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BICOL UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Legazpi City, Albay

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL

Baking Industry: A Comprehensive Study


Jan Marie A. Dating
Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Bicol University, Legazpi City, Albay
jan.dating.0110@gmail.com
ABSTRACT

Bread and bakery products are among the popular food items with a long history of
development. Varieties of bakery products have been produced with regard to technology
development and consumer preference. The main ingredient for bakery products include flour,
water, sugar, fat, and salt. Each ingredient imparts a different effect on the quality of the final
product. The ingredients should be formulated in accordance with the required rheological
properties of dough and batter. The degree of gluten development seems to play the most
important role in achieving the desired product characteristics. In addition to formulation,
processes including dough making, proving, baking, cooling, and packaging are all among the
important steps in delivering a high-quality end product. Different process operating methods
and conditions are required to produce different product variations.

I. Introduction of rich people. Since the 1900s, white


bread has become common for
II. In the food manufacturing industries, everyone. However, there has
the baking industry is one of the most recently been a reverse trend, where
stable sectors. Bread and bakery whole wheat and wholegrain bread
product development has a long has become more expensive than
history. The most recent white bread, due to health concerns.
archeological discovery indicated that Meanwhile, technological advances
baking might date back to as early as have enabled wholemeal bread to be
around 21,000 B.C., when people developed to become both nutritious
knew wheat and learned to mix and tasty. Cake, meanwhile, has
wheat grain meal with water and been developed since the discovery
bake it on stones heated by fire the of flour. At the beginning, yeast was
first flat bread. During the period used as a raising agent for cake. It
2600 to 3000 B.C., yeast was used was then replaced by eggs in the
by ancient Egyptians to make middle of the eighteenth century.
fermented bread. Due to the high Cake was defined as a flour-based
cost of milling, whole wheat and sweet food, whereas bread was
wholegrain bread was generally defined as flour-based nonsweet
consumed. White bread was also food. Cake was normally made from
available, but limited only to groups expensive ingredients, therefore it
was specially made for certain conditions. Bread can either be
occasions. From culinary historians, broadly classified as leavened or
we learn that cake batter was once unleavened, depending on the
used for the purpose of oven present or absence of leavening
temperature testing. As a result, a agents in dough, or be classifies as
new product was created and called yeast bread and quick bread.
biscuit (in the United Kingdom) or
cookie (in the United States). That B. Cake
is why biscuit was originally
described as a flour-based sweet VI. Cake is made by the formation of a
cake. It can be either crispy or soft. batter, which is a complex emulsion
Around 1600, people started traveling and foam system with an appreciable
to discover the world. As biscuit has a amount of bubbles inside. The
much longer shelf-life, it was ideal for required ingredients are similar to
use as a food for travelers. In earlier bread dough, except weak wheat
days, the bakery business started in flour is needed. A gluten network is
small bakeries with large varieties of not required for cake because it
products in every village. Later, the would make the cake firmer and
small bakeries were replaced with chewier. The ration of water to flour to
industrial mono-production, make a cake batter is high, compared
particularly for bread. This was to that in bread dough. Therefore,
mainly because bread could then be one of the important rheological
produced efficiently. Typically, a properties of cake batter is its low
modern-day production line is viscosity.
composed of several workstations VII. Eggs are normally among the
integrated into an automatic system ingredients for cake, and the egg
using common transfer mechanisms protein acts as a surface active agent
and control systems. The nominal to form a protective film around air
production rate can be determined bubbles. This helps to keep the air
from the bottleneck workstation, bubbles in the batter during mixing.
which is almost always a baking The mixing process is ended when
oven. Moreover, issues related to there are enough air bubbles kept in
health have become more of a the batter and the density of the
concern. batter reaches its minimum. To keep
III. the product fresh for longer, oil or fat
IV. Product Description solid is needed. With the addition of
A. Bread oil/fat, the batter becomes an oil-in-
V. Bread is a product consisting of two water emulsion system. Due to the
distinctly different parts: crust and positive effect of soluble solids on the
crumb. Crust is a dry and crispy starch gelatinization temperature, the
surface layer, and the crumb inside ratio of water to soluble solids,
bread loaves or buns is soft. To especially sucrose, is one of the key
produce a soft and fine crumb, bread factors for cake making. Recently,
dough requires the proper computer programs have been
development of a gluten network introduced for designing balanced
during dough mixing. Varieties of ingredients to create different cake
bread differ in size, shape, color, recipes.
texture, and flavor. They contain C. Biscuit
different ingredients and may also be
baked under significantly different
VIII. Biscuit is a low-moisture granules gelatinize, which is a major
bakery product. According to the part of the solidification process of
information provided by various the dough. The gelatinization starts at
manufactures, its moisture content 55C and finishes at 85C when
varies widely, because of the water evaporation at the surface
variation in its thickness and weight dominates A series of processes at a
during forming and shaping. Biscuit molecular scale include swelling,
dough is lower compared to other melting, disruption of starch granules,
bakery products. Usually, the and exudation of amylose. In bread,
moisture content of biscuit after as a result of starch gelatinization,
baking is below 10%. Therefore, the partially swollen granules can be
water addition to biscuit dough is stretched into elongated forms to
lower than other bakery products. allow gas cells to expand. Therefore,
The size of the biscuit after baking is texture and structure of the product is
affected by the rheological properties dependent on starch gelatinization.
of the dough. For sweet biscuit that XIII.
contains high levels of sugar and fat, XIV.
the dough has good cohesiveness B. Water
and plasticity without the formation of XV. Water is one of the main ingredients
a gluten network. Therefore, short of bakery products. It influences the formation
dough can be made from soft wheat of dough and batter and therefore the textural
flour with a high amount of sugar (25- properties of baking products. Water is
55%) and shortening (20-60%). needed for hydrating the proteins, therefore
developing the gluten, gelatinizing the starch,
IX. A typical defect of biscuit is cracking making the leavening agents function,
or checking, as a result of the activating the enzymes, dissolving sugar and
moisture gradient in the product after salt, as well as acting as a major heat transfer
baking. The moisture content of mechanism during bread baking through
freshly baked biscuit is high in the evaporation and condensation.
center and low at the edge. XVI. The optimum amount of water
Therefore, moisture migrates from addition is dependant on the required
the center to the edge, which causes viscosity and product characteristics. For
an expansion at the edge, but a baguette, high water addition is needed
contraction at the center. When together with soft dough consistency to
stress is developed and exceeds a develop an open cell structure. In general, too
critical level, cracks may occur. little water addition leads to high viscosity,
therefore the dough shape is not flexible
X. Raw Materials during dividing and molding. On the other
XI. hand, too much water makes viscosity low,
A. Flour and dough might not be able to retain its
XII. Wheat flour consists of starch (65- shape during proving. However, the problem
75%) and proteins (7-16%). Starch is not significant with pan proving dough. In
consists of mainly amylose and addition to product characteristics, dough-
amylopectin. In dough, starch is making process also varies the requirement
present as semi-crystalline granules on water addition.
that absorb a significant amount of XVII.
water and may act as filler in the C. Fat
continuous protein network, or may XVIII. Fat functions to reduce dough
form a complex network with the viscosity and relaxation time, through coating
proteins. During baking, the starch the flour particles and preventing the
formation of gluten. This provides a shortness
character to the products, that is, a soft, dough or batter is divided and molded. Some
pleasant, and crumbly texture. Biscuit with a bakery products require a fermentation step
high fat content has a friable structure. In to develop unique flavor and/or texture prior
cake batter, addition of oil or fat decreases to the baking step at 180-300C. The
the foam-stabilizing properties of egg and products are then cooled down before
hydration of flour protein To reduce the fat packing and delivery. Baking trays and molds
content in bakery products, protein-based fat are normally cleaned in hot water at 40C.
replacers can be used.
XIX. A. Dough Making
D. Sugar
XX. Similarly to fat, sugar also functions XXVI. All ingredients, including mainly flour,
to reduce dough viscosity and relaxation time, water, leavening agent, fat, and sugar, are
as well as to delay the effect of chemical weighed in hoppers before being released
leavening agents during baking. Biscuit with a sequentially into a mixer. Mixing is a process
high sugar content contains a cohesive that uses the mechanical action of kneaders
structure and crisp texture. Moreover, sugar and the corresponding energy to mix all
could increase the temperature of the starch ingredients to form a coherent material, that
phase transition. To reduce the sugar content is, dough. There are several dough-making
in bakery products, sugar replacers might be techniques used to modify the rheological
used. characteristics of dough to optimize its gas-
XXI. retaining properties. During mixing, there is a
E. Salt gradual uptake of water by flour (composed
XXII. Salt is added into dough not only to mainly of protein and starch), that is,
be a seasoning or flavor enhancer, but also to hydration. During hydration, the protein
strengthen the gluten structure. However, it changes from a hard glassy material to a soft
also inhibits yeast growth. It can be used for rubbery material through a glass transition. At
controlling fermentation. Salt could be used to room temperature (20C), the glass transition
control the growth rate of both lactic acid for gluten occurs at about 16% moisture
bacteria and yeast. Increasing the salt content. The moisture content at which the
content can slow down the fermentation, glass transition occurs increases when
therefore the proving process, whereas temperature decreases. However, it is still
decreasing the salt content may cause an within the typical range of the water to flour
overfermentation. In the case of ratio for breadmaking. Decreasing the dough
overfermentation, a large amount of sugar temperature at the end of mixing produces a
would have been used for the yeast growth. firmer dough with less oxidation. Some
As a result, the crust color may not be brown additional water is needed to adjust the
enough. dough consistency. Increasing the dough
XXIII. temperature would speed up the enzymatic
XXIV. General Manufacturing activity, yeast fermentation, and proving rate.
Procedures Moreover, the dough texture becomes softer
and less resistant to deformation. A dough-
XXV. In general, the production of making process with a period of bulk
bread and bakery products consists of fermentation typically has a dough
several common steps, including weighing, temperature of 2326C, whereas a no-time
mixing, proving, baking, cooling, and dough-making process may have a dough
packaging. Each step plays an important role temperature of 2831C. In order to obtain a
in achieving high and consistent product suitable dough temperature at the end of
quality. Industrial bakeries store flour in silos mixing, the temperature of the added water
and transfer them to production lines, where has to be controlled.
flour and other ingredients are mixed and XXVII. To increase the rheological
kneaded to make dough or batter. Then the characteristics of dough, including elastic
recovery, cohesiveness, and/or in the protein network during proving is
adhesiveness, the mixing time should be released. Starch uses this water to form a
extended. In contrast, the apparent biaxial gel. The physicochemical properties of dough
extensional viscosity and consistency can be are changed and, as a result, dough is
increased by shortening the mixing time. changed and, to a baked product with a
However, there was no correlation between porous and rigid structure.
the mixing time and product volume in the XXXIII. The volume expansion of bakery
case of bread. For biscuit, increasing the products during baking is through two
mixing time could soften the dough, reduce different mechanisms. Taking bread as an
the relaxation time, increase the product example, at the early stage of a baking
length, and decrease the product weight. process, the dough volume is expanded
XXVIII. In addition to mixing time, the mainly due to yeast fermentation. When
sequence of ingredients to mix is also temperature is increased to around 55C,
important. The arrangement of the sequence yeast would be killed. Once the temperature
may affect the flour hydration behavior and reaches 60C, any volume expansion is
therefore the dough texture. mainly due to vapor pressure.
XXIX. XXXIV. During baking, heat from the oven
B. Proving penetrates to the product core by the
XXX. Proving is an important step for bread combined mechanism of conduction, water
and other yeasted bakery products that use vapor evaporation, diffusion, and
yeast to produce carbon dioxide through condensation, and water migrates from the
fermentation to increase the dough volume. product core to the surface by combined
After the dough-making step, dough is evaporation, vapor diffusion, and
normally proved at 38C, as yeast is most condensation, as well as liquid diffusion. The
active within the temperature range of 25 product volume keeps increasing until a rigid
40C. Proving time is dependent on the yeast structure is formed and restricts the
level, proving temperature, and humidity. expansion. The developed crust becomes the
Yeast uses sugar as a carbon source for main resistance to heat and mass transfer.
growth. However, too much sugar will XXXV. In addition to textural and structural
damage yeast by an osmotic dehydration changes, color and flavor are developed
mechanism. This is why volume expansion is during baking. When the surface temperature
always a problem for sweet bread bun. reaches 150C, browning reactions are
Similarly, salt can inhibit yeast growth as activated and therefore the crust color
described earlier, and too much salt will slow becomes darker. For flavor, volatile
down the proving process. Generally, the compounds are formed and released, which
yeast used in bakery products is gives the bakery products uniquely good
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To achieve the smell after baking. A conventional baking
correct relative humidity, steam or hot water oven typically consists of baking chambers
can be used to increase the humidity in a and heating elements. Heat is transferred,
proving chamber in order to speed up the either directly or indirectly, to dough/bread,
process. through radiation, convection, and
XXXI. conduction. However, new baking ovens have
C. Baking been developed to improve product quality as
XXXII. Baking is a complex unit operation well as process efficiency. For example,
involving simultaneous heat and mass microwave has been introduced to baking
transfer mechanisms. Heat is supplied to the ovens to speed up the baking process.
dough through radiation, convection, and Dough is heated up rapidly by the movement
conduction. Thermal reactions including of water molecules under the influence of the
starch gelatinization and protein denaturation microwaves.
are activated. When temperature increases XXXVI.
and protein is denatured, water originally held D. Cooling
XXXVII. Baked products have to be cooled through the bakery chain, Pan de Manila,
down to room temperature in order to avoid which created a malunggay (horseradish) pan
condensation after packaging. The most de sal. The Food and Nutrition Research
common method for cooling is natural cooling Institute, on the other hand, is promoting the
using room air or chilled air. A cooling process selling of yellow pan de sal, which contains
can take from a few minutes to a few hours squash puree, in public schools to help
depending on the product characteristics and address the problem of malnutrition among
cooling methods. Using room air, some children.
products such as panetonni, a fermented
Italian cake, may need 24 h for cooling. To XLI. Biscuits continued to be
shorten the cooling process, a vacuum cooler regarded as a convenient snack option which
can be used, which cools panetonni within 4 consumers can consume while on the go or
min. This also applies to some other products which mothers give their children to take to
such as breadsticks, meat pies, sausage school. Although some variants may have a
rolls, pastries, and cakes, which can be high fat or sugar content, biscuits are
cooled in between 1 and 3 h by conventional generally perceived to be more nutritious than
cooling, but within only 30 s to 5 min by potato chips or other salty snacks. Their
vacuum cooling. Vacuum cooling can cause affordability also allows companies to
structural changes due to the build-up of generate a steady demand for their products,
vapor pressure in areas of low vapor especially from school-aged children and
permeability. Modulated vacuum coolers may busy individuals.
be used to alleviate this problem by
modulating pressure, instead of continuous XLII. According to the Euromonitor
pressure, resulting in controlled vacuum International sources, the total global market
during cooling. value of bread an bakery products stood at
XXXVIII. US$311.1 billion in 2005, representing a
XXXIX. Economic Study 7.32% increase from 2004.

XL. According to Euromonitor, XLIII.


innovation remains vital for baked goods XLIV. References
companies to address the need of consumers -www.breadinfo.com/history.shtml
for variety, which can be more pronounced in -whatscookingamerica.net/History/CakeHistor
packaged food. The development of new y.htm;www.themediadrome.com/content/a
products is directed either towards creating rticles/food_articles/cake_history.htm
something healthier or something better -whatscookingamerica.net/History/CakeHistor
tasting. Innovation, however, is no longer y.htm
limited to pastries, cakes or bread loaves as -whatscookingamerica.net/History/CookieHist
even the popular local bread, pan de sal ory.htm
(salted bread), is being reinvented. A hotdog- -http://www.euromonitor.com/bakery-in-the-
flavoured pan de sal, for instance, is now philippines/report
available through Gardenia Philippines Inc. A -Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing,
healthier variant, meanwhile, can be bought Volume 2., Editor: Y.H. Hui (Wiley)