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OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

OF
WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM

CLIENT: JBF INDUSTRIES LTD.,SARIGAM

Manufactured by:

TRANSPARENT ENERGY SYSTEMS PVT. LTD.,


PUNE

1
STAGE 1

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY

THERMIC FLUID HEATER

(MODEL RECOTHERM)

2
INDEX

S.No. C H A P T E R. Page
No.
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--------

A. INTRODUCTION 4

B. PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN BEFORE RECOTHERM INSTALLATION 4

C. PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN FOR RECOTHERM INSTALLATION. 5

D. MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY 6

E. PRECOMMISSIONING FORMALITIES. 6

F. PROCEDURE FOR MOISTURE REMOVAL WHILE COMMISSIONING. 7

G. FACTORS WHICH ENSURE GOOD HEAT OUTPUT FROM RECOTHERM 8

H. SETTING OF THREE WAY DIVERTOR VALVE 8

I. STANDARD OPERATIING PROCEDURE 9

J. STOPPING PROCEDURE 10

K. RUNNING ATTENTION 10

L. FAULT FINDING AND SAFETIES INCORPORATED IN SYSTEM 11

M. MAINTENANCE. 12

N. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF THE THERMIC FLUID HEATER. 13

O. PROCEDURES OF LOW-FLOW SWITCHES SETTING. 13

P. CLEANING PROCEDURE. 14

Q. FAULT DETECTION & SOLUTION TO ROUTINE PROBLEMS 14

R. SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE OF THERMIC FLUID HEATER. 16

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INTRODUCTION

Thermic Fluid heating is mostly employed where the temperature requirement is quite
higher than the one, which we get through normal pressurized steam (i.e. 150 psi to 200
psi).

To achieve higher temperature (around 200 Degree C. & above upto 270 Degree. C.) By
means of steam, works out to be a complicated proposal because:

1. With high-pressure steam, the user's equipment cost goes up.


2. It needs more maintenance on valves and other mountings.
3. The danger of high steam pressure exists all the while.

To overcome all these problems the Thermic Fluid Heating is employed where -

1. High Temperatures can be achieved at normal pressures (2 Kg/Cm2).


2. It is a closed loop system and hence transmission losses are in good control.

Liquid medium used for transferring the heat is PETROLEUM OIL, having quite high
"Flash Point" and is popularly used for this application.

The oil is circulated through this Thermic Fluid Heater & the process heating equipments
installed in the plant. The flow is turbulent & hence heat transfer is quite good.

In order to ensure good & uniform heat transfer, the process piping should be carefully
designed such that adequate flow rates can be achieved across all the user's equipments.
The necessary precautions are described in next chapter.

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN BEFORE RECOTHERM INSTALLATION

The "RECOTHERM room necessarily should be isolated from the usual plant. This is to
ensure safe working of the unit & plant.

To avoid cavitations in Thermic Fluid Line, please ensure that the expansion tank must
be installed at 2 Meters height above the highest point in the thermic fluid circuit in the
plant. The Expansion tank should be installed preferably outside "RECOTHERM
HOUSE".

Please select the diameter of the pipeline in consultation with TESPL engineer. The
circuit resistance should be as minimum as possible.

The HOT OIL PUMP mechanical sealing or gland cooling water supply provision must be
full proof. Kindly note that the failure in cooling water supply for even few seconds may
damage the pump sleeve, mechanical seal or gland. This also can result into serious
danger of fire or damage to the unit.

Please ensure that the foundation for the pump base frame is rigid and properly selected.
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PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN FOR RECOTHERM INSTALLATION

1. All water, fuel & thermic fluid piping should be thoroughly flushed or blown out
clean before being connected to the system. This will prevent foreign matter
from blocking or damaging the piping system. The thermic fluid lines should not be
flushed with water. Compressed air or thermic fluid should be used for flushing.

2. Use only CAST STEEL VALVES or FORGED STEEL VALVES & never use cast iron
or Gun Metal valves in the thermic fluid line, as cast iron can not stand the stresses
created due to high temperatures. The valve sizes should be as per Piping
diagram" given by TESPL. Never use undersize valves.

3. Use valves with flanged ends only. Do not use valve having screwed
connections.

4. Use 5 mm thick oil quality gasket, for flanges in the thermic fluid piping. (STYLE
54" SUPER, CHAMPION MAKE).

5. Avoid using elbows & short bends in the thermic fluid lines as far as possible to
reduce frictional losses.

6. Do not use smaller diameter pipes than those specified for the thermic fluid system
line, as this pipe may not be capable of handling the quantity of thermic fluid being
circulated in the process.

7. Do not use screwed connections any where in the thermic fluid piping. Use only
welded construction & use a minimum number of flange joints.

8. Use expansion bends after every 30 meters of straight run of piping.

9. Use vents to let out air & gases at all high points. Air is a contaminant for the
thermic fluid at high temperatures.

10. Use drain valves at lowest points in the installation.

11. Provide a strainer before the thermic fluid pump in the return line to filter the
thermic fluid, with a bypass line to the strainer & provide valves in both the lines.

12. Number of bends in suction line should be minimum. There should be less than 3
bends.

13. For thermic fluid pipelines, use seamless or M.S. Class "C" pipes. The bends used in
these lines should be seamless only.

14. Test the heater, piping or any heat exchanger only pneumatically. Test them
PNEUMATICALLY with an air pressure of about 6 Kg/Cm2 (90 PSI). Testing can
be done with an inert gas like nitrogen also. Test the deaerator tank also, if
supplied separately. Do drain water, if any, from the pipeline and the unit,
after testing.

15. Provide foam type fire extinguishers in the heater room for emergency or minimum
12 nos. buckets full of sand.
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16. Deaerator tank should be installed 2 meters above the highest level of thermic
fluid pipeline in the plant.

17. The rating of flanges used, should be of ASA 150#.

18. Provide the cooling water supply line to the cooling supply of thermic fluid circulation
pump pedestals, stuffing box, bearing bracket and mechanical seal.

19. Ensure that no heavy piping load comes on the flanges of thermic fluid circulation
pump.

MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY (GENERAL ARRANGEMENT)

1. The hot waste flue gases coming out from turbine & enter to the inlet diverter valve of
thermic fluid heater. If the RECOTHERM in OFF position, then flue gases will divert
towards chimney through silencer from bypass port of inlet diverter valve.

If RECOTHERM in ON position, then flue gases passes through HRU (Recotherm) and
pass through outlet diverter valve. During the process the heat absorbed by thermic
fluid, which is circulated through HRU system by the centrifugal pump.

2. Function of diverter valves located at the unit inlet and outlet are to stop the hot flue
gases through thermic fluid heater, if thermic fluid circulated through system reaches
the set point.

PRECOMMISSIONING FORMALITIES

After all the connections are completed & pneumatically tested, the unit is ready to be
commissioned. Before commissioning, we suggest the following should be done:

1. If the client has purchased the thermic fluid directly, ensure that this has already
been sent to laboratory for analysis & confirm fit for use by them. This will ensure
that the quality of thermic fluid is OK & that it is fit for use in systems. (A sample of
1 liter of thermic fluid will sufficient for analysis). If the thermic fluid is of a bad
quality, it may crack at higher temperature & carbonize & choke the system piping &
the coil of the unit.

2. Ensure that the blind flanges used for isolating the circulation pump, deaerator and
expansion tank etc. for pneumatic testing are removed and the joints tightened
properly to prevent leakage.

3. Fill up thermic fluid slowly by a separate pump or hand oil transfer pump from the
bottom - most point in the system, which is normally at suction of pump, keeping all
the air vents open. It is not advisable to use the circulating pump of the unit, as it is
likely to cavitate. Filling up thermic fluid should not be done fast as air bubbles are
not likely to be removed from the system. Fill it up slowly till it comes out of the air

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vents & then close the vents. Continue filling up till the thermic fluid reaches a level
of about 3" from the bottom in the expansion tank gauge glass.

4. Set all the temperature controllers to the temperature required. Check that the
overload relays for motors are set correctly.

5. Start the pump switch & remove air, if any, from the air vents, & ensure pump
pressure & circuit pressure are alright & stable. Initially circulate the oil through
strainer only.

6. Start the flue gases through unit & raise the temperature absolutely slowly &
gradually, in steps. Say from ambient to 50 0C, then to 60 0C, then to 70 0C then 80
0
C & so on. Never raise the temperature too quickly, as air, gases & water, if any,
will have to be vented out gradually. Otherwise, the circulating pump may cavitate
and thermic fluid may spurt out of the expansion tank. If water is present, it will
vaporize & give rise to pressure build up in the system leading to severe damages.
Also never top up thermic fluid when temperature is high.

7. Insulate the pipelines & equipments only after the system has been completely
tested, as there may be leakages at higher temperatures.

PROCEDURE FOR MOISTURE REMOVAL WHILE COMMISSIONING

Fill up thermic fluid to the required level (to about 3" above the bottom of gauge glass) in
the expansion tank.

2. While filling the thermic fluid, keep the vent valves open & close them after filling.

3. Empty drum should be placed below vent line of expansion tank.

4. Put the pump switch ON. Thermic fluid circulation will start. After circulating the
thermic fluid through the strainer provided in the return line for about 5 to10
minutes, allow the thermic fluid to flow through the normal lines & not through the
strainer, as this cannot stand the stresses due to high temperature.

5. While doing the above, air & gases should be vented out by opening the vent Valve.

6. If after doing the above, the level has dropped down, repeat procedure 1 to 4.

7. Start the hot flue gases through unit. Raise the temperature of the thermic fluid
absolutely slowly & gradually, in steps, say by 10 Degree C at a time, i.e. 30 to 40
Degree C, 40 to 50 Degree C, 50 to 60 Degree C & so on till it reaches 100 Degree C.
Keep on venting the air & gases through the vents. Keep the unit working at 100
Degree C till all the moisture is removed.
NOTE: -IF THERE IS LOT OF MOISTURE IN THE THERMIC FLUID, THE PUMP WILL CAVITATE & WILL NOT
INDICATE STEADY PRESSURE. THERMIC FLUID MAY ALSO OVERFLOW FROM EXPANSION TANK. NEVER ALLOW
THE THERMIC FLUID OR STEAM TO COME OUT OF EXPANSION TANK AT A HIGH PRESSURE. ALLOW THEM TO
ESCAPE GRADUALLY BY PUTTING OFF THE BURNER. ALSO, NEVER CHARGE FRESH THERMIC FLUID WHEN A
UNIT IS ALREADY WORKING AT A HIGH TEMPERATURE. IF WATER IS PRESENT, IT WILL VAPORIZE
IMMEDIATELY & GIVE RISE TO PRESSURE BUILD BUILD-IN THE SYSTEM LEADING TO SEVERE DAMAGES.

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8. After all the moisture has been removed, increase the temperature gradually again in
steps but not suddenly.

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FOLLOWING FACTORS ENSURE GOOD HEAT OUTPUT & RELIABLE OPERATION
FROM RECOTHERM

1. Clean inner & outer surfaces of coil tube (no carbon / soot on outer surface of inner
& outer coils).

2. Undamaged packing / sealing used in mechanical assembly of RECOTHERM. This


helps in proper playing of gases in RECOTHERM.

3. Proper amount of Thermic Fluid circulation in RECOTHERM.

4. Proper damper setting, change in damper setting may result in high stack temp. &
back fire etc.

IMPORTANT NOTE:

Fluctuations in pressure & Temperature should be avoided, to avoid cyclic stress on the
equipment. The Temperature fluctuation can cause phenomenon called fatigue, which is
due to consecutive / alternative expansion & contraction of metal parts.

Sudden change in temperature & pressure also to be avoided since they cause thermal
shock & thermal shocks can result in metal failure & accidents.

User is strongly recommended to ensure that Thermic Fluid Heater is used under steady
Pressure & Temperature conditions for reliable performance.

THREE WAY DIVERTER VALVE

Waste heat recovery Thermic fluid heater is equipped with Automatic Pneumatically
operated three way diverter valves for isolation of the RECOTHERM from Turbine. This
valve is of unique design & is proven for its reliability & leak tightness. This diverter valve
provides easy & reliable isolation between TURBINE & RECOTHERM, thereby ensuring that
turbine operation is not interrupted due to any shut down of Waste heat recovery Thermic
fluid heater.

The automatic operation of Diverter Valve is an essential feature of Waste heat recovery
Thermic fluid heater, which ensures automatic control and action for safety of turbine.

The safeties and interlocks incorporated for safe operation of the unit are

a) High flue gas pressure of exhaust gas.


b) High outlet thermic fluid temperature.
c) Low thermic fluid flow through HRU.
d) Thermic fluid circulation pump overload.
e) Low gland cooling water flow.

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The operation of any safety results in bypassing the exhaust gases directly to atmosphere.
This ensures that there is no stoppage of turbine due to Waste Heat Recovery Thermic
fluid heater shutdown.

CONSTRUCTION OF DIVERTER VALVE:

1. Main shell This is the main body, circular in shape. Its diameter is dependent on
the quantity of gases flowing through.
2. Nozzles - It has one inlet nozzle in the center and two outlet nozzles on either side
of the inlet. They are of flanged type and their orientation is decided as per the
layout requirement.
3. The center bar is moved by pneumatic cylinder deciding the direction of flow.
4. Finned cooled gland packing arrangement gives the leak proof sealing even at high
temperature.
5. Pneumatic cylinder is mounted on a rigid structure, which makes the system robust
and avoids misalignment of pneumatic cylinder and bar.
6. An Inspection window is provided for the ease of maintenance.

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR RECOTHERM

A) PRECHECKS AND STARTING PROCEDURE

1) Open the isolation valves for the Thermic Fluid line.

2) Open the gland cooling valve for circulation pump & insure required water flow
circulate through gland cooling box & pedestal of hot oil circulation pump.

3) Start the circulation pump No.1 ( Circulation pump no.2 is standby )

4) Start the compressor to build the air pressure up to 7 kg/cm2 in receiver.

5) Open the isolation valves for the air lines going to pneumatic cylinders.

6) Observe the proper thermic fluid pressure on the gauges installed on inlet and outlet
header of HRU. It should be as per design parameters.

7) Switch on the main MCB for HRU control panel.

8) Press the START push button then PLC will start and operation logic will start
automatically as per set parameters.

9) Following safeties are to be fulfilled before starting Recotherm


a. HTM flow should not be low.
b. Flue gas back pressure High should not be present.
c. Thermic fluid outlet temp. should not be high.

10) Check all the safeties are OK (LOGIC STATUS - 2). All should be green except
AUTO START CMD is red.
Open TFH page ALL SAFETIES TFH & check the status of safeties.
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All should be GREEN Arrow (DPS no interlock in bypass mode) Rest all should be in
line.

AUTO SYN ON COMMAND SHOULD BE PRESENT ON LOGIC STATUS PAGE 1.

11) The outlet Diverter valve (DIV-2) of Recotherm should always be in open position It
is to be ensured. This is very important as it will trip the Turbine for Exhaust Back
Pressure High. If the open feed back of the diverter valve is not present, then it is to
be attended only then TFH should be started.

12) Open TFH page, The AUTO/MANUAL selection in AUTO mode & START /STOP
selection in START. Keep the set points of the Thermic fluid outlet temperature to
3300C.

13) The inlet diverter valve (DIV -1) of Recotherm will start open which can be checked
by flue gas I/L temperature whether increased or not. Close limit switch of inlet
diverter valve red indication. And green indication glow on the graphics page.

NOW RECOTHERM IN LINE & EXHAUST GAS FLOW THROUGH HRU.

B) STOPPING PROCEDURE

The Recotherm can stop on interlock as well as in normal mode.

1) INTERLOCK MODE
If following any safety takes place, then Diverter valve (DIV -1) will close.

a) THERMIC FLUID FLOW LOW


b) THERMIC FLUID OUTLET TEMPERATURE HIGH
c) FLUE GAS PRESSURE HIGH (FPT)
d) FLUE GAS BACK PRESSURE SWITCH HIGH
e) OPEN FEED BACK OF OUTLET DIVERTER VALVE (DIV-2)

C) NORMAL MODE

Following procedure follow to stop RECOTHERM in Normal mode.

a) Put START /STOP switch in STOP mode and AUTO/MANUAL switch in MANUAL
mode.
b) Then inlet diverter valve will close.

MANUAL OPERATION OF DIVERTER VALVE

1) Put the AUTO/MANUAL switch in MANUAL made and START/STOP switch in


STOP mode.
2) Put the Rotary selector switch on the control panel to CLOSE position
(Respective Diverter valve)

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3) Click the solenoid valve on control screen, then M will show on solenoid
valve on control screen. Then make double click the solenoid valves. The
valves will show green color.

IMPORTANT NOTE:
1) CHECK THE CLOSE LIMIT SWITCH OF THE INLET DIVERTER VALVE (DIV-1) of
RECOTHERM ON STOPPING WHETHER IN NORMAL MODE OR IN INTERLOCK MODE.
2) IF THE CLOSE LIMIT SWITCH DOES NOT ENERGISED & DIVERTER VALVE DOES NOT
CLOSE, THEN DIVERTER VALVE TO BE CLOSED MANUALY. IF THE DIVERTER VALVE NOT
CLOSES THEN IT IS TO BE CLOSED FROM FIELD.

D) Running Attentions:

Once the HRU starts monitor the thermic fluid pressures on gauges installed on inlet
and outlet header of Thermic Fluid.
Observe the air pressure for compressed air. It should be min. 7 kg / cm2 (g) to
operate divertor and damper valves.
Observe the return and outlet temperature of thermic fluid. The Delta T across the
same should be as per design.
Observe the flue gas temperature at various points indicated on SCADA.
Check the flue gas pressure in water tube manometer.
Check whether there is proper gland cooling for the circulation pumps gland cover
and saddles. It should be min 20 litrs/min.
Maintain log book properly.
Check whether there is any alarm and fault indication glow on SCADA.

E) Fault finding and safeties incorporated in system

I) Safeties incorporated in HRU

Differential pressure transmitter (DPT):- It is installed in outlet Thermic fluid line of


HRU. It ensures proper oil flow through HRU. If there is any variation in flow, it
trips the unit and by passes the flue gases through diverter valve and gives alarm
and indication on control screen.
Flue Gas Pressure Transmitter (FPT):- It is installed at the inlet of Diverter valve 1
of Recotherm. It ensures proper back pressure on turbine. If back pressure
increased more than acceptable back pressure, it trips the unit and bypasses the
flue gases through diverter valve and gives alarm and indication on control
screen.
High Outlet temperature: - If the outlet temperature of the thermic fluid goes
beyond the set point, it trips the HRU and by passes the flue gases.

Circulation pump safety:-If Circulation pump gets off in running condition, the
system gets tripped

Return temperature controller:-If return temperature of thermic fluid goes beyond


the set limit, the unit gets OFF; automatically and when temperature drops down
unit gets ON automatically. When this safety actuates, only the indication will

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come on the control screen.

Low cooling water flow for gland cooling:-This safety ensures proper cooling water
flow for pump gland and pedestal. The flow gets reduced, the circulation pump
gets tripped and ultimately HRU Trips.

II) Fault Finding Procedure

1) Thermic Fluid Outlet High Temperature:-

a) Check whether proper thermic fluid flow is there through HRU.


b) Check Delta P across the unit, which clearly indicates the oil flow through HRU.
c) Note that temperature sensor and temperature controller is calibrated properly
time to time.

2) Differential Pressure Transmitter:-

a) Check whether all isolation valves for the thermic fluid are open properly
b) Check whether oil is circulating properly in close loop system. or minimum flow is
always there for thermic fluid
c) Check whether calibration of DPT is done properly.

3) High Flue Gas Outlet Temperature:-

a) Check whether inlet flue gas temperature is within limit.


b) Check whether outlet temperature of thermic fluid is maintained within limit
c) Check whether HRU is deposited with soot particles which will not allow to
transfer the heat results in increasing high outlet temp.

MAINTENANCE

RECOTHERM unit requires very little time for carrying out its routine maintenance. Timely
and regular maintenance, will keep these units performing day and night without any
stoppage.

The regular maintenance charts, which are scheduled, should be rigorously followed.
After using these charts, it is assured that the break down maintenance time would be
almost nil.

Also get your THERMIC FLUID thoroughly tested in all respects after every 1000 working
hours.
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Timely maintenance is a key to excellent performance.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR TROUBLE - FREE OPERATION OF THERMIC


FLUID HEATER

A. FOR HOT OIL SYSTEM :

1. Every day checking of oil level in Deareator Tank.

2. Tested oil sample in laboratories after every 3 to 4 months & Change if it required.

3. Check the lubricant level in the Hot Oil Pump after every week & top of if required.

4. Check & tighten all nuts & bolts of Hot Oil Pump every month.
B. COOLING WATER SYSTEM :

1. Check the cooling water flow through the Hot Oil Pump gland cooling system every
shift.

C. SAFETIES :

1. Check all safeties i.e. Low Flow, Outlet Temperature & diverter valve control once in a
week.

D. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM :

1. Check & tighten all the terminals every 15 days.

2. Clean the panel board chamber every month.

PROCEDURE OF LOW-FLOW SWITCHES SETTING

The pressure differential created by orifice plate is directly proportional to fluid flow rate.
Reduction in differential of pressure is an indication of lower flow rate than the desired.

The pressure at the inlet of "ORIFICE PLATE" which is called as "PUMP PRESSURE" is

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higher than the pressure at the outlet of "ORIFICE PLATE" which is called as "CIRCUIT
PRESSURE".

The reduction in fluid flow rate will mainly show either of the two signs:

a) In one case pump pressure may decrease which may be the result of lack of suction to
pump or chocking of impeller vanes.

b) In the other case the circuit pressure may increase which may be due to higher
resistance in pipe line than normal i.e. closing of all valves on supply lines.

If any one of the above conditions occur the unit should go to lockout.

CLEANING PROCEDURE

1. SOLENOID VALVE :The main cleaning portion is the plunger's rubber top & orifice
seat. If there is any dust particles in between plunger's rubber top & orifice seat there
will be heavy leakages through spray nozzle. Or if any dust particle has clogged the
orifice seat hole, there will be no air flow through solenoid valve.

THE CLEANING PROCEDURE IS AS FOLLOWS :


a) Remove the nut & take-out the coil box.
b) Remove the body with spanner by turning anticlockwise.
c) Remove the plunger & spring from body.
d) Clean plunger's rubber top with clean cloth.
e) Clean orifice seat hole & also clean the other holes in the body.
f) Reassemble the solenoid valve.

NOTE : Replace the "o" ring immediately when it damages.


FAULT DETECTION & SOLUTION TO TYPICAL ROUTINE PROBLEMS

Description - RECOTHERM pump does not start by putting pump


of fault. switch "ON".

Probable cause -1. Check three phase supply.


2. Check control fuse.
3. Check pump overload relay.(Tripped)
4. Check if any loose connections are there on rotary
switch terminals.
5. Check neutral properly.

Solution. - 1. Ensure 3-phase supply.


2. Replace the fuse, if it is burnt.
3. Reset pump overload, check motor current after
starting. Also check overload setting.
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4. Tighten the loose connection.
5. Ensure proper neutral connection.

Description of fault. -Circulation pump ON but Diverter valve does not operate

Probable Cause - 1. Check Control command on screen.


2. Check return temperature setting.
3. Check the loose connection if any.

Solution. - 1. Make the Control ON command .


2. Set return temperature setting.
3. Tighten the loose connection & start.

Description - RECOTHERM shows LOW FLOW while pump


of fault. running also

Probable cause. - 1. Check whether all the valves in thermic oil line
are properly open or not.
2. Check circulation pump pressure and circuit 1pressure
they should be normal and as usual.
3. Check whether there is any cavitation occurring
while running.
4. Check the thermic oil line step by step.
5. Check differential pressure transmitter.

Solution. - 1. If not then please open valves properly.


2. If not then check the circulation pump for air lock or
gasket etc.
3. Check oil viscosity, whether if it normal or check
if there is any blockage in the suction line.
4. Remove obstruction to flow if any.
5. Replace if faulty.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Description - The RECOTHERM shows high temperature.


of fault.

Probable - 1. Check setting of high temperature controller(T2).


cause. 2. Check the flow condition as given above.
3. Check for any air lock or cavitation by oil pump,
the pump output should be proper.
4. Check suction line of oil pump.

Solution. - 1. Correct the setting if wrong.


Equation T2 = T1 + Delta T + 20 Degree C.
2. Correct the flow accordingly.
3. Repair the pump if necessary.
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4. It should be free flowing & clean.

Description - The unit does not raise requisite temperature.


of fault.

Probable - 1. Check the carbon formation of coil.


cause. 2. Check whether all the asbestos packings are proper
or not. (Inside the unit assembly).

Solution. - 1. Clean the outer surface of coil by water.


2. The gases should not get bypass directly to
chimney, hence see that all the packings are all
right.
----------------------------------------------------------------------

SCHEDULED MAINTAINCE REQUIRMENTS FOR RECOTHERM

DAILY REQUIREMENTS

SR.NO CHECK POINTS POINTS TO CHECK


1. Thermic fluid 1. Oil quality checked?
2. Expansion tank level checked?
2. Exhaust gas 1. Does the temperature is within
operating limits?
2. Flue gas analysation done?

WEEKLY REQUIREMENTS

Sr.No. CHECK POINTS TO CHECK


1. Operation of Expansion tank 1. Check auto / manual system.
level controls 2. Check low-level alarm
2. Flue gas analysis 1. Analyze flue gas for its properties.
2. Tune the Incinerator for maximum
efficiency as per manufacturer s
recommendation.

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3. Safeties provided to TFH. 1. Check Temperature controllers for proper
Check for their operation. operation.
2. Check Differential Pressure Switch for
proper working.
3. Check Gland cooling water safety (Gland
cooling water for TFH circulation pump).
4. Replace the safety instrument if it is not
working properly.
6. Thermic Fluid system 1. Check & clean circulation pump suction
filters.
2. Check pump-motor coupling, if necessary
align properly.
3. Check for leakages.
7. Thermic Fluid Heater unit. 1. Tighten all nut-bolts.
2. Check for leakage through Flange joints.
3. Check & tighten all electrical contacts.

Note : Thermic Fluid parameters should be checked once in three months for
their operating conditions.

ANNUAL REQUIREMENTS

SR.NO. CHECK CHECK POINTS


1. Clean flue gas side surfaces 1. Clean unit furnace internally.
2. Clean Chimney internally.
2. Thermic oil side cleaning 1. Check / service circulation pumps.
2. Check / replace all strainers.
3. Check / clean expansion tank.
4. Check / tighten all flange joints.
3. Repair on flue gas side As necessary.
4. Safety Controls 1. Check pressure switches operation.
2. Check Flame failure safety.
3. Check Over load relays provided to
motors for their proper operation.
4. Replace the safety instrument if it is
not working properly.

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STAGE 2
19
WASTE HEAT RECOVERY

BOILER

(MODEL RECOSTAR)

INDEX

SR.NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

I Construction & Functioning Of RECOSTAR 20


II Instruments 21,22
III Mountings fitted On RECOSTAR 23
IV Other Mountings fitted On RECOSTAR 23
V Operational Safeties 23
VI Blow down 24
VII Factors Ensuring Good Steam Output From Boiler 25
VIII Added Advantages 25
IX About Operation 25
20
X Starting Procedure Of The RECOSTAR 26
XI Running attention 28
XII About Maintenance 28
XIII Fault Detection Logistics 29
XIV Saturated steam table 31
XV Scheduled Maintenance for Boiler
Daily 32
Weekly 32
Annually 34
XVI Water Quality Chart
Feed water 35
Boiler water 36
XVII Recommended Spares Parts List 37

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CONSTRUCTION & FUNCTIONING OF "RECOSTAR"*

"RECOSTAR* is a single pass vertical water tube type Waste heat recovery boiler. The
flue gases from Recotherm or Turbine flow through Diverter valve to HRU Boiler. At the
end of the Boiler. After that the flue gasses are allowed to escape to the atmosphere
through chimney.
Feed water is preheated in the Feed water tank by putting a steam sparger pipe or
condensate recovery up to 90 C., then same water enters in the Boiler steam drum
through Economiser. From steam drum the water is feed to Boiler tubes through down
comers & it gets converted into steam after absorbing the heat in the flue gases and the
steam enters to the steam drum of the WHRB. This steam can be supplied to the plant as
per the requirement by opening the main steam valve. The flue gas flow rate depends on
the load on the Turbine. The diverter valve installed on inlet of the WHRB is operated
with the help of pneumatic cylinder.

* NOTE:
RECOSTAR is a brand name of Waste Heat Recovery Boiler.
Economiser, Water Preheater are the accessories provided to the main unit
(WHRB), to improve efficiency of the unit.

22
INSTRUMENTS

1] HIGH STEAM PRESSURE SWITCH (HPS):


This is fitted on the WHRB pressure-sensing header. The function is to close the
diverter valve port of WHRB, at preset pressure & reopen it when the pressure
decreases to a preset limit.

2] LOW STEAM PRESSURE SWITCH (LPS) :


This is fitted on the WHRB pressure sensing header. The function is to initially in
cold condition to bypass low feed water temperature interlock safety. Once feed
water temperature reaches 900C then Low Steam Pressure Switch safety will not
operate if feed water temperature maintain 900C.

3] BOILER WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER:


This is fitted on the steam Drum of the WHRB. The function is to maintain the
water level inside the WHRB by switching ON & OFF the feed water pump as per
requirement. This will also trip the diverter valve if the water level in the WHRB
goes below the safe limit.
This Controller operates with the help of Air break type magnetic switches, which
are fitted on the top of the water controller. These switches are 3 Nos. and for
pump ON / OFF, Low Water Level in the WHRB & No Water in WHRB.

4] FLUE GAS BACK PRESSURE SWITCH:


This is fitted on the inlet Flue gas duct to WHRB to trip the WHRB in case
backpressure on the WHRB increases beyond permissible limit. This is done by
diverting the flue gases by actuating the diverter valve. The maximum allowable
backpressure on engine is 200 mmwc as specified by the engine manufacturer.

4] MANOMETER:
This is fitted on inlet Flue gas duct of WHRB to measure & indicate the
backpressure on engine. The pressure obtained should be always less than the
backpressure allowed by the engine manufacturer.

5] TEMPERATURE INDICATOR:
This is mounted in control panel. It is indicates the temperature through
Thermocouple type sensor, which is mounted at various points of the unit. It
displays the temperature at various points such as flue gas inlet & outlet of unit,
Feed water inlet etc.

6] LOW FEED WATER TEMP:


This is fitted on the inlet Flue gas duct to WHRB to trip the WHRB in case
backpressure on the WHRB increases beyond permissible limit. This is done by
diverting the flue gases by actuating the diverter valve. The maximum allowable
backpressure on engine is 200 mmwc as specified by the engine manufacturer.

7] FLUE GAS PRESSURE TRANSMITTER :

23
It is installed at the inlet of Diverter valve 2 of WHRB. It ensure proper back
pressure on turbine. If back pressure increased more than acceptable back
pressure, it trips the unit and bypass the flue gases through diverter valve and
gives alarm and indication on control.

8] STEAM DRUM WATER LEVEL TRANSMITTER : This is differential water level


transmitter. The function is to maintain the desire water level inside the steam drum by
giving 4 - 20 mA signal to PLC system. This signal control the frequency of feed water
pump motor with the help of PID controller developed in PLC system installed in Control
Panel.

9] STEAM PRESSURE TRANSMITTER : This is pressure transmitter installed on steam


drum to modulate inlet diverter (DIV-2) of WHRB accordingly steam pressure in the steam
drum.

MOUNTINGS FITTED ON THE RECOSTAR

"RECOSTAR WATER TUBE TYPE WHRB IS FITTED WITH THE BEST


MOUNTINGS THAT ARE AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET. THE BEST & PROVEN
QUALITIES OF THESE MOUNTINGS HELP THE RECOSTAR WHRB TO PERFORM
BETTER & SAFE.

1] MAIN STEAM STOP VALVE:

This is fitted at the outlet of WHRB. It is a globe valve having S.S. working
internals. The body is made up of Cast Steel. The function of this valve is to isolate
WHRB & Main steam supply line.

2] AUXILIARY VALVES: -

These are globe valves having S.S. working internals & body material made up of
cast steel. These valves are used for various applications on the WHRB such as air
venting, pressure switch isolation, and water level controller isolation.

3] SAFETY VALVE:

These valves (2 Nos.) are fitted separately on the steam drum of the WHRB. It
blows off excessive steam pressure, if the high-pressure switch fails to operate. It
is having S.S. working internals & body made of Cast steel.

4] BLOW-DOWN VALVE:

It is fitted on bottom of the WHRB steam Drum. It is having SS working parts &
body made of Bronze. It is parallel slide type & the advantage is that it can be
opened precisely with the minimum handle operation. This is used for blowing out
the scale deposition inside WHRB.

5] GAUGE GLASS LEVEL INDICATORS WITH COCK SET: - (2 Nos.)

24
These are having SS working parts & body. These are fitted on WHRB Steam Drum
These valves are provided to isolate the level indicator when glass is to be
replaced. The gauge glass is Reflux type & it shows level on drum of Boiler very
clearly.

OTHER MOUNTINGS FITTED ON THE RECOSTAR

1] FEED WATER PUMP WITH MOTOR: -

These pumps are used to feed the water in Boiler. The feed water pump is coupled
with motor by using love Joy coupling. These pumps operate on water level
controller, which is fitted on boiler drum. Only one pump will operate, out of two
pumps & other will remain as standby. For details refer pump manual attached
with this manual.

2] FEED PUMP ISOLATION VALVES: -

These are globe valves having S.S. working internals & body material made up of
Cast Steel. These valves are used for isolating the feed pumps. These valves are
operated manually while carrying out the maintenance of feed water pump.

3] NON-RETURN VALVE: -

These are feed check valves, wafer type having S.S. working internals & body
material made up of Cast Steel. These valves are used to prevent back flow of
Boiler water to water feed pump during feed water pump running condition & idle
condition. This valve will act in one direction only.

OPERATIONAL SAFETIES

1. NO WATER IN BOILER : -

This control is provided by "WHRB water Level Controller". The function is to


shut off the diverter valve, when the water level in the WHRB goes below safe
working limit. This safety gives an audio visual alarm.

2. LOW WATER LEVEL ALARM: -

WHRB water level controller also does this function. This will give only audiovisual
alarm when the water level comes below normal operating level.

3. MOTOR PROTECTION CONTROL: -

The overload relays are fitted to each & every electrical motor fitted on the WHRB.
25
This overload relay will monitor the motor current & if the motor draws excess
current then the relay trips the motor.

4. FLUE GAS BACK PRESSURE SWITCH:

This pressure switch trip the inlet diverter valve of WHRB in case backpressure on
the turbine increases beyond permissible limit. This is done by diverting the flue
gases by actuating the diverter valve. The maximum allowable backpressure on
turbine as specified by the Turbine manufacturer.

5. FLUE GAS PRESSURE TRANSMITTER :

It is installed at the inlet of Diverter valve 2 of WHRB. It ensure proper back


pressure on turbine. If back pressure increased more than acceptable back
pressure, it trips the unit and bypass the flue gases through diverter valve and
gives alarm and indication High flue gas pressure.

6. LOW FEED WATER TEMP : The function of this safety to stop Inlet Diverter
valve of WHRB, if feed water temp. drops below 900C. Initially in cold condition to
bypass low feed water temperature interlock safety Low Steam Pressure Switch
taken into operation. Once feed water temperature reaches 900C then Low Steam
Pressure Switch safety will not operate if feed water temperature maintain 900C.

BLOW DOWN

The blow down has a great significance in the operation of boiler. When the water in the
boiler evaporates & converts into steam, the dissolved solids in the water remain in the
boiler & settle down in the bottom portion of the Drum. These are known as scales &
must be removed from the boiler periodically.

This is achieved by opening the blow down valve for short period, which is located at the
bottom of the boiler steam Drum. The water inside the Boiler is under pressure. When
blow down valve operates the water comes out with high velocity & removes the scales
with it.

The frequency of blow down depends on the feed water hardness. If the feed water is
hard then the blow down should be given more frequently. For knowing the time period
between two blow downs, the boiler water hardness has to be checked. The `TDS'
(Total Dissolved Solids) level in the boiler should not exceed 2500 ppm. As soon as the
`TDS' level reaches this mark, blow down must be given.

The period of blow down depends on size of boiler & pressure of boiler. The boiler should
be blown down periodically to maintain the concentration of dissolved solids within
recommended limits as given in Is10392. The quantity of water to be blown down is
calculated as follows:

X
BLOW DOWN % = ------------- X 100
26
[Y X]
Where,
X = T.D.S. IN BOILER FEED WATER
Y = MAX. PERMISSIBLE T.D.S IN BOILER WATER

FACTORS ENSURING GOOD STEAM OUTPUT FROM WHRB

Clean inner & outer surfaces of tubes. There should be no soot on the Surface of
the tubes & no scale deposition in side the tubes.
Check the Flue gas with Smoke Spot Test at inlet of the Unit, It must be below or
equal to Smoke Index No. 2.
Feed water Quality should be as per the Water Specification provided in
commissioning report as per IS-10392.
Regular Preventive maintenance should be carried out for trouble free operation of
the Unit.

ADDED ADVANTAGES

A. AUTOMATIC WATER FEED PUMP CHANGE OVER SYSTEM:

"RECOSTAR" steam boilers are provided with two nos water feed pumps. Any one
pump can be used at a time & second pump will be a stand by. If due to any problem,
the running pump stops i.e. due to pump motor overload, due to over load relay
malfunctioning or due to problem in contactor, the standby pump starts automatically
without operating the rotary switch. When the stand by pump starts, simultaneously
the Audio-Visual Alarm starts. This alarm is a signal to the boiler operator to switch
over the rotary switch on standby pump so that the alarm will stop & the alarming
pump problem can be attended.

B. WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER:

This water level controller is provided with three micro switches. The first micro switch
from the top is for pump ON-OFF, second is for LOW LEVEL alarm & third is for NO
WATER alarm & boiler lock out (Diverter valve OFF). Advantage of this controller is
that the boiler will not start in cold condition if the water level has not reached the
desired level.

NOTE:
IF THE TANK IS LOCATED AT HEIGHT. THE WATER WILL FLOW BY GRAVITY
FROM TANK TO WHRB AFTER STOPPING THE PUMP. THIS WILL RISE THE
LEVEL IN WHRB ABOVE THE DESIRED LIMIT. TO AVOID THIS PROBLEM THE
27
FEED CHECK VALVES OR THE FEED PUMP SUCTION VALVES SHOULD BE KEPT
CLOSED AFTER THE LEVEL IS RAISED TO PUMP CUT OFF MARKING. THESE
VALVES SHOULD BE OPENED WHEN STEAM PRESSURE RISES TO 1 KG/CM2 ON
BOILER.

NOTE: AS THE DIVERTOR VALVE IS OPERATED BY COMPRESSED AIR, CHECK


WHETHER ADEQUATE AIR PRESSURE ( i. e. 4.5 kg/ cm2 ) IS AVAILABLE.

PRECHECK OF THE WHRB

Before starting the WHRB check the water level in the Soft Water Day Tank and fill the
tank with soft water if required. The air pressure to the diverter valve should be checked
before starting. Put "ON" electrical main switch, so that electrical supply to the control
panel is established. Open the water inlet valve to the WHRB feed water pump. Now put
the water pump auto manual switch in Auto position so that the water pump will be
modulated automatically with the help of water level transmitter to maintain the water
level in the WHRB. Keep the main steam stop valve close, open the air vent or auxiliary
valve so that the air inside the WHRB will be removed when the diverter valve is actuated
& steam formation takes place. Check the blow down valve, whether it is closed properly.

WHRB should start in AUTO mode. Following are the safeties required to fulfill before
starting the WHRB.
1) Boiler water level LO, LO- LO & ML3 should not be present.
2) FPT Flue Gas Pressure should be normal.
3) FPS Flue gas back pressure switch should be normal.
4) High Steam Pressure switch should be normal.
5) Feed water pump selector switch should be in AUTO mode.

STARTING PROCEDURE OF THE BOILER

1) Check all the safeties are OK .( LOGIC STATUS -2). All should be green except
AUTO START CMD. It is red.
2) Open WHRB page ALL SAFETIES WHRB & Check the status of all safeties. All
should be Green indication arrow.
( LMS 6 & LMS 7 are Bypassed ) Reset all should be in line.
AUTO SYN ON COMMAND SHOULD BE PRESENT ON LOGIC STATUS PAGE 1.
3) Open WHRB page & select AUTO/MANUAL selection in AUTO mode. START/STOP
selection in START mode. Keep the Boiler High steam pressure set point on 6
Kg/cm2 as per process requirement.
4) The inlet diverter valve of WHRB will open by checking flue gas back pressure
safety and close limit switch of diverter valve interlock. If all interlocks are OK then
green indication will glows on graphics page.
5) Diverter valve will modulate as per the set point of the boiler steam pressure.
28
STOPPING PROCEDURE OF THE BOILER

The WHRB can stop on SAFETY INTERLOCK as well as in NORMAL mode.

A) If following any SAFETY INTERLOCK energized ,then boiler will STOP.

a)Boiler water level LO,LO-LO & ML3.


b)FPT High Flue gas Back Pressure.
c) FPS High flue gas back pressure.
d) HPS _ Boiler High steam pressure .
e) Low Feed water temperature.

B) NORMAL MODE

a) Select START/STOP selector switch on STOP mode.


b) Select AUTO/MANUAL selector switch on MANUAL mode.
c) Then inlet diverter valve of the WHRB will close.

MANUAL OPERATION OF DIVERTER VALVE

1) Select START/STOP selector switch on STOP mode. Select AUTO/MANUAL selector


switch on MANUAL

2)Put the Rotary selector switch on the control panel to CLOSE position
( Respective Diverter valve )

3)Click the solenoid valve on control screen ,then M will show on solenoid valve on control
screen. Then make double click the solenoid valves. The valves will show green paint
color.

IMPORTANT NOTE :
1) CHECK THE CLOSE LIMIT SWITCH OF THE INLET DIVERTER VALVE (DIV-1) of
RECOTHERM ON STOPPING WHETHER IN NORMAL MODE OR IN INTERLOCK MODE.
2) IF THE CLOSE LIMIT SWITCH DOES NOT ENERGISED & DIVERTER VALVE DOES NOT
CLOSE , THEN DIVERTER VALVE TO BE CLOSED MANUALY. IF THE DIVERTER VALVE NOT
CLOSE THEN IT IS TB CLOSE FROM FIELD

engine exhaust will be absorbed by the water tubes, & further allowed to escape through
chimney at low stack temperature. This ensures maximum heat recovery & excellent
WHRB efficiency. The temperature of exhaust gas is above the safe limits allowed by the
Pollution Control Board of India. It will take some time to heat the water inside the WHRB.

As soon as the steam starts accumulating in the steam space above the level it will start
coming out through the air vent. After some time air vent (Which is open), should be
29
closed. Now the steam will be accumulated in the steam space & the steam pressure will
start rising. Let the WHRB cut off at high steam pressure "At-least once" before opening
the main steam valve.

In case of overhead water tanks, water flow to the WHRB is due to gravity when there is
no backpressure from the WHRB side. To avoid this the water inlet valve at pump outlet
should be kept closed after feeding the water in the WHRB for the first time but it should
be opened immediately as soon as 1 Kg/Cm2 pressure is
RUNNING ATTENTION
developed in the WHRB. The water level in the WHRB rises
as the pressure is built up in WHRB. If the increase in level is very high, then the level
should be lowered & kept at desired maximum level by operating the blow down valve
manually & intermittently.

WARNING:

The water level in the WHRB should be maintained at any cost. Though the
automatic water level controller is provided, the operator should manually
check the water level in the gauge glass at short intervals. In case of power
failure the main steam outlet valves should be closed immediately so that the
water level does not come down.

While the WHRB is in operation following instructions should be followed to avoid


problems.

1. POWER FAILURE: In case of power failure close the main steam valve
immediately.

3. LOCK OUT CONDITION: Due to any abnormal condition the WHRB may go to lock out
condition giving audio visual alarm, in such case, find out the abnormality and restart
the WHRB as given instructions starting procedure.

4. For safety of WHRB it is very important to ensure sufficient water level in the WHRB.
Even though automatic water level controller is fitted, it is advisable to keep a check on
water level in the level gauge glass indicator.

5. Blow down should be given at least once in a shift.

ABOUT MAINTENANCE

A] PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR TROUBLE-FREE OPERATION OF WHRB

30
a) FOR WATER SYSTEM:

1. Every Shift checking of feed water softness is a must.


2. Drain & clean service tank after every 30 days.
3. Check the water pump after every 15 day & tighten all nuts & bolts of the same.
4. Check No Water, Low level safeties every shift

b) FOR FLUE GAS SYSTEM:

1. Operate the diverter valve once a shift.

c) ELECTRICAL SYSTEM:

1. Check & tighten all the panel terminals every month.


2. Clean the panel board chamber every month.
3. Clean/Check all the contacts of the contactors every Month.

FAULT DETECTION LOGISTICS

1. NOTHING STARTS IN CONTROL CIRCUIT "ON" CONDITION.

a] Check whether all safety interlocks are in normal explained in starting procedure.

b] Check the power supply through control circuit as per the circuit diagram given &
locate the fault.

2. WHRB GIVES WET STEAM:

a] Check the water level in the level glass. If the level is on the higher side it will result in
wet steam. The level should not be more than 6 inches from the bottom of the level
glass.

b] Do not open the main steam valve excessively. This will cause the water carryover
along with the steam. Operate the WHRB nearer to the rated pressure of the WHRB.
Avoid operating at low pressure.

3. WHRB DOES NOT DEVELOP SUFFICIENT STEAM PRESSURE:

a] Check that Turbine is on full load. If it is on lower side the output will be in accordance
with the load.

b] Clean the HRU from flue gas side & water side to obtain good heat transfer.

31
c] Check the flue gas emission if it is smoky. Smoky flue emission means incomplete
combustion, Rectify this problem by referring it to Turbine manufacturer.

d] Check if the main steam valve is open excessively & more steam is drawn from the

WHRB. This will result in low steam pressure.

4. STACK TEMPERATURE IS ON HIGHER SIDE:

a] Clean the flue gas side of Boiler.

b] If scale formation has taken place on the water tube inside of the WHRB it will result in
poor heat transfer & high stack temperature. In this case the WHRB must be descaled
otherwise the tubes will be overheated.

5. WATER PUMP DOES NOT STOP AT THE DESIRED LEVEL IN AUTO MODE

a] Check if the isolating valve of the water level controller are open & drain valve is
closed, If not keep them in proper position.

b] Check the top most magnetic assembly in the level controller. Repair/replace it, if it is
not working.

6. WATER PUMP DOES NOT RESTART IN AUTO MODE:

a] Check the magnetic assembly No.1 Repair/replace it if it is not working.

b] Check selection in PLC logic.

7. CONTINUOUS INDICATION OF LOW WATER OR NO WATER ON PANEL:

a] Check the Air break Switches. Repair/replace if not working.

b] Check selection in PLC logic.

8. THE UNIT DOES NOT RAISE REQUISITE PRESSURE.

a. Check whether back pressure on boiler has increased beyond permissible range.
b. Check if the diverter valve has actuated totally
c. Clean the economiser & WHRB.
d. Check the diverter valve.

32
SATURATED STEAM PRESSURE TEMP. CHART

Steam Steam
Corresponding Corresponding
Pressure Pressure
Steam Temp. Steam Temp.
Kg/Cm2 0 Kg/Cm2 0
C C
(Gauge) (Gauge)
01 Kg/cm2 99.12 0C 11 Kg/cm2 183.23 0C

02 Kg/cm2 119.60 0C 12 Kg/cm2 187.11 0C

03 Kg/cm2 132.84 0C 13 Kg/cm2 190.74 0C

04 Kg/cm2 142.89 0C 14 Kg/cm2 194.16 0C

05 Kg/cm2 151.11 0C 15 Kg/cm2 197.39 0C

06 Kg/cm2 158.08 0C 16 Kg/cm2 200.45 0C

07 Kg/cm2 164.17 0C 17 Kg/cm2 203.38 0C

08 Kg/cm2 169.61 0C 18 Kg/cm2 206.16 0C

09 Kg/cm2 174.53 0C 19 Kg/cm2 208.83 0C

10 Kg/cm2 179.04 0C 20 Kg/cm2 211.40 0C

33
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS ON BOILER

DAILY REQUIREMENTS

SR. NO CHECK POINTS POINTS TO CHECK


1. Water level controls 1. Mobray should be checked at
every shift.
2. Mechanical malfunctioning
2. Feed water 1.Raw water quality
2.Boiler water quality
3.Blow down water quality
3. Exhaust gas 1.Is the flue gas temperature within
operating limits.
4. Blow down 1. Does blow down valve operate
properly?
2. Is blow down given as per
schedule?
5. Diverter valve 1. Check operation of diverter valve
before starting the unit.
2. Check Instrument air supply.

WEEKLY REQUIREMENTS

Sr. No CHECK POINTS TO CHECK


1. Operation of water level 3. Check feed water pump auto / manual system.
controls 4. Check boiler low water alarm.
5. Check boiler No water safety with lock out.
2. Safety or relief valves 1. Check for proper lift at set pressure.
2. Check for proper differential.
3. Check for leakage.
4. Check for mechanical malfunctioning.
3. Flue gas analysis 3. Analyze flue gas for its properties.
4. Tune the turbine for maximum efficiency as
per turbine manufacturers recommendation.
4. Safeties provided to boiler. 5. Check Safety valve for its proper operation.
Check for their operation. 6. Check High steam pressure switch working.
7. Check No water safety.
8. Check High Flue gas pressure.
9. Check Over load relays provided to motors for
their proper operation.
10.Replace the safety instrument if it is not
working properly.
5. Feed water system 4. Check & clean feed water pump suction filters.
5. Check softener, if necessary regenerate the
softener.
6. Check soft water quality in feed water tank.
7. Check for leakages.
34
7. Boiler 4. Tighten all nut-bolts.
5. Check & clean gauge glass.
6. Check, drain & clean mobray assembly.
7. Check for leakage through blow down valve.
8. Check & tighten all electrical contacts.
8. Diverter Valve 1. Check diverter valve for its proper operation.
2. Clean diverter valve internally.
3. Check Instrument air supply to diverter valve.
4. Check diverter valve for leakages.
5. Check solenoid valves for proper operation.
6. Check pneumatic cylinder for its proper
operation.
7. Check alignment of diverter valve with
pneumatic cylinder

35
ANNUAL REQUIREMENTS

SR. CHECK CHECK POINTS


NO.
1. Clean water tube surface 3. Clean water tubes internally by descaling
method.
4. Clean boiler flue gas side internally.
5. Clean Chimney internally.
2. Water side cleaning 5. Check / service feed water pumps.
6. Check / replace all strainers.
7. Check / clean feed water tanks.
8. Check / tighten all flange joints.
9. Descale the boiler if necessary; remove all
sludge/mud from boiler.
10. Check softener resin. Regenerate / change
if required.
11. Check softener filters, clean / replace if
required.
3. Repair on flue gas side As necessary.
4. Safety relief valve Check / recondition / replace if necessary.
5. Safety Controls 5. Check Safety valve for its proper
operation.
6. Check High steam pressure switch cut off.
7. Check flue gas backpressure switch cut
off.
8. Check No water safety.
9. Check High Flue gas pressure safety.
10. Check Over load relays provided to motors
for their proper operation.
11. Replace the safety instrument if it is not
working properly.
8. Diverter Valve 1. Check diverter valve for its proper
operation.
2. Clean diverter valve internally.
3. Check Instrument air supply to diverter
valve
4. Check diverter valve for leakages.
5. Check solenoid valves for proper operation.
6. Check pneumatic cylinder for its proper
operation.
7. Check alignment of diverter valve with
pneumatic cylinder

36
WATER INPUTS QUALITY VERIFICATION CHART

(As per : (IS- 10392 1982)

Sr Recommended
Required Recommended
.N Description Method of
Limits Measurement
o. treatment.

FEED WATER

1.pH papers.
1.Chemical dosing.
1. PH 8.5 to 9.5 2.pH meters.
3.pH indicator solution
1.Preheating -
Dissolved 1.O2 meters. De-aeration
oxygen as < 0.1 2.Titration using
2. 2.Chemical dosing.
O2 , buffer solution
(mg/liter) 3.Vaccum degassing
I] Softening by Ion
exchange process
Total (using cation resins
1. Titration using only).
hardness as < 5
3. Ammonia buffer
CaCO3 II] Demineralization
solution.
(mg/liter) by Ion exchange
process (using cation
& anion resins).
1.By absorption using
4.
Silica as, 1.Colour comparison Flocculent
SiO2 max. with standard silica precipitation
-
(mg/lit). solution. 2.Demineralisation,
for reducing Silica
level

37
Should be such that
TDS in the boiler can
be kept below the
required level by
blow down without
Total
reduction of boiler 1.Use TDS meter. 1. Demineralization
5. dissolved
output owing to 2. Colorimetric for reducing the TDS.
solids
excessive blow
down. Blow down
should not normally
exceed 10% of
evaporation

Sr Recommended Recommended
Descripti Required
.N Method of Method of
on Limits
0 Measurement treatment.
BOILER WATER
Total Demineralization of
dissolved 1.Use TDS meter. feed water to reduce
1. <3500
solids 2. Colorimetric TDS level in boiler
(mg/lit) water.
1.pH paper.
Chemical dosing in
2. pH 11-12 2.pH meter.
feed water
3.pH indicator solution.
Total
Alkalinity as 1. Titration using Chemical dosing in
3. < 700.
CaCO3, buffer solution feed water
(mg/lit)
Caustic
Alkalinity, 1. Titration using Chemical dosing in
4. < 350
as CaCO3 buffer solution feed water
(mg/lit).
1.By
absorption
1.Colour comparison
using
with standard silica
Silica as Flocculent
< 0.4 of solution.
5. SiO2 precipitation
caustic Alkalinity
(mg/lit). for feed water
2.Demineralisation,
for reducing Silica
level for feed water

Note:
1. For, suspended solids figures represent theoretical values, and not necessarily

38
measurable in practice. They can be used as one basis for calculating blow-down
requirements, based on actual feed water hardness.

2. This limit is specified for low and medium pressure boilers. For operating pressure
upto 20 kg/cm2 (g).

39
XVIII. STANDARD RECOMMENDED SPARES LIST FOR RECOTHERM

Sr. No. Items Description Make Quantity

40