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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS

STATICS LABORATORY

LAPORAN MAKMAL/LABORATORY REPORT

Kod M/Pelajaran/ ENGINEERING


BDA 17001
Subject Code LABORATORY I
Kod & Tajuk Ujikaji/
TOPIC 5: FRICTION ON THE
Code & Title of INCLINED PLANE
Experiment
Seksyen
Kod Kursus/
BNJ 17001 /Section
Course Code
No. K.P / I.C
Kumpulan/Group 7 No.

Nama Pelajar/Name of LUQMAN HAKIM B MOHD No. Matrik


Student MASROR AN120115
Lecturer/Instructor/Tu 1. EN MOHD NAZRUL BIN ROSLAN
tors Name
Nama Ahli Kumpulan/ No.
Penilaian / Assesment
Group Members Matrik
1 10
FUAD RIDZUAN B AN120113 Teori / Theory
. MOKHTAR
%
2 AN1201 Keputusan / 15
. ARIF AIMRAN B AHMAD 29 Results %
3 AN1200 Pemerhatian / 20
NORASIKIN BT AB RANI
. 32 Observation %
4 Pengiraan / 10
. Calculation %
5 Perbincangan / 25
. ULASAN Discussions %
PEMERIKSA/COMMENTS
Tarikh Ujikaji / 11.10.20 Kesimpulan / 15
Date of Experiment 12 Conclusion %
Tarikh Hantar / 18.1020 Rujukan / 5
Date of Submission 12 References %
JUMLAH / 100
TOTAL %
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

COP
DITERIMA/APPROVED
STAMP

COURSE INFORMATION
COURSE TITLE: ENGINEERING LABORATORY I (BDA17001)
TOPIC 5: FRICTION ON THE INCLINED PLANE

1. INTRODUCTION
Friction can be defined as a force of resistance acting on a body that
prevents or retards slipping of the body relative to a second body or surface
with which it is in contact. This force always act tangent to the surface at
points of contact with other bodies. This friction force is opposite to the
existing motion of the body relative to these points.

2. OBJECTIVES
The objective of this experiment is to investigate friction on the inclined plane
and to show that a force (applied parallel to the plane) required to slide a

block up the plane, is equal to W ( sin cos ), where is an angle of


inclination of plane.

3. LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this topic, the students will be able to display basic skills and
knowledge of friction on the inclined plane using laboratory equipments,
analyze observable data obtained from friction on the inclined plane
experiment properly, work effectively in a group through laboratory
experiment and presentation and demonstrate comprehension of the general
ideas of the topic through written report that comply with specified standards.
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

4. THEORY
When a block is placed on an incline, the tendency is for the block to slide
down the plane. If the angle of inclination is small the block is prevented from
slipping by the friction between the surfaces. As the angle is increased, the
force exerted down the plane due to the weight of the block also increases,
but the force pressing the surfaces together will decrease. At the angle of
friction, the force acting down the plane just to overcome the friction and
sliding takes place. This could be described as in Figure 5.1.

The sum of forces (parallel to the inclined plane), F 0

Thus, P S F (1)
S W sin
R W cos
Where, F R W cos

P W sin W cos (2)

P : the force that required to overcome the friction to pull a block up the plane
S : the force acting down the plane due to the weight.
R : the force pressing down the surfaces together causing friction.
F : the friction force

The coefficient of friction, :


P 0; S F R
From Equation (1): If W sin W cos

sin
tan
cos (3)

Where, : is the angle of inclination of plane and is the coefficient of


friction.
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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

S

F R
W

Figure 5.1: Friction on the inclined plane diagram


4.1 ADDITIONAL THEORY

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

5. EQUIPMENTS

Table 5.1: Friction on Inclined Plane Equipment list


No. Apparatus Qty.
1 Plane Assembly 1
2 Friction Block with Cord 1
3 Knurled Nuts 2
4 Plumb Bob & Line 1
5 Weight Hook 1
6 Set of Weight 1
7 10N Spring Balance 1
8 Set of Trigonometrically Table

Figure 5.2: Friction on the inclined plane diagram

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

6. PROCEDURES

TEST 1 (Find the coefficient of friction)


1. Secure the mounting panel as shown in Figure 5.2. Hang the plumb
line over the protractor centre screw. Weigh the block for three (3)
times and record its average weight.
2. Use metal surface of the block placed in contact with the wooden
surface of the plane.
3. Place the block at the right hand end of the plane and tilt the plane
until the block slides down the plane with uniform speed.
4. Give the block a starting push to overcome static friction.
5. When the correct angle has been obtained, measure the angle at the
protractor recorded against the plumb line.

6. Record this angle which is the Angle of Friction ( ) for steel against
wood.

TEST 2

1. Do not alter the angle of plane which is now at angle of friction, .


2. Place the block at the left hand end of the plane and place the cord
over the pulley.
3. Attach the weight hook to the end of the cord and apply weights until
the block slides up the plane with slow uniform speed.
4. Once again, give the block a light starting push to overcome static
friction.
5. Record this weight (including the weight hook of 0.1N).

TEST 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7
1. Repeat as for Test 2 for angles of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 45.

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

7. RESULT
1. Complete the Table 5.2.

TABLE 3: Data Results.

The applied force Comparison


The angle of
Test
inclination of
No.
plane,
P by P by Same / Different
Experiment Calculation

3 0 0.04N 0.00N Different

4 10 0.30N 0.27N Different

2 = __15__ 0.43N 0.41N Different

5 20 0.51N 0.53N Different

6 30 0.75N 0.78N Different

7 45 1.00N 1.10N Different

* Data sheet must approved by the instructor

8. CALCULATON

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

1. Calculate the Coefficient of Friction by using equation (3) for Test 1

sin
tan
cos

= tan 150
= 0.27

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2. In the case of angle of planes inclination, equal to 0 , calculate the

value of the coefficient of the friction, and the weight of block, W.


W = mg cos
= mg cos 00
= 0.08(9.81)(1)
= 0.78

sin
tan
cos
= tan 00
=0

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

3. Calculate the value of P for each angle including (P) at the angle of

Friction ( ).

sin
tan
Angle of friction = 00 cos
P W sin W cos
= tan 00
mg sin mg cos
=0
= 0.08(9.81) sin 00 + 0
=0N

sin
tan
Angle of friction = 10 0 cos
P W sin W cos
= tan 100
mg sin mg cos
= 0.18
= 0.08(9.81) sin 100 + 0.18(0.78) cos 100
= 0.27 N

sin
tan
Angle of friction = 150 cos
P W sin W cos
= tan 150
mg sin mg cos
= 0.27
= 0.08(9.81) sin 150 + 0.27(0.78) cos 150
= 0.41 N

sin
tan
Angle of friction = 200 cos
P W sin W cos
= tan 200
mg sin mg cos
= 0.36
= 0.08(9.81) sin 200 + 0.36(0.78) cos 200
= 0.53 N

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

sin
tan
Angle of friction = 30 0 cos
P W sin W cos
= tan 300
mg sin mg cos
= 0.58
= 0.08(9.81) sin 300 + 0.58(0.78) cos 300
= 0.78 N

sin
tan
Angle of friction = 450 cos
P W sin W cos
= tan 450
mg sin mg cos
=1
= 0.08(9.81) sin 450 + 1(0.78) cos 450
= 1.10 N

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

9. OBSERVATIONS

From test 1, the block was moving slow uniform speed after gave a starting
push to overcome static friction with same load were hang and then angle of
friction was recorded.

From test 2, the angle of plane from test 1 was not altering. The weight
increases until the block move in slow uniform speed and the weight was
recorded.

From test 3, the angle was changed to 0 o . The load was increased to 0.04N
to make the wooden block move in uniform speed and the weight was
recorded.

From test 4, the angle was increased to 10 o. The load also was increased to
0.3N to make the wooden block move in uniform speed and the weight was
recorded.

Form test 5, the angle was increased to 15 o. The load also was increased to
0.43N to make the wooden block move in uniform speed and the weight was
recorded.

Form test 6, the angle was increased to 20 o. The load also was increased to
0.51N to make the wooden block move in uniform speed and the weight was
recorded.

Form test 7, the angle was increased to 30 o. The load also was increased to
0.75N to make the wooden block move in uniform speed and the weight was
recorded.

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Form test 8, the angle was increased to 45 o. The load also was increased to
1.00N to make the wooden block move in uniform speed and the weight was
recorded.

10. DISCUSSIONS

1. Discuss the values of P obtained by experiment and calculation.


Compare those values with the force (S) acting down the plane.

Mostly, there a little bit different in value of P obtain by experiment and


calculation from the different angle that ha been recorded. The value of P
obtain are higher than the force (s) acting down the plane so that the block
can move through the incline plane.

2. Suggest some reasons why there are differences occur between


the values of P by experiment and P by calculation.

There are different occur between value of P by experiment and P by


calculation due to the few error happened during experiment was conducted.
Firstly is wind error. The high speed of wind cause the load P move and
make the load P moving down not at the right time. Secondly is parallax
error. When we take the reading of protector, our eyes not perpendicular to
the scale of the reading because parallax error happen. Furthermore,
additional friction error. This error happen when the start of experiment, we
did not clean all the apparatus especially the surface of the plane because
the additional friction happen between the block and the surface of the plane.
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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

3. State the differences between friction on the horizontal plane and friction
on the inclined plane.

The differences between frictions on horizontal plane and friction on incline


plane are friction on incline plane is more than friction on horizontal plane.
Moreover, the gravitational force is higher on inclined plane compare to
horizontal plane.

10.1 QUESTIONS

1. What is the connection between the Angle of Friction and the


Coefficient of Friction?

The higher the angle friction the higher the coefficient friction.

2. Give two (2) engineering applications showing the significance of the


friction on the inclined plane.

- Plate clutch friction


- Bearing friction

11. CONCLUSION
Deduce conclusions from the experiment. Please comment on your
experimental work in terms of achievement, problems faced throughout the
experiment and suggest recommendation for improvements.

From the experiment, we know that the angle of friction of inclined plane
play important role in friction between block and surface of inclined plane.

We get actual result for value of P by calculation in all angle. Difficult to get
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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

slow uniform speed because the block sometimes glide with wall of the
plane. To overcome this, stabilise the plane by setup the plane with stand so
that it would happen again.

12. REFERENCES

- www.electronicsinstrumentsmanufacturer.com/friction/tribology.html
- Engineering mechanics statics, Twelfth edition, R. C. Hibbeler
- Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/friction_on_incline_plane
-

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