Power electronics experiment

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Power electronics experiment

© All Rights Reserved

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Note: In this lab students are expected to complete the experiments in POWER

ELECTRONICS 2 module and then answer all the TEST questions at the end of each section.

This will help the students to capture the main points covered in module 2 of LUCAS-

NLLE LabSoft experiments.

Welcome

Power electronics is the technology of switching and converting high power levels of

electrical energy. Today this entails using power semiconductors such as diodes,

MOSFETs and IGBTs. The primary application for power electronics is in the area of

drive technology.

Training objectives

After completing the course you should have become familiar with the following

material:

Power semiconductors

Generating variable DC voltage using PWM

Single quadrant operating mode

Four quadrant operating mode

Control response

Effect of operating frequency

Resistive and resistive-inductive load

FFT analysis of harmonics (Lab 4)

Equipment

To perform all of the experiments described in this course you need the following

equipment:

UNItr@in Experimenter SO4203-2B (2 each)

UNItr@in extended power supply SO4203-2D

UNItr@in card "6 inverters" SO4203-4A

UNItr@in card "Load card" SO4203-4B

Set of cables

Experiment cards

valves used for the investigation of self-commutated

static converters

semiconductors

Variable voltage link circuit with 6 MOSFET

transistors

Multiplexer for simultaneous measurement of

current and voltages

circuits can be implemented:

Four quadrant DC chopper

AC power controller

Frequency converter

Technical data:

Max. output current 1 A

PWM frequencies 244 Hz, 900 Hz, 7.8 kHz

Load card

Eurocard with resistive and inductive loads for power electronics

experiments with self-commutating inverters. The card contains:

3 Resistors 36 ohm 20 W (each comprising 2 resistors

connected in series)

3 Inductors 3.3 mH, 0.9 A

LEDs for the display of current flow direction and power

intensity

Space vector display

some experiments!

Using pulse-width modulated DC choppers constant DC voltages can be converted

into variable DC voltage. If the DC voltage is to be set from zero up to a maximum

value in only one range and there are no requirements or possibilities for current

reversal, then the use of a single-quadrant chopper (single IGBT circuit) is

sufficient. However an energy recovery is not possible.

In this exercise you will be recording the traces of the output voltage and the output

current using a resistive load. Here you will learn:

various mark-to-space ratios

Set up the circuit as specified in the circuit diagram and connect the leads to the

cards. Apply a resistive load to the single-quadrant chopper.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the Time Diagram tool. The

system automatically gets set to the settings in the table below . Then start the

measurement by pressing in the tool bar. To insert the results into your answer

sheet, complete the measurement and press the button in the tool bar and then

press the button to return to the course. Click on the diagram with the right

mouse button and select the insert command.

Settings:

Load: Resistive

Clock

1.953 kHz

frequency:

Duty cycle: 25%

Signal and mean value of the output voltage and output

Measurement:

current

Obtain the current and voltage characteristics for single quadrant DC chopper, duty

cycle 25%, resistive load

U2m= V

I2m = mA

Obtain the Current and voltage traces of the single-quadrant DC chopper, duty

cycle 75%, resistive load

U2m= V

I2m = mA

Analyse the time diagram for the output voltage and output current.

applied to the load

Voltage and current characteristics are square-waves

The current trace indicates a resistive-inductive load

The amplitude of the output voltage is independent of the

duty cycle

The amplitude of the output voltage is dependent on the

duty cycle

Compute the mean value of the DC voltage Um2 and compare this to the results of

the measured values.

UD = V

Um2, 0,25 = V

Um2, 0,75 = V

In this exercise you will be recording the characteristics of the output voltage and

output current for a resistive-inductive load. At the same time you will learn:

how the output voltage U2 and the output current I2 responds for

various duty cycles

how the clock frequency affects the output voltage U2 and the output

current I2

Set up the circuit in accordance with the circuit diagram shown below and complete

the wire connections on the cards.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the time diagram tool. The

settings from the adjacent table are automatically set. Then start the measurement

In order to insert the result into your answer sheet, finish the measurement, press

the button in the tool bar and then press to return to the course. Then right

click the diagram with your mouse and select the "Insert" command.

Settings:

Duty cycle: 25 %

Measurement: Signal of the output voltage and the output current

Obtain the current and voltage traces for single-quadrant DC chopper, duty

cycle 25%, resistive-inductive load

Obtain the current and voltage characteristics for single-quadrant DC chopper, duty

cycle 75%, resistive-inductive load

Analyse the characteristics of the output voltage and the output current

A.

exponential function

Voltage and current characteristics are square-wave

B.

shaped

The current characteristic indicates a resistive-inductive

C.

load

D. The output voltage has a square-wave characteristic

E. The output voltage is smoothed

current characteristics

The effect of the clock frequency on the output voltage U 2 and the output current I2 in

the case of a resistive-inductive load

Use the previous setup but alter the clock frequency setting via the time diagram

menu on the tool bar,

Obtain Current and voltage characteristics for single-quadrant DC chopper, duty cycle 50%,

resistive-inductive load, at clock frequencies of 244 Hz, 1.953 kHz,and 15.625 kHz.

Analyse the time characteristic of the output voltage and the output current for

different clock frequencies:

The voltage shape does not vary with the different clock

A.

frequencies

The output voltage is smoothed out as the clock frequency

B.

increases

The output current is smoothed out as the clock frequency

C.

increases

The output current is smoothed out as the clock frequency

D.

decreases

The direct current's mean value remains constant at

E.

varying clock frequencies

In this exercise you will be recording the control characteristic (mean DC voltage

value as a function of the duty cycle). During this exercise you will learn about:

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics

tool. The settings shown in the following table will be set automatically. Then start

To enter the result into your answer sheet, finish the measurement and press the

button in the tool bar and then press to return to the course. Right click on the

diagram and select the enter command.

Settings:

Measurement: Mean value of the output voltage as a function of the duty cycle

clock frequency 244 Hz!

Change the clock frequency via the tool menu of the control characteristic tool

to 1.953 kHz.

clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Which statements can be made concerning the control range?

B. The control range covers a single quadrant range

C. Current and voltage at the load always have the same sign

D. While operating, the sign of the output voltage can change

What effect does the pulse frequency have on the control characteristic (output

voltage)?

A.

characteristic

The control characteristic is influenced by the clock

B.

frequency

In this exercise you will be investigating the influence of the clock frequency on the

current fluctuation width.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the time diagram tool. The

system automatically adopts the settings in the table below . Then start the

measurement by pressing on the tool bar. To insert the results into the course,

complete the measurement and press the button on the tool bar and then press

the button to return to the course. Click on the diagram with the right mouse

button and select the insert command.

Settings:

Duty cycle: 50 %

Measurement: Output voltage and current signals

Obtain the Current and voltage characteristics for single-quadrant DC chopper,

duty cycle 50%, resistive-inductive load, clock frequency 244 Hz

Change the clock frequency on the time diagram tool to 15.625 kHz

duty cycle 50%, resistive-inductive load, clock frequency 15.625 kHz

A.

more severely

As the clock frequency decreases the current is smoothed

B.

more severely

at 244 Hz approx. .mA

at 15.625 kHz.. mA

A.

frequency rises

The mean values of the output currents are practically

B.

equal

The mean value of the current drops as the clock

C.

frequency rises

current and voltage

the duty cycle. In the process you will learn how the following variables respond:

Alternating component of the "DC" voltage Uac2

RMS of the "DC" voltage U2

Set up the circuit as specified in the circuit diagram below and carry out the

necessary wiring of the card.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics

tool. The settings shown in the following table will automatically be set. Then start

To enter the result into your answer sheet, finish the measurement and press the

button in the tool bar and then press to return to the course. Right click on the

diagram and select the enter command.

Settings:

Clock

1.953 kHz

frequency:

"DC" voltage mean value Um2, AC component of the "DC" voltage Uac2,

Measurement:

rms of the output voltage U2 as a function of the duty cycle

load, clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Test 1

Which of the following are used in the operation of modern single-quadrant DC

choppers?

Thyristors, triacs

Transistors, diodes

almost no power dissipation

With a single-quadrant DC chopper a connected DC

motor can be operated in both clockwise and anti-

clockwise directions

Single-quadrant DC choppers can brake a connected DC

motor

Single-quadrant DC choppers operate with a DC voltage

What effect does the pulse frequency have on purely resistive loads?

The current waveform changes at various pulse

frequencies

The voltage waveform changes at various pulse

frequencies

What effect does the pulse frequency have when using resistive-inductive loads?

The current waveform varies at different pulse

frequencies

The voltage waveform changes at different pulse

frequencies

How does the mean value of the output current change when the pulse frequency

increases?

The mean value of the current increases with rising pulse frequency

The mean value of the current drops with rising pulse frequency

The mean value of the current remains constant with rising pulse frequency

3.2 Four-quadrant choppers

Multi-quadrant DC chopper operation is made possible by arranging the valve

groups into a bridge circuit configuration. In this mode simultaneous current and

voltage reversal can be performed. In the case of a resistive-inductive load positive

and negative voltages can be generated. Energy feedback is only possible when

there is a feeding power source in the load circuit.

Control operations

Alternate clock pulsing

In the case of simultaneous clock pulsing the transistors are switched as follows:

V3,V2 switched on

or

V4,V1 switched on

Here, the output voltage ua assumes the operating states Uz and -Uz.

In the case of alternate clock pulsing there are three switching states. The output

voltage ua assumes the operating states Uz, 0 and -Uz. The realisation of the

switching sequence is somewhat more complicated and expensive than for

simultaneous clock pulsing. However, the ripple in the output voltage is smaller at

the same clock frequency

In this exercise you will be recording the characteristics of the output voltage and

output current for a resistive-inductive load. In the course of this exercise you will

learn:

cycles.

Set up the circuit as specified in the circuit diagram and complete the wiring of the

cards.

Use the button to load the workspace for the Time diagram tool. This

automatically sets the settings shown in the table below.

Settings:

Last: Resistive-inductive load

Measurement: Signal and mean value of output voltage and output current

Obtain the Current and voltage characteristics for four-quadrant DC chopper, duty cycle 25%,

clock frequency 1.953 kHz, resistive-inductive load

U2m= ..V

I2m = ..mA

Obtain the Current and voltage characteristics for four-quadrant DC chopper, duty cycle 75%,

clock frequency 1.953 kHz, resistive-inductive load

U2m= ..V

I2m = ..mA

Analyse the time diagram for the output voltage and output current

B. The output voltage is positive at a duty cycle of 75%

C. The output voltage is negative at a duty cycle of 25%

D. The output current has the same sign as the voltage

E. The current's signal waveform is smoothed

In how many quadrants can the chopper operate with a DC motor connected?

A. In four quadrants

B. In three quadrants

C. In two quadrants

D. In one quadrant

In how many quadrants can the chopper operate when working with an RL load?

A. In four quadrants

B. In three quadrants

C. In two quadrants

D. In one quadrant

Calculate the mean "DC" voltage value Um2 and compare it to the result of the

measured values

According to Equation (2) the mean "DC" voltage for the individual duty cycles is:

and

U2m,25%= ..V

U2m,75% = ..V

3.2.2 Recording the control characteristic

In this exercise you will be recording the control characteristic. In this exercise you

will identify:

Use the button , to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics

tool. This automatically sets the system to the settings in the following table

Settings:

Load: Resistive-inductive load

Clock

1.953 kHz

frequency:

Mean value of the output voltage and output current as a function of the

Measurement:

mark-to-space ratio

clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Change the clock frequency in the control characteristics menu to 15.625 kHz

inductive load, clock frequency 15.625 kHz

Which of the following statements are true for the control range?

B. The control range covers 1 quadrant

C. Current and voltage at the load always have the same sign

While operating the sign of the output voltage can be

D.

inverted

What effect does the clock frequency have on the control characteristic?

characteristic

The clock frequency does have an effect on the control

B.

characteristic

current and voltage

components on the duty cycle. In the course of this exercise you will learn how to

identify the response of the following variables:

AC component of the "DC" voltage Uac2

"DC" output voltage U2

Mean "DC" current Im2

"DC" current I2

Alternating component of the "DC" current I ac2

Set up the circuit according to the circuit diagram below and complete the wiring of

the cards.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics

tool. This automatically sets the system to the settings found in the table below.

Settings:

Load: Resistive load

Alternating component of the "DC" voltage Uac2

DC output voltage U2

Measurement: Mean "DC" current Im2

"Direct current" I2

Alternating component of the "DC" current Iac

Obtain the Control characteristic for four-quadrant DC chopper, resistive load, clock

frequency 244 Hz

In this exercise you will be determining the form factor. In the process you will learn

to recognise the effect of the duty cycle on the following variables:

Form factor Fi

Mean DC current Im2

DC current I2

Form factor Fi

Mean DC current value Im2

Measurement:

DC current I2

Obtain the Form factor of the four quadrant - DC chopper, resistive load, clock

frequency 244 Hz

In this exercise you will determine

the alternating component of the active power P ac2

At the same time you will learn what kind of power levels are output by the four

quadrant DC chopper .

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the power vectors tool. This

automatically configures the system to the settings shown in the table below.

Settings:

Load: Resistive load

Duty cycle: 75 %

Measurement: Alternating component of the active power Pac2

Obtain the Vector display for four quadrant DC chopper, resistive load, pulse frequency

1.953 kHz

Change the scale in the power vectors tool and plot the power balance with respect to the

DC component of the active power Pdc2!

Obtain the Vector display for four quadrant DC chopper, resistive load, pulse

frequency 1.953 kHz, standardised representation

A.

direct current power

B. Reactive power is produced depending on the duty cycle

C. In the case of a resistive load only active power is output

D. No alternating power component is produced

Determine the active power P, the direct and alternative components P ac2 and

Pdc2 as a function of the duty cycle.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics

tool. This automatically sets the system to the settings shown in the table below.

Settings:

Load: Resistive load

Measurement: DC and AC components Pac2 and Pdc2 as a function of the duty cycle

pulse frequency 1.953 kHz

Which power level does the DC chopper have to be designed for. Bear in mind that

the design must cope in particular with duty cycles of 25% and 75%

B. The DC chopper must be designed for DC power

The DC chopper must be designed for the entire active

C.

power range

AC component of the active power Pac2

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the power vectors tool. This

automatically configures the system to the settings shown in the table below.

Settings:

Load: Resistive-inductive load

Clock frequency: 1.953 kHz

Duty cycle: 75 %

DC component of the active power P dc2

Measurement: AC component of the active power P ac2

Obtain the Vector diagram of the four quadrant DC chopper, resistive-inductive load, duty

cycle 75 %, clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Use the button , to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics

tool. This automatically configures the system to the settings shown in the table

below.

Settings:

Load: Resistive-inductive load

Clock

1.953 kHz

frequency:

DC and AC components Pac2 and Pdc2 as a function

Measurement:

of the duty cycle

Obtain the Control characteristic of the four-quadrant DC chopper, resistive-inductive load,

clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Which statements are true for a resistive or resistive-inductive load on the four-

quadrant chopper

A

produced

In the case of resistive-inductive load reactive power

B

also arises

In the case of resistive load reactive and active power

C

are produced

D No AC power is produced

E In both load cases AC power is produced

The control characteristics are identical in both load

cases

Test 2

On this page we will be testing the knowledge you have

acquired. Answer all of the questions posed below.

quadrant DC chopper?

A 1 transistor

B 2 transistors

C 3 transistors

D 4 transistors

between the following control methods

A Double clock pulsing

B Simultaneous clock pulsing

C Four-fold clock pulsing

D Alternating clock pulsing

choppers?<

Four quadrant choppers can absorb

A power when operating active loads

(DC motors)

Four quadrant DC choppers permit

B

voltage reversal

When changing quadrants the

C transistors must switch to highly

resistive mode for a brief period

The triggering operation is more

D complicated than for single-

quadrant chopper

the output voltage has which of the following?

A. A maximum

B A minimum

C . An inflection point

outputs

A DC power only

B AC power only

C AC and DC power

D. Reactive power

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