Anda di halaman 1dari 8

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e
ADBI News Volume 1 Number 4 October 2007


Exchange Rates

of producing undesirable macroeconomic side

effects, as Japans experience demonstrates.
Some noted economists, Professor Hamada
pointed out, take the imbalance in the current
account as abnormal and hence, in need of
correction. Taking a different view, Hamada
argued that current account imbalances across
countries are a norm rather than an exception. If
countries have different rates of time preference,
there is no guarantee for the current account to be
balanced. For instance, American consumers
prefer to consume earlier while East Asian
consumers prefer to save and consume later. In
this case, it is natural to observe current account
imbalances in these countries, and inter-temporal
trade of goods will benefit the countries that have
In Professor Hamadas view, current account imbalances
across countries are a norm rather than an exception.
different rates of time preference. Policy or
exchange rate coordination aimed at addressing
Koichi Hamada, Professor of Economics at Yale current account imbalances across countries,
University, addressed invited guests and ADBI Hamada concluded, is futile and sometimes
staff on capital flows and exchange rates on 24 harmful.
July. His lecture, in particular, focused on current View Koichi Hamadas presentation at
account imbalances in the US, Japan, and the 2320.hamada.distinguished.speaker/.
Peoples Republic of China (PRC). In the past
decade the United States has been running a huge
current account deficit while the PRC in recent In this issue
years has been experiencing a current account
surplus, thus joining Japan and others as a large
current account surplus country.
Professor Hamada conceded that the Plaza
Accord had a genuine effect in reducing Japans
current account surplus from a peak of 4.3% of
GDP in 1986 to 1.4% of GDP in 1990. In a
situation where price and wage movements are
sluggish, nominal exchange rate movements can
create similar movements in the real exchange
rates, which, in turn, can affect the countrys
current account and macroeconomic performance.
However, today he does not recommend a Plaza
Accord type of adjustment to correct the PRCs
current account surplus because it involves the risk

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e

Past Transformations and DISTINGUISHED SPEAKER

Projections for PRC Economy

Angus Maddison, Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Maoist policies and adopted a pragmatic reform
Economics, Groningen University, presented a and open door policy which was successful in
paper on Six Transformations in China: sparking growth. There were large gains in
9602030 AD at ADBI on 1 October. The first efficiency in agriculture, an explosive expansion of
transformation relates to the Sung dynasty from foreign trade, and accelerated absorption of foreign
9601280, when per capita income rose by a third technology through foreign direct investment. The
and population almost doubled. There was also a sixth transformation is largely forward-looking
significant opening to the world economy in the (20032030): Professor Maddison sees catch-up
southern Sung, Yuan, and early Ming dynasties continuing. But he predicts that the pace of
(11301433). In 1300, China was the worlds progress will slacken as China approaches the
leading economy in terms of per capita income. It technological frontier. By 2015, according to
outperformed Europe in levels of technology, the Maddisons predictions, China will have overtaken
intensity with which it used its natural resources, the US as number one economy in terms of PPP
and capacity for administering a huge territorial GDP, and by 2030 will be producing nearly a
empire. By 1500, however, western Europe had quarter of world GDP.
overtaken China in per capita real income, as well
as technological and scientific capacity. The
second transformation occurred between 1700 and
1820, when population rose nearly threefold with
no fall in per capita income. The third
transformation occurred from 1840 to 1950, when
China suffered from internal conflict and collusive
foreign intrusions on its territory and sovereignty.
Chinese GDP (measured at PPP) fell from a third
to a twentieth of the world total, and per capita
income fell in a period when it rose tremendously
in Japan, Europe, and the US. The fourth
transformation is the Maoist period (195078),
which saw a significant recovery of per capita
income, but growth was interrupted by disastrous
economic and social experiments. In the fifth Professor Maddison predicts that the PRC will surpass the
transformation (19782003), China reversed the US as the number one economy by 2015.

View a summary of Angus Maddisons presentation at

Voice of a Visiting Fellow

Regional and Rural-Urban Income Disparity General predictions for the PRCs
by Household Income, Mainland PRC economic future may be optimistic,
and the expansive trend of inter-
provincial disparities has slowed
down since 2000 and began to
decrease somewhat in recent years,
but according to ADBI Visiting
Fellow Shantong Li, widening
income disparities between rural and
urban may be cause for concern. The
contribution of urban-rural income
disparities to total regional income
disparities has been widening over
Source: China Provincial Statistical Yearbook
the years, reaching 80.4% in 2004.

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e

ADBI Welcomes New CBT Director ADBI PEOPLE

assistance and research projects in support of

regional cooperation and integration in the areas of
finance, economics, statistics, infrastructure, and
science and technology.
As a knowledge institute, the ADBI, he
believes, has been using its research and CBT
products effectively to strengthen development
management and policymaking in ADB developing
member countries. In his current position, he hopes
to be able to further enhance the quality and
impact of CBT activities through an even more
Worapot Manupipatpong joined ADBI as focused, demand-oriented work program that pays
Director for Capacity Building and Training (CBT) special attention to the development of appropriate
in August 2007. He earned his Ph.D. in finance content and its effective delivery, as well as careful
from the Wharton School of the University of selection of the target audience. He is also keen to
Pennsylvania in 1989. Having been a director at foster closer collaboration with relevant
the ASEAN Secretariat for over eight years, he departments of ADBI, ADB HQ, international
brings extensive experience in managing technical agencies, and knowledge institutes.

Associates Share Parting Thoughts ADBI PEOPLE

Two Research Associates recently completed one-year terms at ADBI. Before embarking on their
future paths, they took some time to reflect on their experiences at the Institute.

Q What contribution are you most proud to have

made during your time at ADBI?
ML: I am most proud to have assisted Dr. Douglas
Brooks in organizing the workshop and conference
for the ADBI research project Infrastructures Role in
Reducing Trade Costs. I was also involved in the
case study of China in this research project. In
addition, I am very proud of the presentation I made
at the ADBI Annual Conference in 2006. Working on Ma Liqiang Rouselle F. Lavado
the Chinese version of ADBIs brochure was another
in regarding agriculture deals with poverty issues from
enjoyable project.
their core. The project went to the field to understand
RL: I hope that I was able to share what I learned in my the issues first-hand from the point of view of the
degree regarding evidence-based policymaking, farmers, which I thought was a good idea.
particularly in making good use of household surveys to
make interventions more relevant to the recipients. Q How would you sum up your experience at
Q What advice would you give to organizations ML: One year working at ADBI was a great experience
like ADBI to best deal with development issues?
for me. I made many friends and learned a lot. It will be
ML: I think that international organizations like ADBI a very nice memory for my life.
should give opportunities to people from a variety of
RL: It was a wonderful learning experience. I met many
countries and fields to come together to discuss
people from different cultures and the insights I got
development issues.
from them certainly widened my perspective. I learned a
RL: I think ADBI is already doing a good job in lot of things which will help me as I start on my career
tackling development issues. The project I was involved in the Philippines.

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e

Promoting Good Public Governance CONFERENCE

A four-day joint Tax Conference with ADB HQ Otsu, Director for International Issues on Taxation,
was held on 811 October in collaboration with Japans Ministry of Finance, opened the
OECD, the International Bureau of Fiscal conference.
Documentation (IBFD), and the Tax Bureau of the Participants shared country experiences on tax
Ministry of Finance of Japan. Governance is one of reforms and exchanged views on the latest
the priority themes ADBI works to promote. In development and trends, such as the increasing
accordance with this priority, the objective of the number of international tax treaties following the
conference was to provide developing member ever-growing globalization of economic activities
country participants with international knowledge and the continued decline in customs revenues due
and experience for tax policy design and tax reform to the WTO and FTA commitments to reduce or
as well as to share experiences and establish eliminate customs duties on many products. The
networks among policymakers responsible for tax progress of tax reform measures in response to
policies and administration. these trends was discussed, including the
Senior tax officials from 32 ADB developing increasing use of value-added tax (VAT), its
member countries participated in this annual event. implementation progress and issues, and measures
Masahiro Kawai, Dean of the Institute and Toshiya to address transfer pricing and double taxation.
View more information about the conference at

Senior tax officials from 32 ADB developing member countries participated in the conference.

Facilitating Trade and Investment

Together with the Japan Fair Trade Commission each economy. Topics discussed in the conference
(JFTC) and the Viet Nam Competition included i) recent development of competition
Administration Department in Viet Nams law and policy in East Asian economies and ii)
Ministry of Trade, on 34 May 2007, ADBI trial peer review on competition law and policy in
cosponsored the Fourth East Asia Conference Viet Nam. Subsequently, the officials meeting
on Competition Law and Policy, and the Third discussed issues including i) future challenges for
Top Level Officials Meeting on Competition enacting comprehensive competition law and ii)
Policy in Hanoi. The conference comprised technical assistance activities in the East Asian
presentations from individual East Asian region and their coordination and cooperation.
competition authorities and a trial peer review Continuing the partnership, ADBI will
session, with each session followed by discussion cosponsor the Fourth Top Level Officials
and questions from the floor. Meeting on Competition Policy on 16 April
The objective of the conference was to 2008 in Kyoto. The meeting will be held back to
develop a common understanding among the East back with the Seventh Annual Conference of the
Asian economies that the establishment of International Competition Network, which will be
competition law and its effective implementation hosted by JFTC on 1416 April 2008. Both
are necessary for facilitation of trade and events will take place at the Kyoto International
investment, and should be an urgent priority for Conference Center.

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e

Microfinance Course Delivers Training COURSE

The fourth delivery of the Blended Distance Indonesia. By removing the language barrier, the
Learning Course on Microfinance got off to a course effectively reaches out to those working
good start on 16 August in Tokyo. With three directly with the poor.
billion low-income people worldwide excluded A large number of the participants are
from formal financial services, the importance of policymakers and staff of projects funded by donor
the course is underscored by the awarding of the organizations including ADB, International Fund
Nobel Peace Prize to Dr. Mohammed Yunus and the for Agriculture Development, and the World Bank.
Grameen Bank in recognition of the contribution of Thus, the course has immediate policy impacts as
microfinance to world peace and stability. well as contributing to improved implementation
Of the over 900 participants in the fourth course, of microfinance projects.
about 250 participated through videoconference in A few years ago, the idea of a course like this
12 countries while the remaining participants in would have been nothing more than a dream in
over 40 countries watched the session through someones fertile imagination, noted ADBI
Internet webcasting. The participants include 245 Director for Research Mario Lamberte in his
from ASEAN, 123 from Northeast Asia (or non- opening remarks. That dream has evolved into
ASEAN East Asia), 203 from Central and South one of the most successful distance learning
Asia, 38 from the Pacific, and 71 from Africa, courses, connecting practitioners from Asia to
Europe, the Americas, and other locations. Africa to create a truly global microfinance
The four-month course is jointly organized by learning community. To date, the past three
ADBI and the World Banks Tokyo Development deliveries have certified 91 microfinance trainers,
Learning Center (TDLC). Using four information and over 1,100 microfinance practitioners have
and communication technologiesself-paced studied in the course.
e-learning CD-ROMs, videoconference with It is our sincere hope, said Lamberte, that
international experts, on-line tutoring, and an e- you will do your best to master the course
discussion forumthe course delivers high-quality materials and thus empower yourselves to become
training to participants in Asia and beyond. In the seeds of growth for microfinance in your
addition to courseware in English, local-language corner of the world.
materials are made available in Chinese, View course information at
Vietnamese, Thai, Laotian, Khmer, and Bahasa microfinance.distance.learning.course/.

A large number of the microfinance course participants are policymakers and staff of projects funded by donor organizations.

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e


Which Way Forward?

The surge in free trade agreements (FTAs) in East further expanded and the negative aspects of FTAs
Asia since the Asian financial crisis (see Figure) be minimized. The paper suggests that
has prompted a lively debate on the characteristics, consolidation of multiple and overlapping FTAs
impact, and future path of FTAs in the region. This into a single East Asian FTA could help mitigate
paper, by Masahiro Kawai (ADBI Dean) and the harmful noodle bowl effects of different rules
Ganeshan Wignaraja (ADB HQ), maps the of origin and standards and that consolidation at
salient characteristics of East Asian FTAs using a the ASEAN+6 level would yield the largest gains
new FTA database, identifies several key issues to to East Asiawhile the losses to non-members
be addressed, and explores economic effects using would be relatively small.
computable general equilibrium analysis. The To make such consolidation possible, the paper
paper argues that WTO-plus elements need to be recommends that
(i) ASEAN act as the regional
Growth of FTAs in East Asia, 19762007 hub by further deepening
ASEAN economic integration,
(ii) the plus-three countries
(Peoples Republic of China,
Japan, and Korea) collaborate
more closely, and
(iii) India pursue further structural
The paper also observes the
need for international support,
such as WTO-led Aid for Trade
(including trade-supporting
infrastructure) to facilitate the
participation of poorer ASEAN
countries. Over time an ASEAN+6
Notes: FTA should be connected with
a Concluded FTAs include those signed and/or under implementation; FTAs under
NAFTA and EU to further promote
negotiation cover those with or without a signed Framework Agreement; and
proposed FTAs include official pronouncements of parties to negotiate an FTA or
global economic integration.
actually conduct a feasibility study.
bData as of June 2007.
Read Discussion Paper 77 at
Source: ADB FTA Database, Asia Regional Integration Center (,
as presented by the authors (p. 26)

Flagship Study Launched on Infrastructure RESEARCH

and Regional Cooperation

ADBI has recently launched a flagship study on (iv) transnational issues.

Infrastructure and Regional Cooperation. The The study will focus on both software and
objective of this study is to examine the key issues hardware issues affecting infrastructure, especially
and challenges facing infrastructure in Asia in its when transnational cooperation is required. It will
ongoing efforts to support regional cooperation. also attempt to outline what the region needs to do
The four broad themes are: in terms of policies and best practices to meet these
(i) trade and logistics; challenges and address these issues so essential to
(ii) institutions, regulations, and policy; achieve inclusive growth. The study will be
(iii) financing; and completed in early 2009.

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e

Selected Upcoming Events

Distinguished Speaker Seminar: Todd Sandler (Tokyo)

12 November Todd Sandler, the Vibhooti Shukla Professor of Economics and Political Economy at the
University of Texas, will present a paper titled Regional Public Goods, Aid, and Development.
Cross-border Infrastructure Management: Managing Public Goods (Tokyo)
November This workshop will provide training for policymakers in charge of regional public goods,
specifically on cross-border infrastructure management in the region.
Private Sector Participation in Physical Infrastructure (Tokyo)
1922 This course is designed to improve the understanding of policymakers of the main challenges to
November greater private sector participation and investment in infrastructure projects in the region and
facilitate accelerated development of policy reform programs that will strengthen the enabling
environment and legal and governance frameworks.
Distinguished Speaker Seminar: Richard Baldwin (Tokyo)
Richard Baldwin, Professor of International Economics, Graduate Institute of International
26 November
Studies, Geneva, and Policy Director, Centre for Economic Policy Research, will present a paper
titled The 3-Trade-Bloc Dance in East Asia: Preliminary Reflections.
View all upcoming events at

Recent Discussion Papers

Evolving ASEAN+3 ERPD: Towards Peer Reviews

or Due Diligence?
Authors: Cindy Houser, Masahiro Kawai

The ASEAN+3 finance ministers group has decided to effectiveness of ERPD, the authors recommend a
integrate the economic review and policy dialogue balance between an OECD-type peer review and peer
(ERPD) process with the regional liquidity support pressure approach and an IMF-type due diligence
facility, called the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI), and has approach.
taken steps to transform CMI into a multilateral Read Discussion Paper 79 at
arrangement that is more independent of IMF programs.
To accomplish the required strengthening of the

Prospects of IndiaBangladesh Infrastructure Challenges in

Economic Cooperation: South Asia: The Role of
Implications for South Asian Public-Private Partnerships
Regional Cooperation Author: Geethanjali Nataraj
Authors: Biswa Bhattacharyay, Prabir De

To maximize the benefits of the regions integration into This paper examines the existing infrastructure facilities
the global economy, South Asia will need to strengthen and infrastructure needs of the South Asian region and
regional and bilateral cooperation. This paper discusses looks at the role played by public-private partnerships
various opportunities and associated prospects and (PPPs) as important tools in enhancing infrastructure
problems in strengthening the IndiaBangladesh development in South Asia. The study points out the
economic cooperation and integration agenda in the constraints to private sector participation in South Asia
context of the South Asian Association for Regional and looks at the experience of India and a few other
Cooperation. countries in the region with respect to PPPs.
Read Discussion Paper 78 at Read Discussion Paper 80 at

A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k I n s t i t u t e

Asia on the Move

Infrastructure development is facilitating Asias

rapid trade expansion by reducing shipping costs
and time. An edited volume on the infrastructure-
trade nexus is being put together by ADBI Senior
Research Fellow Douglas H. Brooks and former
Senior Research Fellow Jayant Menon. In mid-
October, at the end of his two years at ADBI as a
secondee from ADB HQ, Menon said working at
the Institute had provided him the freedom to be
able to think and to focus on research, away from
the hustle and bustle of the big building in
Manila. The co-edited volume, Infrastructure and
Trade in Asia, is due out in 2008.

Coming up: ADBI Annual Conference

On 4 December, ADBI will hold its Annual Yifu Lin, of Peking University and Ifzal Ali,
Conference, A Decade of Developments, ADBs Chief Economist, will present in this
marking its 10-year anniversary. The conference session. Session Three, Regional Growth
will highlight topics emphasized by its Deans over through Integration and Cooperation, is chaired
the years. Session One, Asian Crisis Ten Years by Isher Judge Ahluwalia, Vice Chairperson,
OnFinancing for the Future, is chaired by Planning Board, Punjab and member of ADBs
Thanong Bidaya, Visiting Fellow, ADBI. Speakers Eminent Persons Group. Invited speakers for this
in this session include Peter Petri, Brandeis session are Antoni Estevadeordal, Inter-American
University and Mohamed Ariff, Malaysian Institute Development Bank and Yuen Pau Woo, Asia
of Economic Research. Session Two, Achieving Pacific Foundation of Canada.
Poverty Reduction for an Inclusive and
Equitable Asia, is chaired by former Dean Peter View the agenda and more information about this event at
McCawley, Australian National University. Justin

ADBI News ADBI Online

Publisher: Mamoru Umemoto
ADBI News reports quarterly on the activities of the Asian To read ADBI News online, go to
Development Bank Institute. The views expressed in this
newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views or policies For information, send an e-mail to or go
of the Asian Development Bank Institute or the Asian to
Development Bank. Materials may be reprinted with credit For publications, go to
given to ADBI News. To send comments or to request a To read daily development-related news and
free subscription, e-mail; fax a analysis, go to Sign up
message to +81-3-3593-5571; or write to ADBI News, to receive E-Newsline daily.
Kasumigaseki Building 8F, 3-2-5, Kasumigaseki, Register for free e-mail alerts when new material is
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6008, Japan. For the web version, posted on our website.
go to