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EEE5451-LABORATORY 3

SINGLE AND FOUR QUADRANT DC CHOPPERS

Note: In this lab students are expected to complete the experiments in POWER
ELECTRONICS 2 module and then answer all the TEST questions at the end of each section.
This will help the students to capture the main points covered in module 2 of LUCAS-
NLLE LabSoft experiments.

Welcome

Power electronics is the technology of switching and converting high power levels of
electrical energy. Today this entails using power semiconductors such as diodes,
MOSFETs and IGBTs. The primary application for power electronics is in the area of
drive technology.

Training objectives

After completing the course you should have become familiar with the following
material:

Power semiconductors
Generating variable DC voltage using PWM
Single quadrant operating mode
Four quadrant operating mode
Control response
Effect of operating frequency
Resistive and resistive-inductive load
FFT analysis of harmonics (Lab 4)

Equipment

To perform all of the experiments described in this course you need the following
equipment:

UNItr@in Interface SO4203-2A


UNItr@in Experimenter SO4203-2B (2 each)
UNItr@in extended power supply SO4203-2D
UNItr@in card "6 inverters" SO4203-4A
UNItr@in card "Load card" SO4203-4B
Set of cables

Experiment cards

Control and power card

This Eurocard combines the control electronics and the


valves used for the investigation of self-commutated
static converters

The card contains:

Modern microcontrollers for controlling power


semiconductors
Variable voltage link circuit with 6 MOSFET
transistors
Multiplexer for simultaneous measurement of
current and voltages

In conjunction with the Unitr@in-I Interface the following


circuits can be implemented:

Single quadrant DC chopper


Four quadrant DC chopper
AC power controller
Frequency converter

Technical data:

Max. link voltage 48 V


Max. output current 1 A
PWM frequencies 244 Hz, 900 Hz, 7.8 kHz

Load card
Eurocard with resistive and inductive loads for power electronics
experiments with self-commutating inverters. The card contains:
3 Resistors 36 ohm 20 W (each comprising 2 resistors
connected in series)
3 Inductors 3.3 mH, 0.9 A
LEDs for the display of current flow direction and power
intensity
Space vector display

Caution: resistors can become very hot during


some experiments!

3.1 Single-quadrant choppers


Using pulse-width modulated DC choppers constant DC voltages can be converted
into variable DC voltage. If the DC voltage is to be set from zero up to a maximum
value in only one range and there are no requirements or possibilities for current
reversal, then the use of a single-quadrant chopper (single IGBT circuit) is
sufficient. However an energy recovery is not possible.

3.1.1 Resistive load

In this exercise you will be recording the traces of the output voltage and the output
current using a resistive load. Here you will learn:

how the output voltage U2 and the output current I2 respond at


various mark-to-space ratios

Set up the circuit as specified in the circuit diagram and connect the leads to the
cards. Apply a resistive load to the single-quadrant chopper.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the Time Diagram tool. The
system automatically gets set to the settings in the table below . Then start the
measurement by pressing in the tool bar. To insert the results into your answer

sheet, complete the measurement and press the button in the tool bar and then

press the button to return to the course. Click on the diagram with the right
mouse button and select the insert command.

Settings:

Tool: Time Diagram - single quadrant low-side controller

Load: Resistive
Clock
1.953 kHz
frequency:
Duty cycle: 25%
Signal and mean value of the output voltage and output
Measurement:
current

Obtain the current and voltage characteristics for single quadrant DC chopper, duty
cycle 25%, resistive load

Mean values for a duty cycle of 25%


U2m= V
I2m = mA

Change the duty cycle on the time diagram tool to 75%

Obtain the Current and voltage traces of the single-quadrant DC chopper, duty
cycle 75%, resistive load

Mean values for a duty cycle of 75%


U2m= V
I2m = mA

Analyse the time diagram for the output voltage and output current.

When the transistor starts conducting, the link voltage is


applied to the load
Voltage and current characteristics are square-waves
The current trace indicates a resistive-inductive load
The amplitude of the output voltage is independent of the
duty cycle
The amplitude of the output voltage is dependent on the
duty cycle

Calculating the DC voltage's mean value

Compute the mean value of the DC voltage Um2 and compare this to the results of
the measured values.

According to Equation (1) we obtain for the mean DC voltage

Measure the voltage level of the DC link voltage:

UD = V

for the individual mark-space ratio:

The output voltage amounts to:

Um2, 0,25 = V

The output voltage amounts to:

Um2, 0,75 = V

3.1.2 Resistive-inductive load

In this exercise you will be recording the characteristics of the output voltage and
output current for a resistive-inductive load. At the same time you will learn:
how the output voltage U2 and the output current I2 responds for
various duty cycles
how the clock frequency affects the output voltage U2 and the output
current I2

Set up the circuit in accordance with the circuit diagram shown below and complete
the wire connections on the cards.

Connect a resistive-inductive load to the single-quadrant DC chopper

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the time diagram tool. The
settings from the adjacent table are automatically set. Then start the measurement

by pressing in the tools bar.


In order to insert the result into your answer sheet, finish the measurement, press

the button in the tool bar and then press to return to the course. Then right
click the diagram with your mouse and select the "Insert" command.

Settings:

Tool: Time diagram - single quadrant low-side chopper

Load: Resistive-inductive load

Clock frequency: 1.953 kHz

Duty cycle: 25 %
Measurement: Signal of the output voltage and the output current
Obtain the current and voltage traces for single-quadrant DC chopper, duty
cycle 25%, resistive-inductive load

Alter the duty cycle on the time diagram instrument to 75%

Obtain the current and voltage characteristics for single-quadrant DC chopper, duty
cycle 75%, resistive-inductive load

Analyse the characteristics of the output voltage and the output current

The current is smoothed and takes the shape of an


A.
exponential function
Voltage and current characteristics are square-wave
B.
shaped
The current characteristic indicates a resistive-inductive
C.
load
D. The output voltage has a square-wave characteristic
E. The output voltage is smoothed

The influence of the clock frequency on the output voltage and


current characteristics

The effect of the clock frequency on the output voltage U 2 and the output current I2 in
the case of a resistive-inductive load

Use the previous setup but alter the clock frequency setting via the time diagram
menu on the tool bar,

Obtain Current and voltage characteristics for single-quadrant DC chopper, duty cycle 50%,
resistive-inductive load, at clock frequencies of 244 Hz, 1.953 kHz,and 15.625 kHz.

Analyse the time characteristic of the output voltage and the output current for
different clock frequencies:

The voltage shape does not vary with the different clock
A.
frequencies
The output voltage is smoothed out as the clock frequency
B.
increases
The output current is smoothed out as the clock frequency
C.
increases
The output current is smoothed out as the clock frequency
D.
decreases
The direct current's mean value remains constant at
E.
varying clock frequencies

3.1.3 Recording the control characteristic

In this exercise you will be recording the control characteristic (mean DC voltage
value as a function of the duty cycle). During this exercise you will learn about:

the influence of various clock frequencies

Use the circuit from the experiment on the resistive-inductive load.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics
tool. The settings shown in the following table will be set automatically. Then start

the measurement by pressing the button on the tool bar.


To enter the result into your answer sheet, finish the measurement and press the

button in the tool bar and then press to return to the course. Right click on the
diagram and select the enter command.

Settings:

Tool: Control characteristics - single quadrant low-side controller

Load: Resistive-inductive load

Clock frequency: 244 Hz

Measurement: Mean value of the output voltage as a function of the duty cycle

Obtain the Control characteristic for single-quadrant DC chopper, resistive-inductive load,


clock frequency 244 Hz!

Change the clock frequency via the tool menu of the control characteristic tool
to 1.953 kHz.

Obtain the Control characteristic for single-quadrant DC chopper , resistive-inductive load,


clock frequency 1.953 kHz
Which statements can be made concerning the control range?

A. The control range covers a range of 2 quadrants


B. The control range covers a single quadrant range
C. Current and voltage at the load always have the same sign
D. While operating, the sign of the output voltage can change

What effect does the pulse frequency have on the control characteristic (output
voltage)?

The clock frequency has no influence on the control


A.
characteristic
The control characteristic is influenced by the clock
B.
frequency

In this exercise you will be investigating the influence of the clock frequency on the
current fluctuation width.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the time diagram tool. The
system automatically adopts the settings in the table below . Then start the

measurement by pressing on the tool bar. To insert the results into the course,

complete the measurement and press the button on the tool bar and then press

the button to return to the course. Click on the diagram with the right mouse
button and select the insert command.

Settings:

Tool: Time diagram - single quadrant low-side chopper

Load: Resistive-inductive load

Clock frequency: 244 Hz

Duty cycle: 50 %
Measurement: Output voltage and current signals
Obtain the Current and voltage characteristics for single-quadrant DC chopper,
duty cycle 50%, resistive-inductive load, clock frequency 244 Hz

Change the clock frequency on the time diagram tool to 15.625 kHz

Obtain the Current and voltage characteristics for single-quadrant DC chopper,


duty cycle 50%, resistive-inductive load, clock frequency 15.625 kHz

What do you observe about the two current traces?

As the clock frequency increases the current is smoothed


A.
more severely
As the clock frequency decreases the current is smoothed
B.
more severely

The current fluctuation width amounts to:


at 244 Hz approx. .mA
at 15.625 kHz.. mA

Compare the mean values of the currents

The mean value of the current increases as the clock


A.
frequency rises
The mean values of the output currents are practically
B.
equal
The mean value of the current drops as the clock
C.
frequency rises

3.1.4 Investigating the DC and AC components of


current and voltage

In this exercise we will be investigating the dependency of AC and DC quantities on


the duty cycle. In the process you will learn how the following variables respond:

"DC" voltage mean value Um2


Alternating component of the "DC" voltage Uac2
RMS of the "DC" voltage U2

Set up the circuit as specified in the circuit diagram below and carry out the
necessary wiring of the card.

Submit the single-quadrant chopper to the resistive load.


Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics
tool. The settings shown in the following table will automatically be set. Then start

the measurement by pressing the button in the tool bar.


To enter the result into your answer sheet, finish the measurement and press the

button in the tool bar and then press to return to the course. Right click on the
diagram and select the enter command.

Settings:

Tool: Control characteristics - single quadrant low-side chopper

Load: Resistive load


Clock
1.953 kHz
frequency:

"DC" voltage mean value Um2, AC component of the "DC" voltage Uac2,
Measurement:
rms of the output voltage U2 as a function of the duty cycle

Obtain the Control characteristic for single-quadrant DC chopper, resistive


load, clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Test 1

On this page the knowledge you have acquired is tested.


Which of the following are used in the operation of modern single-quadrant DC
choppers?

Mechanical switching elements like relays or contactors


Thyristors, triacs
Transistors, diodes

Which of the following statements are true?

Single-quadrant DC choppers can switch voltages with


almost no power dissipation
With a single-quadrant DC chopper a connected DC
motor can be operated in both clockwise and anti-
clockwise directions
Single-quadrant DC choppers can brake a connected DC
motor
Single-quadrant DC choppers operate with a DC voltage

What effect does the pulse frequency have on purely resistive loads?

The pulse frequency has no effect


The current waveform changes at various pulse
frequencies
The voltage waveform changes at various pulse
frequencies

What effect does the pulse frequency have when using resistive-inductive loads?

The pulse frequency has no effect


The current waveform varies at different pulse
frequencies
The voltage waveform changes at different pulse
frequencies

How does the mean value of the output current change when the pulse frequency
increases?

The mean value of the current increases with rising pulse frequency
The mean value of the current drops with rising pulse frequency
The mean value of the current remains constant with rising pulse frequency
3.2 Four-quadrant choppers
Multi-quadrant DC chopper operation is made possible by arranging the valve
groups into a bridge circuit configuration. In this mode simultaneous current and
voltage reversal can be performed. In the case of a resistive-inductive load positive
and negative voltages can be generated. Energy feedback is only possible when
there is a feeding power source in the load circuit.

Control operations

A distinction is drawn between two methods

Simultaneous clock pulsing (chopping)


Alternate clock pulsing

Simultaneous clock pulsing

In the case of simultaneous clock pulsing the transistors are switched as follows:

V3,V2 switched on

V4, V1 switched off

or

V3,V2 switched off

V4,V1 switched on

Here, the output voltage ua assumes the operating states Uz and -Uz.

Alternate clock pulsing


In the case of alternate clock pulsing there are three switching states. The output
voltage ua assumes the operating states Uz, 0 and -Uz. The realisation of the
switching sequence is somewhat more complicated and expensive than for
simultaneous clock pulsing. However, the ripple in the output voltage is smaller at
the same clock frequency

3.2.1 Resistive-inductive load

In this exercise you will be recording the characteristics of the output voltage and
output current for a resistive-inductive load. In the course of this exercise you will
learn:

About the output voltage U2 and output current I2 at various duty


cycles.

Set up the circuit as specified in the circuit diagram and complete the wiring of the
cards.

Apply a resistive-inductive load to the four-quadrant DC chopper.


Use the button to load the workspace for the Time diagram tool. This
automatically sets the settings shown in the table below.

Settings:

Tool: Time diagram - 4 quadrant DC chopper


Last: Resistive-inductive load

Clock frequency: 1.953 kHz

Duty cycle: 25%

Measurement: Signal and mean value of output voltage and output current

Obtain the Current and voltage characteristics for four-quadrant DC chopper, duty cycle 25%,
clock frequency 1.953 kHz, resistive-inductive load

Mean values for a duty cycle of 25%


U2m= ..V
I2m = ..mA

Change the duty cycle on the time diagram instrument to 75%

Obtain the Current and voltage characteristics for four-quadrant DC chopper, duty cycle 75%,
clock frequency 1.953 kHz, resistive-inductive load

Mean values with a duty cycle of 75%


U2m= ..V
I2m = ..mA

Analyse the time diagram for the output voltage and output current

A. The output voltage is positive at a duty cycle of 25%


B. The output voltage is positive at a duty cycle of 75%
C. The output voltage is negative at a duty cycle of 25%
D. The output current has the same sign as the voltage
E. The current's signal waveform is smoothed

In how many quadrants can the chopper operate with a DC motor connected?

A. In four quadrants
B. In three quadrants
C. In two quadrants
D. In one quadrant

In how many quadrants can the chopper operate when working with an RL load?

A. In four quadrants
B. In three quadrants
C. In two quadrants
D. In one quadrant

Computing the mean "DC" voltage values

Calculate the mean "DC" voltage value Um2 and compare it to the result of the
measured values

According to Equation (2) the mean "DC" voltage for the individual duty cycles is:

and

The computed mean values amount to


U2m,25%= ..V
U2m,75% = ..V
3.2.2 Recording the control characteristic

In this exercise you will be recording the control characteristic. In this exercise you
will identify:

the effects of different clock frequencies

Use the circuit from the experiment on the resistive-inductive load.

Use the button , to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics
tool. This automatically sets the system to the settings in the following table

Settings:

Tool: Control characteristics; 4 quadrant chopper


Load: Resistive-inductive load
Clock
1.953 kHz
frequency:
Mean value of the output voltage and output current as a function of the
Measurement:
mark-to-space ratio

Obtain the Control characteristic of the four-quadrant DC chopper, resistive-inductive load,


clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Change the clock frequency in the control characteristics menu to 15.625 kHz

Obtain the Control characteristic of the four-quadrant - DC chopper, resistive-


inductive load, clock frequency 15.625 kHz

Which of the following statements are true for the control range?

A. The control range covers 2 quadrants


B. The control range covers 1 quadrant
C. Current and voltage at the load always have the same sign
While operating the sign of the output voltage can be
D.
inverted

What effect does the clock frequency have on the control characteristic?

A. The clock frequency has no effect on the control


characteristic
The clock frequency does have an effect on the control
B.
characteristic

3.2.3 Investigating the DC and AC components of


current and voltage

In this exercise we will be investigating the dependency of the AC and DC


components on the duty cycle. In the course of this exercise you will learn how to
identify the response of the following variables:

Mean "DC" voltage Um2


AC component of the "DC" voltage Uac2
"DC" output voltage U2
Mean "DC" current Im2
"DC" current I2
Alternating component of the "DC" current I ac2

Set up the circuit according to the circuit diagram below and complete the wiring of
the cards.

Apply a resistive load to the four-quadrant DC chopper.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics
tool. This automatically sets the system to the settings found in the table below.
Settings:

Tool: Control characteristics - 4 quadrant chopper


Load: Resistive load

Clock frequency: 244 Hz

Mean "DC" voltage value Um2


Alternating component of the "DC" voltage Uac2
DC output voltage U2
Measurement: Mean "DC" current Im2
"Direct current" I2
Alternating component of the "DC" current Iac

Obtain the Control characteristic for four-quadrant DC chopper, resistive load, clock
frequency 244 Hz

In this exercise you will be determining the form factor. In the process you will learn
to recognise the effect of the duty cycle on the following variables:

Form factor Fi
Mean DC current Im2
DC current I2

Tool: Control characteristics; 4 quadrant DC chopper

Load: Resistive load

Clock frequency: 244 Hz

Form factor Fi
Mean DC current value Im2
Measurement:
DC current I2

Obtain the Form factor of the four quadrant - DC chopper, resistive load, clock
frequency 244 Hz

3.2.4 Performing an energy balance check


In this exercise you will determine

the DC component of the active power P dc2


the alternating component of the active power P ac2

At the same time you will learn what kind of power levels are output by the four
quadrant DC chopper .

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the power vectors tool. This
automatically configures the system to the settings shown in the table below.

Use the circuit from the previous experiment.

Settings:

Tool: Power vectors; 4 quadrant DC chopper


Load: Resistive load

Clock frequency: 1.953 kHz

Duty cycle: 75 %

DC component of the active power P dc2


Measurement: Alternating component of the active power Pac2

Obtain the Vector display for four quadrant DC chopper, resistive load, pulse frequency
1.953 kHz

Change the scale in the power vectors tool and plot the power balance with respect to the
DC component of the active power Pdc2!

Obtain the Vector display for four quadrant DC chopper, resistive load, pulse
frequency 1.953 kHz, standardised representation

What conclusions can you draw from this?

The power at the load is subdivided into alternating and


A.
direct current power
B. Reactive power is produced depending on the duty cycle
C. In the case of a resistive load only active power is output
D. No alternating power component is produced

Determine the active power P, the direct and alternative components P ac2 and
Pdc2 as a function of the duty cycle.

Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics
tool. This automatically sets the system to the settings shown in the table below.

Settings:

Tool: Control characteristics - 4 quadrant DC chopper


Load: Resistive load

Clock frequency: 1.953 kHz

Measurement: DC and AC components Pac2 and Pdc2 as a function of the duty cycle

Obtain the Control characteristic of the four-quadrant DC chopper, resistive load,


pulse frequency 1.953 kHz

Which power level does the DC chopper have to be designed for. Bear in mind that
the design must cope in particular with duty cycles of 25% and 75%

A. The DC chopper must be designed for AC power


B. The DC chopper must be designed for DC power
The DC chopper must be designed for the entire active
C.
power range

Determine the following variables for a resistive-inductive load

DC component of the active power Pdc2


AC component of the active power Pac2

Change the load to a resistive-inductive one


Use the button to load the appropriate workspace for the power vectors tool. This
automatically configures the system to the settings shown in the table below.

Settings:

Tool: Power vectors; 4 quadrant DC chopper


Load: Resistive-inductive load
Clock frequency: 1.953 kHz
Duty cycle: 75 %
DC component of the active power P dc2
Measurement: AC component of the active power P ac2

Obtain the Vector diagram of the four quadrant DC chopper, resistive-inductive load, duty
cycle 75 %, clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Use the button , to load the appropriate workspace for the control characteristics
tool. This automatically configures the system to the settings shown in the table
below.

Settings:

Tool: Control characteristics - 4 quadrant DC chopper


Load: Resistive-inductive load
Clock
1.953 kHz
frequency:
DC and AC components Pac2 and Pdc2 as a function
Measurement:
of the duty cycle
Obtain the Control characteristic of the four-quadrant DC chopper, resistive-inductive load,
clock frequency 1.953 kHz

Which statements are true for a resistive or resistive-inductive load on the four-
quadrant chopper

In the case of a resistive load only active power is


A
produced
In the case of resistive-inductive load reactive power
B
also arises
In the case of resistive load reactive and active power
C
are produced
D No AC power is produced
E In both load cases AC power is produced
The control characteristics are identical in both load
cases

Test 2
On this page we will be testing the knowledge you have
acquired. Answer all of the questions posed below.

How many switching elements are needed in a four


quadrant DC chopper?
A 1 transistor
B 2 transistors
C 3 transistors
D 4 transistors

In four quadrant DC choppers a distinction is drawn


between the following control methods
A Double clock pulsing
B Simultaneous clock pulsing
C Four-fold clock pulsing
D Alternating clock pulsing

Which statements are true of four-quadrant DC


choppers?<
Four quadrant choppers can absorb
A power when operating active loads
(DC motors)
Four quadrant DC choppers permit
B
voltage reversal
When changing quadrants the
C transistors must switch to highly
resistive mode for a brief period
The triggering operation is more
D complicated than for single-
quadrant chopper

For duty cycles of 25% and 75% the AC component of


the output voltage has which of the following?
A. A maximum
B A minimum
C . An inflection point

In the case of resistive load the four-quadrant chopper


outputs
A DC power only
B AC power only
C AC and DC power
D. Reactive power