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GasTurb 13 Tutorial 1

HOW TO CALCULATE A
SNGLE CYCLE
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A Jet Engine Example

The Program offers


three Scopes
For that differ
professional
in the amount
performance work of detail
use the
being simulated.
Engine Design option. The
Choose Basic
Performance
Thermodynamics
or
scope is least
demanding for the user.
More if youtextbook
Only simple want to
determine the engine
wisdom is considered.
geometry.
Let us begin with a jet engine
simulation. Select the most
simple engine architecture, a
Turbojet.

A click on Performance in the


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Engine Design button group


begins the calculation
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We Need Some Data


Cycle Design Input Data Window

All input is in clear nomenclature


- no cryptic abbreviations are
used.

Switching to Imperial Units is


easy
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Lets go back to SI Units


Thermodynamic Station Input

Click here to start


the calculation

The flow areas at the stations


are either a design point input
or are derived from a Mach
number. These flow areas
affect only the static pressures
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and temperatures. The main


cycle parameters like thermal
efficiency or thrust, for example
are not affected by the input on
the Stations page.
Single Cycle Output

Most people are using m for mass On this summary page there is no room for lengthy
flow. When the standard property names. The international standard
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nomenclature was agreed on the nomenclature for performance computer programs


letter M could not be used
is employed. For example, P is total pressure, T
because in early FORTRAN
programs any property name
total temperature and
beginning with M was an Integer. W is employed for mass flow.
The letter W for mass flow
reminds of the outdated Explanations are at your fingertip: Click a symbol
designation for example TSFC - and you get a detailed
weight flow.
explanation.
Thermodynamic Station Output

Here are all the details at the thermodynamic


stations.

The flow areas at all the stations are stored in


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memory. During off-design simulations the


static pressures and temperatures are
calculated from flow area, mass flow, total
pressures and total temperature.
Getting Additional Output

I need to know a
cycle property
which is not listed
on the output page.
Open the Composed Values
window a powerful formula
editor.
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Composed Values Editor

Click here to check


and evaluate all
composed values.

Compose your additional output values from the input and output quantities. You
can even use empirical correlations (Tables) and more than 50 predefined
Functions

Example: Calculate the kinetic energy of the nozzle exhaust


JetEnergy=W8*V8^2/2
Dividing by 1000 yields the Jet Energy in kW
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Output with Composed Value
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After closing the Composed Values window


run the case again now you have JetEnergy
as additional output.

Next let us have a look at the Enthalpy-


Entropy diagram of the cycle
Enthalpy-Entropy Diagram
The diagram shows real
numbers. See how it
changes with compressor
pressure ratio

Click to
reduce to one
slider only

Click here to open the


slider definition window.
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We now freeze this diagram for


making comparisons with another
cycle.
Using the Slider

Move the Slider to the


right this increases
Pressure Ratio.

Now you see how the pressure ratio of


the compressor affects the hot section
part of the cycle
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Single Cycle Output
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This is again the original cycle.


The turbine pressure ratio of 3.178 is easily achievable with a single
stage turbine. In fact, a single stage turbine can work up to a pressure
ratio of 4 with an acceptable efficiency.

Let us search for the compressor pressure ratio which yields exactly
the turbine pressure ratio of 4. Close this window to proceed.
Single Cycle Input Data Page

We will vary (iterate) compressor


Pressure Ratio in such a way that
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Turbine Pressure Ratio is equal to 4.

We open now the Iterations input


window.
Iteration Variable Input

Min and max boundaries for the


variable are required for numerical
reasons.
The min and max values need not to
be accurate, they are for excluding
physical meaningless numbers (like
very low pressure ratios) from the
calculations.

From all the input Variables we


choose Pressure Ratio and drag it
from the selection tree to the table.
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Iteration Target Input

From all the output quantities we


choose Turbine Pressure Ratio as
Target and drag it from the selection
tree to the table.
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Iteration Target Value Input

Enter the target


value here

and activate
the iteration.
Then close the
window.
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Single Cycle Input Data Page

Now we are ready to run the case


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The Cycle with
Turbine Pressure Ratio = 4

This slide ends the


Single Cycle Tutorial
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