Anda di halaman 1dari 33




Raffaele Piciocchi
Gas Center - Greece

1 October 2014



The New IGC Code
A new IGC Code has been approved by IMO
with the
(adopted on 22 May 2014)
This Code applies to ships whose
keels are laid, or which are at a
similar stage of construction
1. construction identifiable with the
ship begins; and
2. assembly of that ship has
commenced, comprising at least
50 tonnes or 1% of the estimated
mass of all structural material,
whichever is less,
on or after 1 July 2016.
IGC Code Rewrite Group Composition
129 participants from 18 countries
Classification societies (98.5% of world tonnage)
Owners (51% of world gas carrier capacity)
Shipyards (33% and 44.8% of world LPG carrier/LNG carrier capacity
Equipment manufacturers 10 working groups
Designers Steering group with 16
Consultants members
10 working groups
Steering group with 16 members
ABS participated in this effort with 1 expert in the
Steering Committee and 10 experts in the Working
Groups. ABS also chaired the Group reviewing
Chapter 4 of the IGC Code which deals with design
and construction of Cargo Containment systems.

To update the IGC Code, written in the early 1970s, to the
technological progresses for the last 40 years and to write
a document open to the new incoming technologies.

Gas carriers, in particular LNG carriers,

have excellent safety records, With the
tremendous increase of the gas
transportation at sea, with the increase
of players in this market, it is essential to
assure that these records are maintained
even in the future and that measures are
taken to extend as far as possible the
safety using the collected experience,
near misses and new technologies.
Advanced Tools
The new IGC Code introduces new requirements for
advanced analysis, including dynamic loads, buckling
considerations, crack propagations analysis, detail fatigue
analysis, etc.
The following is an example of a LNG carrier built in Italy
on 1970.
The LNG The 1970 only
cargo tank available
The vessel
analysis tool

Advanced tools Advanced Analysis

What we have and what is to be addressed today.

Advanced tools Risk Assessment
Risk Analysis, according with the new IGC Code is a very
important tool to assess new designs, new concepts and also to
verify the overall safety to existing designs and practices.

A high level guideline on a sound risk analysis process is given

in Chapter 1 of the new IGC Code as it follows:
1. Methodology and standard applied
2. Potential scenario variations
3. Validation of risk assessment process
4. Quality System used for the risk assessment
5. Know-how of persons performing the
6. Distribution system of the results
7. Results validation

Advanced tools Risk Assessment
Identification of risks is to be considered, but not limited
to, for ships engaged in the above operations:
1. Fire and explosion
2. Evacuation
3. Extension of hazardous areas
4. Pressurized gas discharge to shore
5. High pressure gas venting
6. Process upset conditions
7. Storage and handling of flammable refrigerants
8. Continuous presence of liquid /vapor cargo
outside the containment system
9. Tank over / under pressure
10. Ship to ship cargo transfer
11. Collision during berthing and validation

Examples of New Requirements Increasing Safety

The following slides give a few examples of new

requirements of the new IGC Code intended to increase

They are just examples and are not intended to give an

exhaustive report on all the New IGC Code new

Increased Protection of Cargo Tanks Against the
Risk of Collision
Distance of cargo tanks from side shell has been increased as a
function of the individual protected tank volume.

Increased Protection of Cargo Tanks Against the
Risk of Collision
d for Vc below or equal 1,000 m3, d = 0.80 m;
d for 1,000 m3 < Vc < 5,000 m3, d = (0.75+ Vc x 0.20/4,000) m;
d for 5,000 m3 Vc < 30,000 m3, d = (0.8 + Vc/25,000) m; and
d for Vc 30,000 m3, d = 2 m,

Increased Protection of Cargo Tanks Against the
Risk of Collision
d for Vc below or equal 1,000 m3, d = 0.80 m;
d for 1,000 m3 < Vc < 5,000 m3, d = (0.75+ Vc x 0.20/4,000) m;
d for 5,000 m3 Vc < 30,000 m3, d = (0.8 + Vc/25,000) m; and
d for Vc 30,000 m3, d = 2 m,

Increased Protection of Cargo Tanks Against the
Risk of Collision

The sketch shows an example on how large is the increase of the

minimum distance of the tank from side shell on a single hull medium
size full refrigerated
type A LPG Carrier.

For large single hull

LPG carrier having a
Volume of 22,500 m3
The minimum distance
Increases to 1.70 m

Intact and Damage Stability

The stability requirements have been extended to cover all

possible conditions of the vessels: for instance:

1. Stability during ballast water operation is to be examined

2. Ballast and heel are to be considered during stability
3. The stability of the ship in all
sea-going conditions and during
loading and unloading cargo

Containment system

Specific permissible stresses on Type B tanks with plane

surfaces provided
Means to monitor N2 flow required for detecting presence
of gases in interbarrier spaces
Approval criteria for new containment system concepts
Functional requirements
Design justification process (Limit State)
Model testing

Type B Tanks

Requirements for design life safety factor and survival time from
crack development
Acceptance criteria based on crack classification
Detectable by leak detection Cw = 0.5, time to failure 15 days
Detectable only by inspection Cw = 0.5, time to failure three times inspection period
Detection unassured Cw= 0.1, time to failure three times tank life

(Critical crack length = 1,000mm)

Crack Length mm

Through crack (Gas detection)

Initial crack

Years of Ship Operation

Membrane Tank Fatigue

Significant amount of detail added

Additional checks carried out for internal tank structures not
detectable by continuous monitoring / leak detection


Some fatigue design events included

Thermal insulation cracking, internal structures and their
supports, inner hull cracking leading to water ingress

Type C Tank Fatigue

Fatigue in particular cases to be specially considered for low

temperature cargoes
Pressure vessel codes assume cycling dynamic stresses are
low compared to design (membrane) stresses associated
with pressure
Colder cargoes loaded into type C tanks at near atmospheric
pressure may expose components to reversing stresses
unexpected by Codes

Construction Issues

Under matched welds defined and recognized

Importance of non-metallic joints is recognized
Non-metallic to non-metallic
Non-metallic to metallic
Hull structure tightness testing clarified membrane ships
Tightness test mandatory for all cargo tanks prior to
installation of the membrane

Secondary Barrier Testing

Existing general requirement tightened

Acceptance criteria for secondary barrier defects clarified
Defect sizes to be determined related to liquid tightness
Detection accuracy of testing method to be understood
Test acceptance criteria to be tied to design basis including
Effects of thermal/mechanical cyclic loading and prototype
test results
Above factors to be part of approved testing method

Piping Systems

A new list of basic concepts to be taken into account for the

design of cargo handling has been introduced in the new
1. Prevention of an abnormal condition escalating to a release
of liquid or vapor cargo;
2. The safe collection and disposal of cargo fluids released;
3. Prevention of the formation of flammable mixtures;
4. Prevention of ignition of liquids
or gases and vapors released;
5. Limiting the exposure of
personnel to fire and other hazards.

Piping Systems

Liquid piping systems are to be designed to withstand the

surge pressures.
New requirements relative to high pressure piping systems
in machinery spaces have been added.
New detailed requirements relative to
cargo design and arrangements of
cargo sampling points introduced

Gas Combustion Units

New Section 7.4 for thermal oxidation

Applicable to LNG Cargo vessels only
Consists of safety based design requirements

Source: Hamworthy

System Integration

Mitigation of risk for the personnel of for installation to be

harmed by the essential safety functions
Definition of roles and responsibility for integration of systems
Definition of functional requirements of each component and
Risk analysis
Prevention that any part of the integrated system be affected
by any failure in any part of the system, except the defective
part itself
Operation of the integrated system to be not less effective than
the operations of the stand-alone individual equipment
Demonstration of integrity of essential machinery and systems
during normal operation and fault condition
Other Main Changes

Filling limits for cargo tanks

Criteria provided for
maximum filling over 98%V
at ref temp.
No isolated gas pockets
Absolute Max 99.5%V at ref.

Use of cargo as fuel

Covers high pressure fuel gas systems
Introduces requirements for gas fired internal combustion engines
Opens the door for fuels other than methane
Operating Requirements
Expanded requirements for ESD system

New IGF Code

IMO issued on 24 April

2014 a new draft IGF Code.
This draft is not mandatory.

The IMO MSC is supposed to

discuss again the IGF Code in
their meeting of mid-November

New IGF Code Safety Aspects

As already mentioned, Gas Carriers and LNG Carriers, in

particular, have excellent safety records compared with
other categories of vessels.

The main concern about the possible growth of a large

number of dual fuel vessels is that the present safety level
assured by vessels complying with IGC Code might not be
continued with the increase
of gas fueled vessels.

New IGF Code Safety Aspects
This concern is mainly coming from the following

Dual fuel vessels are likely to be used everywhere in the

world, including very congested areas, restricted areas, close
to city and in highly populated areas, rivers, etc.

Dual fuel vessels will require a large number

of bunkering operations, many will actually be
transshipping operations which are potentially

The lack of knowledgeable, skilled and

appropriately trained officers and crew.

New IGF Code Safety Aspects
These concerns are delaying the issuance of the new IGF
Code, which drafts have been reviewed several times.
While the first draft where less severe that the IGC Code, it
appears the some aspects of the latest draft are even more
severe than the IGC Code.

As an example the minimum distance of the gas tanks from

side shell has been increased in the last draft IGF with
respect to the requirements of the new IGC Code. Now for
dual fuel vessels other than gas carriers it is required a
minimum distance similar to the one required by the IGC
Code for type 1G vessels, which are vessels intended for
toxic products.
New IGF Code Safety Aspects

The last draft of the new

IGF Code in addition and
alternative to the
deterministic method for
the determination of the
minimum distance,
propose also a
probabilistic method
similar to the one
adopted by SOLAS to
However, also the probabilistic method
calculate the damage for is quite conservative with respect to the
the damage stability deterministic method in the IGC for
calculation. vessels carrying flammable gases.

New IGF Code Safety Aspects

Considering the many modifications of the draft IGF

Codes so far published and some disagreements still
existing between certain Administrations on certain
requirements of the Code, it is premature at this stage to
make a more detailed analysis on the content of the new
IGF Code, as many present requirements might be
changed in the next couple of months.