contoh: The car needs cleaning.
5. Gerund yang berfungsi menerangkan kata benda
dibelakangnya:
Contoh: Swimming pool
Jack went to the swimming pool last
holiday.
Bentuk ini hampir sama dengan Active Participle.
Perbedaannya terletak pada makna, perhatikan :
Swimming pool (kolam untuk berenang),
Swimming boy (anak yang berenang)

Reading
Kinds of animal
Sometimes many animals crowd together to sleep.
Walruses usually live in large herds in the icy waters of
the far north. From time to time, they gather on rocky
shores and rest.

41
Gerund

The walrus is sleeping on its side. You can see its


front teeth or tusks. By fanning its flipper in the air, a
walrus stays cool in the warm sun.
It seems hard for walruses to rest. They are
always surfing and snorting. When one turns over, it
wakes up another and another and another
From: Ways Animals Sleep

Unless (If + not) If you do not do your


homework, Mr. Toni will be angry.
Unless you do your homework, Mr. Toni will
be angry.

Have you know ?


Menanyakan umur merupakan sesuatu yang tabu
bagi budaya barat. Pertanyaan itu tidak biasa
digunakan sehari-hari.

42
Simple English Learning

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Conditional sentences adalah kalimat pengandaian.
Kalimat ini terdiri dari klausa yang didahului if dan kalimat
inti. Berdasarkan kegunaannya Conditional Sentences dibagi
menjadi tiga macam:
1. Present Real Condition
Conditional sentence jenis ini berguna untuk
mengungkapkan suatu rencana (plan) atau suatu
kemungkinan terjadinya suatu hal.
Formula : If S V1 O AP AT, S will
clause

Example : If a person can not communicate he will


not talk to other people.

2. Present Unreal Condition


Conditional sentence jenis ini berguna untuk
mengungkapkan suatu kemungkinan/khayalan/
imagination atas terjadinya suatu peristiwa. Sebagaimana
terlihat dari namanya, kalimat jenis ini menunjukkan
bahwa sesuatu yang diberitakan tidak terjadi pada
faktanya.
Formula : If S V2 O AP AT, S would VI
clause

If S was/were N AP AT, S would


clause

Contoh: - If the child was near her parents, she would


be taken care finely.
- If the babies spoke, they would tell us what
they want without crying.

4
Conditional Sentences

3. Past Unreal Condition


Conditional sentence jenis ini berfungsi untuk
mengungkapkan suatu penyesalan atas sesuatu yang
telah terjadi baik itu baru saja atau lampau.
Formula: If S had V3 O AP AT, S would have V3..
clause

Contoh: If he had seen who was under him, he would


have accepted all of his.

Note:
Antara klausa dan kalimat inti dalam conditional
sentence harus setara. Jadi kalau klausa
menggunakan Verb I (misalnya), maka kalimat
intinya juga harus Verb I.

COMMUNICATION
The word communication comes from verb
communicate, which means to gibe or exchange
information, news, ideas, or opinions by speech or
writing. In other words communication is the studying of
information or news between people.
Trough communication people learn from one
another the things they want to know. Imagine if
human beings could not communicate with one
another. If a person cannot communicate he will not
talk to other people, and no other people will talk him
or teach him anything. So it would be impossible for
him to learn anything. Can he learn anything by
himself?

44
Simple English Learning

Dialogue
Serly : Hello, Vir! What do you do? Are you busy
now?
Vira : Hai, Erly! Im not busy. Im watching a TV,
what happened?
Serly : I want to invite you to my houses friend. He
invites me to his party and he said that I may
invite my best friend.
Vira : Oh, OK! I will be ready.
Serly : Thanks, I will go to your home at 8 oclock.
Vira : OK, I wait you.

4
Question-tag Question

QUESTION TAG QUESTION


Question tag question adalah suatu bentuk
pertanyaan yang dibuat dengan cara meanambahkan tag
(ekor) dalam kalimat asal. Question tag sangat umum
pengunaannya dalam percakapan bahasa Inggris sehari-hari.
Pola kalimat dengan Question tag digunakan untuk meminta
persetujuan atau penegasan/kepastian dari lawan bicara
tentang sesuatu yang dinyatakan.
Berdasarkan kalimat asalnya, maka pembuatan
Question tag dibedakan menjadi tiga macam.
1. Dalam kalimat berita
Penambahan tag (ekor) pada kalimat berita harus
memperhatikan auxiliary atau to be kalimat berita
tersebut. Selain itu, apabila kalimat tersebut positif, tag
harus negative, begitu pula sebaliknya.
Contoh :
- She likes Arabian language than English, doesnt
she ?
- We can not get permission from teacher, can we?
- They are from Jogja, arent they?
Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan:
9 Auxiliary negative dalam question tag selalu dalam
bentuk contracted form (bentuk singkatan),
misalnya: are not= arent, did not= didnt, will
not= wont, etc.
9 Subject pada tag selalu berbentuk pronoun (I, you,
we, they, he, she, it).
9 Kata-kata yang membentuk makna negative
membentuk kalimat berita menjadi negative, Misal
: no (no one, no body. no thing), hardly

46
Simple English Learning

(hampir, tidak pernah), seldom (jarang). rarely,


scarcely (jarang), none (tak satupun).
9 Untuk idiom used to (kebiasaan), Question tag nya
menggunakan auxiliary did, sedangkan have/has
to Question tag nya auxiliary do/does.
9 Everyone dalam kalimat berita dianggap tunggal,
namun dalam tag dianggap jamak.
9 Kata I (saya) dalam tag negative selalu memakai
to be are.

2. Dalam kalimat perintah dan larangan


Kalimat perintah dan larangan mempunyai tag khusus,
yaitu: will you?. Subjek pada tag selalu you karena
kalimat perintah maupun larangan selalu ditujukan
kepada orang kedua. Walaupun bentuknya Question,
namun maknanya tetap sebagaimana asalnya, hanya
saja bentuk ini terkesan lebih halus.
Contoh :
- Dont be noisy, will you?
- Change you words, will you?
- Repeat again, will you?
- Dont speak slowly, will you?

3. Dalam kalimat ajakan.


Kalimat ajakan mempunyai tag khusus, yaitu shall
we?. Subjek dalam tag ini selalu we karena pembicara
juga ikut melakukan pekerjaan bersama lawan bicara.
Contoh : Lets finish this work, shall we?

4
Question-tag Question

Reading
THE ECLIPSE
Its interesting to learn how an eclipse happens.
We know that the moon around earth, dont it? When
the moon passes between the sun and the earth, the
shadow of the moon falls on the earth,. In this part of
the earth people dont have sunlight. We call these a
solar eclipse because we cannot see a part of the
whole of the happens once every 18 months.
However, a total solar eclipse, that is when the sun
becomes totally dark happens only once in 350 years
at any given place.
People did not dare to look at the sun during the
eclipse. Its dangerous to look up at the sun because it
may cause blindness, its wise to look after our eyes,
isnt it?

48
Simple English Learning

CAUSATIVE VERBS
Causative verbs adalah kata-kata (kalimat) yang
berfungsi untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang
menghendaki orang lain melakukan suatu pekerjaan untuk
dirinya.
Berikut ini variasi struktur causative verbs:
a. S + make + direct Obj + verb (inf.)
caust. verb

b. S + get + direct Obj + to inf.


caust. verb

c. S + have + indirect Obj + verb3 (passive)


caust.verb

Example:
- Mr. Thoni makes the text finish.
- Anis gets the homework to finish.
- Fia had the plant in 5th flour watered.

Catatan :
- Kata make, get and have adalah bentuk
pertama. Kata-kata ini boleh dirubah dalam
bentuk ke-2 dan ke-3, tergantung tense.
- Bentuk ini tidak sama dengan Command atau
Request karena terkesan lebih halus.
Bandingkan:
- Close the door !
- Could you close the door, please ?
- I need to have the door closed.

4
Causative Verbs

Conversation
Mahfus : What are you looking for?
Ziyad : Im looking for my blue book.
Mahfus : Are you in hurry?
Ziyad : Yes, I want to give a picture.
I need to have the lamp turned on.
Mahfus : OK, I will do for you.
Ziyad : Thanks, Oh what I found?
Mahfus : Whats thing?
Ziyad : Some mice having a party here.

50
Simple English Learning

REQUEST
Request atau yang dikenal dengan sebutan Polite
request adalah bentuk kalimat yang digunakan untuk
meminta sesuatu dari lawan bicara. Berikut ini adalah
beberapa request disertai responnya:
1. Would you mind + Ving?
2. Do you mind + poss.pron + Ving?
No, of course not.
No, at all, with pleasure.
Request yang menggunakan kata mind verb-nya
pasti dalam bentuk ing.
3. Could you + V1?
Yes, of course / Im sorry.
4. Can you + V1?
Certainly / Im sorry I cant. All right.
5. Id like you to + V1?
Yes, Id like to / Im sorry Id love but.
(Request no.5 biasa digunakan untuk undangan
ke suatu acara dan jawaban terakhir juga khusus
untuk no.5).
Request yang menggunakan kata would, can atau to
(inf.) verb-nya pasti dalam bentuk pertama.
Conversation
Jihand : Dont you do anything?
Nia : No, I feel very bored here.
Jihand : I see. I think I have something to make you
happy.
Nia : Whats that?
Jihand : Id like you to close your eyes.

51
Request

Nia : All right. I do.


Jihand : Now, open your eyes and look.
Nia : Great! It seems very lux ring I have ever
seen, thank you very much. You are the best
friend of mine.
Jihand : Oh, thats nothing.

52
Simple English Learning

NOUN PHRASE
Phrase (frase) adalah kelompok kata yang tidak
mengandung unsure predikat. Oleh sebab itu tidak pernah
didapati frase yang menggunakan konjungsi, karena
konjungsi itu sendiri pasti menduduki posisi tertentu
(subjek).
Dalam noun phrase ada sebuah aturan yang
mengatur kata manakah yang diprioritaskan penyebutnya.
Berikut urutannya:
1. Determiner
Determiner (kata tunjuk) memang harus disebut pertama
kali dalam Noun phrase. Beberapa determiner tersebut
adalah : this, an, a, any, my,. some. many, etc.
2. Opinion
Opinion adalah pendapat subjectif/kualitas suatu benda,
misalnya: beautiful, handsome, pretty, expensive, etc.
3. Adjective yang mempunyai kesan pemberian
secara umum.
Adjective with general meaning. Kalau dalam kalimat ada
adjective jenis ini yang jumlahnya lebih dari satu, maka
urutan-urutannya adalah sebagai berikut:
a. Size : ukuran, seperti : big, long, tall, slim, etc.
b. Age / temperature : umur / suhu, seperti : old,
hot, young, etc.
c. Participle, Misal : broken, wodden, etc.
d. Shape : bentuk, seperti : round, square, etc.
e. Colour : warna, seperti : red, black, pink, blue,
etc.

5
Noun Phrase

4. Adjective yang berasal dari noun.


Adjective ini biasa disebut dengan istilah propes
adjective. Urut-urutannya adalah:
Origin : asal noun, seperti : Asian, Javanese, etc.
Material : Wujud benda, seperti : cotton, wood, etc.
Purpose : noun/gerund/adj, yang menunjukkan
tujuan pemakaian/kaitan (dengan yang
lain)/komponen benda yang diterangkan,
seperti : shewing, swimming, etc.
5. Noun
Biasa disebut Head, karena inilah inti frase yang
kedudukan frase tergantung padanya.

Adverb
Urutan : manner place time
Cara tempat waktu
Example :
He reads the text slowly in front of his friends at
seven oclock.

54
Simple English Learning

PREFERENCE
Preference (pilihan) digunakan bila kita ingin
menyatakan sikap atau perasaan lebih senang terhadap
suatu kegiatan atau benda melebihi yang lain.
Preference dapat dinyatakan dengan beberapa cara:
1. Prefer
Prefer biasanya digunakan untuk menyatakan pilihan
selamanya, sifat pilihan ini bersifat kontinue.
Formula :
1. S + prefer + N + (to Noun).
2. S + prefer + to.inf + (than + verb)
3. S + prefer + Ving(1) + to + Ving(2)
Contoh :
- I prefer Javanese language (to Chinese
language)
- I prefer to race (than volley)
- She prefer reading to cooking.

2. Would Rather
Berbeda dengan prefer, would rather untuk menyatakan
pilihan sementara.
Formula : S + would rather + inf. + O + than
+ inf.
Contoh : I would rather stay in the house than go out.

3. Would Prefer
Would prefer, sebagaimana would rather juga berfungsi
untuk menyatakan pilihan sementara.
Formula : S + would prefer + to.inf + rather
than + .

5
Preference

Contoh : My father would prefer to work in office


rather than victory.

Ketiga bentuk diatas dapat dirangkaikan


dengan instead of .(daripada )

4. Like
Preference dapat juga dinyatakan dengan menggunakan
kata kerja like. Perlu diperhatikan bahwa kalau sesudah like
ada infinitive, maka tidak boleh ditambah dengan to.
Formula : S + like + + better than + .
Contoh : Bria likes English better than Chemistry.

Conversation
Brian : Hi, Rizal, pleased to meet you!
Rizal : Oh, hi Bry, me too. How are you?
Brian : Im very fine, and you?
Rizal : As you see me now, lets go to that
restaurant.
Brian : Oh, never mind.
Rizal : Would you prefer to have, juice or tea?
Brian : I would prefer to have a juice.
Rizal : Oh, we are having the same. I will tell him (a
servant)

Reading
RAFFLESIA ARNOLDI
The vast archipelago and the great number of
island have made Indonesia the home of a large
variety of plant life.

56
Simple English Learning

The Indonesia flora ranges from the tiny orchid to


the giant Rafflesia plant. No wonder many botanists
are curious to study these plants.
The Refflesia Arnoldi is the biggest flower in the
world. It is unusual because of its large size. It has a
flower almost a meter in diameter and 1,40 meters in
height.

The great number of


Countable Noun
The great many of
A plenty of + uncountable noun

Noun phrase = noun modifier

9 Unusual pertambahan un pada kata


mengandung arti tidak.

Noun Pelaku
Botany Botanist
Science Sciences
Dent Dentist

Slang of American :
Gonna : going to
Wanna : want to
armscray : enyah

5
Degree of Comparison

DEGREE OF COMPARISON
a. Bentuk perbandingan
Positive Comparative Superlative
Big Bigger Biggest
Tall Taller Tallest
Clever Cleverer Cleverest
Interesting More interesting Most interesting

Dalam degree of comparison kita mengenal 3 macam


adjective: Positive, comparative (lebih), superlative
(paling/ter.).
Secara garis besar cara membuat bentuk comparative
dan superlative adalah dengan menambahkan er (untuk
comparative) atau est (untuk superlative) jika adjective
terdiri dari 1 suku kata, sedang kalau adjective terdiri dari 2
suku kata atau lebih, maka perubahannya adalah dengan
menambahkan more (untuk comparative) atau most (untuk
superlative) didepan adjective.
Namun untuk adjective yang terdiri dari 2 suku kata
berakhiran er, ly atau y maka perubahannya mengikuti adj,
yang terdiri dari 1 suku kata dengan mengubah akhiran y
menjadi i.
Good/well Better Best
Bad Worse Worst
Little Less Least
Many Move Must
Much Move Most
Far (waktu) Further Furthest
Far (jarak) Farther Farthest
Old Older Oldest
Old (dalam keluarga) Elder Eldest

58
Simple English Learning

b. Susunan dalam perbandingan


a. Pada perbandingan persamaan dimana adjective
berbentuk positive, kita menggunakan as as dalam
affirmative dan not as / not so as dalam kalimat
negative.
Contoh:
- He is running as fast as a horse.
- She was so kind as her sister.

b. Pada comparative kita menggunakan than.


Contoh : she knew more than I did.

c. Perbandingan dari 3 atau lebih, orang atau barang


dinyatakan dengan superlative yang menggunakan
the ..in / of.
Contoh : This is the oldest mosque in the world.
d. Parallel increase (setara bertingkat) dinyatakan
dengan
the + comp. the + comp. .
Contoh : The more powerfull are, the more arrogant
they become.

e. Peningkatan / pengurangan secara bertahap


dinyatakan dengan 2 comparative yang dihubungkan
dengan and.
Contoh : She becomes farther dan farther.

Conversation
Risya : Hi Fira, how about you ?
Fira : Oh, hi Ris. How long we didnt meet?

5
Degree of Comparison

Risya : Well, for about 5 years, you are looking


tallest than you were.
Fira : Really, oh you are just kidding, arent you?
Risya : Just forget it by the way what do you see
about dinner?
Fira : Thats a good idea, I agree with it. Will you
invite another?
Risya : Certainly, we will have meeting with our old
friends.
Fira : Ok, when is that?
Risya : Today, in next week, I hope we wont be too
busy.
Fira : I hope so.

Reading
Percy Buttons
I have just moved to a house in Bridge street.
Yesterday a beggar knocked at my door. He asked
me for a meal and a glass of beer. I return for his, the
beggar stood on his head and sang songs. I gave him
a meat. He ate the food and drank the beer. Ten he
put a piece of cheese in his pocket and went away.
Later a neighbor told me about him. Every body knows
him. His name is Percy Buttons. He calls at every house
in the street once a month and always asks for a meal
and a glass of beer.

Info :
Adverb boleh ditaruh didepan kalimat apabila
ada maksud menghubungkan dengan kalimat
sebelumnya.

60
Simple English Learning

Ex.: We have to recite the Holy Quran at 8 oclock at 9


oclock we study together.

Reading
No wrong Numbers
Mr. James Scott has a garage in Silburg and
now he has just bought another garage in Pinhust.
Pinhust is only 5 miles from Silburg, but Mr. Scott
cannot get a telephone for his new garage, so he just
bought twelve pigeon. Yesterday a pigeon carried the
first message from Pinhust to Silburg. The bird covered
the distance in three minutes. Up to now, Mr. Scott
has sent a great many request for spare parts and
other urgent messages from one garage to the other.
In his way, he has begun his own.

Note :
- Use other before singular countable noun and
before one.
- Use other before a) uncountable noun
b) plural, coun, noun
following the, all, every.
- Use other or the others as pronoun to replace
countable nouns.
- Every other.. is an idiom meaning
(selang)
Such as : Every other day selang sehari

We meet every other day.


- The other day is an idiom too meaning tak lama
berselang

61
Suplemen Ways of Saying The Time

Suplemen
Ways of Saying The Time
A.M : morning
P.M. : afternoon / evening / night
its eight oclock.
8 : 00
its eight. 12 : 00
Its eight oh- five
8 : 05 Its 5 (minutes) after 8. Its noon.
Its 5 (minutes) past 8. Its midnight.
Its eight fifteen.
8 : 15 Its a quarter after eight.
Its a quarter past eight.
Its eight thirty.
8 : 30 Its half past eight.
Its eight forty-five
8 : 45 Its a quarter to nine.
Its a quarter of nine.
Its eight fifty.
8 : 50 Its ten to nine.
Its ten of nine.
Info : 9:00 A.M. (American English)
9.00 A.M. (British English)

1st first 1. one


2nd second 2. two
N 3rd third 3. three
U 4th fourth 4. four
M etc.
B 9th ninth (bukan nineth)
E 12th twelfeth (v diganti f)
R 20th twentieth (y diganti e)
100th (one hundredth)

62
Simple English Learning

TARIKH
28th July preposisi: on
tanpa tanggal preposisi: in

BEDA:
crowded (ramai, berdesak-desakan) noisy (ramai,
suara gaduh)

LITTLE ABOUT:
Leg and foot
foot (paha s/d ujung jari / yang dipakaikan sepatu).
Pesawat terbang dengan ketinggian 100 kaki foot.
Kalau kaki meja selalu pakai leg.

6
Suplemen Making Some Letters

Making Some Letters

How to make a formal letter?


You can make such as:

Mr. and Mrs. Saiful request the warmth of Mr. and Mrs.
Ziyads company at dinner of Friday, July the first at seven
oclock in the evening.
45 jalan Borobudur
R. S. V. P.

Ini merupakan budaya barat, dengan ini maka


harus dibalas; bisa hadir atau tidak.

How is an informal letter?


Look this letter:
45 Jalan Ahmad Yani 1
Surabaya
28 Oct. 2008
Dear Yanti,
If you have no plan for this coming holiday,
perhaps you would like to come and stay with me, we all
would be surprised to see you again. We have a bigger
house now and there are rooms for two or three. Do
come! We look forward to heaving from you.
Affectionately yours,
Evi
Do come Do menunjukkan penegasan.
Untuk formal letter harus memakai orang ke-3.

64
Simple English Learning

Reading
Ways Animals Sleep
Unlike you, fish can never close their eyes. They
have no eyelids. The shark, a kind of fish, lies very
still in an underwater eave.
Insects stay most of the time, but they too, must
rest. One rainy night a katydid rests under a leaf
that makes a good umbrella. Dont you think the
green, upside-down katydid looks like part of the
plants?
Many animals sleep in tree, where they can be
safe. Others, like leopard, find cool shade there
on hot day. A furry Koala is snuggling between
hight branches. It will sleep there most of the day.
All in a raw, ducks are getting ready for a nap.
Like many birds, ducks rest on leg with their bills
tucked under their feathers.
Just like you, all animals need some form of rest
every day. Most animals have a specials place where
they sleep, but some just curl up on the around. Some
sleep floating in the water. Others find safe places to
sleep in the trees. Wherever they one, animals have
ways of protecting themselves while they sleep.

6
Suplemen - Mata Angin

66
Simple English Learning

FREQUENCY ADVERB
always
often

usually

Subject + sometimes + Verb
seldom

rarely
never

Frequency Adverb
Frequency Adverbs datang di antara subjek dan
simple present verb walaupun ada juga beberapa yang
datang di permulaan, tengah-tengah atau akhir kalimat.
Always 100%
Usually 99% - 90%
Often 90% - 75%
Sometimes 75% - 25%
Seldom 25% - 10%
Rarely 10% - 1%
Never 0%
Sometimes

Seldom
Usually
Always

Rarely

Never
Often

Sunday

6
Suplemen - Frequency Adverb

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Via drinks all of the drink 100%


Dj drinks most of her drink. a large part, but not all
Alice drinks some of her drink a small or medium part

68