Anda di halaman 1dari 426

Ancient Egypt

Contents

1 Ancient Egypt 1
1.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Predynastic period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Early Dynastic Period (c. 30502686 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.3 Old Kingdom (26862181 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.4 First Intermediate Period (21811991 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.5 Middle Kingdom (21341690 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.6 Second Intermediate Period (16741549 BC) and the Hyksos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.7 New Kingdom (15491069 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.8 Third Intermediate Period (1069653 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.9 Late Period (672332 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.10 Ptolemaic period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1.11 Roman period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 Government and economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.1 Administration and commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.2 Social status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.3 Legal system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.4 Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.5 Natural resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.6 Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3 Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.1 Historical development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.2 Sounds and grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.3 Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.4 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.4 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4.1 Daily life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4.2 Cuisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.4.3 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.4.4 Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.4.5 Religious beliefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.4.6 Burial customs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

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1.5 Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.6 Technology, medicine, and mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.6.1 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.6.2 Faience and glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.6.3 Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.6.4 Maritime technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.6.5 Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.7 Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.8 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2 History of Egypt 32
2.1 Prehistory (pre3100 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2 Ancient Egypt (3100332 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.2.1 Achaemenid rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.2.2 Second Achaemenid conquest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3 Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt (332 BC641 AD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3.1 Sassanid Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.4 Arab and Ottoman Egypt (6411882) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.5 British Protectorate (18821953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.6 Republican Egypt (since 1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.6.1 Terrorist insurgency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.6.2 Civil unrest since 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3 Prehistoric Egypt 41
3.1 Late Paleolithic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1.1 Wadi Halfa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1.2 Aterian Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1.3 Khormusan Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.2 Mesolithic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.2.1 Halfan culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.2.2 Qadan and Sebilian cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.2.3 Harian culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.3 Neolithic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.3.1 Lower Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.3.2 Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
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3.4 Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4 Early Dynastic Period of Egypt 50


4.1 Cultural evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.2 First Pharaoh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.4 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

5 Old Kingdom of Egypt 53


5.1 Third Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.2 Fourth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.3 Fifth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.4 Sixth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.5 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

6 First Intermediate Period of Egypt 57


6.1 Events leading to the First Intermediate Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.2 The 7th and 8th dynasties at Memphis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.3 Rise of the Heracleopolitan Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.4 Rise of the Theban kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.5 The Ipuwer Papyrus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.6 The art and architecture of the First Intermediate Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.7 End of the First Intermediate Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

7 Middle Kingdom of Egypt 60


7.1 Political history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.1.1 Reunication under the Eleventh Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.1.2 Early 12th Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.1.3 Height of the Middle Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.1.4 Decline into the Second Intermediate Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.2 Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.2.1 Provincial government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.3 Agriculture and climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.4 Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
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7.5 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

8 Second Intermediate Period of Egypt 69


8.1 End of the Middle Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.2 Fifteenth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.3 Sixteenth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.4 Abydos dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.5 Seventeenth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

9 New Kingdom of Egypt 72


9.1 Eighteenth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.2 Nineteenth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.3 Twentieth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9.4 Image gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
9.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
9.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

10 Third Intermediate Period of Egypt 76


10.1 Twenty-rst Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.2 Twenty-second and Twenty-third Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.3 Twenty-fourth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.4 Twenty-fth Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.5 End of the Third Intermediate Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.6 Historiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
10.8.1 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
10.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

11 Late Period of ancient Egypt 79


11.1 26th Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
11.2 27th Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
11.3 28th30th Dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
11.4 31st Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
11.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
11.6 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

12 History of Achaemenid Egypt 81


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12.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
12.2 Pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
12.3 Timeline of the 27th Dynasty (Achaemenid Pharaohs only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
12.4 Historical sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
12.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
12.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
12.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

13 Ptolemaic Kingdom 83
13.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
13.1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
13.1.2 Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
13.1.3 Ptolemy I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
13.1.4 Ptolemy II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
13.1.5 Ptolemy III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
13.1.6 Decline of the Ptolemies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
13.1.7 Later Ptolemies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
13.1.8 Cleopatra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
13.1.9 Roman rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
13.2 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
13.2.1 Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
13.2.2 Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
13.2.3 Social situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
13.2.4 Coinage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13.2.5 Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13.3 Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13.3.1 Naucratis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13.3.2 Alexandria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
13.3.3 Ptolemais . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
13.4 Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
13.4.1 Arabs under the Ptolemies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.4.2 Jews under the Ptolemies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.5 Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.6 List of Ptolemaic rulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
13.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
13.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

14 Roman Province of Egypt 97


14.1 Roman rule in Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
14.2 Roman government in Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
vi CONTENTS

14.3 Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
14.4 Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
14.5 Social structure in early Roman Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
14.6 Christian Egypt (33 AD4th century) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
14.7 Later Roman Egypt (4th6th centuries) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
14.8 Episcopal sees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
14.9 Sassanian Persian invasion (619 AD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
14.10Arab Islamic conquest (639646 AD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
14.11Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
14.12References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
14.13Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
14.14External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

15 Diocese of Egypt 106


15.1 Administrative history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
15.2 Praefecti Augustalii of the Diocese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
15.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
15.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

16 Sasanian conquest of Egypt 108


16.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
16.2 Fall of Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
16.3 Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
16.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
16.5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

17 Outline of ancient Egypt 109


17.1 What type of thing is Ancient Egypt? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.2 Geography of ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.2.1 Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.3 Government and politics of ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.3.1 Pharaohs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.3.2 Government Ocials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.3.3 Egyptian law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.3.4 Military of ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.4 General history of ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.4.1 History of ancient Egypt, by period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.4.2 History of ancient Egypt, by region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
17.4.3 History of ancient Egypt, by subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
17.5 Egyptology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
17.5.1 Egyptologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
17.5.2 Museums with ancient Egyptian exhibits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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17.6 Culture of ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112


17.6.1 Architecture of ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
17.6.2 Religion in ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
17.6.3 Ancient Egyptian language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
17.7 Egyptian economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
17.8 Scholars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
17.9 Publications about ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
17.10See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
17.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
17.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

18 Cities of the ancient Near East 116


18.1 Mesopotamia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
18.1.1 Lower Mesopotamia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
18.1.2 Upper Mesopotamia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
18.2 Zagros ( West and South ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
18.2.1 Tepe Sialk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
18.3 Anatolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
18.4 The Levant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
18.5 Arabian Peninsula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
18.6 Kerma (Doukki Gel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
18.7 Horn of Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
18.8 Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
18.9 Nomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
18.9.1 Lower Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
18.9.2 Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
18.10Lower Egypt (The Nile Delta) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
18.11Middle Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
18.12Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
18.12.1 Northern Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
18.12.2 Southern Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
18.13Lower Nubia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
18.14Upper Nubia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
18.15The Oases and Mediterranean coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
18.16Sinai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
18.17Eastern Desert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
18.18Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
18.19Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
18.20See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
18.21References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
18.22External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
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19 History of ancient Egypt 127


19.1 Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
19.2 Neolithic Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
19.2.1 Neolithic period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
19.2.2 Prehistoric Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
19.3 Dynastic Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
19.3.1 Early dynastic period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
19.3.2 Old Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
19.3.3 First Intermediate Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
19.3.4 Middle Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
19.3.5 Second Intermediate Period and the Hyksos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
19.3.6 New Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
19.3.7 Third Intermediate Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
19.3.8 Late Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
19.3.9 Persian domination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
19.3.10 Ptolemaic dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
19.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
19.5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
19.5.1 Pharaonic Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
19.5.2 Ptolemaic Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
19.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

20 List of ancient Egyptian sites 140


20.1 Nomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
20.1.1 Lower Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
20.1.2 Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
20.2 Lower Egypt (The Nile Delta) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
20.3 Middle Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
20.4 Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
20.4.1 Northern Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
20.4.2 Southern Upper Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
20.5 Lower Nubia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
20.6 Upper Nubia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
20.7 The Oases and Mediterranean coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
20.8 Sinai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
20.9 Eastern Desert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
20.10Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
20.11Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

21 4.2 kiloyear event 146


21.1 Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
21.2 Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
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21.2.1 Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146


21.2.2 Mesopotamia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
21.2.3 Arabian peninsula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
21.2.4 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
21.2.5 China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
21.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
21.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
21.5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
21.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

22 5.9 kiloyear event 149


22.1 Cause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
22.2 Eects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
22.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
22.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

23 Abadiyeh 151

24 Achaemenid Empire 152


24.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
24.1.1 Achaemenid timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
24.1.2 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
24.1.3 Formation and expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
24.1.4 Greco-Persian Wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
24.1.5 Cultural phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
24.1.6 Second conquest of Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
24.1.7 Fall of the empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
24.1.8 Descendants in later Iranian dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
24.1.9 Causes of decline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
24.2 Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
24.3 Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
24.3.1 Military composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
24.3.2 Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
24.3.3 Cavalry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
24.3.4 Navy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
24.4 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
24.4.1 Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
24.4.2 Customs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
24.4.3 Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
24.4.4 Art and architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
24.4.5 Tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
24.5 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
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24.6 Achaemenid kings and rulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171


24.6.1 Unattested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
24.6.2 Attested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
24.7 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
24.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
24.9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
24.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
24.11Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
24.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

25 Ancient Egyptian agriculture 178


25.1 Farming systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
25.1.1 The Nile and eld planting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
25.1.2 Irrigation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
25.1.3 Horticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
25.2 Crops grown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
25.2.1 Food crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
25.2.2 Industrial and ber crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.3 Religion and agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.3.1 Gods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.4 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.5 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
25.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

26 Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrices 181


26.1 Historical context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
26.1.1 Egypts beliefs about the afterlife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
26.1.2 Power of the Pharaoh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
26.2 Evidence for retainer sacrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
26.3 Reasons for Retainer sacrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.3.1 Pharaohs and nobles perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.3.2 Retainers perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.4 First dynasty retainer sacrices in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.5 Specic kings retainer sacrices from the rst dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.5.1 King Aha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.5.2 King Djer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.5.3 King Djet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
26.5.4 King Den . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
26.5.5 King Qaa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
26.6 Demographics of sacriced retainers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
26.7 Methods of sacrice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
26.8 Reasons for dwindling of retainer sacrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
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26.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


26.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
26.11Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

27 Annals of Thutmose III 185


27.1 Campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
27.2 Historical signicance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
27.3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
27.4 References and footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
27.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

28 Balsam oil 187


28.1 Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
28.2 Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
28.3 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
28.4 Allergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
28.5 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
28.6 Alternate names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
28.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

29 Beauty and cosmetics in ancient Egypt 191


29.1 Chemistry of ancient Egyptian cosmetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
29.2 Medical uses of ancient Egyptian cosmetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
29.3 Cosmetic palettes and jars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
29.4 Use of cosmetics in dierent social classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
29.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
29.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

30 Bident 193
30.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
30.2 Historical uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
30.3 In mythology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
30.4 In art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
30.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
30.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
30.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

31 Cemetery GIS 196


31.1 Mastabas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
31.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
31.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
31.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

32 Egyptian blue 198


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32.1 Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198


32.2 History and background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
32.3 Composition and manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
32.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
32.5 Archaeological evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
32.6 Connections with other vitreous material and with metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
32.7 Occurrences outside of Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
32.8 Modern applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
32.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
32.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
32.11Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
32.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

33 EgyptianHittite peace treaty 204


33.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
33.1.1 Pre-Ramesses II relationship with the Hittites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
33.1.2 Battle of Kadesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
33.1.3 Subsequent campaigns into Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
33.2 Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
33.2.1 Hittite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
33.2.2 Egyptian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
33.3 Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
33.4 Analysis-theories about the treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
33.5 Aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
33.5.1 Egyptian aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
33.5.2 Hittite aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
33.6 Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
33.7 Text of the treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
33.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
33.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

34 Clothing in ancient Egypt 210


34.1 Elements of Egyptian clothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
34.2 Pharaohs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
34.3 Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
34.4 Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
34.5 Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
34.6 Wigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
34.7 Jewelry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
34.8 Cosmetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
34.9 Footwear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
34.10See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
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34.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
34.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

35 Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys 214


35.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

36 Gardens of ancient Egypt 215


36.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
36.2 Palace gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
36.3 Pleasure gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
36.4 Temple gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
36.5 Funeral gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
36.6 Trees and plants in the Egyptian garden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
36.7 Gallery of plants in the ancient Egyptian garden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
36.8 Ponds and pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
36.9 Shade, color and aroma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
36.10Gardening in Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
36.11Gallery of gardens of Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
36.12References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
36.13Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

37 Giza East Field 219


37.1 Queens pyramids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
37.2 Cemetery G 7000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
37.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
37.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

38 Giza West Field 221


38.1 Cemetery G1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
38.2 Cemetery G 1100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
38.3 Cemetery G 1200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
38.4 Cemetery G 1400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
38.5 Cemetery G 1500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
38.6 Cemetery G 1600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
38.7 Cemetery G 2100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
38.8 Cemetery G 2300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
38.9 Cemetery G 4000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
38.10Cemetery G 5000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
38.11Junker Cemetery East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
38.12Steindor Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
38.13External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
38.14References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
xiv CONTENTS

39 The Greatest Pharaohs 223


39.1 In education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
39.2 4-part series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
39.3 Video release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
39.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
39.5 Additional sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
39.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
39.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

40 Homosexuality in ancient Egypt 225


40.1 Depictions of possible homosexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
40.1.1 Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
40.1.2 King Pepi II and his general ocer Sasenet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
40.1.3 Horus and Seth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
40.2 Ancient Egyptian views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
40.3 Talmudic Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
40.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
40.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
40.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

41 Origins of the Hyksos 228


41.1 Hyksos 15th dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
41.2 Origin hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
41.2.1 Manetho and Josephus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
41.2.2 Modern scholarship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
41.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

42 Index of ancient Egypt-related articles 232


42.1 09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
42.2 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
42.3 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
42.4 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
42.5 D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
42.6 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
42.7 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
42.8 G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
42.9 H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
42.10I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
42.11J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
42.12K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
42.13L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
42.14M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
CONTENTS xv

42.15N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
42.16O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
42.17P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
42.18Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
42.19R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
42.20S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
42.21T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
42.22U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
42.23V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
42.24W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
42.25X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
42.26Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
42.27Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
42.28See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

43 Interregnum queen 273

44 Kings Highway 274


44.1 Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
44.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
44.2.1 Iron Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
44.2.2 Classical Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
44.2.3 Byzantine Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
44.2.4 After the Muslim conquest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
44.3 In the Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
44.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
44.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

45 Mastaba 276
45.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
45.2 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
45.3 Architectural Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
45.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

46 Migdol 279
46.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

47 Min 280
47.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

48 Naharin 281
48.1 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
48.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
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49 Neo-Assyrian Empire 282


49.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
49.1.1 Middle Assyrian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
49.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
49.2.1 Adad-nirari II (911-891 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
49.2.2 Shalmaneser III to Adad-nirari III (859783 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
49.2.3 Period of stagnation, 783745 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
49.3 Tiglath-Pileser III, 744727 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
49.3.1 Invasion of Israel (738 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
49.4 Sargonid dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
49.4.1 Sargon II, 721705 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
49.4.2 Sennacherib, 705681 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
49.4.3 Esarhaddon, 681669 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
49.4.4 Ashurbanipal, 668627 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
49.5 Fall of Assyria, 627609 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
49.5.1 Environmental factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
49.6 Assyria after the fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
49.7 Role of the Aramaic language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
49.8 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
49.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
49.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
49.11Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
49.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

50 Nile Valley Civilizations 291


50.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

51 Noph 292

52 North City, Amarna 293


52.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

53 Nubia (Mesolithic) / Nile boat 294


53.1 Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
53.2 Boat design / steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
53.3 Mesolithic shing boats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
53.4 Naqada II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
53.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

54 Ovis longipes palaeoaegyptiacus 297


54.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

55 Pharaohs in the Bible 298


55.1 Historical pharaohs: Taharqa, Necho and Apries/Hophra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
CONTENTS xvii

55.2 Conjectural pharaohs: Shishak and So . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298


55.3 Unidentied pharaohs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
55.3.1 Pharaohs in the Book of Genesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
55.3.2 Pharaohs in the Book of Exodus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
55.3.3 Pharaohs in the Books of Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
55.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
55.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
55.6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

56 Pharaonic Tayma inscription 302


56.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
56.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

57 Portal:Ancient Egypt 303

58 Ancient Egyptian race controversy 304


58.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
58.2 Position of modern scholarship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
58.3 Specic current-day controversies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
58.3.1 Tutankhamun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
58.3.2 Cleopatra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
58.3.3 Great Sphinx of Giza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
58.3.4 Kemet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
58.3.5 Ancient Egyptian art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
58.4 Historical hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
58.4.1 Black Egyptian hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
58.4.2 Asiatic Race Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
58.4.3 Caucasian / Hamitic hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
58.4.4 Turanid race hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
58.4.5 Dynastic race theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
58.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
58.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
58.7 Works cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

59 Black Egyptian Hypothesis 315


59.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
59.2 Position of modern scholarship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
59.3 Greek historians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
59.4 Melanin samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
59.5 Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
59.6 Cultural practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
59.7 Biblical Ham, blackness, and Hams ospring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
59.8 Kemet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
xviii CONTENTS

59.9 Ancient art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318


59.10Sculpture and the Sphinx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
59.11Qustul artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
59.12See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
59.13Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
59.14References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

60 Rope stretcher 324


60.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
60.2 The Egyptian rope trick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
60.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
60.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
60.5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
60.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

61 Rosemarie and Dietrich Klemm Collection 325


61.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
61.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
61.3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

62 Sea Peoples 326


62.1 History of the concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
62.2 Primary documentary records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
62.2.1 Reign of Ramesses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
62.2.2 Reign of Merneptah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
62.2.3 Reign of Ramesses III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
62.2.4 Onomasticon of Amenope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
62.3 Other documentary records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
62.3.1 Early Amarna age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
62.3.2 Carchemish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
62.3.3 Byblos obelisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
62.3.4 Letters at Ugarit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
62.4 Hypotheses about identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
62.4.1 Regional migration historical context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
62.4.2 Philistine hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
62.4.3 Minoan hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
62.4.4 Greek migrational hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
62.4.5 Trojan hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
62.4.6 Mycenaean warfare hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
62.4.7 Italian peoples hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
62.4.8 Anatolian famine hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
62.4.9 Invader hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
CONTENTS xix

62.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336


62.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
62.7 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
62.7.1 Primary sources: Early publications of the theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
62.7.2 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
62.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

63 Sebakh 345
63.1 Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
63.2 Aecting archaeology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
63.3 Amarna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
63.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
63.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

64 Sheneset-Chenoboskion 346
64.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
64.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
64.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
64.4 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

65 Statue of Sekhmet 348


65.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
65.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

66 Therapeutae 349
66.1 Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
66.2 Philos account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
66.3 Jewish monastic orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
66.4 Early Christian interpretations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
66.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
66.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
66.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
66.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

67 Thinite Confederacy 352


67.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
67.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
67.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

68 Jonathan Tokeley-Parry 353


68.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

69 Tryph 354
69.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
xx CONTENTS

69.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

70 Tulle bi telli 355


70.1 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
70.2 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
70.3 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
70.4 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
70.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

71 Urban planning in ancient Egypt 357


71.1 Predynastic period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
71.2 el-Lahun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
71.3 Deir el-Medina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
71.4 Amarna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
71.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
71.6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

72 Uronarti 360
72.1 The fortress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
72.2 Excavation History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
72.3 Finds at Uronarti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
72.4 The Boundary Stela of Senusret III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
72.5 Uronarti History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
72.6 Military sigicance of the fortress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
72.7 Site FC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
72.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
72.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

73 Women in Ancient Egypt 363


73.1 Working women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
73.2 Pregnancy and childbirth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
73.3 Women playing an ocial role at the highest levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
73.4 Women in ancient Egyptian literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
73.5 Women in ancient Egyptian art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
73.6 Divine image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
73.6.1 Gods Wives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
73.7 Inuence of the image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
73.7.1 The rediscovery of ancient Egypt during the era of Napoleon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
73.7.2 Modern images of women in ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
73.8 The social and political position of women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
73.9 Family and marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
73.10Known royal women (by chronological order) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
73.11See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
CONTENTS xxi

73.12Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
73.12.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
73.13References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
73.14External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
73.15Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
73.15.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
73.15.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
73.15.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Chapter 1

Ancient Egypt

For the British history magazine, see Ancient Egypt tablished himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek
(magazine). Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, un-
der Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a
Roman province.[3]
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly
from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile
River valley for agriculture. The predictable ooding and
controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced sur-
plus crops, which supported a more dense population, and
social development and culture. With resources to spare,
the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the
valley and surrounding desert regions, the early develop-
ment of an independent writing system, the organization
of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade
with surrounding regions, and a military intended to de-
feat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance. Mo-
tivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy
of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators un-
The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most
recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. der the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the coopera-
tion and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an
elaborate system of religious beliefs.[4][5]
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern
Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include
River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques
is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyp- that supported the building of monumental pyramids,
tian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a prac-
around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian tical and eective system of medicine, irrigation systems
chronology)[1] with the political unication of Upper and and agricultural production techniques, the rst known
Lower Egypt under the rst pharaoh Narmer (commonly planked boats,[6] Egyptian faience and glass technology,
referred to as Menes).[2] The history of ancient Egypt oc- new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace
curred in a series of stable kingdoms, separated by peri- treaty, made with the Hittites.[7] Egypt left a lasting
ods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and
the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle its antiquities carried o to far corners of the world. Its
Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New King- monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of trav-
dom of the Late Bronze Age. elers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect for
antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by
Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New King-
Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientic investiga-
dom, during the Ramesside period, where it rivalled the
tion of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of
Hittite Empire, Assyrian Empire and Mitanni Empire, af-
its cultural legacy.[8]
ter which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was
invaded or conquered by a succession of foreign powers,
such as the Canaanites/Hyksos, Libyans, the Nubians, the
Assyrians, Babylonians, the Achaemenid Persians, and
the Macedonians in the Third Intermediate Period and
the Late Period of Egypt. In the aftermath of Alexander
the Great's death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, es-

1
2 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

1.1 History 1.1.1 Predynastic period


Main article: Predynastic Egypt
Main articles: History of ancient Egypt, History of Egypt, In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian
and Population history of Egypt
The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much

Mediterranean Sea
Jerusalem

Sea
Gaza

Dead
Damietta
Rosetta
Rafah
Alexandria Buto

Sais Tanis Pelusium


Naukratis Busiris
Avaris

NW
N

NE
Wadi Natrun Bubastis
W E
Nile Delta
SW

S
SE
Merimda Great Bitter
Lake
Heliopolis
Cairo
Giza
0 (km) 100

Sinai
0 (mi) 60

Saqqara
Memphis
Helwan
Dahshur

Faiyum
Lake
Moeri
s

Meydum
Lower Timna

Lahun Egypt
Herakleopolis Serabit al-Khadim
qaba
river

of A
Gu
Nile

lf

Bahariya Oasis
of

Gulf
S ue
z

Beni Hasan
Hermopolis
Amarna

Asyut
Badari
Eastern Desert
Qau

Western Desert Akhmim


Red Sea
Thinis
Abydos river
Nile Dendera
Quseir
Kharga Oasis Naqada Koptos at
Hammam
Wadi

Thebes
Dakhla Oasis Tod
(Luxor and Karnak)

Upper Hierakonpolis
Egypt Edfu

Kom Ombo
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic
Aswan
First Cataract
Bernike
Period)
Dunqul Oasis

climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions


Nabta Playa

Abu Simbel
Wad
i Alla
of Egypt were covered in treed savanna and traversed by
qi

herds of grazing ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far


Buhen

more prolic in all environs and the Nile region supported


Second Cataract Kush large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been
Wa
d

common for Egyptians, and this is also the period when


iG
ab
ga
ba

Nubian Desert
many animals were rst domesticated.[11]
Third Cataract

Kerma
riv
er
By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley
had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating rm
ile
N

Kawa

Fourth Cataract

Napata
control of agriculture and animal husbandry, and identi-
Gebel Barkal
Fifth Cataract

able by their pottery and personal items, such as combs,


bracelets, and beads. The largest of these early cultures in
Meroe
upper (Southern) Egypt was the Badari, which probably
originated in the Western Desert; it was known for its high
quality ceramics, stone tools, and its use of copper.[12]
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dy-
nastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC) The Badari was followed by the Amratian (Naqada I) and
Gerzeh (Naqada II) cultures,[13] which brought a number
of technological improvements. As early as the Naqada
of human history.[9] The fertile oodplain of the Nile I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from
gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agri- Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from
cultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized akes.[14] In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of
society that became a cornerstone in the history of hu- contact with the Near East, particularly Canaan and the
man civilization.[10] Nomadic modern human hunter- Byblos coast.[15] Over a period of about 1,000 years,
gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end the Naqada culture developed from a few small farm-
of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By ing communities into a powerful civilization whose lead-
the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern ers were in complete control of the people and resources
Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the pop- of the Nile valley.[16] Establishing a power center at
ulations of the area to concentrate along the river region. Hierakonpolis, and later at Abydos, Naqada III leaders
1.1. HISTORY 3

expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the


Nile.[17] They also traded with Nubia to the south, the
oases of the western desert to the west, and the cultures
of the eastern Mediterranean and Near East to the east.[17]
Royal Nubian burials at Qustul produced artifacts bear-
ing the oldest-known examples of Egyptian dynastic sym-
bols, such as the white crown of Egypt and falcon.[18][19]
The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of
material goods, reective of the increasing power and
wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items,
which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery,
high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, and
jewelry made of gold, lapis, and ivory. They also devel-
[27]
oped a ceramic glaze known as faience, which was used The Narmer Palette depicts the unication of the Two Lands.
well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets,
and gurines.[20] During the last predynastic phase, the
Naqada culture began using written symbols that eventu- 1.1.3 Old Kingdom (26862181 BC)
ally were developed into a full system of hieroglyphs for
writing the ancient Egyptian language.[21] Main article: Old Kingdom of Egypt
Major advances in architecture, art, and technology were

1.1.2 Early Dynastic Period (c. 30502686


BC)

Main article: Early Dynastic Period of Egypt

The Early Dynastic Period was approximately contem-


porary to the early Sumerian-Akkadian civilisation of
Mesopotamia and of ancient Elam. The third-century
BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of
pharaohs from Menes to his own time into 30 dynasties,
a system still used today.[22] He chose to begin his of- The Giza Pyramids
cial history with the king named Meni (or Menes in
Greek) who was believed to have united the two king- made during the Old Kingdom, fueled by the increased
doms of Upper and Lower Egypt (around 3100 BC).[23] agricultural productivity and resulting population, made
[28]
The transition to a unied state happened more gradually possible by a well-developed central administration.
than ancient Egyptian writers represented, and there is no Some of ancient Egypts crowning achievements, the
contemporary record of Menes. Some scholars now be- Giza pyramids and Great Sphinx, were constructed dur-
lieve, however, that the mythical Menes may have been ing the Old Kingdom. Under the direction of the
the pharaoh Narmer, who is depicted wearing royal re- vizier, state ocials collected taxes, coordinated irriga-
galia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette, in a symbolic act tion projects to improve crop yield, drafted peasants to
of unication.[24] In the Early Dynastic Period about 3150 work on construction projects, and [29]
established a justice
BC, the rst of the Dynastic pharaohs solidied control system to maintain peace and order.
over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, Along with the rising importance of a central administra-
from which he could control the labour force and agri- tion arose a new class of educated scribes and ocials
culture of the fertile delta region, as well as the lucrative who were granted estates by the pharaoh in payment for
and critical trade routes to the Levant. The increasing their services. Pharaohs also made land grants to their
power and wealth of the pharaohs during the early dynas- mortuary cults and local temples, to ensure that these in-
tic period was reected in their elaborate mastaba tombs stitutions had the resources to worship the pharaoh af-
and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used ter his death. Scholars believe that ve centuries of
to celebrate the deied pharaoh after his death.[25] The these practices slowly eroded the economic power of
strong institution of kingship developed by the pharaohs the pharaoh, and that the economy could no longer af-
served to legitimize state control over the land, labour, ford to support a large centralized administration.[30] As
and resources that were essential to the survival and the power of the pharaoh diminished, regional governors
growth of ancient Egyptian civilization.[26] called nomarchs began to challenge the supremacy of the
4 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

trolled Lower Egypt in the north, while a rival clan based


in Thebes, the Intef family, took control of Upper Egypt
in the south. As the Intefs grew in power and expanded
their control northward, a clash between the two rival dy-
nasties became inevitable. Around 2055 BC the north-
ern Theban forces under Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II -
nally defeated the Herakleopolitan rulers, reuniting the
Two Lands. They inaugurated a period of economic and
cultural renaissance known as the Middle Kingdom.[35]

1.1.5 Middle Kingdom (21341690 BC)


Main article: Middle Kingdom of Egypt
The pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the

Khafre Enthroned

pharaoh. This, coupled with severe droughts between


2200 and 2150 BC,[31] is assumed to have caused the
country to enter the 140-year period of famine and strife
known as the First Intermediate Period.[32]

1.1.4 First Intermediate Period (2181


1991 BC) Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom

Main article: First Intermediate Period of Egypt


countrys prosperity and stability, thereby stimulating a
resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building
After Egypts central government collapsed at the end of projects.[36] Mentuhotep II and his Eleventh Dynasty suc-
the Old Kingdom, the administration could no longer sup- cessors ruled from Thebes, but the vizier Amenemhat I,
port or stabilize the countrys economy. Regional gover- upon assuming kingship at the beginning of the Twelfth
nors could not rely on the king for help in times of crisis, Dynasty around 1985 BC, shifted the nations capital to
and the ensuing food shortages and political disputes es- the city of Itjtawy, located in Faiyum.[37] From Itjtawy,
calated into famines and small-scale civil wars. Yet de- the pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty undertook a far-
spite dicult problems, local leaders, owing no tribute to sighted land reclamation and irrigation scheme to in-
the pharaoh, used their new-found independence to estab- crease agricultural output in the region. Moreover, the
lish a thriving culture in the provinces. Once in control military reconquered territory in Nubia that was rich in
of their own resources, the provinces became economi- quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive
cally richerwhich was demonstrated by larger and bet- structure in the Eastern Delta, called the "Walls-of-the-
ter burials among all social classes.[33] In bursts of cre- Ruler", to defend against foreign attack.[38]
ativity, provincial artisans adopted and adapted cultural With the pharaohs having secured military and polit-
motifs formerly restricted to the royalty of the Old King- ical security and vast agricultural and mineral wealth,
dom, and scribes developed literary styles that expressed the nations population, arts, and religion ourished. In
the optimism and originality of the period.[34] contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the
Free from their loyalties to the pharaoh, local rulers be- gods, the Middle Kingdom experienced an increase in
gan competing with each other for territorial control and expressions of personal piety and what could be called a
political power. By 2160 BC, rulers in Herakleopolis con- democratization of the afterlife, in which all people pos-
1.1. HISTORY 5

sessed a soul and could be welcomed into the company The Egyptian Empire

C
Black Sea

as
15th century BC

pi
of the gods after death.[39] Middle Kingdom literature

an
HITTITE

Se
featured sophisticated themes and characters written in a EMPIRE

a
Sardes

condent, eloquent style.[34] The relief and portrait sculp- Mycenae

CI
LI
CI
A
ASSYRIA
Nineveh
Carchemish

ture of the period captured subtle, individual details that SYRIA


ME
Assur
Citium
SO
reached new heights of technical perfection.[40] Mediteranean Sea Byblos
Sidon
Kadesh
Damascus
PO
TA
MIA
Tyre

N
Babylon

AA
The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat Gaza
Nippur

CAN
Tanis
Avaris Ur
Pe
III, allowed Semitic-speaking Canaanite settlers from the LIBYA
Memphis
SINAI
Heliopolis
r
Gu sian
lf

e
Near East into the delta region to provide a sucient

Nil
Herakleopolis
ARABIA
EGYPTIAN
labour force for his especially active mining and building Abydos

Re
THEBES
campaigns. These ambitious building and mining activ-

d
Aswan
Elephantine I
ities, however, combined with severe Nile oods later in

Se
Abu Simbel

a
his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow EMPIRE
II

KUSH
decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the III IV

V
later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties. During this Napata

decline, the Canaanite settlers began to seize control of VI


PUNT
the delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as (under Egyptian influence)

the Hyksos.[41]

1.1.6 Second Intermediate Period (1674


1549 BC) and the Hyksos The maximum territorial extent of ancient Egypt (15th century
BC)
Main article: Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of


Around 1785 BC, as the power of the Middle Kingdom unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and
pharaohs weakened, a Western Asian people called the strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbours, in-
Hyksos had already settled in the Eastern Delta town of cluding the Mitanni Empire, Assyria, and Canaan. Mili-
Avaris, seized control of Egypt, and forced the central tary campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grand-
government to retreat to Thebes. The pharaoh was treated son Tuthmosis III extended the inuence of the pharaohs
as a vassal and expected to pay tribute.[42] The Hyksos to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen. Between their
(foreign rulers) retained Egyptian models of govern- reigns, Hatshepsut generally promoted peace and restored
ment and identied as pharaohs, thus integrating Egyp- trade routes lost during the Hyksos occupation, as well
tian elements into their culture. They and other invaders as expanding to new regions. When Tuthmosis III died
introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably in 1425 BC, Egypt had an empire extending from Niya
the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot.[43] in north west Syria to the fourth waterfall of the Nile in
After their retreat, the native Theban kings found them- Nubia, cementing loyalties and opening access to critical
[45]
selves trapped between the Canaanite Hyksos ruling the imports such as bronze and wood.
north and the Hyksos Nubian allies, the Kushites, to the
south of Egypt. After years of vassalage, Thebes gath-
ered enough strength to challenge the Hyksos in a con-
ict that lasted more than 30 years, until 1555 BC.[42]
The pharaohs Seqenenre Tao II and Kamose were ulti-
mately able to defeat the Nubians to the south of Egypt,
but failed to defeat the Hyksos. That task fell to Kamoses
successor, Ahmose I, who successfully waged a series of
campaigns that permanently eradicated the Hyksos pres-
ence in Egypt. He established a new dynasty. In the New
Kingdom that followed, the military became a central pri-
ority for the pharaohs seeking to expand Egypts borders
and attempting to gain mastery of the Near East.[44]

1.1.7 New Kingdom (15491069 BC) Djeser-Djeseru is the main building of Hatshepsuts mortuary
temple complex at Deir el-Bahri; the building is an example of
Main article: New Kingdom of Egypt perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon by a thousand
years
6 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

The New Kingdom pharaohs began a large-scale building


campaign to promote the god Amun, whose growing cult
was based in Karnak. They also constructed monuments
to glorify their own achievements, both real and imag-
ined. The Karnak temple is the largest Egyptian temple
ever built.[46] The pharaoh Hatshepsut used such hyper-
bole and grandeur during her reign of almost twenty-two
years.[47] Her reign was very successful, marked by an ex-
tended period of peace and wealth-building, trading ex-
peditions to Punt, restoration of foreign trade networks,
and great building projects, including an elegant mortuary
temple that rivaled the Greek architecture of a thousand
years later, a colossal pair of obelisks, and a chapel at Kar-
nak. Despite her achievements, Amenhotep II, the heir
to Hatshepsuts nephew-stepson Tuthmosis III, sought to
erase her legacy near the end of his fathers reign and
throughout his, touting many of her accomplishments as
his.[48] He also tried to change many established tradi-
tions that had developed over the centuries, which some
suggest was a futile attempt to prevent other women from
becoming pharaoh and to curb their inuence in the king-
dom.
Around 1350 BC, the stability of the New Kingdom
seemed threatened further when Amenhotep IV ascended
the throne and instituted a series of radical and chaotic
reforms. Changing his name to Akhenaten, he touted
the previously obscure sun deity Aten as the supreme de-
ity, suppressed the worship of most other deities, and at- Four colossal statues of Ramesses II ank the entrance of his
tacked the power of the temple that had become domi- temple Abu Simbel
nated by the priests of Amun in Thebes, whom he saw
as corrupt.[49] Moving the capital to the new city of
and the Sea Peoples, a conjectured[53][54] confederation
Akhetaten (modern-day Amarna), Akhenaten turned a
of seafarers from the Aegean Sea. Initially, the military
deaf ear to events in the Near East (where the Hittites,
was able to repel these invasions, but Egypt eventually lost
Mitanni, and Assyrians were vying for control). He was
control of its remaining territories in southern Canaan,
devoted to his new religion and artistic style. After his
much of it falling to the Assyrians. The eects of exter-
death, the cult of the Aten was quickly abandoned, the
nal threats were exacerbated by internal problems such as
priests of Amun soon regained power and returned the
corruption, tomb robbery, and civil unrest. After regain-
capital to Thebes. Under their inuence the subsequent
ing their power, the high priests at the temple of Amun in
pharaohs Tutankhamun, Ay, and Horemheb worked to
Thebes accumulated vast tracts of land and wealth, and
erase all mention of Akhenatens heresy, now known as
their expanded power splintered the country during the
the Amarna Period.[50]
Third Intermediate Period.[55]
Around 1279 BC, Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses
the Great, ascended the throne, and went on to build more
temples, erect more statues and obelisks, and sire more 1.1.8 Third Intermediate Period (1069
children than any other pharaoh in history.[51] A bold mil- 653 BC)
itary leader, Ramesses II led his army against the Hittites
in the Battle of Kadesh (in modern Syria) and, after ght- Main article: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
ing to a stalemate, nally agreed to the rst recorded
peace treaty, around 1258 BC.[52] With both the Egyp-
tians and Hittite Empire proving unable to gain the upper Following the death of Ramesses XI in 1078 BC,
hand over one another, and both powers also fearful of Smendes assumed authority over the northern part of
the expanding Middle Assyrian Empire, Egypt withdrew Egypt, ruling from the city of Tanis. The south was eec-
from much of the Near East. The Hittites were thus left totively controlled by the High Priests of Amun at Thebes,
compete unsuccessfully with the powerful Assyrians and who recognized Smendes in name only.[56] During this
the newly arrived Phrygians. time, Berber tribes from what was later to be called Libya
had been settling in the western delta, and the chieftains
Egypts wealth, however, made it a tempting target for of these settlers began increasing their autonomy. Libyan
invasion, particularly by the Libyan Berbers to the west, princes took control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945
1.1. HISTORY 7

BC, founding the Libyan Berber, or Bubastite, dynasty invaded Egypt around 727 BC. Piye easily seized control
that ruled for some 200 years. Shoshenq also gained con- of Thebes and eventually the Nile Delta.[60] He recorded
trol of southern Egypt by placing his family members in the episode on his stela of victory. Piye set the stage
important priestly positions. for subsequent Twenty-fth dynasty pharaohs,[61] such
In the mid-ninth century BC, Egypt made a failed attempt as Taharqa, to reunite the Two lands of Northern and
to once more gain a foothold in Western Asia. Osorkon II Southern Egypt. The Nile valley empire was as large as
of Egypt, along with a large alliance of nations and peo- it had been since the New Kingdom.
ples, including Persia, Israel, Hamath, Phoenicia/Canaan, The Twenty-fth dynasty ushered in a renaissance pe-
the Arabs, Arameans, and neo Hittites among others, riod for ancient Egypt.[62] Religion, the arts, and archi-
engaged in the Battle of Karkar against the powerful tecture were restored to their glorious Old, Middle, and
Assyrian king Shalmaneser III in 853 BC. However, this New Kingdom forms. Pharaohs, such as Taharqa, built or
coalition of powers failed and the Neo Assyrian Empire restored temples and monuments throughout the Nile val-
continued to dominate Western Asia. ley, including at Memphis, Karnak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal,
[63]
Libyan Berber control began to erode as a rival native etc. It was during the Twenty-fth dynasty that there
dynasty in the delta arose under Leontopolis. Also, the was the rst widespread construction of pyramids (many
Nubians of the Kushites threatened Egypt from the lands in modern Sudan) in the Nile Valley since the Middle
[64][65][66]
to the south.[57] Kingdom.
Piye made various unsuccessful attempts to extend Egyp-
tian inuence in the Near East, then controlled by Assyria.
In 720 BC, he sent an army in support of a rebellion
against Assyria, which was taking place in Philistia and
Gaza. However, Piye was defeated by Sargon II and the
rebellion failed. In 711 BC, Piye again supported a re-
Chiefs of
volt against Assyria by the Israelites of Ashdod and was
the West
once again defeated by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sub-
sequently, Piye was forced from the Near East.[67]
From the 10th century BC onwards, Assyria fought for
control of the southern Levant. Frequently, cities and
kingdoms of the southern Levant appealed to Egypt
for aid in their struggles against the powerful Assyr-
ian army. Taharqa enjoyed some initial success in
his attempts to regain a foothold in the Near East.
Taharqa aided the Judean King Hezekiah when Hezekiah
and Jerusalem was besieged by the Assyrian king,
Sennacherib. Scholars disagree on the primary reason
for Assyrias abandonment of their siege on Jerusalem.
Reasons for the Assyrian withdrawal range from con-
ict with the Egyptian/Kushite army to divine interven-
tion to surrender to disease.[68] Henry Aubin argues that
the Kushite/Egyptian army saved Jerusalem from the As-
syrians and prevented the Assyrians from returning to
capture Jerusalem for the remainder of Sennacheribs
life (20 years).[69] Some argue that disease was the pri-
mary reason for failing to actually take the city; however,
Senacheribs annals claim Judah was forced into tribute
regardless.[70]
Sennacherib had been murdered by his own sons for de-
stroying the rebellious city of Babylon, a city sacred to
all Mesopotamians, the Assyrians included. In 674 BC
Esarhaddon launched a preliminary incursion into Egypt;
however, this attempt was repelled by Taharqa.[71] How-
Around 730 BC Libyans from the west fractured the political ever, in 671 BC, Esarhaddon launched a full-scale inva-
unity of the country sion. Part of his army stayed behind to deal with rebel-
lions in Phoenicia, and Israel. The remainder went south
Drawing on millennia of interaction (trade, acculturation, to Rapihu, then crossed the Sinai, and entered Egypt.
occupation, assimilation, and war[58] ) with Egypt,[59] the Esarhaddon decisively defeated Taharqa, took Memphis,
Kushite king Piye left his Nubian capital of Napata and
8 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

Thebes and all the major cities of Egypt, and Taharqa was With no permanent plans for conquest, the Assyrians left
chased back to his Nubian homeland. Esarhaddon now control of Egypt to a series of vassals who became known
called himself king of Egypt, Patros, and Kush", and as the Saite kings of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. By 653
returned with rich booty from the cities of the delta; he BC, the Saite king Psamtik I (taking advantage of the fact
erected a victory stele at this time, and paraded the cap- that Assyria was involved in a erce war conquering Elam
tive Prince Ushankhuru, the son of Taharqa in Nineveh. and that few Assyrian troops were stationed in Egypt) was
Esarhaddon stationed a small army in northern Egypt and able to free Egypt relatively peacefully from Assyrian vas-
describes how All Ethiopians (read Nubians/Kushites) I salage with the help of Lydian and Greek mercenaries,
deported from Egypt, leaving not one left to do homage the latter of whom were recruited to form Egypts rst
to me.[72] He installed native Egyptian princes through- navy. Psamtik and his successors however were careful
out the land to rule on his behalf.[73] The conquest by to maintain peaceful relations with Assyria. Greek inu-
Esarhaddon eectively marked the end of the short lived ence expanded greatly as the city of Naukratis became
Kushite Empire. the home of Greeks in the delta.
However, the native Egyptian rulers installed by Esarhad- In 609 BC Necho II went to war with Babylonia, the
don were unable to retain full control of the whole coun- Chaldeans, the Medians and the Scythians in an attempt
try for long. Two years later, Taharqa returned from Nu- to save Assyria, which after a brutal civil war was being
bia and seized control of a section of southern Egypt as overrun by this coalition of powers. However, the attempt
far north as Memphis. Esarhaddon prepared to return to save Egypts former masters failed. The Egyptians de-
to Egypt and once more eject Taharqa; however, he fell layed intervening too long, and Nineveh had already fallen
ill and died in his capital, Nineveh, before he left As- and King Sin-shar-ishkun was dead by the time Necho
syria. His successor, Ashurbanipal, sent an Assyrian gen- II sent his armies northwards. However, Necho easily
eral named Sha-Nabu-shu with a small, but well trained brushed aside the Israelite army under King Josiah but
army, which conclusively defeated Taharqa at Memphis he and the Assyrians then lost a battle at Harran to the
and once more drove him from Egypt. Taharqa died in Babylonians, Medes and Scythians. Necho II and Ashur-
Nubia two years later. uballit II of Assyria were nally defeated at Carchemish
in Aramea (modern Syria) in 605 BC. The Egyptians re-
mained in the area for some decades, struggling with the
Babylonian kings Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar II
for control of portions of the former Assyrian Empire in
The Levant. However, they were eventually driven back
into Egypt, and Nebuchadnezzar II even briey invaded
Egypt itself in 567 BC.[70] The Saite kings based in the
new capital of Sais witnessed a brief but spirited resur-
gence in the economy and culture, but in 525 BC, the
powerful Persians, led by Cambyses II, began their con-
quest of Egypt, eventually capturing the pharaoh Psamtik
III at the battle of Pelusium. Cambyses II then assumed
the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from his home
of Susa in Persia (modern Iran), leaving Egypt under the
Twenty-fth Dynasty control of a satrapy. A few temporarily successful re-
volts against the Persians marked the fth century BC,
His successor, Tanutamun, also made a failed attempt to but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the
regain Egypt for Nubia. He successfully defeated Necho, Persians.[75]
the native Egyptian puppet ruler installed by Ashurban-
Following its annexation by Persia, Egypt was joined
ipal, taking Thebes in the process. The Assyrians then
with Cyprus and Phoenicia (modern Lebanon) in the
sent a large army southwards. Tantamani (Tanutamun)
sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. This
was heavily routed and ed back to Nubia. The Assyrian
rst period of Persian rule over Egypt, also known as
army sacked Thebes to such an extent it never truly recov-
the Twenty-seventh dynasty, ended after more than one-
ered. A native ruler, Psammetichus I was placed on the
hundred years in 402 BC, and from 380 to 343 BC the
throne, as a vassal of Ashurbanipal, and the Nubians were
Thirtieth Dynasty ruled as the last native royal house
never again to pose a threat to either Assyria or Egypt.[74]
of dynastic Egypt, which ended with the kingship of
Nectanebo II. A brief restoration of Persian rule, some-
times known as the Thirty-rst Dynasty, began in 343
1.1.9 Late Period (672332 BC) BC, but shortly after, in 332 BC, the Persian ruler
Mazaces handed Egypt over to the Macedonian ruler
Main articles: Late Period of ancient Egypt and History Alexander the Great without a ght.[76]
of Achaemenid Egypt
1.1. HISTORY 9

1.1.10 Ptolemaic period bellion, bitter family rivalries, and the powerful mob of
Alexandria that formed after the death of Ptolemy IV.[79]
In addition, as Rome relied more heavily on imports of
grain from Egypt, the Romans took great interest in the
political situation in the country. Continued Egyptian re-
volts, ambitious politicians, and powerful Syriac oppo-
nents from the Near East made this situation unstable,
leading Rome to send forces to secure the country as a
province of its empire.[80]

1.1.11 Roman period


Main article: History of Roman Egypt
Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire in 30

Alexander the Great, 100 BC 100 AD, 54.162, Brooklyn Mu-


seum

Main articles: History of Ptolemaic Egypt and Ptolemaic


Kingdom

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with lit-


tle resistance from the Persians and was welcomed by the
Egyptians as a deliverer. The administration established
by Alexanders successors, the Macedonian Ptolemaic
Kingdom, was based on an Egyptian model and based in
the new capital city of Alexandria. The city showcased
the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule, and became
a seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous
Library of Alexandria.[77] The Lighthouse of Alexandria
lit the way for the many ships that kept trade owing
through the cityas the Ptolemies made commerce and
revenue-generating enterprises, such as papyrus manu-
facturing, their top priority.[78]
Hellenistic culture did not supplant native Egyptian cul-
ture, as the Ptolemies supported time-honored traditions
in an eort to secure the loyalty of the populace. They
built new temples in Egyptian style, supported tradi-
tional cults, and portrayed themselves as pharaohs. Some The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian
traditions merged, as Greek and Egyptian gods were and Roman cultures.
syncretized into composite deities, such as Serapis, and
classical Greek forms of sculpture inuenced traditional BC, following the defeat of Marc Antony and Ptolemaic
Egyptian motifs. Despite their eorts to appease the Queen Cleopatra VII by Octavian (later Emperor Au-
Egyptians, the Ptolemies were challenged by native re- gustus) in the Battle of Actium. The Romans relied
10 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

heavily on grain shipments from Egypt, and the Roman


army, under the control of a prefect appointed by the Em-
peror, quelled rebellions, strictly enforced the collection
of heavy taxes, and prevented attacks by bandits, which
had become a notorious problem during the period.[81]
Alexandria became an increasingly important center on
the trade route with the orient, as exotic luxuries were in
high demand in Rome.[82]
Although the Romans had a more hostile attitude than
the Greeks towards the Egyptians, some traditions such
as mummication and worship of the traditional gods
continued.[83] The art of mummy portraiture ourished,
and some Roman emperors had themselves depicted as
pharaohs, though not to the extent that the Ptolemies had.
The former lived outside Egypt and did not perform the
ceremonial functions of Egyptian kingship. Local ad-
ministration became Roman in style and closed to native
Egyptians.[83]
From the mid-rst century AD, Christianity took root in
Egypt and it was originally seen as another cult that could
be accepted. However, it was an uncompromising reli-
gion that sought to win converts from Egyptian Religion
and Greco-Roman religion and threatened popular reli-
gious traditions. This led to the persecution of converts to
Christianity, culminating in the great purges of Diocletian
starting in 303, but eventually Christianity won out.[84] In
391 the Christian Emperor Theodosius introduced leg-
islation that banned pagan rites and closed temples.[85]
Alexandria became the scene of great anti-pagan riots
with public and private religious imagery destroyed.[86]
As a consequence, Egypts native religious culture was
continually in decline. While the native population cer-
tainly continued to speak their language, the ability to
read hieroglyphic writing slowly disappeared as the role
of the Egyptian temple priests and priestesses diminished. The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty
The temples themselves were sometimes converted to and power.
churches or abandoned to the desert.[87]

collecting and storing the nations wealth in a system of


1.2 Government and economy granaries and treasuries administered by overseers, who
redistributed grain and goods.[89]
1.2.1 Administration and commerce Much of the economy was centrally organized and strictly
controlled. Although the ancient Egyptians did not use
The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country coinage until the Late period,[90] they did use a type of
and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the money-barter system,[91] with standard sacks of grain and
land and its resources. The king was the supreme military the deben, a weight of roughly 91 grams (3 oz) of copper
commander and head of the government, who relied on a or silver, forming a common denominator.[92] Workers
bureaucracy of ocials to manage his aairs. In charge were paid in grain; a simple laborer might earn 5 sacks
of the administration was his second in command, the (200 kg or 400 lb) of grain per month, while a foreman
vizier, who acted as the kings representative and coor- might earn 7 sacks (250 kg or 550 lb). Prices were
dinated land surveys, the treasury, building projects, the xed across the country and recorded in lists to facili-
legal system, and the archives.[88] At a regional level, the tate trading; for example a shirt cost ve copper deben,
country was divided into as many as 42 administrative while a cow cost 140 deben.[92] Grain could be traded for
regions called nomes each governed by a nomarch, who other goods, according to the xed price list.[92] During
was accountable to the vizier for his jurisdiction. The the fth century BC coined money was introduced into
temples formed the backbone of the economy. Not only Egypt from abroad. At rst the coins were used as stan-
were they houses of worship, but were also responsible for dardized pieces of precious metal rather than true money,
1.2. GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY 11

but in the following centuries international traders came They were able to buy and sell, or work their way to free-
to rely on coinage.[93] dom or nobility, and usually were treated by doctors in
the workplace.[99] Both men and women had the right
to own and sell property, make contracts, marry and di-
1.2.2 Social status vorce, receive inheritance, and pursue legal disputes in
court. Married couples could own property jointly and
Egyptian society was highly stratied, and social status protect themselves from divorce by agreeing to marriage
was expressly displayed. Farmers made up the bulk of contracts, which stipulated the nancial obligations of
the population, but agricultural produce was owned di- the husband to his wife and children should the mar-
rectly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the riage end. Compared with their counterparts in ancient
land.[94] Farmers were also subject to a labor tax and were Greece, Rome, and even more modern places around
required to work on irrigation or construction projects in the world, ancient Egyptian women had a greater range
a corve system.[95] Artists and craftsmen were of higher of personal choices and opportunities for achievement.
status than farmers, but they were also under state con- Women such as Hatshepsut and Cleopatra VII even be-
trol, working in the shops attached to the temples and came pharaohs, while others wielded power as Divine
paid directly from the state treasury. Scribes and o- Wives of Amun. Despite these freedoms, ancient Egyp-
cials formed the upper class in ancient Egypt, known as tian women did not often take part in ocial roles in the
the white kilt class in reference to the bleached linen administration, served only secondary roles in the tem-
garments that served as a mark of their rank.[96] The up- ples, and were not as likely to be as educated as men.[98]
per class prominently displayed their social status in art
and literature. Below the nobility were the priests, physi-
cians, and engineers with specialized training in their
eld. Slavery was known in ancient Egypt, but the ex-
tent and prevalence of its practice are unclear.[97]

Punishment in ancient Egypt.

Scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept
records, and were responsible for administration.

1.2.3 Legal system

Young Egyptian laborers treated by doctors after circumcision, as The head of the legal system was ocially the pharaoh,
a part of a rite of passage to citizenship. who was responsible for enacting laws, delivering jus-
tice, and maintaining law and order, a concept the an-
The ancient Egyptians viewed men and women, including cient Egyptians referred to as Ma'at.[88] Although no legal
people from all social classes except slaves, as essentially codes from ancient Egypt survive, court documents show
equal under the law, and even the lowliest peasant was that Egyptian law was based on a common-sense view
entitled to petition the vizier and his court for redress.[98] of right and wrong that emphasized reaching agreements
Although, slaves were mostly used as indentured servants. and resolving conicts rather than strictly adhering to a
12 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

complicated set of statutes.[98] Local councils of elders,


known as Kenbet in the New Kingdom, were responsi-
ble for ruling in court cases involving small claims and
minor disputes.[88] More serious cases involving murder,
major land transactions, and tomb robbery were referred
to the Great Kenbet, over which the vizier or pharaoh
presided. Plaintis and defendants were expected to rep-
resent themselves and were required to swear an oath
that they had told the truth. In some cases, the state
took on both the role of prosecutor and judge, and it
could torture the accused with beatings to obtain a con-
fession and the names of any co-conspirators. Whether
the charges were trivial or serious, court scribes docu-
mented the complaint, testimony, and verdict of the case
for future reference.[100]
Punishment for minor crimes involved either imposition
of nes, beatings, facial mutilation, or exile, depending
on the severity of the oense. Serious crimes such as
murder and tomb robbery were punished by execution,
carried out by decapitation, drowning, or impaling the
criminal on a stake. Punishment could also be extended to
the criminals family.[88] Beginning in the New Kingdom,
oracles played a major role in the legal system, dispens-
ing justice in both civil and criminal cases. The proce-
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the elds, harvesting the
dure was to ask the god a yes or no question concern-
crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer,
ing the right or wrong of an issue. The god, carried by painting in the tomb of Nakht.
a number of priests, rendered judgment by choosing one
or the other, moving forward or backward, or pointing to
one of the answers written on a piece of papyrus or an
ostracon.[101]

1.2.4 Agriculture
Main article: Ancient Egyptian agriculture
See also: Ancient Egyptian cuisine and Gardens of an-
cient Egypt
A combination of favorable geographical features con- Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting
tributed to the success of ancient Egyptian culture, the in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes, Egypt (Eighteenth Dynasty).
most important of which was the rich fertile soil result-
ing from annual inundations of the Nile River. The an-
cient Egyptians were thus able to produce an abundance crops, which were then threshed with a ail to separate
of food, allowing the population to devote more time and the straw from the grain. Winnowing removed the cha
resources to cultural, technological, and artistic pursuits. from the grain, and the grain was then ground into our,
Land management was crucial in ancient Egypt because brewed to make beer, or stored for later use.[104]
taxes were assessed based on the amount of land a person The ancient Egyptians cultivated emmer and barley, and
owned.[102] several other cereal grains, all of which were used to
Farming in Egypt was dependent on the cycle of the Nile make the two main food staples of bread and beer.[105]
River. The Egyptians recognized three seasons: Akhet Flax plants, uprooted before they started owering, were
(ooding), Peret (planting), and Shemu (harvesting). The grown for the bers of their stems. These bers were split
ooding season lasted from June to September, deposit- along their length and spun into thread, which was used
ing on the rivers banks a layer of mineral-rich silt ideal to weave sheets of linen and to make clothing. Papyrus
for growing crops. After the oodwaters had receded, the growing on the banks of the Nile River was used to make
growing season lasted from October to February. Farm- paper. Vegetables and fruits were grown in garden plots,
ers plowed and planted seeds in the elds, which were ir- close to habitations and on higher ground, and had to be
rigated with ditches and canals. Egypt received little rain- watered by hand. Vegetables included leeks, garlic, mel-
fall, so farmers relied on the Nile to water their crops.[103] ons, squashes, pulses, lettuce, and other crops, in addition
From March to May, farmers used sickles to harvest their to grapes that were made into wine.[106]
1.2. GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY 13

1.2.5 Natural resources


Further information: Mining industry of Egypt

Egypt is rich in building and decorative stone, copper


and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones. These
natural resources allowed the ancient Egyptians to build
monuments, sculpt statues, make tools, and fashion jew-
elry.[111] Embalmers used salts from the Wadi Natrun for
mummication, which also provided the gypsum needed
to make plaster.[112] Ore-bearing rock formations were
found in distant, inhospitable wadis in the eastern desert
Sennedjem plows his elds with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of and the Sinai, requiring large, state-controlled expedi-
burden and a source of food. tions to obtain natural resources found there. There were
extensive gold mines in Nubia, and one of the rst maps
known is of a gold mine in this region. The Wadi Ham-
mamat was a notable source of granite, greywacke, and
gold. Flint was the rst mineral collected and used to
make tools, and int handaxes are the earliest pieces of
Animals
evidence of habitation in the Nile valley. Nodules of the
mineral were carefully aked to make blades and arrow-
heads of moderate hardness and durability even after cop-
The Egyptians believed that a balanced relationship be- per was adopted for this purpose.[113] Ancient Egyptians
tween people and animals was an essential element of were among the rst to use minerals such as sulfur as cos-
the cosmic order; thus humans, animals and plants were metic substances.[114]
believed to be members of a single whole.[107] Animals,
both domesticated and wild, were therefore a critical The Egyptians worked deposits of the lead ore galena
source of spirituality, companionship, and sustenance at Gebel Rosas to make net sinkers, plumb bobs, and
to the ancient Egyptians. Cattle were the most impor- small gurines. Copper was the most important metal
tant livestock; the administration collected taxes on live- for toolmaking in ancient Egypt and was smelted [115]
in fur-
stock in regular censuses, and the size of a herd reected naces from malachite ore mined in the Sinai. Work-
the prestige and importance of the estate or temple that ers collected gold by washing the nuggets out of sediment
owned them. In addition to cattle, the ancient Egyptians in alluvial deposits, or by the more labor-intensive pro-
kept sheep, goats, and pigs. Poultry such as ducks, geese, cess of grinding and washing gold-bearing quartzite. Iron
and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms, deposits[116] found in upper Egypt were utilized in the Late
where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them. [108] Period. High-quality building stones were abundant in
The Nile provided a plentiful source of sh. Bees were Egypt; the ancient Egyptians quarried limestone all along
also domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, and the Nile valley, granite from Aswan, and basalt and sand-
they provided both honey and wax. [109] stone from the wadis of the eastern desert. Deposits of
decorative stones such as porphyry, greywacke, alabaster,
The ancient Egyptians used donkeys and oxen as beasts of and carnelian dotted the eastern desert and were collected
burden, and they were responsible for plowing the elds even before the First Dynasty. In the Ptolemaic and
and trampling seed into the soil. The slaughter of a fat- Roman Periods, miners worked deposits of emeralds in
tened ox was also a central part of an oering ritual.[108] Wadi Sikait and amethyst in Wadi el-Hudi.[117]
Horses were introduced by the Hyksos in the Second In-
termediate Period, and the camel, although known from
the New Kingdom, was not used as a beast of burden 1.2.6 Trade
until the Late Period. There is also evidence to suggest
that elephants were briey utilized in the Late Period, but Main article: Ancient Egyptian trade
largely abandoned due to lack of grazing land.[108] Dogs, The ancient Egyptians engaged in trade with their foreign
cats and monkeys were common family pets, while more neighbors to obtain rare, exotic goods not found in Egypt.
exotic pets imported from the heart of Africa, such as li- In the Predynastic Period, they established trade with Nu-
ons, were reserved for royalty. Herodotus observed that bia to obtain gold and incense. They also established trade
the Egyptians were the only people to keep their animals with Palestine, as evidenced by Palestinian-style oil jugs
with them in their houses.[107] During the Predynastic and found in the burials of the First Dynasty pharaohs.[118]
Late periods, the worship of the gods in their animal form An Egyptian colony stationed in southern Canaan dates to
was extremely popular, such as the cat goddess Bastet and slightly before the First Dynasty.[119] Narmer had Egyp-
the ibis god Thoth, and these animals were bred in large tian pottery produced in Canaan and exported back to
numbers on farms for the purpose of ritual sacrice.[110] Egypt.[120]
14 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

object.[127] The Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and de-


motic scripts were eventually replaced by the more pho-
netic Coptic alphabet. Coptic is still used in the liturgy of
the Egyptian Orthodox Church, and traces of it are found
in modern Egyptian Arabic.[128]

1.3.2 Sounds and grammar


Ancient Egyptian has 25 consonants similar to those of
other Afro-Asiatic languages. These include pharyngeal
and emphatic consonants, voiced and voiceless stops,
voiceless fricatives and voiced and voiceless aricates. It
Hatshepsuts trading expedition to the Land of Punt. has three long and three short vowels, which expanded
in Later Egyptian to about nine.[129] The basic word in
Egyptian, similar to Semitic and Berber, is a triliteral or
By the Second Dynasty at latest, ancient Egyptian trade biliteral root of consonants and semiconsonants. Suxes
with Byblos yielded a critical source of quality timber not are added to form words. The verb conjugation corre-
found in Egypt. By the Fifth Dynasty, trade with Punt sponds to the person. For example, the triconsonantal
provided gold, aromatic resins, ebony, ivory, and wild an- skeleton S--M is the semantic core of the word 'hear';
imals such as monkeys and baboons.[121] Egypt relied on its basic conjugation is sm, 'he hears. If the subject is
trade with Anatolia for essential quantities of tin as well as a noun, suxes are not added to the verb:[130] sm mt,
supplementary supplies of copper, both metals being nec- 'the woman hears.
essary for the manufacture of bronze. The ancient Egyp-
tians prized the blue stone lapis lazuli, which had to be Adjectives are derived from nouns through a process that
imported from far-away Afghanistan. Egypts Mediter- Egyptologists call nisbation because of its similarity with
ranean trade partners also included Greece and Crete, Arabic.[131] The word order is predicatesubject in ver-
which provided, among other goods, supplies of olive bal and adjectival sentences, and subjectpredicate in
oil.[122] In exchange for its luxury imports and raw ma- nominal and adverbial sentences.[132] The subject can be
terials, Egypt mainly exported grain, gold, linen, and pa- moved to the beginning of sentences if it is long and is
pyrus, in addition to other nished goods including glass followed by a resumptive pronoun.[133] Verbs and nouns
and stone objects.[123] are negated by the particle n, but nn is used for adverbial
and adjectival sentences. Stress falls on the ultimate or
penultimate syllable, which can be open (CV) or closed
(CVC).[134]
1.3 Language
Main article: Egyptian language 1.3.3 Writing
Main articles: Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic
Hieroglyphic writing dates from c. 3000 BC, and is com-
1.3.1 Historical development posed of hundreds of symbols. A hieroglyph can rep-
resent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and
The Egyptian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic lan- the same symbol can serve dierent purposes in dier-
guage closely related to the Berber and Semitic lan- ent contexts. Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on
guages.[124] It has the second longest history of any lan- stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed
guage (after Sumerian), having been written from c. 3200 as individual works of art. In day-to-day writing, scribes
BC to the Middle Ages and remaining as a spoken lan- used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic, which
guage for longer. The phases of ancient Egyptian are Old was quicker and easier. While formal hieroglyphs may
Egyptian, Middle Egyptian (Classical Egyptian), Late be read in rows or columns in either direction (though
Egyptian, Demotic and Coptic.[125] Egyptian writings do typically written from right to left), hieratic was always
not show dialect dierences before Coptic, but it was written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows. A
probably spoken in regional dialects around Memphis and new form of writing, Demotic, became the prevalent writ-
later Thebes.[126] ing style, and it is this form of writingalong with for-
Ancient Egyptian was a synthetic language, but it became mal hieroglyphsthat accompany the Greek text on the
more analytic later on. Late Egyptian developed pre- Rosetta Stone.[136]
xal denite and indenite articles, which replaced the Around the rst century AD, the Coptic alphabet started
older inectional suxes. There was a change from the to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a mod-
older verbsubjectobject word order to subjectverb ied Greek alphabet with the addition of some Demotic
1.3. LANGUAGE 15

The Rosetta stone (ca 196 BC) enabled linguists to begin the pro-
cess of hieroglyph decipherment.[135]

Hieroglyphs on a funerary stela in Manchester Museum

signs.[137] Although formal hieroglyphs were used in a


ceremonial role until the fourth century, towards the end
only a small handful of priests could still read them. As
the traditional religious establishments were disbanded,
knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. At-
tempts to decipher them date to the Byzantine[138] and
Islamic periods in Egypt,[139] but only in 1822, after the The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC) describes
discovery of the Rosetta stone and years of research by anatomy and medical treatments and is written in hieratic.
Thomas Young and Jean-Franois Champollion, were hi-
eroglyphs almost fully deciphered.[140]
1300 BC. Later Egyptian was spoken from the New King-
dom onward and is represented in Ramesside adminis-
1.3.4 Literature
trative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in
Main article: Ancient Egyptian literature Demotic and Coptic texts. During this period, the tradi-
Writing rst appeared in association with kingship on tion of writing had evolved into the tomb autobiography,
labels and tags for items found in royal tombs. It was pri- such as those of Harkhuf and Weni. The genre known
marily an occupation of the scribes, who worked out of as Sebayt (instructions) was developed to communicate
the Per Ankh institution or the House of Life. The latter teachings and guidance from famous nobles; the Ipuwer
comprised oces, libraries (called House of Books), lab- papyrus, a poem of lamentations describing natural dis-
oratories and observatories.[141] Some of the best-known asters and social upheaval, is a famous example.
pieces of ancient Egyptian literature, such as the Pyramid The Story of Sinuhe, written in Middle Egyptian, might
and Con Texts, were written in Classical Egyptian, be the classic of Egyptian literature.[142] Also written at
which continued to be the language of writing until about this time was the Westcar Papyrus, a set of stories told
16 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

to Khufu by his sons relating the marvels performed by


priests.[143] The Instruction of Amenemope is considered
a masterpiece of near-eastern literature.[144] Towards the
end of the New Kingdom, the vernacular language was
more often employed to write popular pieces like the
Story of Wenamun and the Instruction of Any. The for-
mer tells the story of a noble who is robbed on his way to
buy cedar from Lebanon and of his struggle to return to
Egypt. From about 700 BC, narrative stories and instruc-
tions, such as the popular Instructions of Onchsheshonqy,
as well as personal and business documents were written
in the demotic script and phase of Egyptian. Many stories
written in demotic during the Greco-Roman period were
set in previous historical eras, when Egypt was an inde-
pendent nation ruled by great pharaohs such as Ramesses
II.[145]

A painted depiction of Senet (in the tomb of Queen Nefertari,


Valley of the Queens, Thebes, Egypt), one of the worlds earliest
1.4 Culture known board games.

1.4.1 Daily life a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grind-
stone for milling grain and a small oven for baking the
bread.[146] Walls were painted white and could be cov-
ered with dyed linen wall hangings. Floors were covered
with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the
oor and individual tables comprised the furniture.[147]
The ancient Egyptians placed a great value on hygiene
and appearance. Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty
soap made from animal fat and chalk. Men shaved their
entire bodies for cleanliness; perfumes and aromatic oint-
ments covered bad odors and soothed skin.[148] Clothing
was made from simple linen sheets that were bleached
white, and both men and women of the upper classes
wore wigs, jewelry, and cosmetics. Children went with-
out clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this
age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved.
Mothers were responsible for taking care of the children,
while the father provided the familys income.[149]
Ostraca of hunting a lion with a spear, aided by a dog.

Statues depicting lower-class ancient Egyptian occupations.

Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land.


Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family
members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed The ancient Egyptians maintained a rich cultural heritage com-
to remain cool in the heat of the day. Each home had plete with feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
1.4. CULTURE 17

Music and dance were popular entertainments for those


who could aord them. Early instruments included utes
and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes,
and pipes developed later and became popular. In the
New Kingdom, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals,
tambourines, drums, and imported lutes and lyres from
Asia.[150] The sistrum was a rattle-like musical instrument
that was especially important in religious ceremonies.
The ancient Egyptians enjoyed a variety of leisure activ-
ities, including games and music. Senet, a board game
where pieces moved according to random chance, was
particularly popular from the earliest times; another sim-
ilar game was mehen, which had a circular gaming board.
Juggling and ball games were popular with children, and
wrestling is also documented in a tomb at Beni Hasan.[151]
The wealthy members of ancient Egyptian society en-
joyed hunting and boating as well.
The excavation of the workers village of Deir el-Madinah
has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented
accounts of community life in the ancient world that spans
almost four hundred years. There is no comparable site in
which the organization, social interactions, working and
living conditions of a community were studied in such
detail.[152]

1.4.2 Cuisine
Karnak temples hypostyle halls are constructed with rows of
Main article: Ancient Egyptian cuisine thick columns supporting the roof beams.

Egyptian cuisine remained remarkably stable over time;


indeed, the cuisine of modern Egypt retains some strik-
ing similarities to the cuisine of the ancients. The staple
diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with veg-
etables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates
and gs. Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days
while the upper classes indulged on a more regular basis.
Fish, meat, and fowl could be salted or dried, and could
be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.[153]

1.4.3 Architecture
The well preserved Temple of Horus at Edfu is an exemplar of
Main article: Ancient Egyptian architecture
Egyptian architecture.
The architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the
most famous structures in the world: the Great Pyramids
of Giza and the temples at Thebes. Building projects lived in simple homes, while the palaces of the elite and
were organized and funded by the state for religious the pharaoh were more elaborate structures. A few sur-
and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the viving New Kingdom palaces, such as those in Malkata
wide-ranging power of the pharaoh. The ancient Egyp- and Amarna, show richly decorated walls and oors with
tians were skilled builders; using only simple but eec- scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geomet-
tive tools and sighting instruments, architects could build
ric designs.[155] Important structures such as temples and
large stone structures with great accuracy and precision tombs that were intended to last forever were constructed
that is still envied today.[154] of stone instead of mud bricks. The architectural ele-
The domestic dwellings of elite and ordinary Egyptians ments used in the worlds rst large-scale stone building,
alike were constructed from perishable materials such as Djoser's mortuary complex, include post and lintel sup-
mud bricks and wood, and have not survived. Peasants ports in the papyrus and lotus motif.
18 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

The earliest preserved ancient Egyptian temples, such as artistic standardssimple lines, shapes, and at areas
those at Giza, consist of single, enclosed halls with roof of color combined with the characteristic at projection
slabs supported by columns. In the New Kingdom, ar- of gures with no indication of spatial depthcreated a
chitects added the pylon, the open courtyard, and the en- sense of order and balance within a composition. Images
closed hypostyle hall to the front of the temples sanc- and text were intimately interwoven on tomb and tem-
tuary, a style that was standard until the Greco-Roman ple walls, cons, stelae, and even statues. The Narmer
period.[156] The earliest and most popular tomb architec- Palette, for example, displays gures that can also be read
ture in the Old Kingdom was the mastaba, a at-roofed as hieroglyphs.[159] Because of the rigid rules that gov-
rectangular structure of mudbrick or stone built over an erned its highly stylized and symbolic appearance, an-
underground burial chamber. The step pyramid of Djoser cient Egyptian art served its political and religious pur-
is a series of stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. poses with precision and clarity.[160]
Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle King-
doms, but most later rulers abandoned them in favor of
less conspicuous rock-cut tombs.[157] The Twenty-fth
dynasty was a notable exception, as all Twenty-fth dy-
nasty pharaohs constructed pyramids.[64][65][66]

1.4.4 Art

Egyptian Vase in Manchester Museum

Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone to carve statues and


ne reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved
The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most substitute. Paints were obtained from minerals such as
famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art. iron ores (red and yellow ochres), copper ores (blue and
green), soot or charcoal (black), and limestone (white).
Main article: Art of ancient Egypt Paints could be mixed with gum arabic as a binder and
pressed into cakes, which could be moistened with water
[161]
The ancient Egyptians produced art to serve functional when needed.
purposes. For over 3500 years, artists adhered to artistic Pharaohs used reliefs to record victories in battle, royal
forms and iconography that were developed during the decrees, and religious scenes. Common citizens had ac-
Old Kingdom, following a strict set of principles that re- cess to pieces of funerary art, such as shabti statues and
sisted foreign inuence and internal change.[158] These books of the dead, which they believed would protect
1.4. CULTURE 19

them in the afterlife.[162] During the Middle Kingdom,


wooden or clay models depicting scenes from everyday
life became popular additions to the tomb. In an attempt
to duplicate the activities of the living in the afterlife,
these models show laborers, houses, boats, and even mil-
itary formations that are scale representations of the ideal
ancient Egyptian afterlife.[163]
Despite the homogeneity of ancient Egyptian art, the
styles of particular times and places sometimes reected
changing cultural or political attitudes. After the in-
vasion of the Hyksos in the Second Intermediate Pe-
riod, Minoan-style frescoes were found in Avaris.[164] The
most striking example of a politically driven change in
artistic forms comes from the Amarna period, where g-
ures were radically altered to conform to Akhenaten's
revolutionary religious ideas.[165] This style, known as
Amarna art, was quickly and thoroughly erased af-
ter Akhenatens death and replaced by the traditional
forms.[166]

1.4.5 Religious beliefs


Main article: Ancient Egyptian religion
Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were in-

The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest

The Book of the Dead was a guide to the deceaseds journey in


the afterlife. Common citizens could worship private statues in their
homes, and amulets oered protection against the forces
grained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its incep- of chaos.[169] After the New Kingdom, the pharaohs role
tion; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of as a spiritual intermediary was de-emphasized as reli-
kings. The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods gious customs shifted to direct worship of the gods. As
who had supernatural powers and were called on for help a result, priests developed a system of oracles to commu-
or protection. However, the gods were not always viewed nicate the will of the gods directly to the people.[170]
as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be ap- The Egyptians believed that every human being was com-
peased with oerings and prayers. The structure of this posed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects. In addi-
pantheon changed continually as new deities were pro- tion to the body, each person had a wt (shadow), a ba
moted in the hierarchy, but priests made no eort to or- (personality or soul), a ka (life-force), and a name.[171]
ganize the diverse and sometimes conicting myths and The heart, rather than the brain, was considered the seat
stories into a coherent system.[167] These various concep- of thoughts and emotions. After death, the spiritual as-
tions of divinity were not considered contradictory but pects were released from the body and could move at will,
rather layers in the multiple facets of reality.[168] but they required the physical remains (or a substitute,
Gods were worshiped in cult temples administered by such as a statue) as a permanent home. The ultimate goal
priests acting on the kings behalf. At the center of the of the deceased was to rejoin his ka and ba and become
temple was the cult statue in a shrine. Temples were one of the blessed dead, living on as an akh, or ef-
not places of public worship or congregation, and only fective one. For this to happen, the deceased had to be
on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carry- judged worthy in a trial, in which the heart was weighed
ing the statue of the god brought out for public worship. against a feather of truth. If deemed worthy, the de-
Normally, the gods domain was sealed o from the out- ceased could continue their existence on earth in spiritual
side world and was only accessible to temple ocials. form.[172]
20 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummi-


cation and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.

painted cartonnage mummy cases. Actual preservation


practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Roman eras,
while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appear-
ance of the mummy, which was decorated.[174]
Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of
luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social sta-
Pharaohs tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, tus, included goods for the deceased. Beginning in the
such as the golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun. New Kingdom, books of the dead were included in the
grave, along with shabti statues that were believed to per-
form manual labor for them in the afterlife.[175] Rituals in
which the deceased was magically re-animated accompa-
1.4.6 Burial customs
nied burials. After burial, living relatives were expected
to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers
Main article: Ancient Egyptian burial customs on behalf of the deceased.[176]

The ancient Egyptians maintained an elaborate set of


burial customs that they believed were necessary to en- 1.5 Military
sure immortality after death. These customs involved
preserving the body by mummication, performing burial
Main article: Military of ancient Egypt
ceremonies, and interring with the body goods the de-
[162] The ancient Egyptian military was responsible for de-
ceased would use in the afterlife. Before the Old
Kingdom, bodies buried in desert pits were naturally pre-
served by desiccation. The arid, desert conditions were
a boon throughout the history of ancient Egypt for buri-
als of the poor, who could not aord the elaborate burial
preparations available to the elite. Wealthier Egyptians
began to bury their dead in stone tombs and use articial
mummication, which involved removing the internal or-
gans, wrapping the body in linen, and burying it in a rect-
angular stone sarcophagus or wooden con. Beginning
in the Fourth Dynasty, some parts were preserved sepa-
rately in canopic jars.[173]
By the New Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had per-
fected the art of mummication; the best technique took
70 days and involved removing the internal organs, re- An Egyptian chariot.
moving the brain through the nose, and desiccating the
body in a mixture of salts called natron. The body was fending Egypt against foreign invasion, and for maintain-
then wrapped in linen with protective amulets inserted ing Egypts domination in the ancient Near East. The mil-
between layers and placed in a decorated anthropoid cof- itary protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the
n. Mummies of the Late Period were also placed in Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and
1.6. TECHNOLOGY, MEDICINE, AND MATHEMATICS 21

Second Intermediate Periods. The military was respon-


sible for maintaining fortications along important trade
routes, such as those found at the city of Buhen on the
way to Nubia. Forts also were constructed to serve as mil-
itary bases, such as the fortress at Sile, which was a base
of operations for expeditions to the Levant. In the New
Kingdom, a series of pharaohs used the standing Egyp-
tian army to attack and conquer Kush and parts of the
Levant.[177]
Typical military equipment included bows and arrows,
spears, and round-topped shields made by stretching
animal skin over a wooden frame. In the New King-
dom, the military began using chariots that had ear-
lier been introduced by the Hyksos invaders. Weapons
and armor continued to improve after the adoption of
bronze: shields were now made from solid wood with a
bronze buckle, spears were tipped with a bronze point,
and the Khopesh was adopted from Asiatic soldiers.[178]
The pharaoh was usually depicted in art and literature rid-
ing at the head of the army; it has been suggested that
at least a few pharaohs, such as Seqenenre Tao II and
his sons, did do so.[179] However, it has also been ar-
gued that kings of this period did not personally act as
frontline war leaders, ghting alongside their troops.[180]
Soldiers were recruited from the general population, but Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
during, and especially after, the New Kingdom, merce-
naries from Nubia, Kush, and Libya were hired to ght
core, which was then red. By a related technique, the an-
for Egypt.[181]
cient Egyptians produced a pigment known as Egyptian
Blue, also called blue frit, which is produced by fusing
(or sintering) silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as
1.6 Technology, medicine, and natron. The product can be ground up and used as a
pigment.[183]
mathematics
The ancient Egyptians could fabricate a wide variety of
objects from glass with great skill, but it is not clear
1.6.1 Technology whether they developed the process independently.[184] It
is also unclear whether they made their own raw glass or
Main article: Ancient Egyptian technology merely imported pre-made ingots, which they melted and
nished. However, they did have technical expertise in
In technology, medicine, and mathematics, ancient Egypt making objects, as well as adding trace elements to con-
achieved a relatively high standard of productivity and so- trol the color of the nished glass. A range of colors could
phistication. Traditional empiricism, as evidenced by the be produced, including yellow, red, green, blue, purple,
Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri (c. 1600 BC), is rst cred- and white, and the glass could be made either transparent
ited to Egypt. The Egyptians created their own alphabet or opaque.[185]
and decimal system.

1.6.3 Medicine
1.6.2 Faience and glass
Main article: Ancient Egyptian medicine
Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had
developed a glassy material known as faience, which they The medical problems of the ancient Egyptians stemmed
treated as a type of articial semi-precious stone. Faience directly from their environment. Living and working
is a non-clay ceramic made of silica, small amounts of close to the Nile brought hazards from malaria and debil-
lime and soda, and a colorant, typically copper.[182] The itating schistosomiasis parasites, which caused liver and
material was used to make beads, tiles, gurines, and intestinal damage. Dangerous wildlife such as crocodiles
small wares. Several methods can be used to create and hippos were also a common threat. The lifelong
faience, but typically production involved application of labors of farming and building put stress on the spine and
the powdered materials in the form of a paste over a clay joints, and traumatic injuries from construction and war-
22 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

injuries, and practical treatments.[192]


Wounds were treated by bandaging with raw meat, white
linen, sutures, nets, pads, and swabs soaked with honey to
prevent infection,[193] while opium thyme and belladona
were used to relieve pain. The earliest records of burn
treatment describe burn dressings that use the milk from
mothers of male babies. Prayers were made to the god-
dess Isis. Moldy bread, honey and copper salts were also
used to prevent infection from dirt in burns.[194] Garlic
and onions were used regularly to promote good health
and were thought to relieve asthma symptoms. Ancient
Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bones, and
amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some
injuries were so serious that they could only make the pa-
tient comfortable until death occurred.[195]

Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic pe-


riod inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo.

Documented extent of Ancient Egyptian geographic knowledge


fare all took a signicant toll on the body. The grit and
sand from stone-ground our abraded teeth, leaving them
susceptible to abscesses (though caries were rare).[186]
1.6.4 Maritime technology
The diets of the wealthy were rich in sugars, which
promoted periodontal disease.[187] Despite the attering Early Egyptians knew how to assemble planks of wood
physiques portrayed on tomb walls, the overweight mum- into a ship hull and had mastered advanced forms of
mies of many of the upper class show the eects of a life shipbuilding as early as 3000 BC. The Archaeological In-
of overindulgence.[188] Adult life expectancy was about stitute of America reports that the oldest planked ships
35 for men and 30 for women, but reaching adulthood known are the Abydos boats.[6] A group of 14 dis-
was dicult as about one-third of the population died in covered ships in Abydos were constructed of wooden
infancy.[189] planks sewn together. Discovered by Egyptologist
Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the an- David O'Connor of New York University,[196] woven
cient Near East for their healing skills, and some, such straps were found to have been used to lash the planks
as Imhotep, remained famous long after their deaths.[190] together,[6] and reeds or grass stued between the planks
Herodotus remarked that there was a high degree of spe- helped to seal the seams.[6] Because the ships are all
cialization among Egyptian physicians, with some treat- buried together and near a mortuary belonging to Pharaoh
ing only the head or the stomach, while others were Khasekhemwy, originally they were all thought to have
eye-doctors and dentists.[191] Training of physicians took belonged to him, but one of the 14 ships dates to 3000
place at the Per Ankh or House of Life institution, most BC, and the associated pottery jars buried with the ves-
notably those headquartered in Per-Bastet during the New sels also suggest earlier dating. The ship dating to 3000
Kingdom and at Abydos and Sas in the Late period. BC was 75 feet (23 m) long and is now thought to perhaps
Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, have belonged to an earlier pharaoh. According to pro-
1.6. TECHNOLOGY, MEDICINE, AND MATHEMATICS 23

fessor O'Connor, the 5,000-year-old ship may have even once launched early voyages like Hatshepsut's Punt expe-
belonged to Pharaoh Aha.[196] dition onto the open ocean.[198] Some of the sites most
Early Egyptians also knew how to assemble planks of evocative evidence for the ancient Egyptians seafaring
wood with treenails to fasten them together, using pitch prowess include large ship timbers and hundreds of [198] feet
for caulking the seams. The "Khufu ship", a 43.6-metre of ropes, made from papyrus, coiled in huge bundles.
(143 ft) vessel sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid com- And in 2013 a team of Franco-Egyptian archaeologists
plex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza in the Fourth discovered what is believed to be the worlds oldest port,
Dynasty around 2500 BC, is a full-size surviving example dating back about 4500 years, from the time of King
Cheops on the Red Sea coast near Wadi el-Jarf (about
that may have lled the symbolic function of a solar bar-
que. Early Egyptians also knew how to fasten the planks 110 miles south of Suez).[199]
of this ship together with mortise and tenon joints.[6] In 1977, an ancient north-south canal dating to the Middle
Kingdom of Egypt was discovered extending from Lake
Timsah to the Ballah Lakes.[200] It was dated to the
Middle Kingdom of Egypt by extrapolating dates of an-
cient sites constructed along its course.[200][201]

1.6.5 Mathematics
Main article: Egyptian mathematics
The earliest attested examples of mathematical calcula-
Seagoing ship from Hateshepsuts Deir el-Bahari temple relief of
a Punt Expedition

Large seagoing ships are known to have been heavily used


by the Egyptians in their trade with the city states of the
eastern Mediterranean, especially Byblos (on the coast of
modern-day Lebanon), and in several expeditions down
the Red Sea to the Land of Punt.[197] In fact one of the
earliest Egyptian words for a seagoing ship is a Byblos
Ship, which originally dened a class of Egyptian seago-
ing ships used on the Byblos run; however, by the end of
the Old Kingdom, the term had come to include large
seagoing ships, whatever their destination.[197]
Astronomical chart in Senemuts tomb, 18th dynasty[202]

tions date to the predynastic Naqada period, and show a


fully developed numeral system.[203] The importance of
mathematics to an educated Egyptian is suggested by a
New Kingdom ctional letter in which the writer pro-
poses a scholarly competition between himself and an-
other scribe regarding everyday calculation tasks such
as accounting of land, labor, and grain.[204] Texts such
as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and the Moscow
Mathematical Papyrus show that the ancient Egyptians
could perform the four basic mathematical operations
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and divisionuse
fractions, compute the volumes of boxes and pyra-
mids, and calculate the surface areas of rectangles, tri-
angles, and circles. They understood basic concepts of
algebra and geometry, and could solve simple sets of
simultaneous equations.[205]
Mathematical notation was decimal, and based on hiero-
Early Nile Delta, showing relation of Lake Timsah to Ballah
Lakes. glyphic signs for each power of ten up to one million.
Each of these could be written as many times as nec-
In 2011 archaeologists from Italy, the United States, and essary to add up to the desired number; so to write the
Egypt excavating a dried-up lagoon known as Mersa number eighty or eight hundred, the symbol for ten or
Gawasis have unearthed traces of an ancient harbor that one hundred was written eight times respectively.[206] Be-
24 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

cause their methods of calculation could not handle most Although the European colonial occupation of Egypt
fractions with a numerator greater than one, they had to destroyed a signicant portion of the countrys histor-
write fractions as the sum of several fractions. For exam- ical legacy, some foreigners left more positive marks.
ple, they resolved the fraction two-fths into the sum of Napoleon, for example, arranged the rst studies in
one-third + one-fteenth. Standard tables of values facil- Egyptology when he brought some 150 scientists and
itated this.[207] Some common fractions, however, were artists to study and document Egypts natural history,
written with a special glyphthe equivalent of the mod- which was published in the Description de l'gypte.[216]
ern two-thirds is shown on the right.[208] In the 20th century, the Egyptian Government and ar-
Ancient Egyptian mathematicians had a grasp of the prin- chaeologists alike recognized the importance of cultural
ciples underlying the Pythagorean theorem, knowing, for respect and integrity in excavations. The Supreme Coun-
example, that a triangle had a right angle opposite the cil of Antiquities now approves and oversees all excava-
hypotenuse when its sides were in a 345 ratio.[209] They tions, which are aimed at nding information rather than
were able to estimate the area of a circle by subtracting treasure. The council also supervises museums and mon-
one-ninth from its diameter and squaring the result: ument reconstruction programs designed to preserve the
historical legacy of Egypt.
Area [( 8 9 )D]2 = ( 256 81 )r 2 3.16r 2 ,

a reasonable approximation of the formula r 2 .[209][210]


The golden ratio seems to be reected in many Egyp-
tian constructions, including the pyramids, but its use
may have been an unintended consequence of the ancient
Egyptian practice of combining the use of knotted ropes
with an intuitive sense of proportion and harmony.[211] Tourists
riding a camel in front of Giza pyramids

1.7 Population
Main article: Population history of Egypt

1.8 Legacy
See also: Tourism in Egypt

The culture and monuments of ancient Egypt have left Frontispiece of


a lasting legacy on the world. The cult of the goddess Description de l'gypte, published in 38 vol-
Isis, for example, became popular in the Roman Em- umes between 1809 and 1829.
pire, as obelisks and other relics were transported back
to Rome.[212] The Romans also imported building mate-
rials from Egypt to erect Egyptian-style structures. Early
historians such as Herodotus, Strabo, and Diodorus Sicu- 1.9 See also
lus studied and wrote about the land, which Romans came
to view as a place of mystery.[213]
Arnold J. Toynbee
During the Middle Ages and The Renaissance, Egyptian
pagan culture was in decline after the rise of Christianity Glossary of ancient Egypt artifacts
and later Islam, but interest in Egyptian antiquity contin- Index of ancient Egypt-related articles
ued in the writings of medieval scholars such as Dhul-Nun
al-Misri and al-Maqrizi.[214] In the seventeenth and eigh- Outline of ancient Egypt
teenth centuries, European travelers and tourists brought
back antiquities and wrote stories of their journeys, lead-
ing to a wave of Egyptomania across Europe. This re- 1.10 Notes
newed interest sent collectors to Egypt, who took, pur-
chased, or were given many important antiquities.[215] [1] Chronology. Digital Egypt for Universities, University
1.10. NOTES 25

College London. Archived from the original on 16 March [26] Early Dynastic Egypt. Digital Egypt for Universities,
2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008. University College London. Archived from the original
on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
[2] Dodson (2004) p. 46
[27] Robins (1997) p. 32
[3] Clayton (1994) p. 217
[28] James (2005) p. 40
[4] James (2005) p. 8
[29] Shaw (2002) p. 102
[5] Manuelian (1998) pp. 67
[30] Shaw (2002) pp. 1167
[6] Ward, Cheryl. "Worlds Oldest Planked Boats",
inArchaeology (Volume 54, Number 3, May/June 2001). [31] Fekri Hassan. The Fall of the Old Kingdom. British
Archaeological Institute of America. Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 March 2008.

[7] Clayton (1994) p. 153 [32] Clayton (1994) p. 69

[8] James (2005) p. 84 [33] Shaw (2002) p. 120

[9] Shaw (2002) pp. 17, 6769 [34] Shaw (2002) p. 146

[35] Clayton (1994) p. 29


[10] Shaw (2002) p. 17
[36] Shaw (2002) p. 148
[11] Ikram, Salima (1992). Choice Cuts: Meat Production in
Ancient Egypt. University of Cambridge. p. 5. ISBN 978- [37] Clayton (1994) p. 79
90-6831-745-9. LCCN 1997140867. OCLC 60255819.
Retrieved 22 July 2009. [38] Shaw (2002) p. 158

[12] Hayes (1964) p. 220 [39] Shaw (2002) pp. 17982

[13] Childe, V. Gordon (1953), New Light on the Most Ancient [40] Robins (1997) p. 90
Near East, (Praeger Publications)
[41] Shaw (2002) p. 188
[14] Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000).
[42] Ryholt (1997) p. 310
Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. Stone, in An-
cient Egyptian Materials and Technology, Cambridge, 5 [43] Shaw (2002) p. 189
77, pp. 4647. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994).
Ancient Egyptian Stone Vessels, Studien zur Archolo- [44] Shaw (2002) p. 224
gie und Geschichte Altgyptens 5, Heidelberg, pp. 2326.
(See on-line posts: and .) [45] James (2005) p. 48

[15] Patai, Raphael (1998), Children of Noah: Jewish Seafar- [46] Bleiberg (editor), Edward (2005). Ancient Egypt 2675-
ing in Ancient Times (Princeton Uni Press) 332 BCE: Architecture and Design. Arts and Humanities
Through the Eras. 1.
[16] Chronology of the Naqada Period. Digital Egypt for
Universities, University College London. Archived from [47] Hatshepsut. Digital Egypt for Universities, Univer-
the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008. sity College London. Archived from the original on 18
November 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2007.
[17] Shaw (2002) p. 61
[48] Clayton (1994) p. 108
[18] Emberling, Geo (2011). Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of
[49] Aldred (1988) p. 259
Africa. New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient
World. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9. [50] Cline (2001) p. 273
[19] The Qustul Incense Burner. [51] With his two principal wives and large harem, Ramesses
II sired more than 100 children. Clayton (1994) p. 146
[20] Faience in dierent Periods. Digital Egypt for Universi-
ties, University College London. Archived from the orig- [52] Tyldesley (2001) pp. 767
inal on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
[53] Killebrew 2013, p. 2. Quote: First coined in
[21] Allen (2000) p. 1 1881 by the French Egyptologist G. Maspero (1896),
the somewhat misleading term Sea Peoples encom-
[22] Clayton (1994) p. 6 passes the ethnonyms Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Teresh,
Eqwesh, Denyen, Sikil / Tjekker, Weshesh, and Peleset
[23] Shaw (2002) pp. 7880
(Philistines). [Footnote: The modern term Sea Peoples
[24] Clayton (1994) pp. 1213 refers to peoples that appear in several New Kingdom
Egyptian texts as originating from islands (tables 1-2;
[25] Shaw (2002) p. 70 Adams and Cohen, this volume; see, e.g., Drews 1993,
26 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

57 for a summary). The use of quotation marks in as- [67] A. Leo Oppenheim (1964), Ancient Mesopotamia
sociation with the term Sea Peoples in our title is in-
tended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this [68] Aubin, Henry T. (2002). The Rescue of Jerusalem. New
commonly used term. It is noteworthy that the designa- York, NY: Soho Press, Inc. pp. 613. ISBN 1-56947-
tion of the sea appears only in relation to the Sherden, 275-0.
Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this term was ap-
plied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional eth- [69] Aubin, Henry T. (2002). The Rescue of Jerusalem. New
nonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in York, NY: Soho Press, Inc. pp. 152153. ISBN 1-56947-
their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during 275-0.
the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill (see, e.g., San-
[70] Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq
dars 1978; Redford 1992, 243, n. 14; for a recent review
of the primary and secondary literature, see Woudhuizen [71] Aubin, Henry T. (2002). The Rescue of Jerusalem. New
2006). Hencefore the term Sea Peoples will appear with- York, NY: Soho Press, Inc. p. 160. ISBN 1-56947-275-
out quotation marks.]" 0.
[54] The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and
[72] George Roux - Ancient Iraq
the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C., Robert Drews, p4861
Quote: The thesis that a great migration of the Sea [73] Esharhaddons Syrio-Palestinian Campaign
Peoples occurred ca. 1200 B.C. is supposedly based on
Egyptian inscriptions, one from the reign of Merneptah [74] Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp 330332
and another from the reign of Ramesses III. Yet in the in-
scriptions themselves such a migration nowhere appears. [75] Shaw (2002) p. 383
After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about
'the sea peoples, one Egyptologist (Wolfgang Helck) re- [76] Shaw (2002) p. 385
cently remarked that although some things are unclear,
[77] Shaw (2002) p. 405
eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben
wir es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun. Thus [78] Shaw (2002) p. 411
the migration hypothesis is based not on the inscriptions
themselves but on their interpretation. [79] Shaw (2002) p. 418
[55] James (2005) p. 54 [80] James (2005) p. 62
[56] Cerny (1975) p. 645
[81] James (2005) p. 63
[57] Emberling, Geo (2011). Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of
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cient World, NYU. pp. 910. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9.
[83] Shaw (2002) p. 422
[58] Tomb reveals Ancient Egypts humiliating secret. Daily
[84] Shaw (2003) p. 431
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[134] Loprieno (2004) p. 173
[102] Manuelian (1998) p. 361
[135] Allen (2000) p. 13
[103] Nicholson (2000) p. 514
[136] Loprieno (1995a) pp. 1026
[104] Nicholson (2000) p. 506
[137] Allen (2000) p. 7
[105] Nicholson (2000) p. 510
[138] Loprieno (2004) p. 166
[106] Nicholson (2000) pp. 577 and 630
[139] El-Daly (2005) p. 164
[107] Strouhal (1989) p. 117
[140] Allen (2000) p. 8
[108] Manuelian (1998) p. 381
[141] Strouhal (1989) p. 235
[109] Nicholson (2000) p. 409
[142] Lichtheim (1975) p. 11
[110] Oakes (2003) p. 229
[143] Lichtheim (1975) p. 215
[111] Greaves (1929) p. 123
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[121] Shaw (2002) p. 322 [153] Manuelian (1998) pp. 399400

[122] Manuelian (1998) p. 145 [154] Clarke (1990) pp. 947

[123] Harris (1990) p. 13 [155] Badawy (1968) p. 50

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28 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

[157] Dodson (1991) p. 23 [188] Filer (1995) p. 21

[158] Robins (1997) p. 29 [189] Figures are given for adult life expectancy and do not re-
ect life expectancy at birth. Filer (1995) p. 25
[159] Robins (1997) p. 21
[190] Filer (1995) p. 39
[160] Robins (2001) p. 12
[191] Strouhal (1989) p. 243
[161] Nicholson (2000) p. 105
[192] Stroual (1989) pp. 24446
[162] James (2005) p. 122
[193] Stroual (1989) p. 250
[163] Robins (1998) p. 74
[194] Peanac M; Janji Z; Komarcevi A; Paji M;
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[168] "The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythol- [196] Schuster, Angela M.H. "This Old Boat", 11 December
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Books, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X [197] Shelley Wachsmann, Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in
[169] James (2005) p. 117 the Bronze Age Levant (Texas A&M University Press,
2009), p. 19.
[170] Shaw (2002) p. 313
[198] Egypts Ancient Fleet: Lost for Thousands of Years, Dis-
[171] Allen (2000) pp. 79, 945 covered in a Desolate Cave. Discover Magazine.

[172] Wasserman, et al. (1994) pp. 1503 [199] Most Ancient Port, Hieroglyphic Papyri Found. DNews.

[173] Mummies and Mummication: Old Kingdom. Digital [200] Shea, William H. A Date for the Recently Discovered
Egypt for Universities, University College London. Re- Eastern Canal of Egypt, in Bulletin of the American
trieved 9 March 2008. Schools of Oriental Research',' No. 226 (April 1977), pp.
3138.
[174] Mummies and Mummication: Late Period, Ptolemaic,
Roman and Christian Period. Digital Egypt for Universi- [201] See Suez Canal.
ties, University College London. Archived from the orig-
[202] Full version at Met Museum
inal on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
[203] Understanding of Egyptian mathematics is incomplete
[175] Shabtis. Digital Egypt for Universities, University Col-
due to paucity of available material and lack of exhaustive
lege London. Archived from the original on 24 March
study of the texts that have been uncovered. Imhausen et
2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
al. (2007) p. 13
[176] James (2005) p. 124
[204] Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 11
[177] Shaw (2002) p. 245
[205] Clarke (1990) p. 222
[178] Manuelian (1998) pp. 36667
[206] Clarke (1990) p. 217
[179] Clayton (1994) p. 96
[207] Clarke (1990) p. 218
[180] Shaw, Garry J. (2009). The Death of King Seqenenre
[208] Gardiner (1957) p. 197
Tao. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt.
45. [209] Strouhal (1989) p. 241
[181] Shaw (2002) p. 400 [210] Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 31
[182] Nicholson (2000) p. 177 [211] Kemp (1989) p. 138
[183] Nicholson (2000) p. 109 [212] Siliotti (1998) p. 8

[184] Nicholson (2000) p. 195 [213] Siliotti (1998) p. 10

[185] Nicholson (2000) p. 215 [214] El-Daly (2005) p. 112

[186] Filer (1995) p. 94 [215] Siliotti (1998) p. 13

[187] Filer (1995) pp. 7880 [216] Siliotti (1998) p. 100


1.11. REFERENCES 29

1.11 References Hayes, W. C. (October 1964). Most Ancient


Egypt: Chapter III. The Neolithic and Chalcolithic
Aldred, Cyril (1988). Akhenaten, King of Egypt. Communities of Northern Egypt. JNES (No. 4
London, England: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0- ed.). 23 (4): 217272. doi:10.1086/371778.
500-05048-1.
Imhausen, Annette; Robson, Eleanor; Dauben,
Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An In- Joseph W.; Plofker, Kim & Berggren, J. Lennart
troduction to the Language and Culture of Hiero- (2007). Katz, V. J., Jr., ed. The Mathematics of
glyphs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A
Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7. Sourcebook. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
ISBN 0-691-11485-4.
Badawy, Alexander (1968). A History of Egyptian
Architecture. Vol III. Berkeley, California: Univer- James, T.G.H. (2005). The British Museum Concise
sity of California Press. ISBN 0-520-00057-9. Introduction to Ancient Egypt. Ann Arbor, Michi-
gan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-
Billard, Jules B. (1978). Ancient Egypt: Discover- 03137-6.
ing its Splendors. Washington D.C.: National Geo-
graphic Society. Kemp, Barry (1991). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of
a Civilization. London, England: Routledge. ISBN
Cerny, J (1975). Egypt from the Death of Ramesses 0-415-06346-9.
III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The
Middle East and the Aegean Region c.13801000 Killebrew, Ann E. (2013), The Philistines and
BC. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Other Sea Peoples in Text and Archaeology, So-
ISBN 0-521-08691-4. ciety of Biblical Literature Archaeology and bibli-
cal studies, Society of Biblical Lit, 15, ISBN 978-
Clarke, Somers; R. Engelbach (1990). Ancient 1-58983-721-8
Egyptian Construction and Architecture. New York,
New York: Dover Publications, Unabridged Dover Lichtheim, Miriam (1975). Ancient Egyptian Liter-
reprint of Ancient Egyptian Masonry: The Build- ature, vol 1. London, England: University of Cali-
ing Craft originally published by Oxford University fornia Press. ISBN 0-520-02899-6.
Press/Humphrey Milford, London, (1930). ISBN
Lichtheim, Miriam (1980). Ancient Egyptian Liter-
0-486-26485-8.
ature, A Book of Readings. Vol III: The Late Period.
Clayton, Peter A. (1994). Chronicle of the Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
Pharaohs. London, England: Thames and Hudson.
Loprieno, Antonio (1995a). Ancient Egyptian: A
ISBN 0-500-05074-0.
linguistic introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
Cline, Eric H.; O'Connor, David Kevin (2001). University Press. ISBN 0-521-44849-2.
Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign. Ann Ar-
Loprieno, Antonio (1995b). Ancient Egyptian and
bor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p.
other Afroasiatic Languages. In Sasson, J. M. Civ-
273. ISBN 0-472-08833-5.
ilizations of the Ancient Near East. 4. New York,
Dodson, Aidan (1991). Egyptian Rock Cut Tombs. New York: Charles Scribner. pp. 21372150.
Buckinghamshire, UK: Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 1-56563-607-4.
ISBN 0-7478-0128-2.
Loprieno, Antonio (2004). Ancient Egyptian and
Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete Coptic. In Woodward, Roger D. The Cambridge
Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London, England: Encyclopedia of the Worlds Ancient Languages.
Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05128-3. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp.
160192. ISBN 0-521-56256-2.
El-Daly, Okasha (2005). Egyptology: The Missing
Millennium. London, England: UCL Press. ISBN Lucas, Alfred (1962). Ancient Egyptian Materials
1-84472-062-4. and Industries, 4th Ed. London, England: Edward
Arnold Publishers. ISBN 1-85417-046-5.
Filer, Joyce (1996). Disease. Austin, Texas: Uni-
versity of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72498-5. Mallory-Greenough, Leanne M. (2002). The Ge-
ographical, Spatial, and Temporal Distribution of
Gardiner, Sir Alan (1957). Egyptian Grammar: Be- Predynastic and First Dynasty Basalt Vessels. The
ing an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. Ox- Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. London, Eng-
ford, England: Grith Institute. ISBN 0-900416- land: Egypt Exploration Society. 88: 6793.
35-1. doi:10.2307/3822337. JSTOR 3822337.
30 CHAPTER 1. ANCIENT EGYPT

Manuelian, Peter Der (1998). Egypt: The World Walbank, Frank William (1984). The Cambridge
of the Pharaohs. Bonner Strae, Cologne Ger- ancient history. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Uni-
many: Knemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. ISBN versity Press. ISBN 0-521-23445-X.
3-89508-913-3.
Wasserman, James; Faulkner, Raymond Oliver;
McDowell, A. G. (1999). Village life in ancient Goelet, Ogden; Von Dassow, Eva (1994). The Egyp-
Egypt: laundry lists and love songs. Oxford, Eng- tian Book of the dead, the Book of going forth by day:
land: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814998- being the Papyrus of Ani. San Francisco, California:
0. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-0767-3.

Meskell, Lynn (2004). Object Worlds in Ancient Wilkinson, R. H. (2000). The Complete Temples of
Egypt: Material Biographies Past and Present (Mate- Ancient Egypt. London, England: Thames and Hud-
rializing Culture). Oxford, England: Berg Publish- son. ISBN 0-500-05100-3.
ers. ISBN 1-85973-867-2.

Midant-Reynes, Batrix (2000). The Prehistory


of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First
1.12 Further reading
Pharaohs. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers.
ISBN 0-631-21787-8. Baines, John & Jaromir Malek (2000). The Cultural
Atlas of Ancient Egypt (revised ed.). Facts on File.
Nicholson, Paul T. (2000). Ancient Egyptian Mate- ISBN 0-8160-4036-2.
rials and Technology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-45257-0. Bard, KA (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology
of Ancient Egypt. NY, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-
Oakes, Lorna (2003). Ancient Egypt: An Illustrated 18589-0.
Reference to the Myths, Religions, Pyramids and
Temples of the Land of the Pharaohs. New York, Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt
New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0-7607-4943-4. (in German). Blackwell Books. ISBN 0-631-
19396-0.
Robins, Gay (2000). The Art of Ancient Egypt.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Helck, Wolfgang; Otto, Eberhard, eds. (1972
Press. ISBN 0-674-00376-4. 1992). Lexikon der gyptologie. O. Harrassowitz.
ISBN 3-447-01441-5.
Ryholt, Kim (January 1997). The Political Situ-
ation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Pe- Lehner, Mark (1997). The Complete Pyramids.
riod. Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tuscu- London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05084-
lanum. ISBN 87-7289-421-0. 8.

Scheel, Bernd (1989). Egyptian Metalworking and Redford, Donald B., ed. (2001). The Oxford Ency-
Tools. Haverfordwest, Great Britain: Shire Publica- clopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press.
tions Ltd. ISBN 0-7478-0001-4. ISBN 0-19-510234-7.

Shaw, Ian (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient Wilkinson, R.H. (2003). The Complete Gods and
Egypt. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and
ISBN 0-19-280458-8. Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05120-8.

Siliotti, Alberto (1998). The Discovery of Ancient


Egypt. Edison, New Jersey: Book Sales, Inc. ISBN 1.13 External links
0-7858-1360-8.

Strouhal, Eugen (1989). Life in Ancient Egypt. Nor- BBC History: Egyptiansprovides a reliable gen-
man, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. eral overview and further links
ISBN 0-8061-2475-X. Ancient History Encyclopedia on Egypt
Tyldesley, Joyce A. (2001). Ramesses: Egypts Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book Door
greatest pharaoh. Harmondsworth, England: Pen- Marshall Clagett, 1989
guin. pp. 7677. ISBN 0-14-028097-9.
Ancient Egyptian Metallurgy A site that shows the
Vittman, G. (1991). Zum koptischen Sprachgut history of Egyptian metalworking
im gyptisch-Arabisch. Wiener Zeitschrift fr die
Kunde des Morgenlandes. Vienna, Austria: Institut Napoleon on the Nile: Soldiers, Artists, and the Re-
fr Orientalistik, Vienna University. 81: 197227. discovery of Egypt, Art History.
1.13. EXTERNAL LINKS 31

Ancient Egyptmaintained by the British Museum,


this site provides a useful introduction to Ancient
Egypt for older children and young adolescents

Digital Egypt for Universities. Outstanding schol-


arly treatment with broad coverage and cross refer-
ences (internal and external). Artifacts used exten-
sively to illustrate topics.

Priests of Ancient Egypt In-depth-information


about Ancient Egypts priests, religious services and
temples. Much picture material and bibliography.
In English and German.

Ancient Egypt

UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology


Ancient Egypt and the Role of Women by Dr Joann
Fletcher
Chapter 2

History of Egypt

The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the vate Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following the
ow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta. Its Anglo-Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and
rich history also comes from its native inhabitants and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom
outside inuence. Much of Egypts ancient history was of Egypt was established. While a de facto independent
a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian hiero- state, the United Kingdom retained control over foreign
glyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of aairs, defense, and other matters. British occupation
the Rosetta Stone. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of
only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still 1954.
standing. The Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the other
The modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953, and
Seven Wonders, is gone. The Library of Alexandria was with the complete withdrawal of British forces from the
the only one of its kind for centuries. Suez Canal in 1956, it marked the rst time in 2300 years
Human settlement in Egypt dates back to at least 40,000 that Egypt was both fully independent and ruled by na-
BC with Aterian tool manufacturing. Ancient Egyptian tive Egyptians. President Gamal Abdel Nasser (president
civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the polit- from 1956 to 1970) introduced many reforms and cre-
ical unication of Upper and Lower Egypt under the ated the short-lived United Arab Republic (with Syria).
rst pharaoh of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predomi- His terms also saw the Six-Day War and the creation of
nately native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the international Non-Aligned Movement. His succes-
the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC. sor, Anwar Sadat (president from 1970 to 1981) changed
In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great con- Egypts trajectory, departing from many of the political,
quered Egypt as he toppled the Achaemenids and es- and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-
tablished the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, whose rst party system, and launching the Intah economic policy.
ruler was one of Alexanders former generals, Ptolemy He led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain
I Soter. The Ptolemies had to ght native rebellions Egypts Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since
the Six-Day War of 1967. This later led to the Egypt
and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to
the decline of the kingdom and its nal annexation by Israel Peace Treaty.
Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal inde- Recent Egyptian history has been dominated by events
pendence of Egypt resulting in Egypt becoming one of following nearly thirty years of rule by former president
the provinces of the Roman Empire. Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian revolution of 2011 de-
Roman rule in Egypt (including Byzantine) lasted from posed Mubarak and resulted in the rst democratically
30 BC to 641 AD, with a brief interlude of control by the elected president in Egyptian history, Mohamed Morsi.
Sasanian Empire between 619-629, known as Sasanian Unrest after the 2011 revolution and related disputes led
Egypt. After the Muslim conquest of Egypt, parts of to the 2013 Egyptian coup d'tat.
Egypt became provinces of successive Caliphates and
other Muslim dynasties: Rashidun Caliphate (632-661),
Umayyad Caliphate (661750), Abbasid Caliphate (750- 2.1 Prehistory (pre3100 BC)
909), Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171), Ayyubid Sultanate
(11711260), and the Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517).
In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorb- Main articles: Prehistoric Egypt and Population history
ing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire. of Egypt

Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except dur-


ing French occupation from 1798 to 1801. Starting in There is evidence of petroglyphs along the Nile terraces
1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a cul-
state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedi- ture of hunter-gatherers and shermen was replaced by a
grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgraz-

32
2.3. PTOLEMAIC AND ROMAN EGYPT (332 BC641 AD) 33

ing around 6000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands Pharaoh Amenemhat III. A second period of disunity
of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples mi- heralded the arrival of the rst foreign ruling dynasty in
grated to the Nile River, where they developed a settled Egypt, that of the Semitic-speaking Hyksos. The Hyksos
agricultural economy and more centralized society.[1] invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC
By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven
Valley.[2] During the Neolithic era, several predynastic out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who
cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capi-
Egypt. The Badari culture and the successor Naqada tal from Memphis to Thebes.
series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic The New Kingdom, c. 15501070 BC, began with the
Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Mer- Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an
imda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred international power that expanded during its greatest ex-
years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities tension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubia, and
coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than included parts of the Levant in the east. This period is
two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs, includ-
maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest ing Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife
known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions ap- Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. The rst histor-
peared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pot- ically attested expression of monotheism came during this
tery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.[3] period as Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations
brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country
was later invaded and conquered by Libyans, Nubians and
2.2 Ancient Egypt (3100332 BC) Assyrians, but native Egyptians eventually drove them out
and regained control of their country.[5]
Main articles: Ancient Egypt and History of ancient
Egypt 2.2.1 Achaemenid rule
A unied kingdom was founded 3150 BC by King
In the sixth century BC, the Achaemenid Empire con-
quered Egypt. The entire Twenty-seventh Dynasty of
Egypt, from 525 BC to 402 BC, save for Petubastis
III, was an entirely Persian-ruled period, with the
Achaemenid kings being granted the title of pharaoh.
The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty
during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians again
in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo
II, was defeated in battle.

2.2.2 Second Achaemenid conquest

The Thirty-rst Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the


The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Second Egyptian Satrapy, was eectively a short-living
Kingdom. province of the Achaemenid Empire between 343 BC to
332 BC.
Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt After an interval of independence, during which three
for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture ourished indigenous dynasties reigned (the 28th, 29th and 30th
during this long period and remained distinctively Egyp- dynasty), Artaxerxes III (358338 BC) reconquered the
tian in its religion, arts, language and customs. The rst Nile valley for a brief second period (343332 BC),
two ruling dynasties of a unied Egypt set the stage for which is called the Thirty-rst Dynasty of Egypt, thus
the Old Kingdom period, c. 27002200 BC., which con- starting another period of pharaos of Persian origin.
structed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty
pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza Pyra-
mids.
2.3 Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt
The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of polit-
ical upheaval for about 150 years.[4] Stronger Nile oods (332 BC641 AD)
and stabilization of government, however, brought back
renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle King- Main articles: Ptolemaic Kingdom and Egypt (Roman
dom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of province)
34 CHAPTER 2. HISTORY OF EGYPT

2.3.1 Sassanid Egypt


Sasanian Egypt (known in Middle Persian sources as
Agiptus) refers to the brief rule of Egypt and parts of
Libya by the Sasanian Empire, which lasted from 619 to
629, until the Sasanian rebel Shahrbaraz made an alliance
with the Byzantine emperor Heraclius and had control
over Egypt returned to him.

2.4 Arab and Ottoman Egypt (641


1882)
Main articles: History of Muslim Egypt and History of
Ottoman Egypt
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the coun-

The Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra and her son by Julius Cae-
sar, Caesarion, at the Dendera Temple complex.

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state


extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to
the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria
became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and
trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian pop-
ulace, they named themselves as the successors to the
Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian tradi-
tions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in
Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian re-
ligious life.[6][7]
The last ruler from the Ptolemaic dynasty was Cleopatra,
who committed suicide following the burial of her lover
Mark Antony, who had died in her arms (from a
self-inicted stab wound) after Augustus had captured
Alexandria and her mercenary forces had ed.
Selim I (14701520), conquered Egypt
The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians, often
caused by an unwanted regime, and were involved in for- try after a brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century,
until 63942, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by
eign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom
and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless, Hellenistic the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs. When they de-
culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim
feated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought
conquest. Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyp-
Christianity was brought to Egypt by Mark the Evange- tians began to blend their new faith with indigenous be-
[8]
list in the rst century. Diocletian's reign marked the liefs and practices, leading to various Su orders that have
transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, ourished to this day.[8] These earlier rites had survived
[10]
when a great number of Egyptian Christians were per- the period of Coptic Christianity.
secuted. The New Testament had by then been trans- Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate re-
lated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in mained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with
AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was rmly Cairo as the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids.
established.[9] With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, the
2.5. BRITISH PROTECTORATE (18821953) 35

in Istanbul as his viceroy in Egypt; the title implied subor-


dination to the Sultan but this was in fact a polite ction:
Ottoman power in Egypt was nished and Muhammad
Ali, an ambitious and able leader, established a dynasty
that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. In
later years, the dynasty became a British puppet.[15]
His primary focus was military: he annexed Northern Su-
dan (18201824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and
Anatolia; but in 1841 the European powers, fearful lest
he topple the Ottoman Empire itself, forced him to re-
turn most of his conquests to the Ottomans, but he kept
the Sudan and his title to Egypt was made hereditary. A
more lasting result of his military ambition is that it re-
quired him to modernize the country. Eager to adopt the
military (and therefore industrial) techniques of the great
powers, he sent students to the West and invited train-
ing missions to Egypt. He built industries, a system of
canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil
service.[15]
The introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton, the Egyp-
tian variety of which became notable, transformed its
agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end
of the century. The social eects of this were enor-
mous: land ownership became concentrated and many
foreigners arrived, shifting production towards interna-
tional markets.[15]
The Hanging Church of Cairo, rst built in the 3rd or 4th century,
is one of the most famous Coptic Orthodox churches in Egypt.

2.5 British Protectorate (1882


Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took con-
1953)
trol about AD 1250. By the late 13th century, Egypt
linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies.[11] Main articles: History of Egypt under the British and
They continued to govern the country until the conquest History of modern Egypt
of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it be- British indirect rule lasted from 1882, when the British
came a province of the Ottoman Empire. The mid-14th- succeeded in defeating the Egyptian Army at Tel el-Kebir
century Black Death killed about 40% of the countrys in September and took control of the country, to the 1952
population.[12] Egyptian revolution which made Egypt a republic and
After the 15th century, the Ottoman invasion pushed when British advisers were expelled.
the Egyptian system into decline. The defensive Muhammad Ali was succeeded briey by his son Ibrahim
militarization damaged its civil society and economic (in September 1848), then by a grandson Abbas I (in
institutions.[11] The weakening of the economic system November 1848), then by Said (in 1854), and Isma'il (in
combined with the eects of plague left Egypt vulnera- 1863). Abbas I was cautious. Said and Ismail were am-
ble to foreign invasion. Portuguese traders took over their bitious developers, but they spent beyond their means.
trade.[11] Egypt suered six famines between 1687 and The Suez Canal, built in partnership with the French, was
1731.[13] The 1784 famine cost it roughly one-sixth of its completed in 1869. The cost of this and other projects
population.[14] had two eects: it led to enormous debt to European
The brief French invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon banks, and caused popular discontent because of the
Bonaparte began in 1798. The expulsion of the French onerous taxation it required. In 1875 Ismail was forced to
in 1801 by Ottoman, Mamluk, and British forces was fol- sell Egypts share in the canal to the British Government.
lowed by four years of anarchy in which Ottomans, Mam- Within three years this led to the imposition of British
luks, and Albanians who were nominally in the service and French controllers who sat in the Egyptian cabinet,
of the Ottomans wrestled for power. Out of this chaos, and, with the nancial power of the bondholders [16]
behind
the commander of the Albanian regiment, Muhammad them, were the real power in the Government.
Ali (Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha) emerged as a domi- Local dissatisfaction with Ismail and with European in-
nant gure and in 1805 was acknowledged by the Sultan trusion led to the formation of the rst nationalist group-
36 CHAPTER 2. HISTORY OF EGYPT

constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system.


Saad Zaghlul was popularly elected as Prime Minister
of Egypt in 1924. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty
was concluded. Continued instability due to remaining
British inuence and increasing political involvement by
the king led to the dissolution of the parliament in a mili-
tary coup d'tat known as the 1952 Revolution. The Free
Ocers Movement forced King Farouk to abdicate in
support of his son Fuad.
British military presence in Egypt lasted until 1954.[21]

2.6 Republican Egypt (since 1953)


Main articles: History of the Republic of Egypt and
History of modern Egypt
On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was de-

Nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919

Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem


ings in 1879, with Ahmad Urabi a prominent gure. In Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat.
1882 he became head of a nationalist-dominated ministry
committed to democratic reforms including parliamen- clared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the rst Pres-
tary control of the budget. Fearing a reduction of their ident of the Republic. Naguib was forced to resign in
control, Britain and France intervened militarily, bom- 1954 by Gamal Abdel Nasser the real architect of the
barding Alexandria and crushing the Egyptian army at 1952 movement and was later put under house ar-
the battle of Tel el-Kebir.[17] They reinstalled Ismails son
rest. Nasser assumed power as President in June 1956.
Tewk as gurehead of a de facto British protectorate.[18]British forces completed their withdrawal from the occu-
In 1914, the Protectorate was made ocial, and the ti- pied Suez Canal Zone on 13 June 1956. He nationalized
tle of the head of state, which in 1867 had changed from the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956, prompting the 1956 Suez
pasha to khedive, was changed again to sultan, to repu- Crisis.
diate the vestigial suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan, who In 1958, Egypt and Syria formed a sovereign union
was backing the Central powers in the First World War. known as the United Arab Republic. The union was
Abbas II was deposed as khedive and replaced by his un- short-lived, ending in 1961 when Syria seceded, thus end-
cle, Hussein Kamel, as sultan.[19] ing the union. During most of its existence, the United
In 1906, the Dinshaway Incident prompted many neutral Arab Republic was also in a loose confederation with
Egyptians to join the nationalist movement. After the North Yemen (formerly the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of
First World War, Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led Yemen) known as the United Arab States.
the Egyptian nationalist movement to a majority at the In the 1967 Six Day War, Israel invaded and occupied
local Legislative Assembly. When the British exiled Za- Egypts Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, which Egypt
ghlul and his associates to Malta on 8 March 1919, the had occupied since the 1948 ArabIsraeli War. Three
country arose in its rst modern revolution. The revolt years later (1970), President Nasser died and was suc-
led the UK government to issue a unilateral declaration ceeded by Anwar Sadat. Sadat switched Egypts Cold
of Egypts independence on 22 February 1922.[20] War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United
The new government drafted and implemented a States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched
2.6. REPUBLICAN EGYPT (SINCE 1953) 37

the Intah economic reform policy, while clamping down During this period, Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya was given
on religious and secular opposition. support by the governments of Iran and Sudan, as well
[32]
In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October as al-Qaeda. The Egyptian government received sup-
War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupy- port during that time from the United States.[32]
ing the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. It was
an attempt to regain part of the Sinai territory that Israel
2.6.2 Civil unrest since 2011
had captured six years earlier. Sadat hoped to seize some
territory through military force, and then regain the rest
Main article: Egyptian crisis (201114)
of the peninsula by diplomacy. The conict sparked an
international crisis between the US and the USSR, both
of whom intervened. The second UN-mandated cease-
re halted military action. While the war ended with a Revolution
military stalemate, it presented Sadat with a political vic-
tory that later allowed him to regain the Sinai in return Main article: Egyptian revolution of 2011
for peace with Israel.[22]
Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led In 2003, the Kefaya (Egyptian Movement for Change),
to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli with- was launched to oppose the Mubarak regime and to es-
drawal from Sinai. Sadats initiative sparked enormous tablish democratic reforms and greater civil liberties.
controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypts expul-
sion from the Arab League, but it was supported by most
Egyptians.[23] On 6 October 1981, Sadat and six diplo-
mats were assassinated while observing a military parade
commemorating the eighth anniversary of the October
1973 War. He was succeeded by Hosni Mubarak.

2.6.1 Terrorist insurgency

Main article: Terrorism in Egypt

In 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, terrorist attacks in Egypt be- Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman's statement
came numerous and severe, and began to target Copts and announcing Hosni Mubarak's resignation
foreign tourists as well as government ocials.[24] Some
scholars and authors have credited Islamist writer Sayyid On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against
Qutb, who was executed in 1967, as the inspiration for Mubaraks government. The objective of the protest was
the new wave of attacks.[25][26] the removal of Mubarak from power. These took the
The 1990s saw an Islamist group, al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, form of an intensive campaign of civil resistance sup-
engage in an extended campaign of violence, from the ported by a very large number of people and mainly con-
murders and attempted murders of prominent writers and sisting of continuous mass demonstrations. By 29 Jan-
intellectuals, to the repeated targeting of tourists and for- uary, it was becoming clear that Mubaraks government
eigners. Serious damage was done to the largest sector of had lost control when a curfew order was ignored, and the
Egypts economytourism[27] and in turn to the gov- army took a semi-neutral stance on enforcing the curfew
ernment, but it also devastated the livelihoods of many of decree. Some protesters, a very small minority in Cairo,
the people on whom the group depended for support.[28] expressed views against what they deemed was foreign in-
terference, highlighted by the then-held view that the U.S.
Victims of the campaign against the Egyptian state from administration had failed to take sides, as well as linking
1992-1997 exceeded 1,200[29] and included the head the administration with Israel.[33]
of the counter-terrorism police (Major General Raouf
Khayrat), a speaker of parliament (Rifaat el-Mahgoub), On 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and ed
dozens of European tourists and Egyptian bystanders, and Cairo. Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that
over 100 Egyptian police.[30] Mubarak had stepped down and that the Egyptian mil-
itary would assume control of the nations aairs in the
At times, travel by foreigners in parts of Upper Egypt was short term.[34][35] Jubilant celebrations broke out in Tahrir
severely restricted and dangerous.[31] Square at the news.[36] Mubarak may have left Cairo for
On 17 November 1997, 62 people, mostly tourists, were Sharm el-Sheikh the previous night, before or shortly af-
killed near Luxor. The assailants trapped the people in ter the airing of a taped speech in which Mubarak vowed
the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. he would not step down or leave.[37]
38 CHAPTER 2. HISTORY OF EGYPT

On 13 February 2011, the high level military command of pose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood
Egypt announced that both the constitution and the par- backers threw their support behind Morsi.[46]
liament of Egypt had been dissolved. The parliamentary The move was criticized by Mohamed ElBaradei, the
election was to be held in September.[38] leader of Egypts Constitution Party, who stated Morsi
A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 2011. today usurped all state powers & appointed himself
On 28 November 2011, Egypt held its rst parliamentary Egypts new pharaoh on his Twitter feed.[47][48] The
election since the previous regime had been in power. move led to massive protests and violent action through-
Turnout was high and there were no reports of vio- out Egypt.[49] On 5 December 2012, Tens of thousands
lence, although members of some parties broke the ban of supporters and opponents of Egypts president clashed,
on campaigning at polling places by handing out pam- hurling rocks and Molotov cocktails and brawling in
phlets and banners.[39] There were however complaints Cairos streets, in what was described as the largest vio-
of irregularities.[40] lent battle between Islamists and their foes since the coun-
trys revolution.[50] Six senior advisors and three other of-
cials resigned from the government and the countrys
Morsis presidency leading Islamic institution called on Morsi to stem his
powers. Protesters also clamored from coastal cities to
desert towns.[51]
Main article: Timeline of the Egyptian Crisis under
Mohamed Morsi Morsi oered a national dialogue with opposition lead-
ers but refused to cancel a 15 December vote on a draft
constitution written by an Islamist-dominated assembly
The rst round of a presidential election was held in Egypt
that has ignited two weeks of political unrest.[51]
on 23 and 24 May 2012. Mohamed Morsi won 25%
of the vote and Ahmed Shak, the last prime minister A constitutional referendum was held in two rounds on
under deposed leader Hosni Mubarak, 24%. A second 15 and 22 December 2012, with 64% support, and 33%
round was held on 16 and 17 June. On 24 June 2012, against. It was signed into law by a presidential decree
the election commission announced that Mohamed Morsi issued by Morsi on 26 December 2012. On 3 July 2013,
had won the election, making him the rst democratically the constitution was suspended by order of the Egyptian
elected president of Egypt. According to ocial results, army.
Morsi took 51.7 percent of the vote while Shak received On 30 June 2013, on the rst anniversary of the elec-
48.3 percent. In August, 2013, former Israeli negotiator tion of Morsi, millions of protesters across Egypt took to
Yossi Beilin wrote that an Egyptian ocial had told him the streets and demanded the immediate resignation of
that the true results were the opposite, but the military the president. On 1 July, the Egyptian Armed Forces is-
gave the presidency to Morsi out of fear of unrest.[41] sued a 48-hour ultimatum that gave the countrys political
On 8 July 2012, Egypts new president Mohamed Morsi parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian
announced he was overriding the military edict that dis- people. The presidency rejected the Egyptian Armys
solved the countrys elected parliament and he called law- 48-hour ultimatum, vowing that the president would pur-
makers back into session.[42] sue his own plans for national reconciliation to resolve
the political crisis. On 3 July, General Abdel Fattah
On 10 July 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court of
el-Sisi, head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, announced
Egypt negated the decision by Morsi to call the na-
that he had removed Morsi from power, suspended the
tions parliament back into session.[43] On 2 August 2012,
constitution and would be calling new presidential and
Egypts Prime Minister Hisham Qandil announced his
Shura Council elections and named Supreme Constitu-
35-member cabinet comprising 28 newcomers includ-
tional Court's leader, Adly Mansour as acting president.
ing four from the inuential Muslim Brotherhood, six
Mansour was sworn in on 4 July 2013.
others and the former military ruler Mohamed Hus-
sein Tantawi as the Defence Minister from the previous
Government.[44]
After Morsi
On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration im-
munizing his decrees from challenge and seeking to pro- Main article: Post-coup unrest in Egypt (20132014)
tect the work of the constituent assembly drafting the new
constitution.[45] The declaration also requires a retrial of
those accused in the Mubarak-era killings of protesters, During the months after the coup d'tat, a new constitu-
who had been acquitted, and extends the mandate of tion was prepared, which took eect on 18 January 2014.
the constituent assembly by two months. Additionally, After that, presidential and parliamentary elections have
the declaration authorizes Morsi to take any measures to be held within 6 months.
necessary to protect the revolution. Liberal and secular On 24 March 2014, 529 Morsis supporters were
groups previously walked out of the constitutional con- sentenced to death, while the trial of Morsi himself
stituent assembly because they believed that it would im- was still ongoing.[52] Having delivered a nal judgement,
2.8. REFERENCES 39

492 sentences were commuted to life imprisonment with [14] "Icelandic Volcano Caused Historic Famine In Egypt,
only 37 death sentences being upheld. Study Shows". ScienceDaily. 22 November 2006
On 28 April, another mass trial took place with 683 [15] Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabs, published c.
Morsi supporters sentenced to death for killing 1 police 1973, p 2.
ocer.[53]
[16] Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabs, p 2.
In 2015, Egypt participated in the Saudi Arabian-led in-
tervention in Yemen.[54] [17] Anglo French motivation: Derek Hopwood, Egypt: Poli-
tics and Society 19451981 (London, 1982, George Allen
& Unwin), p. 11
2.7 See also [18] De facto protectorate: Joan Wucher King, Historical Dic-
tionary of Egypt (Metuchen, New Jersey, USA: Scare-
Timeline of Cairo crow, 1984), p. 17

Timeline of Alexandria [19] James Jankowski, Egypt, A Short History, p. 111

[20] Jankowski, op cit., p. 112

2.8 References [21] Egypt. CIA- The World Factbook. Retrieved 2 February
2011. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt
[1] Midant-Reynes, Batrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-
the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell backed monarchy in 1952.
Publishers.
[22] USMC Major Michael C. Jordan (1997). The 1973
[2] The Nile Valley 60004000 BC Neolithic. The British Arab-Israeli War: Arab Policies, Strategies, and Cam-
Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 14 Febru- paigns. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
ary 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
[23] Vatikiotis, p. 443
[3] Bard, Kathryn A. Ian Shaw, ed. The Oxford Illustrated
History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University [24] Murphy, Caryle Passion for Islam : Shaping the Modern
Press, 2000. p. 69. Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, Scribner, 2002, p.4

[4] The Fall of the Egyptian Old Kingdom. BBC. 17 Febru- [25] Murphy, Caryle Passion for Islam : Shaping the Mod-
ary 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011. ern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, Scribner, 2002,
p.57
[5] The Kushite Conquest of Egypt. Ancientsudan.org. Re-
trieved 25 August 2010. [26] Kepel, Gilles, Muslim Extremism in Egypt by Gilles Kepel,
English translation published by University of California
[6] Bowman, Alan K (1996). Egypt after the Pharaohs 332 Press, 1986, p. 74
BC AD 642 (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of Califor-
nia Press. pp. 2526. ISBN 0-520-20531-6. [27] Solidly ahead of oil, Suez Canal revenues, and remit-
tances, tourism is Egypts main hard currency earner at
[7] Stanwick, Paul Edmond (2003). Portraits of the Ptolemies: $6.5 billion per year. (in 2005) ... concerns over tourisms
Greek kings as Egyptian pharaohs. Austin: University of future Archived 24 September 2013 at the Wayback Ma-
Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-77772-8. chine.. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
[8] Egypt. Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World
[28] Gilles Kepel, Jihad, 2002
Aairs. Retrieved 14 December 2011. See drop-down
essay on Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire [29] Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower (2006), p.258
[9] Kamil, Jill. Coptic Egypt: History and Guide. Cairo:
[30] Timeline of modern Egypt. Gemsos-
American University in Cairo, 1997. p. 39
lamism.tripod.com. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
[10] El-Daly, Okasha. Egyptology: The Missing Millennium.
[31] As described by William Dalrymple in his book From the
London: UCL Press
Holy Mountain (1996, ISBN 0 00 654774 5) pp. 434-54,
[11] Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1991) [1989]. The Mideast where he describes his trip to the area of Asyut in 1994.
Heartland. Before European Hegemony: The World Sys-
tem A.D. 12501350. New York: Oxford University [32] Uppsala Conict Data Program, Conict Encyclopedia,
Press. pp. 243244. ISBN 978-0-19-506774-3. The al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya insurgency, viewed 2013-05-
03, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?
[12] Egypt Major Cities, U.S. Library of Congress id=50&regionSelect=10-Middle_East#

[13] Donald Quataert (2005). The Ottoman Empire, 1700 [33] Malaysia Egypt Protest Pictures & Photos. AP
1922. Cambridge University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0- Photo/Lai Seng Sin. 31 January 2011. Archived from
521-83910-6. the original on 24 August 2013.
40 CHAPTER 2. HISTORY OF EGYPT

[34] Kirkpatrick, David D. (11 February 2010). Mubarak [53] Egypt sentences 683 to death in latest mass trial of dissi-
Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military. The New York dents. The Washington Post. 28 April 2015.
Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
[54] "Egypt and Saudi Arabia discuss maneuvers as Yemen
[35] Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader. battles rage". Reuters. 14 April 2015.
BBC. 11 February 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2011.

[36] Mubarak Resigns As Egypts President, Armed Forces To


Take Control Hungton Post/AP, 11 February 2011

[37] Mubarak Flees Cairo for Sharm el-Sheikh. CBS News.


11 February 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.

[38] Egyptian Parliament dissolved, constitution suspended.


BBC. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.

[39] Egypts Historic Day Proceeds Peacefully, Turnout High


For Elections. NPR. 28 November 2011. Last Retrieved
29 November 2011.

[40] Daniel Pipes and Cynthia Farahat (24 January 2012).


Don't Ignore Electoral Fraud in Egypt. Daniel Pipes
Middle East Forum.

[41] Yossi Beilin (18 August 2013). "'Morsi didn't win the
elections". Israel Hayom.

[42] Fahmy, Mohamed (9 July 2012). Egypts president calls


back dissolved parliament. CNN. Retrieved 8 July 2012.

[43] Watson, Ivan (10 July 2012). Court overrules Egypts


president on parliament. CNN. Retrieved 10 July 2012.

[44] Egypt unveils new cabinet, Tantawi keeps defence post.


3 August 2012.

[45] Egypts President Mursi assumes sweeping powers.


BBC News. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 Novem-
ber 2012.

[46] Rallies for, against Egypt presidents new powers. Asso-


ciated Press. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 23 Novem-
ber 2012.

[47] Twitter / ELBaradei. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23


November 2012.

[48] Birnbaum, Michael (22 November 2012). Egypts


President Morsi takes sweeping new powers |pub-
lisher"Washington Post. The Washington Post. Retrieved
23 November 2012.

[49] Spencer, Richard (23 November 2012). Violence breaks


out across Egypt as protesters decry Mohammed Morsis
constitutional 'coup'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Re-
trieved 23 November 2012.

[50] Egypt Sees Largest Clash Since Revolution. Wall Street


Journal. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.

[51] Fleishman, Jerey (6 December 2012). Morsi refuses to


cancel Egypts vote on constitution. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved 8 December 2012.

[52] Czech News Agency (2014-03-24). Soud s islamisty


v Egypt: Na popravit pjde vce ne 500 Mursho
stoupenc". IHNED.cz. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
Chapter 3

Prehistoric Egypt

The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest and an Egyptian form of the Clactonian. Within the 50-
human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic foot terrace was developed Acheulean. Originally re-
Period of Egypt around c. 3100 BC, starting with the rst ported as Early Mousterian but since changed to Lev-
Pharaoh, Narmer for some egyptologists, Aha for others, alloisean, other implements were located in the 30-foot
(also known as Menes). This Predynastic era is tradition- terrace. The 15- and 10-foot terraces saw a more devel-
ally equivalent to the nal part of the Neolithic period oped version of the Levalloisean, also initially reported as
beginning c. 6000 BC and corresponds to the Naqada III an Egyptian version of Mousterian. Finally, tools of the
period. Egyptian Sebilian technology and an Egyptian version of
the Aterian technology were also located.[5]
The dates of the Predynastic period were rst dened be-
fore widespread archaeological excavation of Egypt took
place, and recent nds indicating very gradual Predy-
nastic development have led to controversy over when 3.1.1 Wadi Halfa
exactly the Predynastic period ended. Thus, the term
"Protodynastic period", sometimes called the Zero Dy- Some of the oldest known buildings were discov-
nasty, has been used by scholars to name the part of the ered in Egypt by archaeologist Waldemar Chmielewski
period which might be characterized as Predynastic by along the southern border near Wadi Halfa.[2] They
some and Early Dynastic by others. were mobile structureseasily disassembled, moved,
The Predynastic period is generally divided into cultural and reassembledproviding hunter-gatherers with semi-
[2]
periods, each named after the place where a certain type permanent habitation.
of Egyptian settlement was rst discovered. However,
the same gradual development that characterizes the Pro-
todynastic period is present throughout the entire Predy- 3.1.2 Aterian Industry
nastic period, and individual cultures must not be inter-
preted as separate entities but as largely subjective divi-
Main article: Aterian
sions used to facilitate study of the entire period.
The vast majority of Predynastic archaeological nds
Aterian tool-making reached Egypt c. 40,000 BC.[2]
have been in Upper Egypt, because the silt of the Nile
River was more heavily deposited at the Delta region,
completely burying most Delta sites long before modern
times.[1] 3.1.3 Khormusan Industry

The Khormusan industry in Egypt began between 40,000


3.1 Late Paleolithic and 30,000 BC.[2] Khormusans developed advanced tools
not only from stone but also from animal bones and
hematite.[2] They also developed small arrow heads re-
The Late Paleolithic in Egypt started around 30,000
sembling those of Native Americans,[2] but no bows have
BC.[2] The Nazlet Khater skeleton was found in 1980 and
been found.[2] The end of the Khormusan industry came
dated in 1982 from nine samples ranging between 35,100
around 16,000 B.C. with the appearance of other cultures
and 30,360 years.[3] This specimen is the only complete
in the region, including the Gemaian.[6]
modern human skeleton from the earliest Late Stone Age
in Africa.[4]
Excavation of the Nile has exposed early stone tools. The
earliest of these lithic industries were located within the 3.2 Mesolithic
100-foot terrace, and were Chellean, primitive Acheulean

41
42 CHAPTER 3. PREHISTORIC EGYPT

3.2.1 Halfan culture may have been the original culture which spread Proto-
Semitic languages throughout Mesopotamia.[15]
Main article: Halfan culture

The Halfan culture ourished along the Nile Valley of 3.3 Neolithic
Egypt and Nubia between 18,000 and 15,000 BC, though
one Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.[lower-alpha 1] 3.3.1 Lower Egypt
People survived on a diet of large herd animals and the
Khormusan tradition of shing. Greater concentrations Faiyum A culture
of artifacts indicate that they were not bound to sea-
sonal wandering, but settled for longer periods.[9] They 10 20 30 40 50

are viewed as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian


industry,[lower-alpha 1] which spread across the Sahara and Elamitic?
North Semitic
into Spain. The Halfan culture was derived in turn from >5000BP

the Khormusan,[lower-alpha 2][11] which depended on spe- Berber


Egyptian

cialized hunting, shing, and collecting techniques for


North Afroasiatic
survival. The primary material remains of this culture heartland
>7500 BP
are stone tools, akes, and a multitude of rock paintings.
Beja itic
em
th S
3.2.2 Qadan and Sebilian cultures Chadic
Nile Cushitic
Sou

East
West East Cushitic
Main article: Qadan Culture Masa Cushitic
Central
Afroasiatic
homeland
>10,000 BP

About twenty archaeological sites in upper Nubia give ev- Omotic


idence for the existence of a grain-grinding Mesolithic
culture called the Qadan Culture, which practiced wild
grain harvesting along the Nile during the beginning of South Cushitic
the Sahaba Daru Nile phase, when desiccation in the
Sahara caused residents of the Libyan oases to retreat into Expansion of Afroasiatic languages. The second stage shows the
the Nile valley.[12] formation of Semitic languages.
Qadan peoples developed sickles and grinding stones to
aid in the collecting and processing of these plant foods Continued expansion of the desert forced the early an-
prior to consumption.[2] However, there are no indications cestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile more
of the use of these tools after around 10,000 BC, when permanently and adopt a more sedentary lifestyle.
hunter-gatherers replaced them.[2] The period from 9000 to 6000 BC has left very little
In Egypt, analyses of pollen found at archaeological sites in the way of archaeological evidence. Around 6000
[16]
indicate that the Sebilian culture (also known as the Esna BC, Neolithic settlements appear all over Egypt. Stud-
[17] [18][19][20][21][22]
culture) were gathering wheat and barley. Domesticated ies based on morphological, genetic,
[13][23][24][25][26]
seeds were not found (modern wheat and barley origi- and archaeological data have attributed
[12]
nated in Asia Minor and Canaan ). It has been hypoth- these settlements to migrants from the Fertile Crescent
esized that the sedentary lifestyle used by farmers led to in the Near East returning during the Egyptian and North
increased warfare, which was detrimental to farming and African Neolithic, bringing agriculture to the region.
brought this period to an end.[12] However, other regions in Africa independently devel-
oped agriculture at about the same time: the Ethiopian
highlands, the Sahel, and West Africa.[27]
3.2.3 Harian culture Some morphological and post-cranial data has linked the
earliest farming populations at Fayum, Merimde, and El-
Main article: Harian Badari, to Near Eastern populations.[28][29][30] However,
the archaeological data also suggests that Near Eastern
The Harians are viewed as migrating out of the domesticates were incorporated into a pre-existing forag-
Fayyum[lower-alpha 3] and the Eastern Deserts of Egypt dur- ing strategy and only slowly developed into a full-blown
ing the late Mesolithic to merge with the Pre-Pottery Ne- lifestyle, contrary to what would be expected from set-
olithic B (PPNB)[lower-alpha 3] culture, whose tool assem- tler colonists from the Near East.[lower-alpha 4][32][33] Fi-
blage resembles that of the Harian. This assimilation nally, the names for the Near Eastern domesticates im-
led to the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, a ported into Egypt were not Sumerian or Proto-Semitic
group of cultures that invented nomadic pastoralism, and loan words,[34] which further diminishes the likelihood
3.3. NEOLITHIC 43

of a mass immigrant colonization of lower Egypt during 3.3.2 Upper Egypt


the transition to agriculture.[35]
Weaving is evidenced for the rst time during the Faiyum
A Period. People of this period, unlike later Egyptians,
buried their dead very close to, and sometimes inside,
their settlements.[36]
Although archaeological sites reveal very little about this
time, an examination of the many Egyptian words for
city provide a hypothetical list of reasons why the
Egyptians settled. In Upper Egypt, terminology indi-
cates trade, protection of livestock, high ground for ood
refuge, and sacred sites for deities.[37]

Merimde culture

Main article: Merimde culture

From about 5000 to 4200 BC the Merimde culture, so far


only known from a big settlement site at the edge of the
Western Delta, ourished in Lower Egypt. The culture
has strong connections to the Faiyum A culture as well as
the Levant. People lived in small huts, produced a simple
undecorated pottery and had stone tools. Cattle, sheep, Predynastic artifacts: clockwise from top left: a Bat gurine,
a Naqada jar, an ivory gurine, a diorite vase, a int knife, a
goats and pigs were held. Wheat, sorghum and barley
cosmetic palette.
were planted. The Merimde people buried their dead
[38]
within the settlement and produced clay gurines. The
rst Egyptian lifesize head made of clay comes from
Merimde.[39]

Tasian culture
El Omari culture
Main article: Tasian culture
The El Omari culture is known from a small settlement
near modern Cairo. People seem to have lived in huts,
but only postholes and pits survive. The pottery is undec- The Tasian culture was the next in Upper Egypt. This cul-
orated. Stone tools include small akes, axes and sickles. ture group is named for the burials found at Der Tasa, on
Metal was not yet known.[40] Their sites were occupied the east bank of the Nile between Asyut and Akhmim.
from 4000 BC to the Archaic Period.[41] The Tasian culture group is notable for producing the
earliest blacktop-ware, a type of red and brown pottery
that is painted black on the top and interior.[36] This pot-
Maadi culture tery is vital to the dating of Predynastic Egypt. Because
all dates for the Predynastic period are tenuous at best,
The Maadi culture (also called Buto Maadi culture) is the WMF Petrie developed a system called Sequence Dating
most important Lower Egyptian prehistoric culture con- by which the relative date, if not the absolute date, of any
temporary with Naqada I and II phases in Upper Egypt. given Predynastic site can be ascertained by examining its
The culture is best known from the site Maadi near Cairo, pottery.
but is also attested in many other places in the Delta to the As the Predynastic period progressed, the handles on
Fayum region. pottery evolved from functional to ornamental. The de-
Copper was known, and some copper adzes have been gree to which any given archaeological site has func-
found. The pottery is simple and undecorated and shows, tional or ornamental pottery can also be used to deter-
in some forms, strong connections to Southern Israel. mine the relative date of the site. Since there is little
People lived in small huts, partly dug into the ground. dierence between Tasian ceramics and Badarian pot-
The dead were buried in cemeteries, but with few burial tery, the Tasian Culture overlaps the Badarian range
goods. The Maadi culture was replaced by the Naqada III signicantly.[43] From the Tasian period onward, it ap-
culture; whether this happened by conquest or inltration pears that Upper Egypt was inuenced strongly by the
is still an open question.[42] culture of Lower Egypt.[44]
44 CHAPTER 3. PREHISTORIC EGYPT

Badarian culture

Main article: Badarian culture

The Badarian culture, from about 4400 to 4000 BC,[45]


is named for the Badari site near Der Tasa. It followed
the Tasian culture, but was so similar that many consider
them one continuous period. The Badarian Culture con-
tinued to produce the kind of pottery called Blacktop-
ware (albeit much improved in quality) and was assigned
Sequence Dating numbers 21 - 29.[43] The primary dif-
ference that prevents scholars from merging the two peri-
ods is that Badarian sites use copper in addition to stone
and are thus chalcolithic settlements, while the Neolithic
Tasian sites are still considered Stone Age.[43]
Badarian int tools continued to develop into sharper
and more shapely blades, and the rst faience was
developed.[46] Distinctly Badarian sites have been located
from Nekhen to a little north of Abydos.[47] It appears that
the Fayum A culture and the Badarian and Tasian Periods
overlapped signicantly; however, the Fayum A culture
was considerably less agricultural and was still Neolithic
in nature.[46][48]
Female Figure, ca. 35003400 B.C.E. Terracotta, painted, 11
Naqada culture 5 2 in. (29.2 14 5.7 cm). Brooklyn Museum

Main article: Naqada culture cosmetic palettes appear in this period, but the workman-
ship is very rudimentary and the relief artwork for which
they were later known is not yet present.[52][53]
Amratian culture (Naqada I) Main article: Amratian
culture Gerzean culture (Naqada II) Main article: Gerzean
The Amratian culture lasted from about 4000 to 3500 culture
BC.[45] It is named after the site of El-Amra, about 120 The Gerzean culture, from about 3500 to 3200 BC,[45]
km south of Badari. El-Amra is the rst site where is named after the site of Gerzeh. It was the next stage
this culture group was found unmingled with the later
in Egyptian cultural development, and it was during this
Gerzean culture group, but this period is better attested time that the foundation of Dynastic Egypt was laid.
at the Naqada site, so it also is referred to as the Naqada
Gerzean culture is largely an unbroken development out
I culture.[46] Black-topped ware continues to appear, but of Amratian Culture, starting in the delta and moving
white cross-line ware, a type of pottery which has been
south through upper Egypt, but failing to dislodge Am-
decorated with close parallel white lines being crossed by ratian culture in Nubia.[54] Gerzean pottery is assigned
another set of close parallel white lines, is also found at
values from S.D. 40 through 62, and is distinctly dierent
this time. The Amratian period falls between S.D. 30 and from Amratian white cross-lined wares or black-topped
39 in Petries Sequence Dating system.[49] ware.[49] Gerzean pottery was painted mostly in dark red
Newly excavated objects attest to increased trade be- with pictures of animals, people, and ships, as well as
tween Upper and Lower Egypt at this time. A stone vase geometric symbols that appear derived from animals.[54]
from the north was found at el-Amra, and copper, which Also, wavy handles, rare before this period (though oc-
is not mined in Egypt, was imported from the Sinai, casionally found as early as S.D. 35) became more com-
or possibly Nubia. Obsidian[50] and a small amount of mon and more elaborate until they were almost com-
gold[49] were both denitely imported from Nubia. Trade pletely ornamental.[49]
with the oases also was likely.[50] Gerzean culture coincided with a signicant decline in
New innovations appeared in Amratian settlements as rainfall,[55] and farming along the Nile now produced the
precursors to later cultural periods. For example, the vast majority of food,[54] though contemporary paintings
mud-brick buildings for which the Gerzean period is indicate that hunting was not entirely forgone. With in-
known were rst seen in Amratian times, but only in creased food supplies, Egyptians adopted a much more
small numbers.[51] Additionally, oval and theriomorphic sedentary lifestyle and cities grew as large as 5,000.[54]
3.3. NEOLITHIC 45

A typical Naqada II pot with ship theme


Diorite vase from Gerzean or Neqada II period, approx 12 inches
(30 cm)

It was in this time that Egyptian city dwellers stopped


building with reeds and began mass-producing mud pears in this period can only have been obtained from
bricks, rst found in the Amratian Period, to build their Asia Minor.[54]
cities.[54] In addition, Egyptian objects are created which clearly
Egyptian stone tools, while still in use, moved from mimic Mesopotamian forms, although not slavishly.[57]
bifacial construction to ripple-aked construction. Cop- Cylinder seals appear in Egypt, as well as recessed panel-
per was used for all kinds of tools,[54] and the rst copper ing architecture, the Egyptian reliefs on cosmetic palettes
weaponry appears here.[47] Silver, gold, lapis, and faience are clearly made in the same style as the contemporary
were used ornamentally,[54] and the grinding palettes Mesopotamian Uruk culture, and the ceremonial mace
used for eye-paint since the Badarian period began to be heads which turn up from the late Gerzean and early Se-
adorned with relief carvings.[47] mainean are crafted in the Mesopotamian pear-shaped
[55]
The rst tombs in classic Egyptian style were also built, style, instead of the Egyptian native style.
modeled after ordinary houses and sometimes composed The route of this trade is dicult to determine, but con-
of multiple rooms.[50] Although further excavations in the tact with Canaan does not predate the early dynastic, so
Delta are needed, this style is generally believed to origi- it is usually assumed to have been by water.[58] During
nate there and not in Upper Egypt.[50] the time when the Dynastic Race Theory was still pop-
Although the Gerzean Culture is now clearly identied as ular, it was theorized that Uruk sailors circumnavigated
being the continuation of the Amratian period, signicant Arabia, but a Mediterranean route, probably by middle-
amounts of Mesopotamian inuences worked their way men through Byblos is more likely, as evidenced by the
into Egypt during the Gerzean which were interpreted presence of Byblian objects in Egypt.[58]
in previous years as evidence of a Mesopotamian ruling The fact that so many Gerzean sites are at the mouths
class, the so-called Dynastic Race, coming to power over of wadis which lead to the Red Sea may indicate some
Upper Egypt. This idea no longer attracts academic sup- amount of trade via the Red Sea (though Byblian trade
port. potentially could have crossed the Sinai and then taken
Distinctly foreign objects and art forms entered Egypt to the Red Sea).[59] Also, it is considered unlikely that
during this period, indicating contacts with several parts something as complicated as recessed panel architecture
of Asia. Objects such as the Gebel el-Arak knife han- could have worked its way into Egypt by proxy, and at
dle, which has patently Mesopotamian relief carvings on least a small contingent of migrants is often suspected.[58]
it, have been found in Egypt,[56] and the silver which ap- Despite this evidence of foreign inuence, Egyptologists
46 CHAPTER 3. PREHISTORIC EGYPT

generally agree that the Gerzean Culture is still predom- c. 4400 BC: nely-woven linen fragment[62]
inantly indigenous to Egypt.
Inventing prevalent, from 4th millennium BC

Protodynastic Period (Naqada III) Main article: By 3400 BC:


Naqada III Cosmetics
Donkey domestication
The Naqada III period, from about 3200 to 3000 BC,[45] (Meteoric) iron works[63]
is generally taken to be identical with the Protodynastic Mortar (masonry)
period, during which Egypt was unied.
c. 4000 BC:
Naqada III is notable for being the rst era with
early Naqadan trade[64] (see Silk Road)
hieroglyphs (though this is disputed by some), the rst
regular use of serekhs, the rst irrigation, and the rst 4th millennium BC: Gerzean tomb-building,
appearance of royal cemeteries.[60] including underground rooms and burial of
furniture and amulets
The relatively auent Maadi suburb of Cairo is built over
the original Naqada stronghold.[61] 4th millennium BC: Cedar imported from
Lebanon[65]
c. 3900 BC: An aridication event in the
3.4 Timeline Sahara leads to human migration to the Nile
Valley[66]
(All dates are approximate) c. 3500 BC: Lapis lazuli imported from
Badakshan and / or Mesopotamia (see Silk
Late Paleolithic, from 40th millennium BC Road)
Aterian tool-making[2] c. 3300 BC: Double reed instruments and lyres
(see Music of Egypt)
Semi-permanent dwellings in Wadi Halfa [2]

Tools made from animal bones, hematite, and c. 3500 BC: Senet, worlds oldest-(conrmed)
other stones[2] board game
c. 3500 BC: Faience, worlds earliest-known
Neolithic, from 11th millennium BC glazed ceramic beads
c. 10,500 BC: Wild grain harvesting along c. 3100 BC: Pharaoh Narmer or possibly Hor-
the Nile, grain-grinding culture creates worlds Aha unied Upper and Lower Egypt
earliest stone sickle blades[2] roughly at end of
Pleistocene
c. 8000 BC: Migration of peoples to the Nile, 3.5 See also
developing a more centralized society and set-
tled agricultural economy 5.9 kiloyear event
c. 7500 BC: Importing animals from Asia to
Sahara Prehistoric North Africa
c. 7000 BC: Agricultureanimal and
cerealin East Sahara
c. 7000 BC: in Nabta Playa deep year-round
3.6 Notes
water wells dug, and large organized settle-
ments designed in planned arrangements [1] The earliest Halfan is dated to 20,000 BP. Although one
site was dated to 24,000 BP it was in error.[7] Since the
c. 6000 BC: Rudimentary ships (rowed, earliest Ibero-Maurusian is dated to 21,000 BP[8] it is
single-sailed) depicted in Egyptian rock art more likely that both the Halfan and the Ibero-Maurusian
c. 5500 BC: Stone-roofed subterranean cham- are descended from a common ancestor.
bers and other subterranean complexes in [2] The Khormusan is dened as a Middle Palaeolithic indus-
Nabta Playa containing buried sacriced cat- try while the Halfan is dened as an Epipalaeolithic indus-
tle try. According to scholarly opinion the Khormusan and
c. 5000 BC: Alleged archaeoastronomical the Halfan are viewed as separate and distinct cultures.[10]
stone megalith in Nabta Playa.
[3] According to scholarly opinion the Harian culture is de-
c. 5000 BC: Badarian: furniture, tableware, rived from the Natuan culture in which the only char-
models of rectangular houses, pots, dishes, acteristic that distinguishes it from the Natuan is the
cups, bowls, vases, gurines, combs Harif point. It is viewed as an adaptation of Natuan
3.7. REFERENCES 47

hunter gatherers to the Negev and Sinai.[13] The Harian [13] Bar Yosef, Ofer (1998). The Natuan Culture
are thought to have lasted only about three hundred years, in the Levant, Threshold to the Origins of Agricul-
then vanishing, followed by a thousand year hiatus during ture. Evolutionary Anthropology. 6 (5): 159
which the Negev and Sinai regions were uninhabitable.[13] 177. doi:10.1002/(sici)1520-6505(1998)6:5<159::aid-
Since the Harian culture ended c. 12,000 BP[14] there evan4>3.0.co;2-7.
could be no possible connection with the PPNB which be-
gan c. 10,500 BP. [14] Richter, Tobias; et al. (2011). Interaction be-
fore Agriculture: Exchanging Material and Sharing
[4] Settler colonists from the Near East would most likely Knowledge in the Final Pleistocene Levant. Cam-
have merged with the indigenous cultures resulting in a bridge Archaeological Journal. 21 (1): 95114.
mixed economy with the agricultural aspect of the econ- doi:10.1017/S0959774311000060.
omy increasing in frequency through time, which is what
the archaeological record more precisely indicates. Both [15] Juris, Zarins (November 1990). Early Pastoral No-
pottery, lithics, and economy with Near Eastern char- madism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia. Bul-
acteristics, and lithics with African characteristics are letin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (280):
present in the Fayum A culture.[31] 3165.

[16] Redford, Donald B (1992). Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in


Ancient Times. Princeton: University Press. p. 6.
3.7 References [17] Brace, C. Loring; Seguchi, Noriko; Quintyn, Con-
rad B.; Fox, Sherry C.; Nelson, A. Russell; Mano-
[1] Redford, Donald B. (1992). Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in lis, Sotiris K.; Qifeng, Pan (2006). The question-
Ancient Times. Princeton: University Press. p. 10. able contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age
to European craniofacial form. Proceedings of the
[2] Ancient Egyptian Culture: Paleolithic Egypt. Emu- National Academy of Sciences of the United States.
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from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 13 April
doi:10.1073/pnas.0509801102. PMC 1325007 . PMID
2012.
16371462.
[3] Dental Anthropology (PDF). Anthropology.osu.edu.
[18] Chicki, L; Nichols, RA; Barbujani, G; Beaumont, MA
Retrieved 2013-10-25.
(2002). Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic
diusion model. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99
[4] Bouchneba, L.; Crevecoeur, I. (2009). The inner
(17): 1100811013. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9911008C.
ear of Nazlet Khater 2 (Upper Paleolithic, Egypt)".
Journal of Human Evolution. 56 (3): 257262. doi:10.1073/pnas.162158799. PMC 123201 . PMID
doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.12.003. PMID 19144388. 12167671.

[5] Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of [19] Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on
World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Miin the Genome of Europeans, Dupanloup et al., 2004.
Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3. Mbe.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 1 May 2012.

[20] Semino, O; Magri, C; Benuzzi, G; et al. (May


[6] Nicolas-Christophe Grimal. A History of Ancient Egypt.
2004). Origin, Diusion, and Dierentiation of Y-
p. 20. Blackwell (1994). ISBN 0-631-19396-0
Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Ne-
[7] Wendorf, Fred; Schild, Romuald; Haas, Herbert (1979). olithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the
A New Radiocarbon Chronology for Prehistoric Sites in Mediterranean Area, 2004. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:
Nubia. Journal of Field Archaeology. 6 (2): 219223. 102334. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965 . PMID
doi:10.2307/529365. 15069642.

[8] Bailey, Geo N.; Callow, Paul, eds. (1986). Stone- [21] Cavalli-Sforza (1997). Paleolithic and Neolithic lineages
Age Prehistory: Studies in Memory of Charles McBurney. in the European mitochondrial gene pool. Am J Hum
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521257732. Genet. 61: 24754. doi:10.1016/S0002-9297(07)64303-
1. PMC 1715849 . PMID 9246011. Retrieved 1 May
[9] David C. Scott. Upper Paleolithic 30,000-10,000 2012.
Archived 12 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
[22] Chikhi (21 July 1998). Clines of nuclear
[10] Prehistory of Nubia. Numibia.net. Retrieved 2013-10- DNA markers suggest a largely Neolithic an-
25. cestry of the European gene. PNAS. 95 (15):
90539058. Bibcode:1998PNAS...95.9053C.
[11] Reynes, Midant-Beatrix (2000). The Prehistory of Egypt: doi:10.1073/pnas.95.15.9053. PMC 21201 . PMID
From the First Egyptians to the First Pharohs. Wiley- 9671803. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21787-8.
[23] Zvelebil, M. (1986). Hunters in Transition: Mesolithic So-
[12] Grimal, Nicolas (1988). A History of Ancient Egypt. Li- cieties and the Transition to Farming. Cambridge, UK:
brairie Arthme Fayard. p. 21. Cambridge University Press. pp. 515, 167188.
48 CHAPTER 3. PREHISTORIC EGYPT

[24] Bellwood, P. (2005). First Farmers: The Origins of Agri- [40] Mortensen, Bodil (1999). el-Omari. In Bard, Kathryn
cultural Societies. Malden, MA: Blackwell. A. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt.
London/New York. pp. 592594.
[25] Dokldal, M.; Broek, J. (1961). Physical Anthropol-
ogy in Czechoslovakia: Recent Developments. Current [41] El-Omari. EMuseum. Minkato: Minnesota State Uni-
Anthropology. 2 (5): 455477. doi:10.1086/200228. versity. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010.

[26] Zvelebil, M. (1989). On the transition to farming in Eu- [42] Seeher, Jrgen (1999). Ma'adi and Wadi Digla. In
rope, or what was spreading with the Neolithic: a reply Bard, Kathryn A. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of An-
to Ammerman (1989)". Antiquity. 63 (239): 379383. cient Egypt. London/New York. pp. 455458.
doi:10.1017/S0003598X00076110.
[43] Gardiner, Alan, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford: Univer-
[27] Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel. New sity Press, 1964), p. 389.
York: Norton Press. ISBN 0-393-31755-2. [44] Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.35. Li-
brairie Arthme Fayard, 1988.
[28] Smith, P. (2002) The palaeo-biological evidence for ad-
mixture between populations in the southern Levant and [45] Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient
Egypt in the fourth to third millennia BCE. In: Egypt and Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 479. ISBN 0-19-
the Levant: Interrelations from the 4th through the Early 815034-2.
3rd Millennium BCE, London-New York: Leicester Uni-
versity Press, 118-128 [46] Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.24. Li-
brairie Arthme Fayard, 1988
[29] Keita, S.O.Y. (2005). Early Nile Valley Farmers from
El-Badari: Aboriginals or European Agro-Nostratic [47] Gardiner, Alan, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford: Univer-
Immigrants? Craniometric Anities Considered With sity Press, 1964), p. 391.
Other Data. Journal of Black Studies. 36 (2): 191208.
[48] Newell, G.D. A re-examination of the Badarian Culture
doi:10.1177/0021934704265912.
Academia.edu, 2012
[30] Kemp, B. 2005 Ancient Egypt Anatomy of a Civilisa- [49] Gardiner, Alan, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford: Univer-
tion. Routledge. p. 52-60 sity Press, 1964), p. 390.
[31] Shirai, Noriyuki (2010). The Archaeology of the First [50] Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p. 28. Li-
Farmer-Herders in Egypt: New Insights into the Fayum Epi- brairie Arthme Fayard, 1988
palaeolithic. Archaeological Studies Leiden University.
Leiden University Press. [51] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
Times. Princeton: University Press, 1992, p. 7.
[32] Wetterstrom, W. (1993). Shaw, T.; et al., eds. Archaeol-
ogy of Africa. London: Routledge. pp. 165226. [52] Gardiner, Alan, Egypt of the Pharaohs. Oxford: Univer-
sity Press, 1964, p. 393.
[33] Rahmani, N. (2003). Le Capsien typique et le Cap-
sien suprieur. Cambridge Monographs in Archaeology. [53] Newell, G. D., The Relative chronology of PNC I
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (57). (Academia.Edu: 2012)

[54] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient


[34] Keita, S. O. Y.; Boyce, A. J. (2005). Genetics, Egypt
Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 16.
and History: Interpreting Geographical Patterns of a Y-
Chromosome Variation. History in Africa. 32: 22146. [55] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
doi:10.1353/hia.2005.0013. Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 17.
[35] Ehret, C; Keita, SOY; Newman, P (2004). The [56] Shaw, Ian. & Nicholson, Paul, The Dictionary of Ancient
Origins of Afroasiatic a response to Diamond and Egypt, (London: British Museum Press, 1995), p. 109.
Bellwood (2003)". Science. 306 (5702): 1680.
doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1680c. PMID 15576591. [57] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 18.
[36] Gardiner, Alan (1964). Egypt of the Pharaohs. Oxford:
University Press. p. 388. [58] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 22.
[37] Redford, Donald B. (1992). Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in
[59] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
Ancient Times. Princeton: University Press. p. 8.
Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 20.
[38] Eiwanger, Josef (1999). Merimde Beni-salame. In
[60] Naqada III. Faiyum.com. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
Bard, Kathryn A. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of An-
cient Egypt. London/New York. pp. 501505. [61] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/
neolithic/maadi.html
[39] picture of the Merimde head (in German).
Auswaertiges-amt.de. Archived from the original [62] linen fragment. Digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 1
on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012. May 2012.
3.8. EXTERNAL LINKS 49

[63] Iron beads were worn in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C., but
these were of meteoric iron, evidently shaped by the rub-
bing process used in shaping implements of stone, quoted
under the heading Columbia Encyclopedia: Iron Age at
Iron Age, Answers.com. Also, see History of ferrous met-
allurgy#Meteoric iron"Around 4000 BC small items,
such as the tips of spears and ornaments, were being fash-
ioned from iron recovered from meteorites attributed
to R. F. Tylecote, A History of Metallurgy (2nd edition,
1992), page 3.

[64] Shaw (2000), p. 61

[65] Egypt: Hierakonpolis, A Feature Tour Egypt Story.


Touregypt.net. Retrieved 1 May 2012.

[66] Brooks, Nick (2006). Cultural responses to


aridity in the Middle Holocene and increased
social complexity. Quaternary International.
151 (1): 2949. Bibcode:2006QuInt.151...29B.
doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2006.01.013.

3.8 External links


Encyclopdia Britannica: ship, from Encyclop-
dia Britannica Premium Service
Ancient Egyptian History - A comprehensive and
concise educational website focusing on the basic
and the advanced in all aspects of Ancient Egypt

Faium.com homepage
Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian Civ-
ilization - Oriental Institute
Chapter 4

Early Dynastic Period of Egypt

For the period of the same name in Mesopotamia, see be known as the Two Lands. The pharaohs established
Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) a national administration and appointed royal governors.
Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country The buildings of the central government were typically
with unknown parameter country (this message is open-air temples constructed of wood or sandstone. The
shown only in preview). earliest Egyptian hieroglyphs appear just before this pe-
riod, though little is known of the spoken language they
represent.
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is the
era immediately following the unication of Upper and
Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to in-
clude the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the end 4.1 Cultural evolution
of the Naqada III archaeological period until about 2686
BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom.[1] With the
First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis to Memphis
with a unied Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. Aby-
dos remained the major holy land in the south. The
hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art,
architecture and many aspects of religion, took shape dur-
ing the Early Dynastic period.

A plate created during the Early Dynastic period of Ancient


Egypt. It depicts a man on a boat alongside a Hippopotamus
and a Crocodile

By about 3600 BC, neolithic Egyptian societies along the


Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops and
the domestication of animals.[2] Shortly after 3600 BC
Egyptian society began to grow and advance rapidly to-
ward rened civilization.[3] A new and distinctive pottery,
which was related to the pottery in the Southern Levant,
appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper be-
came common during this time.[3] The Mesopotamian
process of sun-dried bricks, and architectural building
Damaged basalt head of a foreigner, from a door socket. Early
Dynastic Period, 1st to 2nd Dynasties. From Thebes, Egypt. The
principlesincluding the use of the arch and recessed
Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London walls for decorative eectbecame popular during this
time.[3]
Before the unication of Egypt, the land was settled with Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of
autonomous villages. With the early dynasties, and for unication of the societies and towns of the upper Nile
much of Egypts history thereafter, the country came to River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the

50
4.2. FIRST PHARAOH 51

societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt also under-


went a unication process.[3] Warfare between Upper and
Lower Egypt occurred often.[3] During his reign in Upper
Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta
and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt
under his single rule.[4] Narmer is shown on palettes wear-
ing the double crown, composed of the lotus ower rep-
resenting Upper Egypt and the papyrus reed representing
Lower Egypt - a sign of the unied rule of both parts
of Egypt which was followed by all succeeding rulers.
In mythology, the unication of Egypt is portrayed as
the falcon-god, called Horus and identied with Lower
Egypt, as conquering and subduing the god Set, who was
identied with Upper Egypt.[5] Divine kingship, which
would persist in Egypt for the next three millennia, was
rmly established as the basis of Egypts government.[6]
The unication of societies along the Nile has also been
Thinis
linked to the drying of the Sahara.
Memphis
Funeral practices for the peasants would have been the Nekhen
same as in predynastic times, but the rich demanded Thebes
something more. Thus, the Egyptians began construction Naqada
of the mastabas which became models for the later Old Map of Egypt showing important sites that were occu-
Kingdom constructions such as the Step pyramid. Cereal pied during the Early Dynastic Period (clickable map)
agriculture and centralization contributed to the success
of the state for the next 800 years.
It seems certain that Egypt became unied as a cultural
and economic domain long before its rst king ascended 4.2 First Pharaoh
to the throne in the lower Egyptian city of Memphis
where the dynastic period did originate. This would last
According to Manetho, the rst monarch of the unied
for many centuries. Political unication proceeded grad-
Upper and Lower Egypt was Menes, who is now identi-
ually, perhaps over a period of a century or so as local dis-
ed with Narmer. Indeed, Narmer is the earliest recorded
tricts established trading networks and the ability of their
First Dynasty monarch: he appears rst on the king lists
governments to organize agriculture labor on a larger
of Den and Qa'a.[8] This shows that Narmer was recog-
scale increased, divine kingship may also have gained
nized by the rst dynasty kings as an important found-
spiritual momentum as the cults of gods like Horus, Set
ing gure. Narmer is also the earliest king associated to
and Neith associated with living representatives became
the symbols of power over the two lands (see in particu-
widespread in the country.[7]
lar the Narmer Palette, a votive cosmetic palette show-
It was also during this period that the Egyptian writing ing Narmer wearing the crowns of Upper and Lower
system was further developed. Initially Egyptian writing Egypt) and may therefore be the rst king to achieve the
had been composed primarily of a few symbols denoting unication. Consequently, the current consensus is that
amounts of various substances. By the end of the 3rd Menes and Narmer refer to the same person.[3] Al-
dynasty it had been expanded to include more than 200 ternative theories hold that Narmer was the nal king of
symbols, both phonograms and ideograms.[6] the Naqada III period[5] and Hor-Aha is to be identied
with Menes.

4.3 References
[1] Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient
Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 479. ISBN 0-19-
815034-2.

[2] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles


Scribners Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 51.

[3] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles


Scribners Sons: New York, 1966) p. 52-53.
52 CHAPTER 4. EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD OF EGYPT

[4] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles


Scribners Sons Publishers: New York, 1966), p. 53.

[5] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times, p. 53.

[6] Kinnaer, Jacques. Early Dynastic Period (PDF). The


Ancient Egypt Site. Retrieved 4 April 2012.

[7] The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt pg 22-23


(1997) By Bill Manley

[8] Qa'a and Merneith lists http://xoomer.virgilio.it/


francescoraf/hesyra/Egyptgallery03.html

4.4 Further reading


Shaw, Ian (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient
Egypt. UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-
19-280458-7.

Wilkinson, Toby (2001). Early Dynastic Egypt:


Strategies, Society and Security. New York: Rout-
ledge. ISBN 0-415-26011-6.
Wengrow, David (2006). The Archaeology of Early
Egypt: Social Transformations in North-East Africa,
c. 10,000 to 2,650 BC. New York: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press. ISBN 0-521-83586-0.

4.5 External links


Narmer Palette
Chapter 5

Old Kingdom of Egypt

Old Kingdom redirects here. For other uses, see Old number of pyramids constructed at this time as burial
Kingdom (disambiguation). places for Egypts kings. For this reason, the Old King-
Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country dom is frequently referred to as the Age of the Pyra-
with unknown parameter country (this message is mids.
shown only in preview).

The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 5.1 Third Dynasty
third millennium BC when Egypt attained its rst con-
tinuous peak of civilization the rst of three so-called
Kingdom periods (followed by the Middle Kingdom
and New Kingdom) which mark the high points of civ-
ilization in the lower Nile Valley. The term itself was
coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinc-
tion between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic
Period is not one which would have been recognized by
Ancient Egyptians. Not only was the last king of the Early
Dynastic Period related to the rst two kings of the Old
Kingdom, but the 'capital', the royal residence, remained
at Ineb-Hedg, the Ancient Egyptian name for Memphis.
The basic justication for a separation between the two
periods is the revolutionary change in architecture ac-
companied by the eects on Egyptian society and econ- The Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.
omy of large-scale building projects.[1]
The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as the pe- The rst king of the Old Kingdom was Djoser (sometime
riod from the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty between 2691 and 2625 BC) of the third dynasty, who
(26862181 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the ordered the construction of a pyramid (the Step Pyramid)
Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old King- in Memphis necropolis, Saqqara. An important person
dom as a continuation of the administration centralized at during the reign of Djoser was his vizier, Imhotep.
Memphis. While the Old Kingdom was a period of inter-
nal security and prosperity, it was followed by a period of
disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyp-
tologists as the First Intermediate Period.[2] During the
Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt (not called the Pharaoh
until the New Kingdom) became a living god who ruled
absolutely and could demand the services and wealth of
his subjects.[3]
Under King Djoser, the rst king of the Third Dynasty of
the Old Kingdom, the royal capital of Egypt was moved to
Memphis, where Djoser established his court. A new era
of building was initiated at Saqqara under his reign. King
Djosers architect, Imhotep is credited with the develop-
ment of building with stone and with the conception of
the new architectural formthe Step Pyramid.[3] Indeed, Temple of Djoser at Saqqara
the Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the large

53
54 CHAPTER 5. OLD KINGDOM OF EGYPT

The Great Sphinx of Giza in front of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

(25582532 BC) may have quarrelled. The latter built


the second pyramid and (in traditional thinking) the
Sphinx in Giza. Recent reexamination of evidence has
led Egyptologist Vassil Dobrev to propose that the Sphinx
had been built by Djedefra as a monument to his father
Khufu.[7] Alternatively, the Sphinx has been proposed to
be the work of Khafra and Khufu himself.
There were military expeditions into Canaan and Nubia,
Head of a King, ca. 2650-2600 BC, Brooklyn Museum; The with Egyptian inuence reaching up the Nile into what
earliest representations of Egyptian Kings are on a small scale. is today the Sudan.[8] The later kings of the Fourth Dy-
From the 3rd dynasty, statues were made showing the ruler life- nasty were king Menkaure (25322504 BC), who built
size; this head wearing the crown of Upper Egypt even surpasses the smallest pyramid in Giza, Shepseskaf (25042498
human scale.[4] BC) and, perhaps, Djedefptah (24982496 BC).

It was in this era that formerly independent ancient Egyp-


tian states became known as nomes, under the rule of the
king. The former rulers were forced to assume the role of
governors or otherwise work in tax collection. Egyptians
in this era worshipped their king as a god, believing that
he ensured the annual ooding of the Nile that was nec-
essary for their crops. Egyptian views on the nature of
time during this period held that the universe worked in
cycles, and the king on earth worked to ensure the stabil-
ity of those cycles. They also perceived themselves as a
specially selected people.[5]

5.2 Fourth Dynasty


The Old Kingdom and its royal power reached a zenith
under the Fourth Dynasty (26132494 BC), which began
with Sneferu (26132589 BC). Using more stones than
any other king, he built three pyramids: a now collapsed
pyramid in Meidum, the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur, and
the Red Pyramid, at North Dahshur. However, the full
development of the pyramid style of building was reached
not at Saqqara, but during the building of the great pyra-
mids at Giza.[6]
Sneferu was succeeded by his son, Khufu (25892566
BC) who built the Great Pyramid of Giza. After Khufus Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
death, his sons Djedefra (25662558 BC) and Khafra
5.4. SIXTH DYNASTY 55

5.3 Fifth Dynasty bled. Planks and the superstructure were tightly tied and
bound together.

5.4 Sixth Dynasty


During the sixth dynasty (23452181 BC) the power
of pharaoh gradually weakened in favor of powerful
nomarchs (regional governors). These no longer be-
longed to the royal family and their charge became hered-
itary, thus creating local dynasties largely independent
from the central authority of the king. However, Nile
ood control was still the subject of very large works, in-
cluding especially the canal to Lake Moeris around 2300
BC, which was likely also the source of water to the Giza
pyramid complex centuries earlier.
Internal disorders set in during the incredibly long reign
of Pepi II (22782184 BC) towards the end of the dy-
nasty. His death, certainly well past that of his intended
heirs, might have created succession struggles. The coun-
try slipped into civil wars mere decades after the close of
Pepi IIs reign.
The nal blow was the 22nd century BC drought in the
region that resulted in a drastic drop in precipitation. For
at least some years between 2200 and 2150 BC, this pre-
vented the normal ooding of the Nile.[11]
Late Period statue of Imhotep, Muse du Louvre.
Whatever its cause, the collapse of the Old Kingdom was
followed by decades of famine and strife. An important
The Fifth Dynasty (24942345 BC) began with Userkaf inscription on the tomb of Ankhti, a nomarch during the
(24942487 BC) and was marked by the growing impor- early First Intermediate Period, describes the pitiful state
tance of the cult of sun god Ra. Consequently, less eorts of the country when famine stalked the land.
were devoted to the construction of pyramid complexes
than during the 4th dynasty and more to the construction
of sun temples in Abusir. Userkaf was succeeded by his
son Sahure (24872475 BC) who commanded an expedi- 5.5 Culture
tion to Punt. Sahure was in turn succeeded by Neferirkare
Kakai (24752455 BC) who was either Sahures son Egypts Old Kingdom (Dynasties 36, ca. 26492150
or his brother, in which case he might have usurped BC) was one of the most dynamic periods in the develop-
the throne at the expense of Prince Netjerirenre.[9] He ment of Egyptian art. During this period, artists learned
was followed by two shadowy short-lived kings Neferefre to express their cultures worldview, creating for the rst
(24552453 BC) and Shepseskare, the latter possibly a time images and forms that endured for generations. Ar-
son of Sahure.[10] Shepseskare was deposed by Nefere- chitects and masons mastered the techniques necessary to
fres brother Nyuserre Ini (24452421 BC). build monumental structures in stone.[12]
The last kings of the dynasty were Menkauhor Kaiu Sculptors created the earliest portraits of individuals and
(24212414 BC), Djedkare Isesi (24142375 BC) and the rst lifesize statues in wood, copper, and stone. They
nally Unas (23752345), the earliest ruler to have the perfected the art of carving intricate relief decoration and,
pyramid texts inscribed in his pyramid. through keen observation of the natural world, produced
Egypts expanding interests in trade goods such as ebony, detailed images of animals, plants, and even landscapes,
incense such as myrrh and frankincense, gold, copper recording the essential elements of their world for eternity
and other useful metals inspired the ancient Egyptians to in scenes painted and carved on the walls of temples and
build suitable ships for navigation of the open sea. They tombs.[12]
traded with Lebanon for cedar and travelled the length of These images and structures had two principal functions:
the Red Sea to the Kingdom of Puntpossibly modern to ensure an ordered existence and to defeat death by pre-
day Somaliafor ebony, ivory and aromatic resins. Ship serving life into the next world. To these ends, over a
builders of that era did not use pegs (treenails) or metal period of time, Egyptian artists adopted a limited reper-
fasteners, but relied on rope to keep their ships assem- toire of standard types and established a formal artistic
56 CHAPTER 5. OLD KINGDOM OF EGYPT

canon that would dene Egyptian art for more than 3,000 5.8 External links
years, while remaining exible enough to allow for subtle
variation and innovation. Although much of their artistic The Fall of the Egyptian Old Kingdom from BBC
eort was centered on preserving life after death, Egyp- History
tians also surrounded themselves with objects to enhance
their lives in this world, producing elegant jewelry, nely Middle East on The Matrix: Egypt, The Old King-
carved and inlaid furniture, and cosmetic vessels and im- dom Photographs of many of the historic sites
plements made from a wide range of materials. dating from the Old Kingdom

Old Kingdom of Egypt- Aldokkan

5.6 References
[1] Malek, Jaromir. 2003. The Old Kingdom (c. 2686
2160 BCE)". In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt,
edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford Uni-
versity Press. ISBN 978-0192804587, p.83

[2] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times, pp. 55 & 60.

[3] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times, p. 56.

[4] Bothmer, Bernard (1974). Brief Guide to the Department


of Egyptian and Classical Art. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn
Museum. p. 22.

[5] Herlin, Susan J. (2003). Ancient African Civilizations


to ca. 1500: Pharaonic Egypt to Ca. 800 BC. p. 27.
Archived from the original on August 23, 2003. Retrieved
23 January 2017.

[6] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times, p. 57.

[7] Vassil Dobrev, French Institute, Cairo, link 1, link 2

[8] p.5, 'The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History' (4th


edition, 1993), Dupuy & Dupuy.

[9] Miroslav Verner: The Pyramids, Grove Press. New York,


2001

[10] Miroslav Verner: Archaeological Remarks on the 4th and


5th Dynasty Chronology, Archiv Orientln, Volume 69:
2001

[11] Jean-Daniel Stanley; et al. (2003). Nile ow failure at the


end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and
petrologic evidence. Geoarchaeology. 18 (3): 395402.
doi:10.1002/gea.10065.

[12] Select Egypt. selectegypt.com.

5.7 Further reading


Jaromir Malek, In the Shadow of the Pyramids:
Egypt During the Old Kingdom, University of Ok-
lahoma Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8061-2027-4

Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids, New York,


Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. ISBN 0-
87099-906-0 (catalogue for travelling exhibition of
the same name)
Chapter 6

First Intermediate Period of Egypt

Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country in power of the provincial nomarchs. Towards the end of
with unknown parameter country (this message is the Old Kingdom the positions of the nomarchs had be-
shown only in preview). come hereditary, so families often held onto the position
of power in their respective provinces. As these nomarchs
grew increasingly powerful and inuential, they became
The First Intermediate Period, often described as [7]
a dark period in ancient Egyptian history, spanned more independent from the king. They erected tombs
in their own domains and often raised armies. The rise
approximately one hundred twenty-ve years, from c.
21812055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It of these numerous nomarchs inevitably created conicts
[1]
between neighboring provinces, often resulting in intense
included the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the
eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence sur- rivalries and warfare between them. A third reason for
vives from this period, especially towards the beginning the dissolution of centralized kingship that is mentioned
of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic was the low levels of the Nile inundation which may have
time in history where rule of Egypt was roughly divided resulted in a drier climate and lower [8] crop yields bring-
between two competing power bases. One of those bases ing about famine across ancient Egypt; see 4.2 kiloyear
resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south event.
of the Faiyum region. The other resided at Thebes in
Upper Egypt.[2] It is believed that during this time, the
temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork
was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken
or destroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos.[3]
These two kingdoms would eventually come into conict,
6.2 The 7th and 8th dynasties at
with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in Memphis
reunication of Egypt under a single ruler during the sec-
ond part of the eleventh dynasty.
The seventh and eighth dynasties are often overlooked be-
cause very little is known about the rulers of these two
periods. Manetho, a historian and priest from the Ptole-
6.1 Events leading to the First In- maic era, describes 70 kings who ruled for 70 days.[9]
This is most likely an exaggeration to describe the disor-
termediate Period ganization of the kingship during this time period. The
seventh dynasty may have been an oligarchy comprising
The fall of the Old Kingdom is often described as a pe- powerful ocials of the sixth dynasty based in Memphis
riod of chaos and disorder by some literature in the First who attempted to retain control of the country.[10] The
Intermediate Period, but mostly by literature written in eighth dynasty rulers, claiming to be the descendants of
successive eras of ancient Egyptian history. The causes the sixth dynasty kings, also ruled from Memphis.[11] Lit-
that brought about the downfall of the Old Kingdom are tle is known about these two dynasties since very little
numerous, but some are merely hypothetical. One rea- textual or architectural evidence survives to describe the
son that is often quoted is the extremely long reign of period. However, a few artifacts have been found, includ-
Pepi II, the last major pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty. He ing scarabs that have been attributed to king Neferkare II
ruled from his childhood until he was very elderly (at of the seventh dynasty as well as a green jasper cylinder
least into his seventies, and possibly into his nineties), of Syrian inuence which has been credited to the eighth
outliving many of his heirs and therefore, created prob- dynasty.[12] Also, a small pyramid believed to have been
lems with succession in the royal household.[4] Thus, the constructed by King Ibi of the eighth dynasty has been
regime of the Old Kingdom disintegrated amidst this identied at Saqqara.[13] Several kings, such as Iytjenu are
disorganization.[5][6] Another major problem was the rise only once attested and their position remains unknown.

57
58 CHAPTER 6. FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD OF EGYPT

6.3 Rise of the Heracleopolitan Intef III completes this attack on the north and eventu-
ally captures Abydos, moving into Middle Egypt against
Kings the Heracleopolitan kings.[19] The rst three kings of the
eleventh dynasty (all named Intef) were, therefore, also
Some time after the obscure reign of the seventh the last three kings of the First Intermediate Period and
and eighth dynasties kings, a group of rulers arose in would be succeeded by a line of kings who were all called
Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt.[9] These kings comprise Mentuhotep. Mentuhotep II, also known as Nebhepetra,
the ninth and tenth dynasties, each with nineteen listed would eventually defeat the Heracleopolitan kings around
rulers. The Heracleopolitan kings are conjectured to have 2033 BC and unify the country to continue the eleventh
overwhelmed the weak Memphite rulers to create the dynasty, bringing Egypt into the Middle Kingdom.[19]
ninth dynasty, but there is virtually no archaeology elu-
cidating the transition, which seems to have involved a
drastic reduction in population in the Nile Valley.
6.5 The Ipuwer Papyrus
The founder of the ninth dynasty, Akhthoes or Akhtoy,
is often described as an evil and violent ruler, most no-
The emergence of what is considered literature by mod-
tably in Manethos writing. Possibly the same as Wahkare
ern standards seems to have occurred during the First In-
Khety I, Akhthoes was described as a king who caused
termediate Period, with a owering of new literary gen-
much harm to the inhabitants of Egypt, was seized with
res in the Middle Kingdom.[20] A particularly important
madness, and was eventually killed by a crocodile.[14]
piece is the Ipuwer Papyrus, often called the Lamenta-
This may have been a fanciful tale, but Wahkare is listed
tions of Ipuwer or the Admonitions of Ipuwer, which al-
as a king in the Turin Canon. Kheti I was succeeded by
though not dated to this period by modern scholarship
Kheti II, also known as Meryibre. Little is certain of his
may refer to the First Intermediate Period and record a
reign, but a few artifacts bearing his name survive. It may
decline in international relations and a general impover-
have been his successor, Kheti III, who would bring some
ishment in Egypt.[21]
degree of order to the Delta, though the power and inu-
ence of these ninth dynasty kings was seemingly insignif-
icant compared to the Old Kingdom pharaohs.[15]
A distinguished line of nomarchs arose in Siut (or Asyut), 6.6 The art and architecture of the
a powerful and wealthy province in the south of the Her- First Intermediate Period
acleopolitan kingdom. These warrior princes maintained
a close relationship with the kings of the Heracleopoli-
As stated above, the First Intermediate Period in Egypt
tan royal household, as evidenced by the inscriptions in
was generally divided into two main geographical and po-
their tombs. These inscriptions provide a glimpse at the
litical regions, one centered at Memphis and the other at
political situation that was present during their reigns.
Thebes. The Memphite kings, although weak in power,
They describe the Siut nomarchs digging canals, reduc-
held on to the Memphite artistic traditions that had been
ing taxation, reaping rich harvests, raising cattle herds,
in place throughout the Old Kingdom. This was a sym-
and maintaining an army and eet.[14] The Siut province
bolic way for the weakened Memphite state to hold on
acted as a buer state between the northern and southern
to the vestiges of glory in which the Old Kingdom had
rulers, and the Siut princes would bear the brunt of the
reveled.[22] On the other hand, the Theban kings, phys-
attacks from the Theban kings.
ically isolated from Memphis, had no access to these
Memphite artworks and thus, were able to craft new artis-
tic styles that reected the creativity of the artists who
6.4 Rise of the Theban kings were no longer controlled by the state.[23]
The building projects of the Heracleopolitan kings in
It has been suggested that an invasion of Upper Egypt oc- the North were very limited. Only one pyramid be-
curred contemporaneously with the founding of the Her- lieved to belong to King Merikare (20652045 BC) is
acleopolitan kingdom, which would establish the The- mentioned to be somewhere at Saqqara. Also, private
ban line of kings, constituting the eleventh and twelfth tombs that were built during the time pale in compari-
dynasties.[16] This line of kings is believed to have been son to the Old Kingdom monuments, in quality and size.
descendants of Intef or Inyotef, who was the nomarch There are still relief scenes of servants making provi-
of Thebes, often called the keeper of the Door of the sions for the deceased as well as the traditional oering
South.[17] He is credited for organizing Upper Egypt into scenes which mirror those of the Old Kingdom Memphite
an independent ruling body in the south, although he him- tombs. However, they are of a lower quality and are much
self did not appear to have tried to claim the title of king. simpler than their Old Kingdom parallels.[24] Wooden
However, his successors in the eleventh and twelfth dy- rectangular cons were still being used, but their decora-
nasty would later do so for him.[18] One of them, Intef tions became more elaborate during the rule of the Hera-
II, begins the assault on the north, particularly at Abydos. cleopolitan kings. New Con Texts were painted on the
6.8. REFERENCES 59

interiors, providing spells and maps for the deceased to [10] Hayes, William C. The Scepter of Egypt: A Background
use in the afterlife. for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropoli-
tan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the
The rise of the Theban kings around 2123 BC brought End of the Middle Kingdom, p. 136, available online
about an original more provincial style of art. This new
style is often described as clumsy and unrened and may [11] Breasted, James Henry. (1923) A History of the Ancient
have been due to the lack of skilled artisans. However, Egyptians Charles Scribners Sons, 133-134.
the artworks that survived show that the artisans took on
[12] Baikie, James (1929) A History of Egypt: From the Ear-
new interpretations of traditional scenes. They employed liest Times to the End of the XVIIIth Dynasty (New York:
the use of bright colors in their paintings and changed and The Macmillan Company), 218.
distorted the proportions of the human gure. This dis-
tinctive style was especially evident in the rectangular slab [13] Bard, Kathryn A. (2008) An Introduction to the Archae-
stelae found in the tombs at Naga el-Deir.[25] In terms of ology of Ancient Egypt (Malden: Blackwell Publishing),
royal architecture, the Theban kings of the early eleventh 163.
dynasty constructed rock cut tombs called sa tombs at [14] James Henry Breasted, Ph.D., A History of the Ancient
El-Tarif on the west bank of the Nile. This new style Egyptians (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1923),
of mortuary architecture consisted of a large courtyard 134.
with a rock-cut colonnade at the far wall. Rooms were
carved into the walls facing the central courtyard where [15] Baikie, James (1929) A History of Egypt: From the Ear-
liest Times to the End of the XVIIIth Dynasty (New York:
the deceased were buried, allowing for multiple people to
The Macmillan Company), 224.
be buried in one tomb.[26] The undecorated burial cham-
bers may have been due to the lack of skilled artists in the [16] Baikie, James (1929) A History of Egypt: From the Ear-
Theban kingdom. liest Times to the End of the XVIIIth Dynasty (New York:
The Macmillan Company), 221.

[17] Baikie, James (1929) A History of Egypt: From the Ear-


6.7 End of the First Intermediate liest Times to the End of the XVIIIth Dynasty (New York:
The Macmillan Company), 135.
Period
[18] Baikie, James (1929) A History of Egypt: From the Ear-
The end of the First Intermediate Period is placed at liest Times to the End of the XVIIIth Dynasty (New York:
the time when Mentuhotep II of the eleventh dynasty de- The Macmillan Company), 245.
feated the Heracleopolitan kings of Lower Egypt and re- [19] James Henry Breasted, Ph.D., A History of the Ancient
united Egypt under a single ruler. Egyptians (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1923),
136.

[20] Kathryn A. Bard, An Introduction to the Archaeology


6.8 References of Ancient Egypt (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2008),
174-175.
[1] Kathryn A. Bard, An Introduction to the Archaeology of
Ancient Egypt (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2008), 41. [21] Gregory Mumford, Tell Ras Budran (Site 345): Dening
Egypts Eastern Frontier and Mining Operations in South
[2] Gardiner, Alan (1961) Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford Sinai during the Late Old Kingdom (Early EB IV/MB I),
University Press), 107-109. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research,
No. 342 (May, 2006), pp. 13-67, The American Schools
[3] Breasted, James Henry. (1923) A History of the Ancient
of Oriental Research. Article Stable URL:
Egyptians Charles Scribners Sons, 133.
[22] Jaromir Malek, Egyptian Art (London: Phaidon Press
[4] Kinnaer, Jacques. The First Intermediate Period (PDF).
Limited, 1999), 159.
The Ancient Egypt Site. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
[23] Jaromir Malek, Egyptian Art (London: Phaidon Press
[5] Gardiner, Alan (1961) Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford
Limited, 1999), 160-161.
University Press), 110.
[24] Jaromir Malek, Egyptian Art (London: Phaidon Press
[6] Rothe, et al., (2008) Pharaonic Inscriptions From the
Limited, 1999), 156.
Southern Eastern Desert of Egypt, Eisenbrauns
[25] Jaromir Malek, Egyptian Art (London: Phaidon Press
[7] Breasted, James Henry. (1923) A History of the Ancient
Limited, 1999), 161.
Egyptians Charles Scribners Sons, 117-118.
[26] Jaromir Malek, Egyptian Art (London: Phaidon Press
[8] Malek, Jaromir (1999) Egyptian Art (London: Phaidon
Limited, 1999), 162.
Press Limited), 155.

[9] Sir Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford: Ox-


ford University Press, 1961), 107.
Chapter 7

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country


with unknown parameter country (this message is
shown only in preview).

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The


Period of Reunication) is the period in the history
of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1800 BC,
stretching from the reunication of Egypt under the im-
pulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the
end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Some scholars also include
the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period
as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would nish
c. 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay
c. 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in
both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle King-
dom period, Osiris became the most important deity in
popular religion.[1]
The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty,
which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty onwards
which was centered on el-Lisht.

7.1 Political history


An Osiride statue of the rst pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom,
Mentuhotep II
7.1.1 Reunication under the Eleventh Dy-
nasty
ing his power over all Egypt, a process which he nished
Further information: Eleventh dynasty of Egypt by his 39th regnal year.[2] For this reason, Mentuhotep II
After the collapse of the Old Kingdom, Egypt entered is regarded as the founder of the Middle Kingdom.[5]
a period of weak Pharaonic power and decentralization
called the First Intermediate Period.[2] Towards the end Mentuhotep II commanded military campaigns south as
of this period, two rival dynasties, known in Egyptology far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its
as the Tenth and Eleventh, fought for power over the en- independence during the First Intermediate Period. He
tire country. The Theban 11th Dynasty only ruled south- also restored Egyptian hegemony over the Sinai region,
ern Egypt from the rst cataract to the Tenth Nome of which had been lost to Egypt since the end of the Old
Upper Egypt.[3] To the north, Lower Egypt was ruled by Kingdom.[6] To consolidate his authority, he restored the
the rival 10th Dynasty from Herakleopolis.[3] The strug- cult of the ruler, depicting himself as a god in his own
gle was to be concluded by Mentuhotep II, who ascended lifetime, wearing the headdresses of Amun and Min[7] He
the Theban throne in 2055 B.C.[4] During Mentuhotep died after a reign of 51 years, and passed the throne to his
IIs fourteenth regnal year, he took advantage of a revolt son, Mentuhotep III.[6]
in the Thinite Nome to launch an attack on Herakleopo- Mentuhotep III reigned for only twelve years, during
lis, which met little resistance.[3] After toppling the last which he continued consolidating Theban rule over the
rulers of the 10th Dynasty, Mentuhotep began consolidat- whole of Egypt, building a series of forts in the eastern

60
7.1. POLITICAL HISTORY 61

Delta region to secure Egypt against threats from Asia.[6]


He also sent the rst expedition to Punt during the Mid-
dle Kingdom, by means of ships constructed at the end
of Wadi Hammamat, on the Red Sea.[8] Mentuhotep III
was succeeded by Mentuhotep IV, whose name signif-
icantly is omitted from all ancient Egyptian king lists.[9]
The Turin Papyrus claims that after Mentuhotep III came
seven kingless years.[10] Despite this absence, his reign
is attested from a few inscriptions in Wadi Hammamat
that record expeditions to the Red Sea coast and to quarry
stone for the royal monuments.[9] The leader of this expe-
dition was his vizier Amenemhat, who is widely assumed
to be the future pharaoh Amenemhet I, the rst king of
the 12th Dynasty.[11][12]
Mentuhotep IVs absence from the king lists has
prompted the theory that Amenemhet I usurped his
throne.[12] While there are no contemporary accounts of
this struggle, certain circumstantial evidence may point
to the existence of a civil war at the end of the 11th
dynasty.[9] Inscriptions left by one Nehry, the Haty-a of
Hermopolis, suggest that he was attacked at a place called
Shedyet-sha by the forces of the reigning king, but his
forces prevailed. Khnumhotep I, an ocial under Amen-
emhet I, claims to have participated in a otilla of 20 ships
to pacify Upper Egypt. Donald Redford has suggested
these events should be interpreted as evidence of open
war between two dynastic claimants.[13] What is certain
is that, however he came to power, Amenemhet I was not The head of a statue of Senusret I.
of royal birth.[12]

kingdom after centuries of chaos.[16]


7.1.2 Early 12th Dynasty
Propaganda notwithstanding, Amenemhet never held the
Main article: Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt absolute power commanded in theory by the Old King-
From the 12th dynasty onwards, pharaohs often kept dom pharaohs. During the First Intermediate Period, the
well-trained standing armies, which included Nubian governors of the nomes of Egypt, nomarchs, gained con-
contingents. These formed the basis of larger forces siderable power.[19] Their posts had become hereditary,
which were raised for defence against invasion, or for ex- and some nomarchs entered into marriage alliances with
peditions up the Nile or across the Sinai. However, the the nomarchs of neighboring nomes.[19] To strengthen
Middle Kingdom was basically defensive in its military his position, Amenemhet required registration of land,
strategy, with fortications built at the First Cataract of modied nome borders, and appointed nomarchs directly
the Nile, in the Delta and across the Sinai Isthmus.[14] when oces became vacant, but acquiesced to the no-
Early in his reign, Amenemhet I was compelled to cam- march system, probably [20] in order to placate the nomarchs
paign in the Delta region, which had not received as much who supported his rule. This gave the Middle King-
attention as upper Egypt during the 11th Dynasty. [15] dom a more feudal organization than Egypt had before or
[21]
In addition, he strengthened defenses between Egypt would have afterward.
and Asia, building the Walls of the Ruler in the East In his 20th regnal year, Amenemhat established his son
Delta region.[16] Perhaps in response to this perpetual Senusret I as his coregent,[21] establishing a practice
unrest, Amenemhat I built a new capital for Egypt in which would be used repeatedly throughout the rest of the
the north, known as Amenemhet Itj Tawy, or Amen- Middle Kingdom and again during the New. In Amen-
emhet, Seizer of the Two Lands.[17] The location of this emhets 30th regnal year, he was presumably murdered
capital is unknown, but is presumably near the citys in a palace conspiracy. Senusret, campaigning against
necropolis, the present-day el-Lisht.[16] Like Mentuhotep Libyan invaders, rushed home to Itjtawy to prevent a
II, Amenemhet bolstered his claim to authority with takeover of the government.[22] During his reign he con-
propaganda.[18] In particular, the Prophecy of Neferty tinued the practice of directly appointing nomarchs,[23]
dates to about this time, which purports to be an oracle and undercut the autonomy of local priesthoods by build-
of an Old Kingdom priest, who predicts a king, Amen- ing at cult centers throughout Egypt.[24] Under his rule,
emhet I, arising from the far south of Egypt to restore the Egyptian armies pushed south into Nubia as far as the sec-
62 CHAPTER 7. MIDDLE KINGDOM OF EGYPT

ond cataract, building a border fort at Buhen and incor-


porating all of lower Nubia as an Egyptian colony.[25] To
the west, he consolidated his power over the Oases, and
extended commercial contacts into Syrio-Palestine as far
as Ugarit.[26] In his 43rd regnal year, Senusret appointed
Amenemhet II as junior coregent, and died in his 46th.[27]
The reign of Amenemhat II has been often characterized
as largely peaceful,[26] but record of his genut, or day-
books, have cast doubt on that assessment.[28] Among
these records, preserved on temple walls at Tod and
Memphis, are descriptions of peace treaties with cer-
tain Syrio-Palestinian cities, and military conict with
others.[28] To the south, Amenemhet sent a campaign
through lower Nubia to inspect Wawat.[26] It does not ap-
pear that Amenemhet continued his predecessors pol-
icy of appointing Nomarchs, but let it become heredi-
tary again.[23] Another expedition to Punt dates to his
reign.[28] In his 33rd regnal year, he appointed his son
Senusret II coregent.[29]
Evidence for military activity of any kind during the reign
of Senusret II is non-existent.[30] Senusret instead appears
to have focused on domestic issues, particularly the ir-
rigation of the Faiyum. This multi-generational project
aimed to convert the Faiyum oasis into a productive swath
of farmland.[30] Senusret eventually placed his pyramid at
the site of el-Lahun, near the junction of the Nile and the Statue head of Senusret III
Fayuums major irrigation canal, the Bahr Yussef.[31] He
reigned only fteen years,[32] which is evidenced by the
incomplete nature of many of his constructions.[30] His Domestically, Senusret has been given credit for an ad-
son Senusret III succeeded him. ministrative reform which put more power in the hands
of appointees of the central government, instead of re-
gional authorities.[33] Egypt was divided into three waret,
or administrative divisions: North, South, and Head of
7.1.3 Height of the Middle Kingdom the South (perhaps Lower Egypt, most of Upper Egypt,
and the nomes of the original Theban kingdom during
Senusret III was a warrior-king, often taking to the eld the war with Herakleopolis, respectively).[37] Each region
himself. In his sixth year, he re-dredged an Old King- was administrated by a Reporter, Second Reporter, some
dom canal around the rst cataract to facilitate travel to kind of council (the Djadjat), and a sta of minor o-
upper Nubia.[33] He used this to launch a series of brutal cials and scribes.[37] The power of the Nomarchs seems
campaigns in Nubia in his sixth, eighth, tenth, and six- to drop o permanently during his reign, which has been
teenth years.[33] After his victories, Senusret built a series taken to indicate that the central government had nally
of massive forts throughout the country to establish the suppressed them, though there is no record that Senusret
formal boundary between Egyptian conquests and uncon- ever took direct action against them.[33]
quered Nubia at Semna.[33] The personnel of these forts
were charged to send frequent reports to the capital on Senusret III had a lasting legacy as a warrior Pharaoh.
the movements and activities of the local Medjay natives, His name was Hellenized by later Greek historians as
some of which survive, revealing how tightly the Egyp- Sesostris, a name which was then given to a conation[38] of
[34]
tians intended to control the southern border. Medjay Senusret and several New Kingdom warrior pharaohs.
were not allowed north of the border by ship, nor could In Nubia, Senusret [39]
was worshiped as a patron God by
they enter by land with their ocks, but they were per- Egyptian settlers. The duration of his reign remains
mitted to travel to local forts in order to trade. [35]
Af- something of an open question. His son Amenemhet III
ter this, Senusret sent one more campaign in his 19th began reigning after Senusrets 19th regnal year, which
year, but turned back due to abnormally low Nile lev- has been widely considered Senusrets highest attested
[40]
els, which endangered his ships. [33]
One of Senusrets date. However, a reference to a year 39 on a fragment
soldiers also records a campaign into Palestine, perhaps found in the construction debris of Senusrets mortuary
against Shechem, the only reference to a military cam- temple has suggested the possibility of a long coregency
[41]
paign against a location in Palestine from the entirety of with his son.
Middle Kingdom literature.[36] The reign of Amenemhat III was the height of Middle
7.1. POLITICAL HISTORY 63

Kingdom economic prosperity. His reign is remarkable


for the degree to which Egypt exploited its resources.
Mining camps in the Sinai, which had previously been
used only by intermittent expeditions, were operated on
a semi-permanent basis, as evidenced by the construction
of houses, walls, and even local cemeteries.[42] There are
25 separate references to mining expeditions in the Sinai,
and four to expeditions in wadi Hammamat, one of which
had over 2,000 workers.[43] Amenemhet reinforced his
fathers defenses in Nubia[44] and continued the Faiyum
land reclamation system.[45] After a reign of 45 years,
Amenemhet III was succeeded by Amenemhet IV,[42]
whose nine-year reign is poorly attested.[46] Clearly by
this time, dynastic power began to weaken, for which
several explanations have been proposed. Contemporary
records of the Nile ood levels indicate that the end of the
reign of Amenemhet III was dry, and crop failures may
have helped to destabilize the dynasty.[45] Further, Amen-
emhet III had an inordinately long reign, which tends
to create succession problems.[47] The latter argument
perhaps explains why Amenemhet IV was succeeded by
Sobekneferu, the rst historically attested female king of
Egypt.[47] Sobekneferu ruled no more than four years,[48]
and as she apparently had no heirs, when she died the
Twelfth Dynasty came to a sudden end as did the Golden
Age of the Middle Kingdom.

7.1.4 Decline into the Second Intermediate


Period

After the death of Sobeknefru, the throne may have


passed to Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep,[49][50] though
in older studies Wegaf, who had previously been the
Great Overseer of Troops,[51] was thought to have reigned
next.[52] Beginning with this reign, Egypt was ruled by a
series of ephemeral kings for about ten to fteen years.[53]
Ancient Egyptian sources regard these as the rst kings of
the Thirteenth Dynasty, though the term dynasty is mis-
leading, as most kings of the thirteenth dynasty were not
related.[54] The names of these short-lived kings are at-
tested on a few monuments and grati, and their succes-
sion order is only known from the Turin Canon, although A kneeling statue of Sobekhotep V, one of the pharaohs from the
even this is not fully trusted.[53] declining years of the Middle Kingdom.

After the initial dynastic chaos, a series of longer reign-


ing, better attested kings ruled for about fty to eighty reign of Neferhoteps successor, Sobekhotep IV, though
years.[53] The strongest king of this period, Neferhotep there is no archaeological evidence.[57] Sobekhotep IV
I, ruled for eleven years and maintained eective control was succeeded by the short reign of Sobekhotep V, who
of Upper Egypt, Nubia, and the Delta,[55] with the pos- was followed by Wahibre Ibiau, then Merneferre Ai.
sible exceptions of Xois and Avaris.[56] Neferhotep I was Wahibre Ibiau ruled ten years, and Merneferre Ai ruled
even recognized as the suzerain of the ruler of Byblos, for twenty three years, the longest of any Thirteenth Dy-
indicating that the Thirteenth Dynasty was able to retain nasty king, but neither of these two kings left as many at-
much of the power of the Twelfth Dynasty, at least up to testations as either Neferhotep or Sobekhotep IV.[58] De-
his reign.[56] At some point during the 13th dynasty, Xois spite this, they both seem to have held at least parts of
and Avaris began governing themselves,[56] the rulers of lower Egypt. After Merneferre Ai, however, no king left
Xois being the Fourteenth Dynasty, and the Asiatic rulers his name on any object found outside the south.[58] This
of Avaris being the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty. Ac- begins the nal portion of the thirteenth dynasty, when
cording to Manetho, this latter revolt occurred during the southern kings continue to reign over Upper Egypt, but
64 CHAPTER 7. MIDDLE KINGDOM OF EGYPT

when the unity of Egypt fully disintegrated, the Middle


Kingdom gave way to the Second Intermediate Period.[59]

7.2 Administration
When the Eleventh Dynasty reunied Egypt it had to cre-
ate a centralized administration such as had not existed
in Egypt since the downfall of the Old Kingdom govern-
ment. To do this, it appointed people to positions which
had fallen out of use in the decentralized First Interme-
diate Period. Highest among these was the Vizier.[60]
The vizier was the chief minister for the king, handling
all the day-to-day business of government in the kings
place.[60] This was a monumental task, therefore it would
often be split into two positions, a vizier of the north, and
a vizier of the south. It is uncertain how often this oc-
Clay model of a Middle Kingdom house. Muse du Louvre.
curred during the Middle Kingdom, but Senusret I clearly
had two simultaneously functioning viziers.[60] Other po-
sitions were inherited from the provincial form of govern- developed during the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, when the
ment at Thebes used by the Eleventh Dynasty before the various powers of Old Kingdom provincial ocials began
reunication of Egypt.[61] The Overseer of Sealed Goods to be exercised by a single individual.[63] At roughly this
became the countrys treasurer, and the Overseer of the time, the provincial aristocracy began building elaborate
Estate became the Kings chief steward.[61] These three tombs for themselves, which have been taken as evidence
positions and the Scribe of the Royal Document, proba- of the wealth and power which these rulers had acquired
bly the kings personal scribe, appear to be the most im- as Nomarchs.[63] By the end of the First Intermediate Pe-
portant posts of the central government, judging by the riod, some nomarchs ruled their nomes as minor poten-
monument count of those in these positions.[61] tates, such as the nomarch Nehry of Hermopolis, who
Beside this, many Old Kingdom posts which had lost dated inscriptions by his own regnal year.[60]
their original meaning and become mere honorics were When the Eleventh Dynasty came to power, it was nec-
brought back into the central government.[60] Only high- essary to subdue the power of the Nomarchs if Egypt
ranking ocials could claim the title Member of the Elite, was to be reunied under a central government. The rst
which had been applied liberally during the First Interme- major steps towards that end took place under Amen-
diate Period.[61] emhet I. Amenemhet made the city, not the nome, the
This basic form of administration continued throughout center of administration, and only the haty-a, or mayor,
the Middle Kingdom, though there is some evidence for of the larger cities would be permitted to carry the title
a major reform of the central government under Senusret of Nomarch.[23] The title of Nomarch continued to be
III. Records from his reign indicate that Upper and Lower used until the reign of Senusret III,[23] as did the elab-
Egypt were divided into separate waret and governed orate tombs indicative of their power, after which they
by separate administrators.[23] Administrative documents suddenly disappear.[64] This has been interpreted several
and private stele indicate a proliferation of new bureau- ways. Traditionally, it has been believed that Senusret
cratic titles around this time, which have been taken as III took some action to suppress the nomarch families
evidence of a larger central government.[62] Governance during his reign.[65] Recently, other interpretations have
of the royal residence was moved into a separate divi- been proposed. Detlef Franke has argued that Senusret
sion of government.[23] The military was placed under II adopted a policy of educating the sons of nomarchs in
the control of a chief general.[23] However, it is possible the capital and appointing them to government posts. In
that these titles and positions were much older, and sim- this way, many provincial families may have been bled
ply were not recorded on funerary stele due to religious dry of scions.[23] Also, while the title of Great Over-
conventions.[62] lord of the Nome disappeared, other distinctive titles of
the nomarchs remained. During the First Intermedi-
ate Period, individuals holding the title of Great Over-
7.2.1 Provincial government lord also often held the title of Overseer of Priests.[66]
In the late Middle Kingdom, there exist families hold-
Decentralization during the First Intermediate Period left ing the titles of mayor and overseer of priests as hered-
the individual Egyptian provinces, or Nomes, under the itary possessions.[64] Therefore, it has been argued that
control of powerful families who held the hereditary title the great nomarch families were never subdued, but were
of Great Chief of the Nome, or Nomarch.[63] This position simply absorbed into the Pharaonic administration of the
7.5. LITERATURE 65

country.[64] While it is true that the large tombs indicative


of nomarchs disappear at the end of the twelfth dynasty,
grand royal tombs also disappear soon thereafter due to
general instability surrounding the decline of the Middle
Kingdom.[64]

7.3 Agriculture and climate


It was I who brought forth grain, the grain god loved me,
the Nile adored me from his every source;
One did not hunger during my years, did not thirst;
they sat content with all my deeds, remembering me fondly;
and I set each thing rmly in its place.[67]
extract from the Instructions of Amenemhat
Throughout the history of ancient Egypt, the annual
ooding of the Nile River to inundate the elds on its
banks was relied upon to feed the population. There is
evidence that the collapse of the previous Old Kingdom
may have been due in part to low ood levels, resulting
in famine.[68] This trend appears to have been reversed
during the early years of the Middle Kingdom, with rel-
atively high water levels recorded for much of this era,
with an average inundation of 19 meters above its non-
ood levels.[69] The years of repeated high inundation lev-
els correspond to the most prosperous period of the Mid-
dle Kingdom, which occurred during the reign of Amen- Head and Torso of a Noblewoman, ca. 18441837 B.C.E. 59.1.
emhat III.[70] This seems to be conrmed in some of the Brooklyn Museum
literature of the period, such as in the Instructions of
Amenemhat, where the king tells his son how agriculture
prospered under his reign.[67] of the eyebrows dips towards the root of the nose, the ar-
ticial eyebrows in low relief are absolutely straight above
the inner corners of the eyes, a feature which places the
bust early in Dynasty XII. Around 1900 B.C. these arti-
7.4 Art cial eyebrows, too, began to follow the natural curve and
dipped toward the nose.[75]
One of the innovations in sculpture that occurred during
the Middle Kingdom was the block statue, which would
continue to be popular through to the Ptolemaic age al-
most 2,000 years later.[71] Block statues consist of a man 7.5 Literature
squatting with his knees drawn up to his chest and his
arms folded on top his knees. Often, these men are wear- Richard B. Parkinson and Ludwig D. Morenz write that
ing a wide cloak that reduces the body of the gure to a ancient Egyptian literaturenarrowly dened as belles-
simple block-like shape.[72] Most of the detail is reserved lettres (beautiful writing)were not recorded in writ-
for the head of the individual being depicted. In some ten form until the early Twelfth dynasty of the Mid-
instances the modeling of the limbs has been retained by dle Kingdom.[76] Old Kingdom texts served mainly to
the sculptor.[73] There are two basic types of block stat- maintain the divine cults, preserve souls in the after-
ues: ones with the feet completely covered by the cloak life, and document accounts for practical uses in daily
and ones with the feet uncovered.[74] life. It was not until the Middle Kingdom that texts were
This statue to the right speaks well for the equality of gen- written for the purpose of entertainment and intellectual
[77]
der in ancient Egypt that a private lady could have a sculp- curiosity. Parkinson and Morenz also speculate that
ture made for herself. The heavy tripartite wig frames written works of the Middle Kingdom were transcriptions
the broad face and passes behind the ears, thus giving the of the oral literature of the Old Kingdom.[78] It is known
impression of forcing them forward. They are large in that some oral poetry was preserved in later writing; for
keeping with the ancient Egyptian ideal of beauty; the example, litter-bearers songs were preserved as[77] written
same ideal required small breasts, and also in this respect verses in tomb inscriptions of the Old Kingdom.
the sculpture is no exception. Whereas the natural curve It is also thought that the growth of the middle class and
66 CHAPTER 7. MIDDLE KINGDOM OF EGYPT

a growth in the number of scribes needed for the ex- [16] Shaw. (2000) p. 158
panded bureaucracy under Senusret II helped spur the
development of Middle Kingdom literature,.[48] Later an- [17] Arnold. (1991) p. 14.
cient Egyptians considered the literature from this time as [18] Grimal. (1988) p. 159
classic.[48] Stories such as the Tale of the shipwrecked
sailor and the Story of Sinuhe were composed during [19] Gardiner. (1964) p. 128.
this period, and were popular enough to be widely copied
afterwards.[48] Many philosophical works were also cre- [20] Grimal. (1988) p. 160
ated at this time, including the Dispute between a man [21] Gardiner. (1964) p. 129.
and his Ba where an unhappy man converses with his soul,
The Satire of the Trades in which the role of the scribe [22] Shaw. (2000) p. 160
is praised above all other jobs, and the magic tales sup-
[23] Shaw. (2000) p. 175
posedly told to the Old Kingdom pharaoh Khufu in the
Westcar Papyrus.[48] [24] Shaw. (2000) p. 162
Pharaohs of the Twelfth through Eighteenth Dynasty are
[25] Shaw. (2000) p. 161
credited with preserving for us some of the most interest-
ing of Egyptian papyri: [26] Grimal. (1988) p. 165

1950 BC: Akhmim Wooden Tablet [27] Murnane. (1977) p. 5.

1950 BC: Heqanakht papyri [28] Shaw. (2000) p. 163

1800 BC: Berlin papyrus 6619 [29] Murnane. (1977) p. 7.

1800 BC: Moscow Mathematical Papyrus [30] Shaw. (2000) p. 164

1650 BC: Rhind Mathematical Papyrus [31] Gardiner. (1964) p. 138.

1600 BC: Edwin Smith papyrus [32] Grimal. (1988) p. 166

1550 BC: Ebers papyrus [33] Shaw. (2000) p. 166

[34] Gardiner. (1964) p. 136.

7.6 References [35] Gardiner. (1964) p. 135.

[36] Redford. (1992) p. 76


[1] David, Rosalie (2002). Religion and Magic in Ancient
Egypt. Penguin Books. p. 156 [37] Hayes. (1953) p. 32
[2] Grimal. (1988) p. 156 [38] Shaw and Nicholson. (1995) p. 260
[3] Grimal. (1988) p. 155 [39] Aldred. (1987) p.129
[4] Shaw. (2000) p. 149
[40] Wegner. (1996) p. 250
[5] Habachi. (1963) pp. 16-52
[41] Wegner. (1996) p. 260
[6] Grimal. (1988) p. 157
[42] Grimal. (1988) p. 170
[7] Shaw. (2000) p. 151
[43] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 60
[8] Shaw. (2000) p. 156
[44] Shaw. (2000) p. 168
[9] Redford. (1992) p. 71.
[45] Shaw. (2000) p. 169
[10] Gardiner. (1964) p. 124.
[46] Shaw. (2000) p. 170
[11] Redford. (1992) p. 72.
[47] Grimal. (1988) p. 171
[12] Gardiner. (1964) p. 125.

[13] Redford. (1992) p.74 [48] Shaw. (2000) p. 171

[14] p5. 'The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History', (4th [49] K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during
edition, 1993), Dupuy & Dupuy. the Second Intermediate Period, c.18001550 BC, Carsten
Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen:
[15] Arnold. (1991) p. 20. Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
7.7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 67

[50] Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: 7.7 Bibliography


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9, 2008
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[51] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 66 Arnold, Dorothea (1991). Amenemhet I and the
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[52] Grimal. (1988) p. 183
Museum Journal. 26. doi:10.2307/1512902.
[53] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 64 Bell, Barbara (1975). Climate and the History of
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[54] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 65
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[57] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 72 292-72527-2.

[58] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 74 Gardiner, Alan (1964). Egypt of the Pharaohs. Ox-
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[59] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 75
Grajetzki, Wolfram (2006). The Middle Kingdom of
[60] Shaw. (2000) p. 174 Ancient Egypt. Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. ISBN
0-7156-3435-6.
[61] Grajetzki. (2006) p. 21
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[62] Richards. (2005) p. 7 Librairie Arthme Fayard.

[63] Trigger, Kemp, O'Connor, and Lloyd. (1983) p. 108


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[64] Trigger, Kemp, O'Connor, and Lloyd. (1983) p. 112 tion and unusual representations in form of gods.
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[66] Trigger, Kemp, O'Connor, and Lloyd. (1983) p. 109 Hayes, William (1953). Notes on the Govern-
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[67] Foster. (2001) p. 88 Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 12: 3139.
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[68] Bell. (1975) p. 227
Morenz, Ludwid D. (2003), Literature as a Con-
[69] Bell. (1975) p. 230 struction of the Past in the Middle Kingdom,
in Tait, John W., 'Never Had the Like Occurred':
[70] Bell. (1975) p. 263 Egypts View of Its Past, translated by Martin Wor-
thington, London: University College London, In-
[71] Teeter. (1994) p. 27
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[72] Bothmer, 94. Publishing Limited, pp. 101118, ISBN 1-84472-
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[77] Morenz 2003, p. 102. 84033-3.

[78] Parkinson 2002, pp. 4546, 4950, 5556; Morenz 2003, Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul (1995). The Dictionary
p. 102. of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson.
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280458-8.

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Wegner, Josef (1996). The Nature and Chronology
of the Senwosret III-Amenemhat III Regnal Succes-
sion: Some Considerations Based on New Evidence
from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Aby-
dos. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 55: 249279.
doi:10.1086/373863.
Chapter 8

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country Salitis


with unknown parameter country (this message is
shown only in preview). Sakir-Har

Khyan
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when
Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, be- Apophis, c. 1590? BC1550 BC
tween the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of
the New Kingdom. Khamudi, c. 15501540 BC
It is best known as the period when the Hyksos made
their appearance in Egypt and whose reign comprised the The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the rst Hyksos dy-
Fifteenth dynasty. nasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire
land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt
since they inltrated from the north-east. The names
and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list in-
8.1 End of the Middle Kingdom dicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an ob-
scure Khamudi listed as the nal king of the Fifteenth
The Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt came to an end at the Dynasty[3] (line X.21 of the cited web link clearly pro-
end of the 19th century BC with the death of Queen vides this summary for the dynasty: "6 kings function-
Sobekneferu (18061802 BC).[1] Apparently she had no ing 100+X years"). The surviving traces on the X gure
heirs, causing the twelfth dynasty to come to a sudden appears to give the gure 8 which suggests that the sum-
end, and, with it, the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom; mation should be read as 6 kings ruling 108 years.
it was succeeded by the much weaker Thirteenth Dynasty.
Some scholars argue there were two Apophis kings
Retaining the seat of the twelfth dynasty, the thirteenth
named Apepi I and Apepi II, but this is primarily due
dynasty ruled from Itjtawy (Seizer-of-the-Two-Lands)
to the fact there are two known prenomens for this king:
near Memphis and Lisht, just south of the apex of the
Awoserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptolo-
Nile Delta.
gist Kim Ryholt maintains in his study of the Second In-
The Thirteenth Dynasty is notable for the accession termediate Period that these prenomens all refer to one
of the rst formally recognised Semitic-speaking king, man, Apepi, who ruled Egypt for 40+X years.[4] This
Khendjer (Boar). The Thirteenth Dynasty proved un- is also supported by the fact that this king employed a
able to hold on to the entire territory of Egypt, how- third prenomen during his reign: Nebkhepeshre.[5] Apepi
ever, and a provincial ruling family of Western Asian de- likely employed several dierent prenomens throughout
scent in Avaris, located in the marshes of the eastern Nile various periods of his reign. This scenario is not unprece-
Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the dented, as later kings, including the famous Ramesses
Fourteenth Dynasty.[1] II and Seti II, are known to have used two dierent
prenomens in their own reigns.

8.2 Fifteenth dynasty


8.3 Sixteenth dynasty
Main article: Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Main article: Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt
The Fifteenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to
1550 BC.[2] Known rulers of the Fifteenth Dynasty are The Sixteenth Dynasty ruled the Theban region in Upper
as follows:[2] Egypt[6] for 70 years.[7]

69
70 CHAPTER 8. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD OF EGYPT

Of the two chief versions of Manetho's Aegyptiaca, Dy- 8.4 Abydos dynasty
nasty XVI is described by the more reliable[8] Africanus
(supported by Syncellus)[9] as shepherd [hyksos] kings, Main article: Abydos Dynasty
but by Eusebius as Theban.[8]
Ryholt (1997), followed by Bourriau (2003), in recon- The Abydos Dynasty may have been a short-lived lo-
structing the Turin canon, interpreted a list of Thebes- cal dynasty ruling over part of Upper Egypt during the
based kings to constitute Manetho's Dynasty XVI, al- Second Intermediate Period in Ancient Egypt and was
though this is one of Ryholts most debatable and far- contemporary with the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynas-
reaching conclusions.[8] For this reason other scholars ties, approximately from 1650 to 1600 BC.[14] The exis-
do not follow Ryholt and see only insucient evidence for tence of an Abydos Dynasty was rst proposed by Detlef
the interpretation of the Sixteenth Dynasty as Theban.[10] Franke[15] and later elaborated on by Egyptologist Kim
The continuing war against Dynasty XV dominated the Ryholt in 1997. The existence of the dynasty may have
short-lived 16th dynasty. The armies of the 15th dy- been vindicated in January 2014, when the tomb of
nasty, winning town after town from their southern en- the previously unknown pharaoh Seneb Kay was discov-
emies, continually encroached on the 16th dynasty terri- ered in Abydos.[14] The dynasty tentatively includes four
tory, eventually threatening and then conquering Thebes rulers: Wepwawetemsaf, Pantjeny, Snaaib,[16] and Seneb
itself. In his study of the second intermediate period, the Kay.
egyptologist Kim Ryholt has suggested that Dedumose The royal necropolis of the Abydos Dynasty was found
I sued for a truce in the latter years of the dynasty,[7] in the southern part of Abydos, in an area called Anubis
but one of his predecessors, Nebiryraw I, may have been Mountain in ancient times. The rulers of the Abydos Dy-
more successful and seems to have enjoyed a period of nasty placed their burial ground adjacent to the tombs of
peace in his reign.[7] the Middle Kingdom rulers.[14]
Famine, which had plagued Upper Egypt during the late
13th dynasty and the 14th dynasty, also blighted the 16th
dynasty, most evidently during and after the reign of 8.5 Seventeenth dynasty
Neferhotep III.[7]
Main article: Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt

Around the time Memphis and Itj-tawy fell to the Hyk-


sos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared
its independence from Itj-tawy, becoming the Seven-
teenth Dynasty. This dynasty would eventually lead the
war of liberation that drove the Hyksos back into Asia.
The Theban-based Seventeenth Dynasty restored numer-
ous temples throughout Upper Egypt while maintaining
peaceful trading relations with the Hyksos kingdom in the
Thebes (Luxor Temple pictured) was the capital of many of the north. Indeed, Senakhtenre Ahmose, the rst king in the
Dynasty XVI pharaohs. line of Ahmoside kings, even imported white limestone
from the Hyksos-controlled region of Tura to make a gra-
nary door at the Temple of Karnak. However, his succes-
From Ryholts reconstruction of the Turin canon, 15 sors the nal two kings of this dynasty Seqenenre
kings of the dynasty can now be named, ve of whom ap- Tao and Kamose are traditionally credited with defeat-
pear in contemporary sources.[6] While most likely rulers ing the Hyksos in the course of the wars of liberation.
based in Thebes itself, some may have been local rulers With the creation of the Eighteenth Dynasty around 1550
from other important Upper Egyptian towns, including BC the New Kingdom period of Egyptian history begins
Abydos, El Kab and Edfu.[6] By the reign of Nebiriau I, with Ahmose I, its rst pharaoh, completing the expul-
the realm controlled by the 16th dynasty extended at least sion of the Hyksos from Egypt and placing the country,
as far north as Hu and south to Edfu.[7][11] Not listed in once again, under centralised administrative control.
the Turin canon (after Ryholt) is Wepwawetemsaf, who
left a stele at Abydos and was likely a local kinglet of the
Abydos Dynasty.[6]
8.6 References
Ryholt gives the list of kings of the 16th dynasty as shown
in the table below.[12] Others, such as Helck, Vander- [1] Kim S. B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during
sleyen, Bennett combine some of these rulers with the the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 B.C., Mu-
Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt. The estimated dates come seum Tusculanum Press, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publi-
from Bennetts publication.[13] cations 20. 1997, p.185
8.7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 71

[2] Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient James, T.G.H. Egypt: From the Expulsion of the
Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 481. ISBN 0-19- Hyksos to Amenophis I. Chapter 8, Volume II of
815034-2. The Cambridge Ancient History. Revised Edition,
1965.
[3] Turin Kinglist Accessed July 26, 1006
Kitchen, Kenneth A., Further Notes on New King-
[4] Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the
Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. by Mu-
dom Chronology and History, Chronique d'Egypte,
seum Tuscalanum Press. 1997. p.125 63 (1968), pp. 313324.

[5] Kings of the Second Intermediate Period University Col- Oren, Eliezer D. The Hyksos: New Historical and
lege London; scroll down to the 15th dynasty Archaeological Perspectives Philadelphia, 1997.

[6] Bourriau 2003: 191 Ryholt, Kim. The Political Situation in Egypt during
the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C.,
[7] Ryholt 1997: 305 Museum Tuscalanum Press, 1997. ISBN 87-7289-
421-0
[8] Bourriau 2003: 179
Van Seters, John. The Hyksos: A New Investigation.
[9] Cory 1876
New Haven, 1966.
[10] see for example, Quirke, in Maree: The Second Intermedi-
ate Period (Thirteenth - Seventeenth Dynasties, Current Re-
search, Future Prospects, Leuven 2011, Paris Walpole,
MA. ISBN 978-9042922280, p. 56, n. 6

[11] Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs:


Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300
1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-
9, 2008, pp. 256-257

[12] Kings of the Second Intermediate Period 16th dynasty


(after Ryholt 1997)

[13] Chris Bennet, A Genealogical Chronology of the Seven-


teenth Dynasty, Journal of the American Research Center
in Egypt, Vol. 39 (2002), pp. 123-155

[14] Giant Sarcophagus Leads Penn Museum Team in Egypt


To the Tomb of a Previously Unknown Pharaoh. Penn
Museum. January 2014. Retrieved 16 Jan 2014.

[15] Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil


II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altgyptens, In Ori-
entalia 57 (1988), p. 259

[16] Ryholt, K.S.B. (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt


During the Second Intermediate Period, C. 1800-1550 B.C.
Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 164. ISBN 8772894210.

8.7 Bibliography
Von Beckerath, Jrgen. Untersuchungen zur poli-
tischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in
gypten, gyptologische Forschungen, Heft 23.
Glckstadt, 1965.

Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. Oxford,


1964, 1961.

Hayes, William C. Egypt: From the Death of


Ammenemes III to Seqenenre II. Chapter 2, Vol-
ume II of The Cambridge Ancient History. Revised
Edition, 1965.
Chapter 9

New Kingdom of Egypt

New Kingdom redirects here. For other uses, see New Thutmose III (the Napoleon of Egypt) expanded
Kingdom (disambiguation). Egypts army and wielded it with great success to con-
Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country solidate the empire created by his predecessors. This re-
with unknown parameter country (this message is sulted in a peak in Egypts power and wealth during the
shown only in preview). reign of Amenhotep III. During the reign of Thutmose III
(ca. 14791425 BC), Pharaoh, originally referring to the
kings palace, became a form of address for the person
The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the [4]
Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian who was king.
history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century One of the best-known 18th Dynasty Pharaohs is Amen-
BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth hotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten in honor
Dynasties of Egypt. Radiocarbon dating places the ex- of the Aten and whose exclusive worship of the Aten is of-
act beginning of the New Kingdom between 15701544 ten interpreted as historys rst instance of monotheism.
BC.[1] The New Kingdom followed the Second Interme- Akhenatens religious fervor is cited as the reason why he
diate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate was subsequently written out of Egyptian history. Under
Period. It was Egypts most prosperous time and marked his reign, in the 14th century BC, Egyptian art ourished
the peak of its power.[2] and attained an unprecedented level of realism. (See
The later part of this period, under the Nineteenth and Amarna Period.)
Twentieth Dynasties (12921069 BC) is also known as Towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the situation had
the Ramesside period. It is named after the eleven changed radically. Aided by Akhenatens apparent lack
pharaohs that took the name of Ramesses I, founder of of interest in international aairs, the Hittites had gradu-
the 19th Dynasty. ally extended their inuence into Phoenicia and Canaan to
become a major power in international politicsa power
Possibly as a result of the foreign rule of the Hyksos dur-
ing the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would need to
saw Egypt attempt to create a buer between the Levant deal with during the 19th dynasty.
and Egypt, and attained its greatest territorial extent.
Similarly, in response to very successful 17th century at-
tacks by the powerful Kingdom of Kush,[3] the New King- 9.2 Nineteenth Dynasty
dom felt compelled to expand far south into Nubia and
hold wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies Main article: Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt
fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.
Ramesses II (the Great) sought to recover territories
in the Levant that had been held by the 18th Dynasty.
His campaigns of reconquest culminated in the Battle of
9.1 Eighteenth Dynasty Kadesh, where he led Egyptian armies against those of
the Hittite king Muwatalli II. Ramesses was caught in
Main article: Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt historys rst recorded military ambush, although he was
able to rally his troops and turn the tide of battle against
The Eighteenth Dynasty contained some of Egypts most the Hittites thanks to the arrival of the Ne'arin. The out-
famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, come of the battle was undecided with both sides claim-
Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and ing victory at their home front, ultimately resulting in a
Tutankhamun. Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on peace treaty between the two nations.
expanding Egypts external trade by sending a commer- Ramesses II was also famed for the huge number of chil-
cial expedition to the land of Punt. dren he sired by his various wives and concubines; the

72
9.4. IMAGE GALLERY 73

tomb he built for his sons, many of whom he outlived, ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two
in the Valley of the Kings has proven to be the largest full decades until 1140 BC.[8] One proposed cause is the
funerary complex in Egypt. Hekla 3 eruption of the Hekla volcano in Iceland but the
His immediate successors continued the military cam- dating of this remains disputed.
paigns, although an increasingly troubled courtwhich Rameses IIIs death was followed by years of bickering
at one point put a usurper (Amenmesse) on the throne among his heirs. Three of his sons ascended the throne
made it increasingly dicult for a pharaoh to eectively successively as Ramesses IV, Rameses VI and Rameses
retain control without incident. VIII. Egypt was increasingly beset by droughts, below-
normal ooding of the Nile, famine, civil unrest and of-
cial corruption. The power of the last pharaoh of the
dynasty, Ramesses XI, grew so weak that in the south
the High Priests of Amun at Thebes became the de facto
rulers of Upper Egypt, and Smendes controlled Lower
Egypt even before Rameses XIs death. Smendes eventu-
ally founded the Twenty-First dynasty at Tanis.

9.4 Image gallery

Egyptian
and Hittite Empires, around the time of the Battle
of Kadesh.

Relief of a Nobleman, ca.


9.3 Twentieth Dynasty 1295-1070 B.C.E. Brooklyn Museum

Main article: Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt

The last great pharaoh from the New Kingdom is widely


considered to be Ramesses III, a Twentieth Dynasty
pharaoh who reigned several decades after Ramesses
II.[5]
In the eighth year of his reign the Sea Peoples invaded Queen Ahmose-Nefertari
Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in
two great land and sea battles (the Battle of Djahy and
the Battle of the Delta). He incorporated them as subject
peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan although
there is evidence that they forced their way into Canaan.
Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the
formation of new states, such as Philistia, in this region
after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire. He was also
compelled to ght invading Libyan tribesmen in two ma- Hatshepsut as a Sphinx. Daughter
jor campaigns in Egypts Western Delta in his sixth year of Thutmose I, she ruled jointly as her stepsons
and eleventh year respectively.[6] (Thutmose III) co-regent. She soon took the throne
The heavy cost of this warfare slowly drained Egypts for herself, and declared herself pharaoh.
treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the
Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of the dicul-
ties is indicated by the fact that the rst known labor
strike in recorded history occurred during the 29th year of
Ramesses IIIs reign, when the food rations for Egypts fa-
vored and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the vil-
lage of Deir el Medina could not be provisioned.[7] Some- Queen Hatshepsuts Temple
thing in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the at Deir el-Bahari, was called Djeser-Djeseru, mean-
74 CHAPTER 9. NEW KINGDOM OF EGYPT

ing the Holy of Holies, in ancient times.

Akhenaten

Thutmosis III, a military man and


member of the Thutmosid royal line is commonly
called the Napoleon of Egypt. His conquests of the
Levant brought Egypts territories and inuence to
its greatest extent.

Bust of Nefertiti. The wife of


Akhenaten, she held position as co-regent with
Akhenaten. She may also have ruled as pharaoh in
her own right as she is one of few candidates for the
identity of Pharaoh Neferneferuaten.

Colossi of Memnon. Representing


Amenhotep III, this statue sits outside Luxor.

Tutankhamuns mask. King


Tutankhamun, son of Akhenaten, restored Egypt
to its former religion. Though he died young and
was not considered signicant in his own time, the
1922 discovery of his KV62 intact tomb by Howard
Carter, made him relevant as a symbol of ancient
Egypt in the modern world.
Tiye, born a commoner, became queen
through her marriage to Amenhotep III. In the New
Kingdom, women gained inuence in court, and
Tiye soon helped run aairs of state for both her
husband and son during their reigns.

Detail Temple of Rameses II

Akhenaten, born Amenhotep IV,


was the son of Queen Tiye. He rejected the old
Egyptian religion and went about promoting the Nefertaris Temple at Abu
Aten as a supreme deity. Simbel
9.7. EXTERNAL LINKS 75

World. Michael D. Coogan, ed. Oxford University Press.


1998.

[5] Eric H. Cline and David O'Connor, eds. Ramesses III:


The Life and Times of Egypts Last Hero (University of
Michigan Press; 2012)
Giant Ramses II [6] Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell
Books, 1992. p.271

[7] William F. Edgerton, The Strikes in Ramses III's


Twenty-Ninth Year, JNES 10, no. 3 (July 1951), pp.
137145.

[8] Frank J. Yurco, End of the Late Bronze Age and Other
Abu Simbel Temple of Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause, in Gold of Praise:
Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente,
Ramesses II
ed: Emily Teeter & John Larson, (SAOC 58) 1999, pp.
456-458.

9.7 External links


Middle East on the Matrix: Egypt, The New King-
domPhotographs of many of the historic sites dat-
ing from the New Kingdom
Abu Simbel
New Kingdom of Egypt - Aldokkan

King Tutanhkamun Guardian Statue

9.5 See also


History of ancient Egypt

The Stonemason Ostracon

9.6 References
[1] Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based
Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Science 18 June 2010:
Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554-1557.

[2] Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient


Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 481. ISBN 0-19-
815034-2.

[3] Alberge, Dalya. Tomb reveals Ancient Egypts humili-


ating secret. The Times. Retrieved 2003. Check date
values in: |access-date= (help)

[4] Redmount, Carol A. Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of


Egypt. p. 89-90. The Oxford History of the Biblical
Chapter 10

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country


with unknown parameter 2 = thumb (this message is
shown only in preview).
Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country
with unknown parameter country (this message is
shown only in preview).

The Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt be-


gan with the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC,
ending the New Kingdom, and was eventually followed
by the Late Period. Various points are oered as the be-
ginning for the latter era, though it is most often regarded
as dating from the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dy- Nuri pyramids
nasty by Psamtik I in 664 BC, following the expulsion
of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty by the
Assyrians under King Assurbanipal. XI's day, the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt was losing its
grip on power in the city of Thebes, whose priests were
The period was one of decline and political instability, becoming increasingly powerful. After his death, his suc-
coinciding with the Late Bronze Age collapse of civiliza- cessor Smendes I ruled from the city of Tanis, but was
tions in the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean (includ- mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled.
ing the Greek Dark Ages). It marked by division of the Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes eec-
state for much of the period and conquest and rule by for- tively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name.[1]
eigners. But many aspects of life for ordinary Egyptians However, this division was less signicant than it seems,
changed relatively little. since both priests and pharaohs came from the same fam-
ily.

10.2 Twenty-second and Twenty-


third Dynasty
The country was rmly reunited by the Twenty-Second
Dynasty founded by Shoshenq I in 945 BC (or 943 BC),
who descended from Meshwesh immigrants, originally
from Ancient Libya. This brought stability to the coun-
try for well over a century, but after the reign of Osorkon
II, particularly, the country had eectively shattered in
25th Dynasty two states with Shoshenq III of the Twenty-Second Dy-
nasty controlling Lower Egypt by 818 BC while Takelot
II and his son Osorkon (the future Osorkon III) ruled
Middle and Upper Egypt. In Thebes, a civil war en-
10.1 Twenty-rst Dynasty gulfed the city between the forces of Pedubast I, who had
proclaimed himself Pharaoh versus the existing line of
The period of the Twenty-First Dynasty is characterized Takelot II/Osorkon B. These two factions squabbled con-
by the countrys fracturing kingship. Even in Ramesses sistently and the conict was only resolved in Year 39 of

76
10.5. END OF THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 77

Shoshenq III when Osorkon B comprehensively defeated Pharaoh Taharqa's reign, and that of his successor and
his enemies. He proceeded to found the Upper Egyptian cousin Tantamani, were lled with constant conict with
Libyan Twenty-Third Dynasty of Osorkon III Takelot the Assyrians. In 664 BC the Assyrians delivered a mor-
III Rudamun, but this kingdom quickly fragmented af- tal blow, sacking Thebes and Memphis.
ter Rudamuns death with the rise of local city states un-
der kings such as Peftjaubast of Herakleopolis, Nimlot of
Hermopolis, and Ini at Thebes.
10.5 End of the Third Intermediate
Period
10.3 Twenty-fourth Dynasty
Upper Egypt remained for a time under the rule of Tanta-
Main article: Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt mani, whilst Lower Egypt was ruled from 664 BC by the
Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, client kings established by the As-
The Nubian kingdom to the south took full advantage syrians who nevertheless managed to successfully bring
of this division and political instability. Prior to Piye's about Egypts political independence during the time of
Year 20 campaign into Egypt, the previous Nubian ruler troubles facing the Assyrian empire. In 656 BC Psamtik
Kashta had already extended his kingdoms inu- I occupied Thebes and became Pharaoh, the King of Up-
ence over into Thebes when he compelled Shepenupet, per and Lower Egypt, bringing increased stability to the
the serving Divine Adoratice of Amun and Takelot IIIs country in a 54-year reign from the city of Sais. Four
sister, to adopt his own daughter Amenirdis, to be her successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into an-
successor. Then, 20 years later, around 732 BC his suc- other period of peace and prosperity from 610 to 525 BC.
cessor, Piye, marched North and defeated the combined Unfortunately for this dynasty, a new power was growing
might of several native Egyptian rulers: Peftjaubast, Os- in the Near East Persia. Pharaoh Psamtik III had suc-
orkon IV of Tanis, Iuput II of Leontopolis and Tefnakht ceeded his father Ahmose II for only 6 months before
of Sais. he had to face the Persian Empire at Pelusium. The Per-
sians had already taken Babylon and Egypt was no match.
Psamtik III was defeated and briey escaped to Memphis,
before he was ultimately imprisoned and, later, executed
10.4 Twenty-fth Dynasty at Susa, the capital of the Persian king Cambyses, who
now assumed the formal title of Pharaoh.
Piye established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and appointed
the defeated rulers as his provincial governors. He was
succeeded rst by his brother, Shabaka, and then by his
two sons Shebitku and Taharqa respectively. The re- 10.6 Historiography
united Nile valley empire of the 25th dynasty was as
large as it had been since the New Kingdom. Pharaohs,
The historiography of this period is disputed for a vari-
such as Taharqa, built or restored temples and monu-
ety of reasons. Firstly there is a dispute about the util-
ments throughout the Nile valley, including at Memphis,
ity of a very articial term that covers an extremely long
Karnak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal, etc.[2][3] The 25th dynasty
and complicated period of Egyptian history. The Third
ended with its rulers retreating to their spiritual home-
Intermediate period includes long periods of stability as
land at Napata. It was there (at El-Kurru and Nuri) that all
well as chronic instability and civil conict: its very name
25th dynasty pharaohs are buried under the rst pyramids
rather clouds this fact. Secondly there are signicant
to be constructed in the Nile valley in millennia.[4][5][6][7]
problems of chronology stemming from several areas:
The Napatan dynasty led to the Kingdom of Kush, which
rst, there are the diculties in dating common to all
ourished in Napata and Meroe until at least the 2nd cen-
of Egyptian chronology but these are compounded due
tury AD.[4]
to synchronisms with Biblical Archaeology that also con-
The international prestige of Egypt had declined consid- tain heavily disputed dates. Finally, some Egyptologists
erably by this time. The countrys international allies and biblical scholars, such as Kenneth Kitchen, or David
had fallen rmly into the sphere of inuence of Assyria Rohl have novel or controversial theories about the family
and from about 700 BC the question became when, not relationships of the dynasties comprising the period.
if, there would be war between the two states. Despite
Egypts size and wealth, Assyria had a greater supply
of timber, while Egypt had a chronic shortage, allow-
ing Assyria to produce more charcoal needed for iron- 10.7 See also
smelting and thus giving Assyria a greater supply of iron
weaponry. This disparity became critical during the As-
syrian invasion of Egypt in 670 BC.[8] Consequently, Late Bronze Age collapse
78 CHAPTER 10. THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD OF EGYPT

10.8 References 10.9 External links

[1] Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Allen, James, and Marsha Hill. Egypt in the Third
Egypt (1100650 BC), 3rd edition, 1986, Warminster: Intermediate Period (1070712 B.C.)", In Heil-
Aris & Phillips Ltd, p.531 brunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. (October
[2] Bonnet, Charles (2006). The Nubian Pharaohs. New 2004)
York: The American University in Cairo Press. pp. 142
154. ISBN 978-977-416-010-3. Images

[3] Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civiliza-


tion. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 219
Artabase.net: Face from a Con
221. ISBN 1-55652-072-7. Artabase.net: Right Hand from an Anthropoid Cof-
n
[4] Emberling, Geo (2011). Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of
Africa. New York, NY: Institute for the Study of the An-
cient World. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9.

[5] Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. Califor-


nia, USA: University of California Press. pp. 161163.
ISBN 0-520-06697-9.

[6] Emberling, Geo (2011). Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of


Africa. New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient
World. pp. 911. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9.

[7] Silverman, David (1997). Ancient Egypt. New York: Ox-


ford University Press. pp. 3637. ISBN 0-19-521270-3.

[8] Shillington, Kevin (2005). History of Africa. Oxford:


Macmillan Education. p. 40. ISBN 0-333-59957-8.

10.8.1 Bibliography

Dodson, Aidan Mark. 2001. Third Intermedi-


ate Period. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 3 of
3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford Uni-
versity Press and The American University in Cairo
Press. 388394.

Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. [1996]. The Third In-


termediate Period in Egypt (1100650 BC). 3rd ed.
Warminster: Aris & Phillips Limited.

Myliwiec, Karol. 2000. The Twighlight of An-


cient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E. Translated by
David Lorton. Ithaca and London: Cornell Univer-
sity Press.

Porter, Robert M., A Network of 22nd-26th Dynasty


Genealogies, JARCE 44 (2008), 153-157.

Taylor, John H. 2000. The Third Intermediate Pe-


riod (1069664 BC). In The Oxford History of An-
cient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New
York: Oxford University Press. 330368.
Chapter 11

Late Period of ancient Egypt

The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last two human-headed birds on his shoulders, holding a snake
owering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third In- in each hand, and standing atop crocodiles.[1]:16
termediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into
Achaemenid Persian conquests and ended with the con-
quest by Alexander the Great and establishment of the
Ptolemaic Kingdom. It ran from 664 BC until 332 BC.
Libyans and Persians alternated rule with native Egyp-
tians, but traditional conventions continued in the
arts.[1]:16
It is often regarded as the last gasp of a once great culture,
during which the power of Egypt steadily diminished.

11.1 26th Dynasty


The Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, also known as the Saite Dy-
nasty after Sais, reigned from 672 BC to 525 BC, and
consisted of six pharaohs. Canal construction from the
Nile to the Red Sea began.
One major contribution from the Late Period of ancient
Egypt was the Brooklyn Papyrus. This was a medical
papyrus with a collection of medical and magical reme-
dies for victims of snakebites based on snake type or
symptoms.[1]:55

Figure of Pataikos, 664-30 BC - Brooklyn Museum

11.2 27th Dynasty


Main article: Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt

The First Achaemenid Period (525404 BC) period


saw Egypt conquered by an expansive Achaemenid Em-
pire under Cambyses. A total of eight pharaohs from this
dynasty ruled over Egypt.
Egypt 664-332 BC - Brooklyn Museum
The initial period of Achaemenid Persian occupation
Artwork during this time was representative of animal when Egypt (Old Persian: Mudrya) became a
cults and animal mummies. This image shows the god satrapy, known today as the Twenty-seventh Dynasty of
Pataikos wearing a scarab beetle on his head, supporting Egypt.

79
80 CHAPTER 11. LATE PERIOD OF ANCIENT EGYPT

11.3 28th30th Dynasties Fragments of Manetho (Aegyptiaca)

Flavius Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews)


The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty consisted of a single king,
Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais, who rebelled against the Per-
sians. He left no monuments with his name. This dynasty
reigned for six years, from 404 BC to 398 BC.
The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty ruled from Mendes, for the
period from 398 BC to 380 BC.
The Thirtieth Dynasty took their art style from the
Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. A series of three pharaohs ruled
from 380 BC until their nal defeat in 343 BC led to the
re-occupation by the Persians. The nal ruler of this dy-
nasty, and the nal native ruler of Egypt until nearly 2,300
years later, was Nectanebo II.

11.4 31st Dynasty


Main article: Thirty-rst Dynasty of Egypt

There was a Second Achaemenid Period of the Thirty-


First Dynasty (343332 BC), and consisted of four
pharaohs: Artaxerxes III (343338 BC), Artaxerxes
IV(338336 BC), Khababash (338335 BC), and Darius
III (336332 BC).

11.5 References
[1] Bleiberg, Edward (2013). Soulful Creatures: Animal
Mummies in Ancient Egypt. Brooklyn Museum.

11.6 Sources
Roberto B. Gozzoli: The Writing of History in An-
cient Egypt During the First Millennium BCE (ca.
1070-180 BCE). Trend and Perspectives, London
2006, ISBN 0-9550256-3-X

Lloyd, Alan B. 2000. The Oxford History of An-


cient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New
York: Oxford University Press. 369-394

Quirke, Stephen. 1996 Who were the Pharaohs?",


New York: Dover Publications. 71-74

Primary sources

Herodotus (Histories)

Fragments of Ctesias (Persica)

Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War)

Diodorus Siculus (Bibliotheca historica)


Chapter 12

History of Achaemenid Egypt

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dy- was oppressive taxation imposed by the satrap Aryandes.
nasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty Polyaenus further writes that Darius himself marched to
27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was ef- Egypt, arriving during a period of mourning for the death
fectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian of the sacred Herald of Ptah bull. Darius made a procla-
Empire between 525 BC to 404 BC. It was founded by mation that he would award a sum of one hundred talents
Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after his conquest of to the man who could produce the next Herald, impress-
Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, and ing the Egyptians with his piety such that they ocked en
was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of masse to his side, ending the rebellion.[1]
Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh.
Darius took a greater interest in Egyptian internal aairs
than Cambyses. He reportedly codied the laws of Egypt,
and notably completed the excavation of a canal system at
Suez, allowing passage from the Bitter Lakes to the Red
12.1 History Sea, much preferable to the arduous desert land route.
This feat allowed Darius to import skilled Egyptian la-
The last pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty, Psamtik III, was borers and artisans to construct his palaces in Persia. The
defeated by Cambyses II at the battle of Pelusium in the result of this was a minor brain drain in Egypt, due to the
eastern Nile delta in May of 525 BC. Cambyses was loss of these skilled individuals, creating a demonstra-
crowned Pharaoh of Egypt in the summer of that year ble lowering of quality in Egyptian architecture and art
at the latest, beginning the rst period of Persian rule from this period. Nevertheless Darius was more devoted
over Egypt (known as the 27th Dynasty). Egypt was to supporting Egyptian temples than Cambyses, earning
then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia to form the sixth himself a reputation for religious tolerance in the region.
satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with Aryandes as the In 497 BC, during a visit by Darius to Egypt, Aryandes
local satrap (provincial governor). was executed for treason, most likely for attempting to is-
sue his own coinage, a visible attempt to distance Egypt
As Pharaoh of Egypt, Cambyses reign saw the scal re-
from the rest of the Persian Empire.[2][3] Darius died in
sources of traditional Egyptian temples diminished con-
486 BC, and was succeeded by Xerxes I.
siderably. One decree, written on papyrus in demotic
script ordered a limitation on resources to all Egyptian Upon the accession of Xerxes, Egypt again rebelled,
temples, excluding Memphis, Heliopolis and Wenkhem this time possibly under Psamtik IV, although dierent
(near Abusir). Cambyses left Egypt sometime in early sources dispute that detail. Xerxes quickly quelled the
522 BC, dying en route to Persia, and was nominally rebellion, installing his brother Achaemenes as satrap.
succeeded briey by his younger brother Bardiya, al- Xerxes ended the privileged status of Egypt held un-
though contemporary historians suggest Bardiya was ac- der Darius, and increased supply requirements from the
tually Gaumata, an impostor, and that the real Bardiya country, probably to fund his invasion of Greece. Fur-
had been murdered some years before by Cambyses, os- thermore Xerxes promoted the Zoroastrian god Ahura
tensibly out of jealousy. Darius I, suspecting this imper- Mazda at the expense of traditional Egyptian dieties,
sonation, led a coup against Bardiya in September of and permanently stopped the funding of Egyptian mon-
that year, overthrowing him and being crowned as King uments. Xerxes was murdered in 465 BC by Artabanus,
and Pharaoh the next morning. beginning a dynastic struggle that ended with Artaxerxes
I being crowned the next King and Pharaoh.
As the new Persian King, Darius spent much of his time
quelling rebellions throughout his empire. Sometime in In 460 BC another major Egyptian rebellion took place,
late 522 BC or early 521 BC a local Egyptian prince led led by a Libyan chief named Inaros II, substantially as-
a rebellion and declared himself Pharaoh Petubastis III. sisted by the Athenians of Greece.[4] Inaros defeated an
The main cause of this rebellion is uncertain, but the army led by Achaemenes, killing the satrap in the process,
Ancient Greek military historian Polyaenus states that it and took Memphis, eventually exerting control over large

81
82 CHAPTER 12. HISTORY OF ACHAEMENID EGYPT

parts of Egypt. Inaros and his Athenian allies were nally 12.5 References
defeated by a Persian army led by general Megabyzus in
454 BC and consequently sent into retreat. Megabyzus [1] Smith, Andrew. Polyaenus: Stratagems - Book 7. www.
promised Inaros no harm would come of him or his fol- attalus.org. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
lowers if he surrendered and submitted to Persian au-
[2] electricpulp.com. DARIUS iii. Darius I the Great En-
thority, terms Inaros agreed to. Nevertheless Artaxerxes
cyclopaedia Iranica. www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved
eventually had Inaros executed, although exactly how and
2017-02-25.
when is a matter of dispute.[5] Artaxerxes died in 424 BC.
[3] Klotz, David (19 September 2015). UCLA Encyclopedia
Artaxerxes successor, Xerxes II only ruled for forty-ve
of Egyptology - Persian Period. Retrieved 25 February
days, being murdered by his brother Sogdianus. Sogdi-
2017.
anus was consequently murdered by his brother Ochus,
who became Darius II.[6] Darius II ruled from 423 BC to [4] Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War.
404 BC, and nearing the end of his reign a rebellion led
[5] Photius. Photius excerpt of Ctesias Persica (2)". www.
by Amyrtaeus took place, potentially beginning as early
livius.org. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
as 411 BC. In 405 BC Amyrtaeus, with the help of Cretan
mercenaries expelled the Persians from Memphis, declar- [6] S. Zawadzki, The Circumstances of Darius IIs Acces-
ing himself Pharaoh the next year and ending the 27th sion in Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux 34 (1995-1996) 45-
Dynasty. Darius IIs successor, Artaxerxes II made at- 49
tempts to begin an expedition to retake Egypt, but due
to political diculty with his brother Cyrus the Younger,
abandoned the eort. Artaxerxes II was still recognized 12.6 External links
as the rightful Pharaoh in some parts of Egypt as late as
401 BC, although his sluggish response to the situation Persian Period from the UCLA Encyclopedia of
allowed Egypt to solidify its independence. Egyptology
During the period of independent rule three indigenous
dynasties reigned: the 28th, 29th, and 30th Dynasty.
Artaxerxes III (358 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for 12.7 See also
a brief second period (343 BC), which is called the 31st
Dynasty of Egypt. Thirty-rst Dynasty of Egypt (343 BC332 BC)
also known as the 2nd Egyptian Satrapy.

12.2 Pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty

Main article: List of pharaohs

The pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty ruled for approxi-


mately one hundred and twenty one years, from 525 BC
to 404 BC.

12.3 Timeline of the 27th Dynasty


(Achaemenid Pharaohs only)

12.4 Historical sources


Herodotus (Histories)

Fragments of Ctesias (Persica)

Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War)

Diodorus Siculus (Bibliotheca historica)

Fragments of Manetho (Aegyptiaca)

Flavius Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews)


Chapter 13

Ptolemaic Kingdom

Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former country


with unknown parameter country (this message is
shown only in preview).

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (/tlme.k/; Ancient Greek:


, Ptolemak basilea)[4] was a
Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the
Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter's
accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323
BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and
the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was founded in 305 BC by
Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt
and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an
area stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south
to Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a major
center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by
the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves the
successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on
Egyptian traditions by marrying their siblings, had them-
selves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style
and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. The
Ptolemies had to ght native rebellions and were involved
in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the king-
dom and its nal annexation by Rome. Hellenistic culture
continued to thrive in Egypt throughout the Roman and
Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest. Bust of Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt (305 BC282 BC) and
founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty

13.1 History
The era of Ptolemaic reign in Egypt is one of the most
well documented time periods of the Hellenistic Era; a
wealth of papyri written in Greek and Egyptian of the
time have been discovered in Egypt.[5]
for their religion, but he appointed Macedonians to vir-
tually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a
13.1.1 Background new Greek city, Alexandria, to be the new capital. The
wealth of Egypt could now be harnessed for Alexanders
In 332 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon in- conquest of the rest of the Persian Empire. Early in 331
vaded the Achaemenid satrapy of Egypt.[6] He visited BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to
Memphis, and traveled to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis Phoenicia. He left Cleomenes as the ruling nomarch to
of Siwa. The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned
He conciliated the Egyptians by the respect he showed to Egypt.

83
84 CHAPTER 13. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM

but it was with another female, Berenice IV. Cleopatra


VII ocially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopa-
tor, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but eectively, she
ruled Egypt alone.
The early Ptolemies did not disturb the religion or the
customs of the Egyptians, and indeed built magnicent
new temples for the Egyptian gods and soon adopted the
outward display of the Pharaohs of old. During the reign
of Ptolemies II and III thousands of Macedonian veter-
ans were rewarded with grants of farm lands, and Mace-
donians were planted in colonies and garrisons or settled
themselves in the villages throughout the country. Upper
Egypt, farthest from the centre of government, was less
immediately aected, even though Ptolemy I established
the Greek colony of Ptolemais Hermiou to be its cap-
ital. But within a century Greek inuence had spread
through the country and intermarriage had produced a
large Greco-Egyptian educated class. Nevertheless, the
Greeks always remained a privileged minority in Ptole-
maic Egypt. They lived under Greek law, received a
Greek education, were tried in Greek courts, and were
citizens of Greek cities.

A bust depicting King Ptolemy II Philadelphus 309246 BC 13.1.3 Ptolemy I

13.1.2 Establishment The rst part of Ptolemy I's reign was dominated by
the Wars of the Diadochi between the various successor
Following Alexanders death in Babylon in 323 BC,[7] a states to the empire of Alexander. His rst object was
succession crisis erupted among his generals. Initially, to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to in-
Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexanders half- crease his domain. Within a few years he had gained con-
brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon, trol of Libya, Coele-Syria (including Judea), and Cyprus.
and then as regent for both Philip III and Alexanders in- When Antigonus, ruler of Syria, tried to reunite Alexan-
fant son Alexander IV of Macedon, who had not been ders empire, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him. In
born at the time of his fathers death. Perdiccas appointed 312 BC, allied with Seleucus, the ruler of Babylonia, he
Ptolemy, one of Alexanders closest companions, to be defeated Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in the battle
of Gaza.
satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled Egypt from 323 BC, nom-
inally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and Alexan-
In 311 BC, a peace was concluded between the combat-
der IV. However, as Alexander the Greats empire disin- ants, but in 309 BC war broke out again, and Ptolemy
tegrated, Ptolemy soon established himself as ruler in his occupied Corinth and other parts of Greece, although he
own right. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against lost Cyprus after a sea-battle in 306 BC. Antigonus then
an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consolidated his tried to invade Egypt but Ptolemy held the frontier against
position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the him. When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus
Wars of the Diadochi (322301 BC). In 305 BC, Ptolemy in 302 BC, Ptolemy joined it, but neither he nor his army
took the title of King. As Ptolemy I Soter (Saviour), he were present when Antigonus was defeated and killed at
founded the Ptolemaic dynasty that was to rule Egypt for Ipsus. He had instead taken the opportunity to secure
nearly 300 years. Coele-Syria and Palestine, in breach of the agreement as-
All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name signing it to Seleucus, [8]
thereby setting the scene for the fu-
Ptolemy, while princesses and queens preferred the ture Syrian Wars. Thereafter Ptolemy tried to stay out
names Cleopatra, Arsinoe and Berenice. Because the of land wars, but he retook Cyprus in 295 BC.
Ptolemaic kings adopted the Egyptian custom of mar- Feeling the kingdom was now secure, Ptolemy shared
rying their sisters, many of the kings ruled jointly with rule with his son Ptolemy II by Queen Berenice in 285
their spouses, who were also of the royal house. This cus- BC. He then may have devoted his retirement to writing
tom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and a history of the campaigns of Alexanderwhich unfor-
the later Ptolemies were increasingly feeble. The only tunately was lost but was a principal source for the later
Ptolemaic Queens to ocially rule on their own were work of Arrian. Ptolemy I died in 283 BC at the age of
Berenice III and Berenice IV. Cleopatra V did co-rule, 84. He left a stable and well-governed kingdom to his
13.1. HISTORY 85

son.

13.1.4 Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who succeeded his father as
King of Egypt in 283 BC,[9] was a peaceful and cul-
tured king, and no great warrior. He did not need to
be, because his father had left Egypt strong and prosper-
ous. Three years of campaigning at the start of his reign
(called the First Syrian War) left Ptolemy the master of
the eastern Mediterranean, controlling the Aegean islands
(the Nesiotic League) and the coastal districts of Cilicia,
Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. However, some of these ter-
ritories were lost near the end of his reign as a result of the
Second Syrian War. In the 270s BC, Ptolemy II defeated
the Kingdom of Kush in war, gaining the Ptolemies free
access to Kushite territory and control of important gold-
mining areas south of Egypt known as Dodekasoinos.[10] Coin depicting King Ptolemy III. Ptolemaic Egypt.
As a result, the Ptolemies established hunting stations
and ports as far south as Port Sudan, from where raid-
ing parties containing hundreds of men searched for war thers in that he patronised the native Egyptian religion
elephants.[10] Hellenistic culture would acquire an impor- more liberally: he left larger traces among the Egyptian
tant inuence on Kush at this time.[10] monuments. In this his reign marks the gradual Egyp-
Ptolemys rst wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, tianisation of the Ptolemies.
was the mother of his legitimate children. After her re-
pudiation he followed Egyptian custom and married his
sister, Arsinoe II, beginning a practice that, while pleas- 13.1.6 Decline of the Ptolemies
ing to the Egyptian population, had serious consequences
in later reigns. The material and literary splendour of
the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy
II. Callimachus, keeper of the Library of Alexandria,
Theocritus and a host of other poets, gloried the Ptole-
maic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the
library and to patronise scientic research. He spent lav-
ishly on making Alexandria the economic, artistic and
intellectual capital of the Hellenistic world. It is to the
academies and libraries of Alexandria that we owe the
preservation of so much Greek literary heritage.
Ptolemaic Empire in 200 BC. Also showing neighboring powers.
13.1.5 Ptolemy III
In 221 BC, Ptolemy III died and was succeeded by his son
Ptolemy III Euergetes (the benefactor) succeeded his Ptolemy IV Philopator, a weak and corrupt king under
father in 246 BC. He abandoned his predecessors pol- whom the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. His
icy of keeping out of the wars of the other Macedonian reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he
successor kingdoms, and plunged into the Third Syrian was always under the inuence of royal favourites, male
War with the Seleucids of Syria, when his sister, Queen and female, who controlled the government. Neverthe-
Berenice, and her son were murdered in a dynastic dis- less, his ministers were able to make serious preparations
pute. Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-
the Seleucid realm, as far as Babylonia, while his eets in Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC
the Aegean made fresh conquests as far north as Thrace. secured the kingdom. A sign of the domestic weakness of
This victory marked the zenith of the Ptolemaic power. his reign was the rebellions by native Egyptians that took
Seleucus II Callinicus kept his throne, but Egyptian eets away over half the country for over 20 years. Philopator
controlled most of the coasts of Asia Minor and Greece. was devoted to orgiastic religions and to literature. He
After this triumph Ptolemy no longer engaged actively in married his sister Arsino, but was ruled by his mistress
war, although he supported the enemies of Macedon in Agathoclea.
Greek politics. His domestic policy diered from his fa- Ptolemy V Epiphanes, son of Philopator and Arsino,
86 CHAPTER 13. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM

sister Cleopatra II. They soon fell out, however, and quar-
rels between the two brothers allowed Rome to interfere
and to steadily increase its inuence in Egypt. Eventually
Philometor regained the throne. In 145 BC he was killed
in the Battle of Antioch.

13.1.7 Later Ptolemies


Philometor was succeeded by yet another infant, his son
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator. But Euergetes soon re-
turned, killed his young nephew, seized the throne and
as Ptolemy VIII soon proved himself a cruel tyrant. On
his death in 116 BC he left the kingdom to his wife
Cleopatra III and her son Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter
II. The young king was driven out by his mother in 107
BC, who reigned jointly with Euergetess youngest son
Ptolemy X Alexander I. In 88 BC Ptolemy IX again re-
turned to the throne, and retained it until his death in 80
BC. He was succeeded by Ptolemy XI Alexander II, the
son of Ptolemy X. He was lynched by the Alexandrian
mob after murdering his stepmother, who was also his
cousin, aunt and wife. These sordid dynastic quarrels left
Egypt so weakened that the country became a de facto
Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh. Louvre protectorate of Rome, which had by now absorbed most
Museum. of the Greek world.
Ptolemy XI was succeeded by a son of Ptolemy IX,
was a child when he came to the throne, and a series of Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos, nicknamed Auletes, the
regents ran the kingdom. Antiochus III of The Seleucid ute-player. By now Rome was the arbiter of Egyptian
Empire and Philip V of Macedon made a compact to aairs, and annexed both Libya and Cyprus. In 58 BC
seize the Ptolemaic possessions. Philip seized several is- Auletes was driven out by the Alexandrian mob, but the
lands and places in Caria and Thrace, while the battle of Romans restored him to power three years later. He died
Panium in 200 BC transferred Coele-Syria from Ptole- in 51 BC, leaving the kingdom to his ten-year-old son,
maic to Seleucid control. After this defeat Egypt formed Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, who reigned jointly with
an alliance with the rising power in the Mediterranean, his 17-year-old sister and wife, Cleopatra VII.
Rome. Once he reached adulthood Epiphanes became
a tyrant, before his early death in 180 BC. He was suc-
ceeded by his infant son Ptolemy VI Philometor. 13.1.8 Cleopatra
In 170 BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt and
Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne at the age of
deposed Philometor. In some versions of the Bible, the
eighteen upon the death of her father, Ptolemy XII Neos
book of I Macabees 1:16-19, translates the passage as:
Dionysos. She reigned as queen philopator and pharaoh
with various male co-regents from 51 to 30 BC when she
Now when the kingdom was established died at the age of 39.
before Antiochus, he thought to reign over
The demise of the Ptolemies power coincided with the
Egypt that he might have the dominion of two
rise of the Roman Empire. Having little choice, and wit-
realms. Wherefore he entered into Egypt with
nessing one city after another falling to Macedon and the
a great multitude, with chariots, and elephants,
Seleucid empire, the Ptolemies chose to ally with the Ro-
and horsemen, and a great navy, and made war
mans, a pact that lasted over 150 years. During the rule of
against Ptolemy king of Egypt: but Ptolemy
the later Ptolemies, Rome gained more and more power
was afraid of him, and ed; and many were
over Egypt, and was eventually declared guardian of the
wounded to death. Thus they got the strong
Ptolemaic dynasty. Cleopatras father, Ptolemy XII, paid
cities in the land of Egypt and he took the spoils
vast sums of Egyptian wealth and resources in tribute to
thereof.
the Romans in order to secure his throne. After his death,
Cleopatra and her younger brother inherited the throne,
Philometors younger brother (later Ptolemy VIII Euer- but their relationship soon degenerated. Cleopatra was
getes II) was installed as a puppet king. When Antiochus stripped of authority and title by Ptolemy XIIIs advisors.
withdrew, the brothers agreed to reign jointly with their Fleeing into exile, she would attempt to raise an army to
13.1. HISTORY 87

Coin of Cleopatra VII, with her egy[11]

reclaim the throne.


Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria in 48 BC in or-
der to quell the looming civil war, as war in Egypt, which Relief of Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and Caesarion, Den-
was one of Romes greatest suppliers of grain and other dera Temple, Egypt.
expensive goods, would have had a detrimental eect on
trade. During his stay in the Alexandrian palace, he re-
ceived 22-year-old Cleopatra, allegedly carried to him donations of Alexandria ceremony in autumn of 34 BC
in secret wrapped in a carpet. She counted on Caesars in which Tarsus, Cyrene, Crete, Cyprus, and Israel were
support to alienate Ptolemy XIII. With the arrival of Ro- all to be given as client monarchies to Antonys children
man reinforcements, and after the battles in Alexandria, by Cleopatra. In his will Antony expressed his desire to
Ptolemy XIII was defeated at the Battle of the Nile. He be buried in Alexandria, rather than taken to Rome in the
later drowned in the river, although the circumstances of event of his death, which Octavian used against Antony,
his death are unclear. sowing further dissent in the Roman populace.
In the summer of 47 BC, having married her younger Octavian was quick to declare war on Antony and Cleopa-
brother Ptolemy XIV, Cleopatra embarked with Caesar tra while public opinion of Antony was low. Their naval
for a two-month trip along the Nile. Together, they vis- forces at Actium, where the forces of Marcus Vipsanius
ited Dendara, where Cleopatra was being worshiped as Agrippa defeated the navy of Cleopatra and Antony. Oc-
pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesars reach. They became tavian waited for a year before he claimed Egypt as a Ro-
lovers, and she bore him a son, Caesarion. In 45 BC, man province. He arrived in Alexandria and easily de-
Cleopatra and Caesarion left Alexandria for Rome, where feated Mark Antonys remaining forces outside the city.
they stayed in a palace built by Caesar in their honor. Facing certain death at the hands of Octavian, Antony at-
In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered in Rome by several tempted suicide by falling on his own sword. He survived
Senators. With his death, Rome split between support- briey, however, and was taken to Cleopatra, who had
ers of Mark Antony and Octavian. When Mark Antony barricaded herself in her mausoleum, where he died soon
seemed to prevail, Cleopatra supported him and, shortly after.
after, they too became lovers and eventually married in
Knowing that she would be taken to Rome to be paraded
Egypt (though their marriage was never recognized by in Octavians triumph (and likely executed thereafter),
Roman law, as Antony was married to a Roman woman). Cleopatra and her handmaidens committed suicide on 12
Their union produced three children; the twins Cleopatra
August, 30 BC. Legend and numerous ancient sources
Selene and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy claim that she died by way of the venomous bite of an
Philadelphos. asp, though others state that she used poison, or that Oc-
Mark Antonys alliance with Cleopatra angered Rome tavian ordered her death himself.
even more. Branded a power-hungry enchantress by the Caesarion, her son by Julius Caesar, nominally succeeded
Romans, she was accused of seducing Antony to further Cleopatra until his capture and supposed execution in the
her conquest of Rome. Further outrage followed at the weeks after his mothers death. Cleopatras children by
88 CHAPTER 13. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM

Antony were spared by Octavian and given to his sister education and civic life largely remained Greek through-
(and Antonys Roman wife) Octavia Minor, to be raised out the Roman period. The Romans, like the Ptolemies,
in her household. Their daughter Cleopatra Selene was respected and protected Egyptian religion and customs,
eventually married through arrangement by Octavian into although the cult of the Roman state and of the Emperor
the Mauretanian royal line. Through her ospring the was gradually introduced.
Ptolemaic line intermarried back into the Roman nobil- Around 25 BC, the Greek geographer, philosopher and
ity. historian, Strabo sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae,
With the deaths of Cleopatra and Caesarion, the dynasty after which point there is little record of his proceedings
of Ptolemies and the entirety of pharaonic Egypt came to until AD 17.[12]
an end. Alexandria remained capital of the country, but
Egypt itself became a Roman province.
13.2 Culture
13.1.9 Roman rule
Ptolemy I, perhaps with advice from Demetrius of
Phalerum, founded the Museum and Library of Alexan-
dria.[13] The Museum was a research centre supported by
the king. It was located in the royal sector of the city.
The scholars were housed in the same sector and funded
by the Ptolemaic rulers.[13] The chief librarian served also
as the crown princes tutor.[14] For the rst hundred and
fty years of its existence this library and research centre
drew the top Greek scholars.[14] It was a key academic,
literary and scientic centre.[15]
Greek culture had a long but minor presence in Egypt
long before Alexander the Great founded the city of
Alexandria. It began when Greek colonists, encour-
aged by the many Pharaohs, set up the trading post of
Naucratis, which became an important link between the
Greek world and Egypts grain. As Egypt came under for-
eign domination and decline, the Pharaohs depended on
the Greeks as mercenaries and even advisors. When the
Persians took over Egypt, Naucratis remained an impor-
tant Greek port and the colonist population were used as
mercenaries by both the rebel Egyptian princes and the
Persian kings, who later gave them land grants, spread-
ing the Greek culture into the valley of the Nile. When
Alexander the Great arrived, he established Alexandria
on the site of the Persian fort of Rhakortis. Following
Bust of Roman Nobleman, ca. 30 BC 50 AD, 54.51, Brooklyn Alexanders death, control passed into the hands of the
Museum
Lagid (Ptolemaic) dynasty; they built Greek cities across
their empire and gave land grants across Egypt to the vet-
Main article: Aegyptus (Roman province)
erans of their many military conicts. Hellenistic civiliza-
tion continued to thrive even after Rome annexed Egypt
In 30 BC, following the death of Cleopatra VII, the after the battle of Actium and did not decline until the
Roman Empire declared that Egypt was a province Islamic conquests.
(Aegyptus), and that it was to be governed by a prefect
selected by the Emperor from the Equestrian class and
not a governor from the Senatorial order, to prevent in- 13.2.1 Art
terference by the Roman Senate. The main Roman inter-
est in Egypt was always the reliable delivery of grain to Further information: Hellenistic art
the city of Rome. To this end the Roman administration Hellenistic art is richly diverse in subject matter and in
made no change to the Ptolemaic system of government, stylistic development. It was created during an age char-
although Romans replaced Greeks in the highest oces. acterized by a strong sense of history. For the rst time,
But Greeks continued to sta most of the administrative there were museums and great libraries, such as those
oces and Greek remained the language of government at Alexandria and Pergamon. Hellenistic artists copied
except at the highest levels. Unlike the Greeks, the Ro- and adapted earlier styles, and also made great innova-
mans did not settle in Egypt in large numbers. Culture, tions. Representations of Greek gods took on new forms.
13.2. CULTURE 89

Ptolemaic gold stater coin depicting war elephants Quadrigia


Cyrenaica

Also prominent in Hellenistic art are representations of


Ptolemaic Queen (Cleopatra VII?), 50-30 BC, 71.12, Brooklyn Dionysos, the god of wine and legendary conqueror of
Museum the East, as well as those of Hermes, the god of com-
merce. In strikingly tender depictions, Eros, the Greek
personication of love, is portrayed as a young child.

A detail of the Nile mosaic of Palestrina, showing Ptolemaic Head of an Egyptian Ocial, ca. 50 BC. Diorite, 16 5/16 x 11
Egypt circa 100 BC 1/4 x 13 7/8 in. (41.4 x 28.5 x 35.2 cm). Brooklyn Museum

Most of the Ptolemaic magical stele were connected with


The popular image of a nude Aphrodite, for example, re- matters of health. They were commonly of limestone;
ects the increased secularization of traditional religion. the Greeks tended to use marble or bronze for private
90 CHAPTER 13. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM

sculpture. The most striking change in depiction of g- nerary rites, and medicine. Many people started to wor-
ures is the range from idealizing to nearly grotesque real- ship this god. In the time of the Ptolemies, the cult of
ism in portrayal of men. Previously Egyptian depictions Serapis included the worship of the new Ptolemaic line
tended toward the idealistic but sti, not with an attempt of pharaohs. Alexandria supplanted Memphis as the pre-
at likeness. Likeness was still not the goal of art under eminent religious city. Ptolemy I also promoted the cult
the Ptolemies. The inuence of Greek sculpture under of the deied Alexander, who became the state god of the
the Ptolemies was shown in its emphasis on the face more Ptolemaic kingdom; the Ptolemies eventually associated
than in the past. Smiles suddenly appear. Toward the end themselves with the cult as gods.
of the Ptolemaic period, the headdress sometimes gives
The wife of Ptolemy II, Arsinoe II, was often depicted in
way to tousled hair. the form of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, but she wore
One signicant change in Ptolemaic art is the sudden re- the crown of lower Egypt, with rams horns, ostrich feath-
appearance of women, who had been absent since about ers, and other traditional Egyptian indicators of royalty
the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. Some of this must have been and/or deication. She wore the vulture headdress only
due to the importance of women, such as the series of on the religious portion of a relief. Cleopatra VII, the last
Cleopatras, who acted as co-regents or sometimes occu- of the Ptolemaic line, was often depicted with character-
pied the throne by themselves. Although women were istics of the goddess Isis. She often had either a small
present in artwork, they were shown less realistically than throne as her headdress or the more traditional sun disk
men in this era. Even with the Greek inuence on art, the between two horns.[16]
notion of the individual portrait still had not supplanted The traditional table for oerings disappeared from re-
Egyptian artistic norms during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. liefs during the Ptolemaic period. Male gods were no
Ways of presenting text on columns and reliefs became longer portrayed with tails in attempt to make them more
formal and rigid during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. humanlike.
The wealthy and connected of Egyptian society seemed
to put more stock in magical stela during the Ptolemaic
period. These were religious objects produced for pri-
vate individuals, something uncommon in earlier Egyp-
tian times.

13.2.3 Social situation

The Greeks now formed the new upper classes in Egypt,


replacing the old native aristocracy. In general, the
Ptolemies undertook changes that went far beyond any
other measures that earlier foreign rulers had imposed.
They used the religion and traditions to increase their
own power and wealth. Although they established a pros-
perous kingdom, enhanced with ne buildings, the native
population enjoyed few benets, and there were frequent
uprisings. These expressions of nationalism reached a
peak in the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221205 BC)
Bronze allegorical group of a Ptolemy (identiable by his when others gained control over one district and ruled
diadem) overcoming an adversary, in Hellenistic style, ca early as a line of native pharaohs. This was only curtailed
2nd century BC (Walters Art Museum)
nineteen years later when Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205
181 BC) succeeded in subduing them, but the underlying
grievances continued and there were riots again later in
13.2.2 Religion the dynasty.
Family conicts aected the later years of the dy-
When Ptolemy I Soter made himself king of Egypt, he nasty when Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II fought his brother
created a new god, Serapis, which was a combination Ptolemy VI Philometor and briey seized the throne. The
of two Egyptian gods: Apis and Osiris, plus the main struggle was continued by his sister and niece (who both
Greek gods: Zeus, Hades, Asklepios, Dionysos, and He- became his wives) until they nally issued an Amnesty
lios. Serapis had powers over fertility, the sun, corn, fu- Decree in 118 BC.
13.3. CITIES 91

However, with the decline of royal power, they gained


inuence and became common in the military.
The Ptolemies used the great wealth of Egypt to their
advantage by hiring vast amounts of mercenaries from
across the known world. Black Ethiopians are also known
to have served in the military along with the Galatians,
Mysians and others.
With their vast amount of territory spread along the East-
ern Mediterranean such as Cyprus, Crete, the islands of
Example of a large Ptolemaic bronze coin minted during the reign the Aegean and even Thrace, the Ptolemies required a
of Ptolemy V. large navy to defend these far-ung strongholds from en-
emies like the Seleucids and Macedonians.
13.2.4 Coinage
Ptolemaic Egypt was noted for its extensive series of 13.3 Cities
coinage in gold, silver and bronze. It was especially
noted for its issues of large coins in all three metals,
most notably gold pentadrachm and octadrachm, and sil-
ver tetradrachm, decadrachm and pentakaidecadrachm.
This was especially noteworthy as it would not be until the
introduction of the Guldengroschen in 1486 that coins of
substantial size (particularly in silver) would be minted in
signicant quantities.

13.2.5 Military

Hellenistic soldiers in tunic, 100 BC, detail of the Nile mosaic of


Palestrina.

Main article: Ptolemaic Army

Ptolemaic Egypt, along with the other Hellenistic states


outside of the Greek mainland after Alexander the Great,
had its armies based on the Macedonian phalanx and fea- Egyptian faience torso of a king, for an applique on wood
tured Macedonian and native troops ghting side by side.
The Ptolemaic military was lled with diverse peoples While ruling Egypt, the Ptolemaic Dynasty built many
from across their territories. At rst most of the military Greek settlements throughout their Empire, to either
was made up of a pool of Greek settlers who, in exchange Hellenize new conquered peoples or reinforce the area.
for military service, were given land grants. These made Egypt had only three main Greek citiesAlexandria,
up the majority of the army. Naucratis, and Ptolemais.

With the many wars the Ptolemies were involved in, their
pool of Macedonian troops dwindled and there was little 13.3.1 Naucratis
Greek immigration from the mainland so they were kept
in the royal bodyguard and as generals and ocers. Na- Of the three Greek cities, Naucratis, although its com-
tive troops were looked down upon and distrusted due to mercial importance was reduced with the founding of
their disloyalty and frequent tendency to aid local revolts. Alexandria, continued in a quiet way its life as a Greek
92 CHAPTER 13. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM

city-state. During the interval between the death of


Alexander and Ptolemys assumption of the style of king,
it even issued an autonomous coinage. And the number
of Greek men of letters during the Ptolemaic and Roman
period, who were citizens of Naucratis, proves that in the
sphere of Hellenic culture Naucratis held to its traditions.
Ptolemy II bestowed his care upon Naucratis. He built a
large structure of limestone, about 330 feet (100 m) long
and 60 feet (18 m) wide, to ll up the broken entrance
to the great Temenos; he strengthened the great block of
chambers in the Temenos, and re-established them. At
the time when Sir Flinders Petrie wrote the words just
quoted the great Temenos was identied with the Hel-
lenion. But Mr. Edgar has recently pointed out that the
building connected with it was an Egyptian temple, not a
Greek building. Naucratis, therefore, in spite of its gen-
eral Hellenic character, had an Egyptian element. That
the city ourished in Ptolemaic times we may see by
the quantity of imported amphorae, of which the han-
dles stamped at Rhodes and elsewhere are found so abun-
dantly. The Zeno papyri show that it was the chief port
of call on the inland voyage from Memphis to Alexandria,
as well as a stopping-place on the land-route from Pelu-
sium to the capital. It was attached, in the administrative
system, to the Sate nome.

Alexander the Great, 356 BC 323 BC Brooklyn Museum


13.3.2 Alexandria
Main article: Alexandria
A major Mediterranean port of Egypt, in ancient times
and still today, Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by
Alexander the Great. According to Plutarch, the Alexan-
drians believed that Alexander the Greats motivation to tained several hundred thousand volumes and housed and
build the city was his wish to found a large and populous employed scholars and poets. A similar scholarly com-
Greek city that should bear his name. Located 20 miles plex was the Museum (Mouseion, hall of the Muses).
(32 km) west of the Niles westernmost mouth, the city During Alexandrias brief literary golden period, c.
was immune to the silt deposits that persistently choked 280240 BC, the Library subsidized three poets
harbors along the river. Alexandria became the capi- Callimachus, Apollonius of Rhodes , and Theocritus
tal of the Hellenized Egypt of King Ptolemy I (reigned whose work now represents the best of Hellenistic liter-
323283 BC). Under the wealthy Ptolemaic dynasty, the ature. Among other thinkers associated with the Library
city soon surpassed Athens as the cultural center of the or other Alexandrian patronage were the mathematician
Hellenic world. Euclid (ca. 300 BC), the inventor Archimedes (287 BC
c. 212 BC), and the polymath Eratosthenes (ca. 225
Laid out on a grid pattern, Alexandria occupied a stretch [17]
of land between the sea to the north and Lake Mareotis BC).
to the south; a man-made causeway, over three-quarters Cosmopolitan and ourishing, Alexandria possessed a
of a mile long, extended north to the sheltering island varied population of Greeks, Egyptians and other Ori-
of Pharos, thus forming a double harbor, east and west. ental peoples, including a sizable minority of Jews, who
On the east was the main harbor, called the Great Har- had their own city quarter. Periodic conicts occurred
bor; it faced the citys chief buildings, including the royal between Jews and ethnic Greeks. According to Strabo,
palace and the famous Library and Museum. At the Great Alexandria had been inhabited during Polybius lifetime
Harbors mouth, on an outcropping of Pharos, stood the by local Egyptians, foreign mercenaries and the tribe of
lighthouse, built c. 280 BC. Now vanished, the lighthouse the Alexandrians, whose origin and customs Polybius
was reckoned as one of the Seven Wonders of the World identied as Greek.
for its unsurpassed height (perhaps 460 feet); it was a The city enjoyed a calm political history under the
square, fenestrated tower, topped with a metal re bas- Ptolemies. It passed, with the rest of Egypt, into Roman
ket and a statue of Zeus the Savior. hands in 30 BC, and became the second city of the Ro-
The Library, at that time the largest in the world, con- man Empire.
13.4. DEMOGRAPHICS 93

13.3.3 Ptolemais

Main article: Ptolemais Hermiou

The second Greek city founded after the conquest of


Egypt was Ptolemais, 400 miles (640 km) up the Nile,
where there was a native village called Pso, in the nome
called after the ancient Egyptian city of Thinis. If
Alexandria perpetuated the name and cult of the great
Alexander, Ptolemais was to perpetuate the name and
cult of the founder of the Ptolemaic time. Framed in
by the barren hills of the Nile Valley and the Egyptian
sky, here a Greek city arose, with its public buildings
and temples and theatre, no doubt exhibiting the regular
architectural forms associated with Greek culture, with
a citizen-body Greek in blood, and the institutions of a
Greek city. If there is some doubt whether Alexandria
possessed a council and assembly, there is none in regard
to Ptolemais. It was more possible for the kings to al-
low a measure of self-government to a people removed
at that distance from the ordinary residence of the court.
We have still, inscribed on stone, decrees passed in the
assembly of the people of Ptolemais, couched in the reg-
ular forms of Greek political tradition: It seemed good
to the boule and to the demos: Hermas son of Doreon,
of the deme Megisteus, was the proposer: Whereas the
prytaneis who were colleagues with Dionysius the son of
Musaeus in the 8th year, etc.

A stele of Dioskourides, dated 2nd century BC, showing a Ptole-


maic thureophoros soldier. It is a characteristic example of the
13.4 Demographics Romanization of the Ptolemaic army.

The Ptolemaic kingdom was diverse in the people who


settled and made Egypt their home at this time. Dur- dominions.
ing this period, Macedonian troops under Ptolemy I
Soter were given land grants and brought their families Greek culture was so much bound up with the life of the
encouraging tens of thousands of Greeks to settle the city-state that any king who wanted to present himself to
country making themselves the new ruling class. Na- the world as a genuine champion of Hellenism had to do
tive Egyptians continued having a role, albeit a small something in this direction, but the king of Egypt, whilst
one, in the Ptolemaic government--mostly in lower posts- as ambitious as any to shine as a Hellene, would nd
-and outnumbered the foreigners. During the reign of Greek cities, with their republican tradition and aspira-
the Ptolemaic Pharaohs, many Jews were imported from tions to independence, inconvenient elements in a coun-
neighboring Judea by the thousands for being renowned try that lent itself, as no other did, to bureaucratic cen-
ghters and established an important presence there. tralization. The Ptolemies therefore limited the number
Other foreign groups settled during this time and even of Greek city-states in Egypt to Alexandria, Ptolemais,
Galatian mercenaries were invited. Of the aliens who and Naucratis.
had come to settle in Egypt, the ruling group, Greeks, Outside of Egypt, they had Greek cities under their
were the most important element. They were partly dominionincluding the old Greek cities in the Cyre-
spread as allotment-holders over the country, forming so- naica, in Cyprus, on the coasts and islands of the
cial groups, in the country towns and villages, side by side Aegean but they were smaller than the three big ones
with the native population, partly gathered in the three in Egypt. There were indeed country towns with names
Greek cities the old Naucratis, founded before 600 such as Ptolemais, Arsinoe, and Berenice, in which Greek
BC (in the interval of Egyptian independence after the communities existed with a certain social life; there were
expulsion of the Assyrians and before the coming of the similar groups of Greeks in many of the old Egyptian
Persians), and the two new cities, Alexandria by the sea, towns, but they were not communities with the political
and Ptolemais in Upper Egypt. Alexander and his Seleu- forms of a city-state. Yet if they had no place of political
cid successors founded many Greek cities all over their assembly, they would have their gymnasium, the essential
94 CHAPTER 13. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM

sign of Hellenism, serving something of the purpose of a The Septuagint was written by Seventy Jewish Translators
university for the young men. Far up the Nile at Ombi under royal compulsion during Ptolemy IIs reign.[22] This
a gymnasium of the local Greeks was found in 136135 is conrmed by historian Flavius Josephus, who writes
BC, which passed resolutions and corresponded with the that Ptolemy, desirous to collect every book in the habit-
king. Also, in 123 BC, when there was trouble in Upper able earth, applied Demetrius Phalereus to the task of or-
Egypt between the towns of Crocodilopolis and Hermon- ganizing an eort with the Jewish high priests to translate
this, the negotiators sent from Crocodilopolis were the the Jewish books of the Law for his library.[23] This testi-
young men attached to the gymnasium, who, according mony of Josephus places the origins of the Septuagint in
to the Greek tradition, ate bread and salt with the nego- the 3rd century BC, as that is the time when Demetrius
tiators from the other town. All Greek dialects of the and Ptolemy II lived. According to Jewish Legend, the
Greek world gradually became assimilated in the Koine seventy translators wrote their translations independently
Greek dialect that was the common language of the Hel- from memory, and the resultant works were identical at
lenistic world. Generally the Greeks of Ptolemaic Egypt every letter.
felt like representatives of a higher civilization yet were
curious about the native culture of Egypt.
13.5 Agriculture
13.4.1 Arabs under the Ptolemies
The early Ptolemies increased cultivatable land through
Arab nomads of the eastern desert penetrated in small irrigation and introduced crops such as cotton and better
bodies into the cultivated land of the Nile, as they do to- wine-producing grapes. They also increased the availabil-
day. The Greeks called all the land on the eastern side ity of luxury goods through foreign trade. They enriched
of the Nile Arabia, and villages were to be found here themselves and absorbed Egyptian culture. Ptolemy and
and there with a population of Arabs who had exchanged his descendants adopted Egyptian royal trappings and
the life of tent-dwellers for that of settled agriculturists. added Egypts religion to their own, worshiping Egyp-
Apollonius tells of one such village, Pos, in the Mem- tian gods and building temples to them, and even being
phite nome, two of whose inhabitants send a letter on mummied and buried in sarcophagi covered with hiero-
September 20, 152 BC. The letter is in Greek; it had to glyphs.
be written for the two Arabs by the young Macedonian
Apollonius, the Arabs apparently being unable to write.
Apollonius writes their names as Myrullas and Chalbas, 13.6 List of Ptolemaic rulers
the rst probably, and the second certainly, Semitic. A
century earlier Arabs farther west, in the Faym, orga-
nized under a leader of their own, and working mainly as Main article: List of Ptolemaic rulers
herdsmen on the dorea of Apollonius the dioiketes; but
these Arabs bear Greek and Egyptian names.
In 1990, more than 2,000 papyri written by Zeno of
Caunus from the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus were 13.7 See also
discovered, which contained at least 19 references to
Arabs in the area between the Nile and the Red Sea, Antipatrid dynasty
and mentioned their jobs as police ocers in charge of
ten person units, while some others were mentioned as Antigonid dynasty
shepherds.[18]
Cup of the Ptolemies
Arabs in the Ptolemaic kingdom had provided camel con-
voys to the armies of some Ptolemaic leaders during their Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
invasions, but they didn't have allegiance towards any of
the kingdoms of Egypt or Syria, and also managed to raid Hellenistic period
and attack both sides of the conict between the Ptole-
maic Kingdom and its enemies.[19][20] History of Egypt

Kingdom of Pontus
13.4.2 Jews under the Ptolemies Indo-Greeks
The Jews who lived in Egypt had originally immigrated Library of Alexandria
from Israel. The Jews absorbed Greek, the dominant lan-
guage of Egypt at the time, while heavily mixing it with Lighthouse of Alexandria
Hebrew[21] It was during this period that the Septuagint,
the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, appeared. Seleucid Empire
13.9. FURTHER READING 95

13.8 References [19] A History of the Arabs in the Sudan: The inhabitants of
the northern Sudan before the time of the Islamic invasions.
[1] Buraselis, Stefanou and Thompson ed; The Ptolemies, the The progress of the Arab tribes through Egypt. The Arab
Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power. tribes of the Sudan at the present day, Sir Harold Alfred
MacMichael, Cambridge University Press, 1922, Page: 7
[2] Buraselis, Stefanou and Thompson ed; The Ptolemies, the
[20] History of Egypt, Sir John Pentland Mahay, Pages: 20-
Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power.
21
[3] North Africa in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, 323
[21] Solomon Grayzel A History of the Jews p. 56
BC to AD 305, R.C.C. Law, The Cambridge History of
Africa, Vol. 2 ed. J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, [22] Solomon Grayzel A History of the Jews pp. 56-57
(Cambridge University Press, 1979), 154.
[23] Flavius Josephus Antiquities of the Jews Book 12 Ch. 2
[4] Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica, 18.21.9

[5] Lewis, Naphtali (1986). Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt: Case


Studies in the Social History of the Hellenistic World. Ox- 13.9 Further reading
ford: Clarendon Press. pp. 5. ISBN 0-19-814867-4.
Bingen, Jean. Hellenistic Egypt. Edinburgh: Ed-
[6] Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. The
inburgh University Press, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN
Achaemenid Persian Empire (550330 B.C.)". In
0-7486-1578-4; paperback, ISBN 0-7486-1579-2).
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York:
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. http:// Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Cul-
www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm (Octo- ture. Berkeley: University of California Press,
ber 2004) Source: The Achaemenid Persian Empire 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 0-520-25141-5; paperback,
(550330 B.C.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline ISBN 0-520-25142-3).
of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Bowman, Alan Keir. 1996. Egypt After the
[7] Hemingway, Colette, and Sen Hemingway. The Pharaohs: 332 BCAD 642; From Alexander to the
Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests of Alexander Arab Conquest. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of
the Great. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. California Press
New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000
. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/alex/hd_alex.htm Burstein, Stanley Meyer (December 1, 2007). The
(October 2004) Source: The Rise of Macedonia and the Reign of Cleopatra. University of Oklahoma Press.
Conquests of Alexander the Great | Thematic Essay | Heil- ISBN 0806138718. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
brunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Mu-
seum of Art Chauveau, Michel. 2000. Egypt in the Age of
Cleopatra: History and Society under the Ptolemies.
[8] Grabbe, L. L. (2008). A History of the Jews and Judaism Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca: Cornell Uni-
in the Second Temple Period. Volume 2 The Coming of versity Press
the Greeks: The Early Hellenistic Period (335 175 BC).
T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-03396-3. Ellis, Simon P. 1992. Graeco-Roman Egypt. Shire
Egyptology 17, ser. ed. Barbara G. Adams. Ayles-
[9] Ptolemy II Philadelphus [308-246 BC. Mahlon H. Smith.
bury: Shire Publications, ltd.
Retrieved 2010-06-13.
Hlbl, Gnther. 2001. A History of the Ptolemaic
[10] Burstein (2007), p. 7
Empire. Translated by Tina Saavedra. London:
[11] Cleopatra: A Life Routledge Ltd.

[12] http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/ Lloyd, Alan Brian. 2000. The Ptolemaic Period


strabo/17a3*.html (33230 BC)". In The Oxford History of Ancient
Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York:
[13] Peters (1970), p. 193 Oxford University Press. 395421
[14] Peters (1970), p. 194 Susan Stephens, Seeing Double. Intercultural Poetics
[15] Peters (1970), p. 195f in Ptolemaic Alexandria (Berkeley, 2002).

[16] Antiquities Experts. Egyptian Art During the Ptolemaic A. Lampela, Rome and the Ptolemies of Egypt. The
Period of Egyptian History. Antiquities Experts. Re- development of their political relations 273-80 B.C.
trieved 17 June 2014. (Helsinki, 1998).

[17] Phillips, Heather A., The Great Library of Alexandria?". Peters, F. E. (1970). The Harvest of Hellenism. New
Library Philosophy and Practice, August 2010 York: Simon & Schuster.
[18] Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to J. G. Manning, The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the
the Umayyads, Prof. Jan Retso, Page: 301 Ptolemies, 305-30 BC (Princeton, 2009).
96 CHAPTER 13. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM

13.10 External links


Map of Ptolemaic Egypt
Chapter 14

Roman Province of Egypt

Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former subdivi- Africa under Roman rule
sion with unknown parameter continent (this message
is shown only in preview).

The Roman province of Egypt (Latin: Aegyptus,


pronounced [ajpts]; Greek: Aigyptos
[ yptos]) was established in 30 BC after Octavian
(the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark
Antony, deposed his lover Queen Cleopatra VII and an-
nexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman
Empire. The province encompassed most of modern-day
Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula (which would later
be conquered by Trajan). Aegyptus was bordered by the
provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West and Iudaea
(later Arabia Petraea) to the East.
The province came to serve as a major producer of grain
for the empire and had a highly developed urban econ-
omy. Aegyptus was by far the wealthiest Eastern Roman
The
province.[1][2] In Alexandria, its capital, it possessed the
Roman Empire during the reign of Hadrian (117 138).
largest port, and the second largest city, of the Roman
Two legions were deployed in the imperial province of
Empire.
gyptus (Egypt) in the year 125.

14.1 Roman rule in Egypt As a province, Egypt was ruled by a uniquely styled Au-
gustal prefect, instead of the traditional senatorial gover-
nor of other Roman provinces. The prefect was a man of
Maps of Roman Egypt equestrian rank and was appointed by the Emperor. The
rst prefect of Aegyptus, Gaius Cornelius Gallus, brought
Upper Egypt under Roman control by force of arms, and
established a protectorate over the southern frontier dis-
trict, which had been abandoned by the later Ptolemies.
The second prefect, Aelius Gallus, made an unsuccessful
expedition to conquer Arabia Petraea and even Arabia
Felix. The Red Sea coast of Aegyptus was not brought
under Roman control until the reign of Claudius. The
third prefect, Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected
canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture.
Petronius even led a campaign into present-day central
Sudan against the Kingdom of Kush at Meroe, whose
queen Imanarenat had previously attacked Roman Egypt.
Failing to acquire permanent gains, in 22 BC he razed the
city of Napata to the ground and retreated to the north.
From the reign of Nero onward, Aegyptus enjoyed an
Northern

97
98 CHAPTER 14. ROMAN PROVINCE OF EGYPT

era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble 14.2 Roman government in Egypt
was caused by religious conicts between the Greeks and
the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the de- Further information: List of governors of Roman Egypt
struction of Jerusalem in 70 became the world centre of
Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish re-
volt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of As Rome overtook the Ptolemaic system in place for ar-
Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although eas of Egypt, they made many changes. The eect of the
they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, Roman conquest was at rst to strengthen the position of
founded Antinopolis in memory of his drowned lover the Greeks and of Hellenism against Egyptian inuences.
Antinous. From his reign onward buildings in the Greco- Some of the previous oces and names of oces un-
Roman style were erected throughout the country. der the Hellenistic Ptolemaic rule were kept, some were
changed, and some names would have remained but the
Under Antoninus Pius oppressive taxation led to a revolt function and administration would have changed.
in 139, of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed
only after several years of ghting. This Bucolic War, The Romans introduced important changes in the admin-
led by one Isidorus, caused great damage to the economy istrative system, aimed at achieving a high level of e-
and marked the beginning of Egypts economic decline. ciency and maximizing revenue. The duties of the pre-
Avidius Cassius, who led the Roman forces in the war, fect of Aegyptus combined responsibility for military se-
declared himself emperor in 175, and was acknowledged curity through command of the legions and cohorts, for
by the armies of Syria and Aegyptus. the organization of nance and taxation, and for the ad-
ministration of justice.
On the approach of Marcus Aurelius, Cassius was de-
posed and killed and the clemency of the emperor re- The reforms of the early 4th century had established the
stored peace. A similar revolt broke out in 193, when basis for another 250 years of comparative prosperity in
Pescennius Niger was proclaimed emperor on the death Aegyptus, at a cost of perhaps greater rigidity and more
of Pertinax. The Emperor Septimius Severus gave a con- oppressive state control. Aegyptus was subdivided for ad-
stitution to Alexandria and the provincial capitals in 202. ministrative purposes into a number of smaller provinces,
and separate civil and military ocials were established;
Caracalla (211217) granted Roman citizenship to all the praeses and the dux.
Egyptians, in common with the other provincials, but this
was mainly to extort more taxes, which grew increasingly By the middle of the 6th century the emperor Justinian
onerous as the needs of the emperors for more revenue was eventually forced to recognize the failure of this pol-
grew more desperate. icy and to combine civil and military power in the hands
of the dux with a civil deputy (the praeses) as a counter-
There was a series of revolts, both military and civil- weight to the power of the church authorities. All pre-
ian, through the 3rd century. Under Decius, in 250, the tense of local autonomy had by then vanished. The pres-
Christians again suered from persecution, but their re- ence of the soldiery was more noticeable, its power and
ligion continued to spread. The prefect of Aegyptus in inuence more pervasive in the routine of town and vil-
260, Mussius Aemilianus, rst supported the Macriani, lage life.
Gallienus usurpers, and later, in 261, become a usurper
himself, but was defeated by Gallienus.Poeo
Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, took the country away
from the Romans when she conquered Aegyptus in 269, 14.3 Economy
declaring herself the Queen of Egypt also. This warrior
queen claimed that Egypt was an ancestral home of hers
through a familial tie to Cleopatra VII. She was well edu-
Beyond these places, the erce winters
and great ice formations make travelling
hard, and by the powers of the gods,
LAKE
MAEOTIS these places are unexplored
ARAL
ROMANS

cated and familiar with the culture of Egypt, its religion,


SEA
EUXINE SEA CASPIAN
SEA
GREEKS

BACTRIA

and its language. She lost it later when the Roman em- MEDITERRANEAN SEA
Laodicea

Diospolis
Apologou PERSIA
ARACHOSIA
Alexandria
Bucephalus
THY
Thinae

ERS
S
peror, Aurelian, severed amicable relations between the
Petra Charax Spasinos
BERB
Mios hormos
Lefki komi GEDROSIA
PERSIAN Minnagara
LIBYA GULF Oraea SCYTHIA
AR

ARABIA
AB

Ommana Barbaricon
IC

Ganges

two countries and retook Egypt in 274following an un-


Berenice
GU

Calxi island
Ozene
CH
LF

ARIACA
Ptolemais of Island
Barygaza
RYS
Asikh
E
Zenobian
the Hunt Supara
Calliena
Paethena
ERS Moskha Simylla Tagara
BERB Safar Sabbatha
Meroe Adulis Mandagora

successful four-month siege of the defenses of Zenobia


Cani
Palepatmae
Muza Melizigara DAKINABADES
Bizantion
Sopatma
us Island Toparon
Axumites Aden Dioscurid

OPIA Avalites Tiranosboas Puduki


ETHI Cape Elephant Argalu
Mosylon Naura
Malao Tyndis Camara
Mundus Cape of
Spices

and only by waiting until her food supplies became ex-


Muziris
Tave Nelcynda
Colkhi
ERS Periplous
BERB
Cape Comari
M Oponi
EU
CYEN
i island
Taproban

Land route

hausted. Periplous of the ERYTHRAEAN SEA


Sarapion

Roman Kingdom of Aksum


Erythraean Sea
Nikon
King Zoscales
Empire

Pyralax
islands
Himyarite Nabataean kingdom
King Eleazus
AN
IA
s island
Kingdom
AZ

Two generals based in Aegyptus, Probus and Domitius


Menuthra
King Charibael

Indo-Scythian
Cheras
1st century AD Rapta Kingdom
King Nambanus

Domitianus, led successful revolts and made themselves


Pandian Damirica
Parthian
Others
Empire
Aromatic

emperors. Diocletian captured Alexandria from Domi- Spices

Wine
Ivory

Metals
owers

Silk
Beyond these places, the unexplored ocean

tius in 298 and reorganised the whole province. His edict curves around towards the west and mingles
with the western sea Gold Cloth
Precious
stones

of 303 against the Christians began a new era of persecu-


tion. This was the last serious attempt to stem the steady Roman trade with India started from Aegyptus according to the
growth of Christianity in Egypt, however. Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century).
14.5. SOCIAL STRUCTURE IN EARLY ROMAN EGYPT 99

The economic resources that this imperial government imperialism looked farther aeld, attempting expansion
existed to exploit had not changed since the Ptolemaic pe- to the east and to the south. Most of the early Roman
riod, but the development of a much more complex and troops stationed there were Greco-Macedonians and na-
sophisticated taxation system was a hallmark of Roman tive Egyptians once part of the dissolved Ptolemaic army
rule. Taxes in both cash and kind were assessed on land, nding service for Rome. Eventually Romans or Roman-
and a bewildering variety of small taxes in cash, as well ized people were a majority.
as customs dues and the like, was collected by appointed
ocials.
A massive amount of Aegyptuss grain was shipped 14.5 Social structure in early Ro-
downriver (north) both to feed the population of man Egypt
Alexandria and for export to the Roman capital. Despite
frequent complaints of oppression and extortion from the
taxpayers, it is not obvious that ocial tax rates were very
high.
The Roman government had actively encouraged the
privatization of land and the increase of private enterprise
in manufacture, commerce, and trade, and low tax rates
favored private owners and entrepreneurs. The poorer
people gained their livelihood as tenants of state-owned
land or of property belonging to the emperor or to wealthy
private landlords, and they were relatively much more
heavily burdened by rentals, which tended to remain at
a fairly high level.
Overall, the degree of monetization and complexity in the
economy, even at the village level, was intense. Goods
were moved around and exchanged through the medium
of coin on a large scale and, in the towns and the larger
villages, a high level of industrial and commercial activity
developed in close conjunction with the exploitation of
the predominant agricultural base. The volume of trade,
both internal and external, reached its peak in the 1st and
2nd centuries.
By the end of the 3rd century, major problems were ev-
ident. A series of debasements of the imperial currency
had undermined condence in the coinage,[3] and even Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC50 AD, Brooklyn Museum
the government itself was contributing to this by demand-
ing more and more irregular tax payments in kind, which See also: Fayum mummy portraits
it channeled directly to the main consumers, the army per-
sonnel. Local administration by the councils was careless,
The social structure in Aegyptus under the Romans was
recalcitrant, and inecient; the evident need for rm and
both unique and complicated. On the one hand, the
purposeful reform had to be squarely faced in the reigns
Romans continued to use many of the same organiza-
of Diocletian and Constantine I.
tional tactics that were in place under the leaders of
the Ptolemaic period. At the same time, the Romans
saw the Greeks in Aegyptus as Egyptians, an idea
14.4 Military that both the native Egyptians and Greeks would have
rejected.[4] To further compound the whole situation,
This wealthiest of provinces could be held militarily by Jews, who themselves were very Hellenized overall, had
a very small force; and the threat implicit in an embargo their own communities, separate from both Greeks and
on the export of grain supplies, vital to the provisioning native Egyptians.[4]
of the city of Rome and its populace, was obvious. In- The Romans began a system of social hierarchy that re-
ternal security was guaranteed by the presence of three volved around ethnicity and place of residence. Other
Roman legions (later reduced to two, then one Legio II than Roman citizens, a Greek citizen of one of the Greek
Traiana) stationed at the grand capital Alexandria. Each cities had the highest status, and a rural Egyptian would
of these numbered around 5000 strong, and several units be in the lowest class.[5] In between those classes was the
of auxiliaries. metropolite, who was almost certainly of Hellenic ori-
In the rst decade of Roman rule the spirit of Augustan gin. Gaining citizenship and moving up in ranks was very
100 CHAPTER 14. ROMAN PROVINCE OF EGYPT

rates that the Ptolemies levied, but the Romans gave spe-
cial low rates to citizens of metropolises.[9] The city of
Oxyrhynchus had many papyri remains that contain much
information on the subject of social structure in these
cities. This city, along with Alexandria, shows the diverse
set-up of various institutions that the Romans continued
to use after their takeover of Egypt.
Just as under the Ptolemies, Alexandria and its citizens
had their own special designations. The capital city en-
joyed a higher status and more privileges than the rest of
Egypt. Just as it was under the Ptolemies, the primary
way of becoming a citizen of Roman Alexandria was
through showing when registering for a deme that both
parents were Alexandrian citizens. Alexandrians were the
only Egyptians that could obtain Roman citizenship.[10]
If a common Egyptian wanted to become a Roman citi-
zen he would rst have to become an Alexandrian citizen.
The Augustan period in Egypt saw the creation of urban
communities with Hellenic landowning elites. These
landowning elites were put in a position of privilege and
power and had more self-administration than the Egyp-
tian population. Within the citizenry, there were gymna-
siums that Greek citizens could enter if they showed that
both parents were members of the gymnasium based on
a list that was compiled by the government in 45 AD.[11]
The candidate for the gymnasium would then be let into
Possible depiction of the province of Egypt from the Hadrianeum the ephebus. There was also the council of elders known
in Rome as the gerousia. This council of elders did not have a
boulai to answer to. All of this Greek organization was
a vital part of the metropolis and the Greek institutions
dicult and there were not many available options for
provided an elite group of citizens. The Romans looked
ascendancy.[6]
to these elites to provide municipal ocers and well-
One of the routes that many followed to ascend to another educated administrators.[11] These elites also paid lower
caste was through enlistment in the army. Although only poll-taxes than the local native Egyptians, fellahin. It
Romans citizens could serve in the legions, many Greeks is well documented that Alexandrians in particular were
found their way in. The native Egyptians could join the able to enjoy lower tax-rates on land.[12]
auxiliary forces and attain citizenship upon discharge.[7]
These privileges even extended to corporal punishments.
The dierent groups had dierent rates of taxation based
Romans were protected from this type of punishment
on their social class. The Greeks were exempt from the
while native Egyptians were whipped. Alexandrians, on
poll tax, while Hellenized inhabitants of the nome capitals
the other hand, had the privilege of merely being beaten
were taxed at a lower rate than the native Egyptians, who
with a rod.[13] Although Alexandria enjoyed the great-
could not enter the army, and paid the full poll tax.[8]
est status of the Greek cities in Egypt, it is clear that the
The social structure in Aegyptus is very closely linked other Greek cities, such as Antinoopolis, enjoyed privi-
to the governing administration. Elements of central- leges very similar to the ones seen in Alexandria.[14] All
ized rule that were derived from the Ptolemaic period of these changes amounted to the Greeks being treated as
lasted into the 4th century. One element in particular an ally in Egypt and the native Egyptians were treated as
was the appointment of strategoi to govern the nomes, a conquered race.
the traditional administrative divisions of Egypt. Boulai,
The Gnomon of the Idios Logos shows the connection
or town councils, in Egypt were only formally consti-
between law and status. It lays out the revenues it deals
tuted by Septimius Severus. It was only under Diocletian
with, mainly nes and conscation of property, to which
later in the 3rd century that these boulai and their of-
only a few groups were apt. The Gnomon also conrms
cers acquired important administrative responsibilities
that a freed slave takes his former masters social status.
for their nomes. The Augustan takeover introduced a
The Gnomon demonstrates the social controls that the
system of compulsory public service, which was based
Romans had in place through monetary means based on
on poros (property or income qualication), which was
status and property.
wholly based on social status and power. The Romans
also introduced the poll tax which was similar to tax
14.7. LATER ROMAN EGYPT (4TH6TH CENTURIES) 101

14.6 Christian Egypt (33 AD4th Alexandria in 326 after the First Council of Nicaea re-
jected Ariuss views. The Arian controversy caused years
century) of riots and rebellions throughout most of the 4th century.
In the course of one of these, the great temple of Serapis,
the stronghold of paganism, was destroyed. Athanasius
The Patriarchate of Alexandria is held to be founded by
was alternately expelled from Alexandria and reinstated
Mark the Evangelist around 33. The historian Helmut
as its Archbishop between ve and seven times.
Koester has suggested, with some evidence, that the
Christians in Egypt were originally predominantly inu- Egypt had an ancient tradition of religious speculation,
enced by gnosticism until the eorts of Demetrius of enabling a variety of controversial religious views to
Alexandria gradually brought the beliefs of the majority thrive there. Not only did Arianism ourish, but other
into harmony with the rest of Christianity. While the col- doctrines, such as Gnosticism and Manichaeism, either
lective embarrassment over their origins would explain native or imported, found many followers. Another reli-
the lack of details for the rst centuries of Christianity gious development in Egypt was the monasticism of the
in Egypt, there are too many gaps in the history of Ro- Desert Fathers, who renounced the material world in or-
man times to claim that our ignorance in this situation is der to live a life of poverty in devotion to the Church.
a special case. Egyptian Christians took up monasticism with such en-
The ancient religion of Egypt put up surprisingly little re- thusiasm that the Emperor Valens had to restrict the num-
sistance to the spread of Christianity. Possibly its long ber of men who could become monks. Egypt exported
history of collaboration with the Greek and Roman rulers monasticism to the rest of the Christian world. An-
of Egypt had robbed its religious leaders of authority. Al- other development of this period was the development of
ternatively, the life-arming native religion may have be- Coptic, a form of the Ancient Egyptian language written
gun to lose its appeal among the lower classes as a burden with the Greek alphabet supplemented by several signs
of taxation and liturgic services instituted by the Roman to represent sounds present in Egyptian which were not
emperors reduced the quality of life. present in Greek. It was invented to ensure the correct
pronunciation of magical words and names in pagan texts,
In a religious system which views earthly life as eternal,
the so-called Greek Magical Papyri. Coptic was soon
when earthly life becomes strained and miserable, the de-
adopted by early Christians to spread the word of the
sire for such an everlasting life loses its appeal. Thus, the
gospel to native Egyptians and it became the liturgical
focus on poverty and meekness found a vacuum among
language of Egyptian Christianity and remains so to this
the Egyptian population. In addition, many Christian
day.
tenets such as the concept of the trinity, a resurrection
of deity and union with the deity after death had close
similarities with the native religion of ancient Egypt. Or
it may simply have been because branches of the native 14.7 Later Roman Egypt (4th6th
religion and Christianity had converged to a point where
their similarities made the change a minor one.
centuries)
By 200 it is clear that Alexandria was one of the great
Christian centres. The Christian apologists Clement of
Alexandria and Origen both lived part or all of their lives
in that city, where they wrote, taught, and debated.
With the Edict of Milan in 313, Constantine I ended the
persecution of Christians. Over the course of the 5th cen-
tury, paganism was suppressed and lost its following, as
the poet Palladius bitterly noted. It lingered underground
for many decades: the nal edict against paganism was is-
sued in 435, but grati at Philae in Upper Egypt proves
worship of Isis persisted at its temples into the 6th cen-
tury. Many Egyptian Jews also became Christians, but
many others refused to do so, leaving them as the only
sizable religious minority in a Christian country. A map of the Near East in 565, showing Byzantine Egypt and its
neighbors.
No sooner had the Egyptian Church achieved freedom
and supremacy than it became subject to a schism and
prolonged conict which at times descended into civil Further information: Diocese of Egypt
war. Alexandria became the centre of the rst great
split in the Christian world, between the Arians, named The reign of Constantine also saw the founding of
for the Alexandrian priest Arius, and their opponents, Constantinople as a new capital for the Roman Empire,
represented by Athanasius, who became Archbishop of and in the course of the 4th century the Empire was di-
102 CHAPTER 14. ROMAN PROVINCE OF EGYPT

vided in two, with Egypt nding itself in the Eastern Em- in Egyptian religious life today.[15] Egypt and Syria re-
pire with its capital at Constantinople. Latin, never well mained hotbeds of Miaphysite sentiment, and organised
established in Egypt, would play a declining role with resistance to the Chalcedonian view was not suppressed
Greek continuing to be the dominant language of gov- until the 570s.
ernment and scholarship. During the 5th and 6th cen- Egypt nevertheless continued to be an important eco-
turies the Eastern Roman Empire, today known as the nomic center for the Empire supplying much of its agri-
Byzantine Empire, gradually transformed itself into a culture and manufacturing needs as well as continuing to
thoroughly Christian state whose culture diered signi- be an important center of scholarship. It would supply
cantly from its pagan past.
the needs of Byzantine Empire and the Mediterranean as
The fall of the Western Empire in the 5th century fur- a whole. The reign of Justinian (482565) saw the Em-
ther isolated the Egyptian Romans from Romes culture pire recapture Rome and much of Italy from the barbar-
and hastened the growth of Christianity. The triumph of ians, but these successes left the empires eastern ank
Christianity led to a virtual abandonment of pharaonic exposed. The Empires bread basket now lacked for
traditions: with the disappearance of the Egyptian priests protection.
and priestesses who ociated at the temples, no-one
could read the hieroglyphs of Pharaonic Egypt, and its
temples were converted to churches or abandoned to the 14.8 Episcopal sees
desert.
The Eastern Empire became increasingly oriental in Ancient episcopal sees of the Roman province of Aegyp-
style as its links with the old Grco-Roman world faded. tus Primus (I) listed in the Annuario Ponticio as titular
The Greek system of local government by citizens had sees, [16] suragans of the Patriarchate of Alexandria :
now entirely disappeared. Oces, with new Byzan-
tine names, were almost hereditary in the wealthy land- Agnus
owning families. Alexandria, the second city of the em-
pire, continued to be a centre of religious controversy and Andropolis (Kherbeta)
violence.
Butus (near Desuq? Com-Casir?)
Cyril, the patriarch of Alexandria, convinced the citys
governor to expel the Jews from the city in 415 with the Cleopatris (Sersina)
aid of the mob, in response to the Jews alleged night-
time massacre of many Christians. The murder of the Coprithis (Cabrit, Cobrit)
philosopher Hypatia in March 415 marked the nal end Hermopolis Parva
of classical Hellenic culture in Egypt. Another schism in
the Church produced a prolonged civil war and alienated Letopolis
Egypt from the Empire.
Phatanus (El-Batanu, El-Batnu)
The new religious controversy was over the nature of
Jesus of Nazareth. The issue was whether he had two Mariotes (Lake Mariout)
natures, human and divine, or a combined one (from His
Menelaite (Idku)
humanity and divinity). This may seem an arcane dis-
tinction, but in an intensely religious age it was enough Metelis (Kom el-Ghoraf)
to divide an empire. The Miaphysite controversy arose
after the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and con- Naucratis
tinued until the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which ruled
in favour of the position that Jesus was In two natures Nicius (Ibshadi)
due to confusing Miaphytism (combined) with Mono- Onuphis (Menouf)
phystism (single).
Petra in Aegypto (Hagar-En-Nauatiyeh)
The Monophysite belief was not held by the miaphysites
as they stated that Jesus was out of two natures in one Sais
nature called, the Incarnate Logos of God. Many of
the miaphysites claimed that they were misunderstood, Taua (Thaouah? near Ebiar?)
that there was really no dierence between their posi-
Terenuthis
tion and the Chalcedonian position, and that the Coun-
cil of Chalcedon ruled against them because of politi- Thois (Tideh)
cal motivations alone. The Church of Alexandria split
from the Churches of Rome and Constantinople over this
Ancient episcopal sees of the Roman province of Aegyp-
issue, creating what would become the Coptic Ortho-
tus Secundus (II) listed in the Annuario Ponticio as
dox Church of Alexandria, which remains a major force
titular sees :[16]
14.10. ARAB ISLAMIC CONQUEST (639646 AD) 103

Busiris (Abu-Sir) a state of both religious and political alienation from the
Empire when a new invader appeared.
Cabasa (Chahbas-Esch-Choada)
Cynopolis in Aegypto (Banm Ben)
*Diospolis Inferior (*Tell el-Balamun)
14.10 Arab Islamic conquest (639
646 AD)
Pachnemunis (Kom el-Khanziri)
Phragonis (Tell-El-Faran, Cm-Faran)
Schedia
Sebennytus (Sebennytos)
Xois

14.9 Sassanian Persian invasion


(619 AD) The Mediterranean world in 650, after the Arabs had conquered
Egypt and Syria from the Byzantines.

Main article: Muslim conquest of Egypt

An army of 4,000 Arabs led by Amr Ibn Al-Aas was sent


by the Caliph Umar, successor to Muhammad, to spread
Islamic rule to the west. Arabs crossed into Egypt from
Palestine in December 639, and advanced rapidly into
the Nile Delta. The Imperial garrisons retreated into the
walled towns, where they successfully held out for a year
or more.
The Byzantine Empire by 626, after Heraclius had reconquered
Syria, Palestine and Egypt from the Sassanid Empire. The Arabs sent for reinforcements, and in April 641 they
besieged and captured Alexandria. The Byzantines as-
Main articles: RomanPersian Wars and Sasanian Egypt sembled a eet with the aim of recapturing Egypt, and
won back Alexandria in 645. The Muslims retook the
The Persian conquest of Egypt, beginning in AD 619 city in 646, completing the Muslim conquest of Egypt.
or 618, was one of the last Sassanid triumphs in the Thus ended 975 years of Grco-Roman rule over Egypt.
Roman-Persian Wars against Byzantium. From 619 -
628, they incorporated Egypt once again within their ter-
ritories, the previous (much longer) time being under the 14.11 Gallery
Achaemenids. Khosrow II Parvz had begun this war
in retaliation for the assassination of Emperor Maurice
(582602) and had achieved a series of early successes,
culminating in the conquests of Jerusalem (614) and
Alexandria (619).
A Byzantine counteroensive launched by Emperor
Heraclius in the spring of 622 shifted the advantage, and
the war was brought to an end by the fall of Khosrow on
Mummy Mask of a Man, early
25 February 628 (Frye, pp. 16770). The Egyptians had
1st century AD, 72.57, Brooklyn Museum
no love of the emperor in Constantinople and put up little
resistance. Khosrows son and successor, Kavadh II re
(ry), who reigned until September, concluded a peace
treaty returning territories conquered by the Sassanids to
the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Persian conquest allowed Miaphysitism to resurface
in the open in Egypt, and when imperial rule was restored
by Emperor Heraclius in 629, the Miaphysites were per- Funerary masks uncovered
secuted and their patriarch expelled. Egypt was thus in in Fayoum, 1st century.
104 CHAPTER 14. ROMAN PROVINCE OF EGYPT

[13] Delia, pp.3132

[14] Delia, p.32

[15] Egypt. Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World


Hadrian coin celebrating Aairs. Retrieved 2011-12-14. See drop-down essay on
gyptus Province, struck c. 135. In the obverse, Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire
Egypt is personied as a reclining woman holding
the sistrum of Hathor. Her left elbow rests on a [16] Annuario Ponticio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013
ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), Sedi titolari, pp. 819-1013
basket of grain, while an ibis stands on the column
at her feet.

14.13 Further reading


Angold, Michael. 2001. Byzantium : the bridge
from antiquity to the Middle Ages. 1st US Edition.
Zenobia coin reporting her
New York : St. Martins Press
title as queen of Egypt (Augusta), and showing
her diademed and draped bust on a crescent. The
Bowman, Alan Keir. 1996. Egypt After the
obverse shows a standing gure of Ivno Regina
Pharaohs: 332 BCAD 642; From Alexander to the
(Juno) holding a patera in her right hand and a
Arab Conquest. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of
sceptre in her left hand, with a peacock at her feet
California Press
and a brilliant star on the left.
Bowman, Alan K. and Dominic Rathbone. Cities
and Administration in Roman Egypt. The Journal
of Roman Studies 82 (1992): 107-127. Database
14.12 References on-line. JSTOR, GALILEO; accessed October 27,
2008
[1] Egypt (page 102)
Chauveau, Michel. 2000. Egypt in the Age of
[2] The Inheritance of Rome Cleopatra: History and Society under the Ptolemies.
Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca: Cornell Uni-
[3] Christiansen, Erik (2004). Coinage in Roman Egypt: The
versity Press
Hoard Evidence. Aarhus University Press.

[4] Turner, E. G. (1975). Oxyrhynchus and Rome. El-Abbadi, M.A.H. The Gerousia in Roman
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. 79: 124 [p. 3]. Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 50
JSTOR 311126. (December 1964): 164-169. Database on-line. JS-
TOR, GALILEO; accessed October 27, 2008.
[5] Alston, Richard (1997). Philos In Flaccum: Ethnic-
ity and Social Space in Roman Alexandria. Greece and Ellis, Simon P. 1992. Graeco-Roman Egypt. Shire
Rome. Second Series. 44 (2): 165175 [p. 166]. Egyptology 17, ser. ed. Barbara G. Adams. Ayles-
doi:10.1093/gr/44.2.165.
bury: Shire Publications Ltd.
[6] Lewis, Naphtali (1995). Greco-Roman Egypt: Fact or
Fiction?". On Government and Law in Roman Egypt. At- Hill, John E. 2003. Annotated Translation of the
lanta: Scholars Press. p. 145. Chapter on the Western Regions according to the
Hou Hanshu. 2nd Draft Edition.
[7] Bell, Idris H. (1922). Hellenic Culture in Egypt.
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 8 (3/4): 139155 [p. Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the
148]. JSTOR 3853691. Weilue by Yu Huan : A Third Century Chinese
Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE Draft
[8] Bell, p.148
annotated English translation.
[9] Lewis, p.141
Hlbl, Gnther. 2001. A History of the Ptolemaic
[10] Sherwin-White, A. N. (1973). The Roman Citizenship. Empire. Translated by Tina Saavedra. London:
Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 391. Routledge Ltd.
[11] Turner, E. G. Roman Oxyrhynchus. Journal of Egyp-
Lloyd, Alan Brian. 2000. The Ptolemaic Period
tian Archaeology. 38: 7893 [p. 84]. JSTOR 3855498.
(33230 BC)". In The Oxford History of Ancient
[12] Delia, Diana (1991). Alexandrian Citizenship During the Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York:
Roman Principate. Atlanta: Scholars Press. p. 31. Oxford University Press. 395421
14.14. EXTERNAL LINKS 105

Peacock, David. 2000. The Roman Period (30


BCAD 311)". In The Oxford History of Ancient
Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press. 422445
Riggs, Christina, ed. (2012). The Oxford Handbook
of Roman Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN
978-0-19-957145-1.

14.14 External links


Detailed Map of Aegyptus
Chapter 15

Diocese of Egypt

This article is about the Byzantine administrative cir- Libya Superior or Pentapolis, under a praeses
cumscription. For the Anglican ecclesiastical diocese,
see Anglican Diocese of Egypt. Parallel to the civil administration, the Roman army
Warning: Page using Template:Infobox former subdivi- in Egypt had been placed under a single general and
sion with unknown parameter continent (this message military governor styled dux (dux Aegypti et Thebaidos
is shown only in preview). utrarumque Libyarum) in the Tetrarchy. Shortly after
the creation of Egypt as a separate diocese (between
The Diocese of Egypt (Latin: Dioecesis Aegypti, Greek: 384 and 391), the post evolved into the comes limitis
) was a diocese of the later Roman Aegypti, who was directly responsible for Lower Egypt,
Empire (from 395 the Eastern Roman Empire), incorpo- while the subordinate dux Thebaidis was in charge of
rating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica. Its capital Upper Egypt (Thebais). In the middle of the 5th cen-
was at Alexandria, and its governor had the unique title tury, however, the latter was also promoted to the rank of
of praefectus augustalis (Augustal Prefect, of the rank comes (comes Thebaici limitis).[4] The two ocers were
vir spectabilis; previously the governor of the imperial responsible for the limitanei (border garrison) troops sta-
'crown domain' province Egypt) instead of the ordinary tioned in the province, while until the time of Anastasius
vicarius. The diocese was initially part of the Diocese I the comitatenses eld army came under the command
of the East, but in ca. 380, it became a separate entity, of the magister militum per Orientem, and the palatini
which lasted until its territories were nally overrun by (guards) under the two magistri militum praesentales in
the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the 640s. Constantinople.[5]
The comes limitis Aegypti enjoyed great power and inu-
ence in the diocese, rivalling that of the praefectus au-
15.1 Administrative history gustalis himself. From the 5th century, the comes is at-
tested as exercising some civilian duties as well, and from
Egypt was formed into a separate diocese in about 381.[1] 470 on, the oces of comes and praefectus[6]augustalis
According to the Notitia Dignitatum, which for the East- were sometimes combined in a single person.
ern part of the Empire dates to ca. 401, the diocese came This tendency to unite civil and military authority was for-
under a vicarius of the praetorian prefecture of the East, malized by Justinian I in his 539 reform of Egyptian ad-
with the title of praefectus augustalis, and included six ministration. The diocese was eectively abolished, and
provinces:[2][3] regional ducates established, where the presiding dux et
augustalis was placed above the combined civil and mili-
[6][7]
Aegyptus (western Nile delta), originally established tary authority:
in the early 4th century as Aegyptus Iovia, under a
praeses dux et augustalis Aegypti, controlling Aegyptus I and
Aegyptus II
Augustamnica (eastern Nile delta), originally estab-
lished in the early 4th century as Aegyptus Herculia, dux et augustalis Thebaidis, controlling Thebais su-
under a corrector perior and Thebais inferior

Arcadia (central), established ca. 397 and having Augustamnica I and Augustamnica II were likewise
previously briey listed in the 320s as Aegyptus Mer- probably the relevant portion of the edict is de-
curia, under a praeses fective were placed under a single dux et au-
gustalis
Thebais (southern), under a praeses
in the two Libyan provinces, the civil governors were
Libya Inferior or Libya Sicca, under a praeses subordinated to the respective dux

106
15.3. NOTES 107

Arcadia remained under its praeses, probably subor- 15.3 Notes


dinated to the dux et augustalis Thebaidos, and a dux
et augustalis Arcadiae does not appear until after the [1] Palme 2007, p. 245.
Persian occupation of 619629.
[2] Palme 2007, pp. 245246.

[3] Notitia Dignitatum, in partibus Orientis, I


15.2 Praefecti Augustalii of the Dio- [4] Palme 2007, p. 247.
cese [5] Palme 2007, pp. 247248.

[6] Palme 2007, p. 248.


Taken from the Prosopography of the Later Roman Em-
pire (except for Theognostus): [7] Hendy 1985, pp. 179180.

[8] Duchesne, Louis (1909): Early History of the Christian


Eutolmius Tatianus (367-370) Church. From Its Foundation to the End of the Fifth Cen-
tury. Volume III: The Fifth Century Read Books, 2008,
Olympius Palladius (370-371) p. 550. ISBN 978-1-4437-7159-7

Aelius Palladius (371-374)


15.4 Sources
Publius (c. 376)
Hendy, Michael F. (1985). Studies in the Byzan-
Bassianus (c. 379) tine Monetary Economy c. 3001450. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24715-2.
Hadrianus (c. 379)
Palme, Bernhard (2007). The Imperial Presence:
Government and Army. In Bagnall, Roger S. Egypt
Iulianus (c. 380)
in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge Uni-
versity Press. pp. 244270. ISBN 0521871379.
Antoninus (381-382)

Palladius (382)

Hypatius (383)

Optatus (384)

Florentius (384-386)

Paulinus (386-387)

Eusebius (387)

Flavius Ulpius Erythrius (388)

Alexander (388-390)

Evagrius (391)

Hypatius (392)

Potamius (392)

Orestes (415)

Theognostus (c. 482)[8]

Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius (c. 539-542)


Chapter 16

Sasanian conquest of Egypt

Between 618 and 621 AD, the Sassanid Persian army de- by general Shahrbaraz from Alexandria.[1] As the Roman
feated the Byzantine forces in Egypt and occupied the emperor, Heraclius, reversed the tide and defeated Khos-
province. The fall of Alexandria, the capital of Roman rau, Shahrbaraz was ordered to evacuate the province,
Egypt, marked the rst and most important stage in the but refused. In the end, Heraclius, trying both to recover
Sassanid campaign to conquer this rich province, which Egypt and to sow disunion amongst the Persians, oered
eventually fell completely under Persian rule within a cou- to help Shahrbaraz seize the Persian throne for himself.
ple of years. A good account of the event is given by An agreement was reached, and in the summer of 629,
Butler. [2] the Persian troops began leaving Egypt.[1]

16.1 Background 16.4 References


The Persian shah, Khosrau II, had taken advantage of [1] Howard-Johnston (2006), p. 124
the internal turmoil of the East Roman Empire after the [2] A. J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt, (1902).
overthrow of Emperor Maurice by Phocas to attack the Reprinted (1978) by Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-
Roman provinces in the East. By 615, the Persians had 19-821678-5
driven the Romans out of northern Mesopotamia, Syria
and Palestine. Determined to eradicate Roman rule in [3] Frye (1993), p. 169
Asia, Khosrau turned his sight on Egypt, the East Roman [4] Dodgeon et al. (2002), p. 196
Empires granary.[3]
[5] Dodgeon et al. (2002), pp. 196, 235

[6] Howard-Johnston (2006), pp. 10, 90


16.2 Fall of Egypt
[7] Howard-Johnston (2006), p. 99

The Persian invasion of Egypt began either in 617 or 618,


but little is known about the particulars of this campaign,
since the province was practically cut o from the re- 16.5 Sources
maining Roman territories.[4] The Persian army headed
for Alexandria, where Nicetas, Heraclius cousin and lo- Dodgeon, Michael H.; Greatrex, Georey; Lieu,
cal governor, was unable to oer eective resistance. He Samuel N. C. (2002). The Roman Eastern Frontier
and the Chalcedonian patriarch, John V, ed the city to and the Persian Wars (Part I, 226363 AD). Rout-
Cyprus.[3] According to the Khuzistan Chronicle, Alexan- ledge. pp. 19697. ISBN 0-415-00342-3.
dria was then betrayed to the Persians by a certain Peter
Frye, R. N. (1993). The Political History of Iran
in June 619.[5][6]
under the Sassanids. In Yarshater, Ehsan; Bailey,
After the fall of Alexandria, the Persians gradually ex- Harold. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge
tended their rule southwards along the Nile.[4] Sporadic University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20092-9.
resistance required some mopping-up operations, but by
621, the province was securely in Persian hands.[7] Howard-Johnston, James (2006). East Rome, Sasa-
nian Persia And the End of Antiquity: Historiograph-
ical And Historical Studies. Ashgate Publishing.
ISBN 0-86078-992-6.
16.3 Aftermath
Egypt would remain in Persian hands for 10 years, run

108
Chapter 17

Outline of ancient Egypt

The following outline is provided as an overview of a top- Abydos


ical guide to ancient Egypt:
Alexandria
Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of eastern North
Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile Al Fayyum/Atef-Pehu
River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
Amarna/Akhetaten
Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BCE (ac-
cording to conventional Egyptian chronology)[1] with the Aswan
political unication of Upper and Lower Egypt under
the rst pharaoh.[2] The many achievements of the an- Asyut
cient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and
Avaris
construction techniques that facilitated the building of
monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a sys- Beni Hasan
tem of mathematics; a practical and eective system of
medicine; irrigation systems and agricultural production Bubastis
techniques; the rst known ships;[3] Egyptian faience and Buhen
glass technology; new forms of literature; and the earliest
known peace treaty.[4] Busiris (Lower Egypt)
Buto
17.1 What type of thing is Ancient Dahshur
Egypt? Deir el-Bahri
Deir el-Madinah
Ancient Egypt can be described as:
Edfu
an ancient civilization
El-Lahun
a Bronze Age civilization
Elephantine/Abu/Yebu
part of ancient history
Gebel el-Silsila
Gerzeh
17.2 Geography of ancient Egypt
Giza
17.2.1 Places Gaza

See also: Architecture of ancient Egypt Heliopolis/Annu/Iunu


Luxor

Abu Gorab Memphis/Ineb Hedj

Abu Mena Rosetta


Abu Rawash Saqqara
Abu Simbel Tanis/Djanet

109
110 CHAPTER 17. OUTLINE OF ANCIENT EGYPT

Thebes/Niwt/Waset 17.4 General history of ancient


Thinis Egypt

more... History of ancient Egypt

17.4.1 History of ancient Egypt, by period


17.3 Government and politics of
ancient Egypt Prehistoric Egypt The Prehistory of Egypt spans
the period of earliest human settlement to the be-
ginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in ca.
17.3.1 Pharaohs 3100 BCE.

Pharaoh An article about the history of the title Naqada I or Amratian culture - a cultural pe-
Pharaoh with descriptions of the regalia, crowns riod in the history of predynastic Upper Egypt,
and titles used. which lasted approximately from 4000 to 3500
BCE.
List of pharaohs This article contains a list of the Naqada II or Gerzeh culture - The Gerzean is
pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic the second of three phases of the Naqada Cul-
Period before 3000 BCE through to the end of the ture, and so is called Naqada II. It begins circa
Ptolemaic Dynasty 3500 BCE lasting through circa 3200 BCE.
Ancient Egyptian royal titulary Naqada III or Semainean culture - Naqada III
is the last phase of the Naqadan period of
ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approxi-
17.3.2 Government Ocials mately from 3200 to 3100 BCE.

Early Dynastic Period of Egypt The Archaic or


Vizier (Ancient Egypt) The vizier was the high-
Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately fol-
est ocial in Ancient Egypt to serve the king, or
lows the unication of Lower and Upper Egypt c.
pharaoh during the Old, Middle, and New King-
3100 BCE. It is generally taken to include:
doms.
The First dynasty of Egypt
Viceroy of Kush The Lower Nubian Kush was a
province of Egypt from the 16th century BCE to The Second dynasty of Egypt
eleventh century BCE. During this period it was
ruled by a viceroy who reported directly to the Egyp- Old Kingdom The name given to the period in the
tian Pharaoh. 3rd millennium BCE when Egypt attained its rst
continuous peak of civilization in complexity and
Treasurer (Ancient Egypt) The treasurer was re- achievement the rst of three so-called Kingdom
sponsible for products coming to the royal palace. periods, which mark the high points of civilization
They were the main economical administrator of the in the lower Nile Valley. This time period includes:
royal belongings.
The Third dynasty of Egypt
The Fourth dynasty of Egypt
17.3.3 Egyptian law The Fifth dynasty of Egypt
The Sixth dynasty of Egypt
Egyptian law
First Intermediate Period of Egypt This pe-
riod is often described as a dark period in ancient
17.3.4 Military of ancient Egypt Egyptian history, spanning approximately 140 years
after the end of the Old Kingdom from ca. 2181-
Military of ancient Egypt 2055 BCE [5] It included:

Ancient egyptian warfare The Seventh and eighth dynasties of Egypt


The Ninth dynasty of Egypt
Chariotry in ancient Egypt
The Tenth dynasty of Egypt
Ancient Egyptian Navy Part of the Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
17.5. EGYPTOLOGY 111

Middle Kingdom of Egypt The period in the his- The Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt consisted
tory of ancient Egypt between 2055 BCE and 1650 of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais,
BCE This period includes: who rebelled against the Persians. This dy-
nasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC.
Later part of the Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt ruled from
The Twelfth dynasty of Egypt Mendes, for the period from 398 BC to 380
The Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt BC.
The Fourteenth dynasty of Egypt The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of a series of
three pharaohs ruling from 380 BC until their
Some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dy- nal defeat in 343 BC lead to the re-occupation
nasties in the Second Intermediate Period. by the Persians.

Graeco-Roman Period
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (Hyksos)
a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a Arab Conquest
second time, between the end of the Middle King-
dom and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best
known as the period when the Hyksos made their 17.4.2 History of ancient Egypt, by region
appearance in Egypt and whose reign comprised
History of Alexandria
The Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt
The Sixteenth dynasty of Egypt.
17.4.3 History of ancient Egypt, by subject
New Kingdom of Egypt Also referred to as the
Egyptian Empire is the period in ancient Egyptian Military history of Ancient Egypt
history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th
Battle of Kadesh
century BCE, covering:

The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt


The Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt 17.5 Egyptology
The Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.
Egyptology study of ancient Egyptian history, language,
Third Intermediate Period The time in Ancient literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th mil-
Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in lennium BC until the end of its native religious practices
1070 BCE to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is
Dynasty by Psamtik I in 664 BCE an Egyptologist.

This period includes:


17.5.1 Egyptologists
The Twenty-rst dynasty of Egypt Egyptologist a practitioner of egyptology
The Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt Margaret Benson
The Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt Alan Gardiner
The Twenty-fth dynasty of Egypt
Zahi Hawass
Late Period of ancient Egypt
Main articles: History of Persian Egypt and History Salima Ikram
of Achaemenid Egypt
William Matthew Flinders Petrie

Alan Gardiner
The Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, also
known as the Saite Period, lasted from 672 Auguste Mariette
BCEto 525 BCE.
E. A. Wallis Budge
The Twenty-seventh dynasty of Egypt The
First Persian Period (525 BC - 404 BC), this douard Naville
period saw Egypt conquered by an expansive
Persian Empire under Cambyses. Edward R. Ayrton
112 CHAPTER 17. OUTLINE OF ANCIENT EGYPT

Bob Brier Ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture

Edwin Smith (Egyptologist) Homosexuality in ancient Egypt

Flinders Petrie Pectoral (Ancient Egypt)


Symbols of ancient Egypt
17.5.2 Museums with ancient Egyptian ex- Ankh
hibits
Djed
Egypt Wadjet
Was scepter
Cairo Museum of Egyptian Antiquities
Uraeus
Luxor Museum Pschent
Luxor Mummication Museum Hedjet
Deshret
France Atef
Reserve head
Louvre
Technology of ancient Egypt

Germany Chariotry in ancient Egypt


Obelisk building technology in ancient Egypt
Egyptian Museum of Berlin
Stone quarries of ancient Egypt
Urban planning in ancient Egypt
Italy
Ancient Egyptian technology
Museo Egizio, Turin Ancient Egyptian medicine
Ancient Egyptian units of measurement
Palermo Archeological Museum
Egyptian mathematics
Ancient Egyptian multiplication
United Kingdom

British Museum 17.6.1 Architecture of ancient Egypt


Petrie Museum of Egyptology
Ancient Egyptian architecture
Ashmolean Museum
Block statue (Egyptian)
United States of America False door

Metropolitan Museum of Art Step pyramid

Brooklyn Museum
Buildings and structures

Abu Simbel
17.6 Culture of ancient Egypt
Benben
Art of ancient Egypt
Deir el-Bahri
Amarna art
Colossi of Memnon
Dance in ancient Egypt
Egyptian pyramids L
Calendar
Bent Pyramid
Cats in ancient Egypt Black Pyramid
Cuisine of ancient Egypt Giza pyramid complex
17.6. CULTURE OF ANCIENT EGYPT 113

Great pyramid of Giza Nun and Naunet


Other major deities
Sphinx
Amun
Karnak Temple Anubis
Lighthouse of Alexandria Apep
Apis
Library of Alexandria
Aten
Luxor temple Bast
Hathor
Mastaba
Horus
Ramesseum Khepri
Serdab Chons
Ma'at
Min
17.6.2 Religion in ancient Egypt
Neith
Ancient Egyptian religion Ptah
Ra
Death Sekhmet
Sobek
Ancient Egyptian burial customs
Thoth
Canopic jars
Wepwawet
Mummy
Deied concepts
Ancient Egyptian funerary texts Chons
Book of Caverns Hapy
Book of Gates Ma'at
Book of the Dead Min
Book of the Earth Renenutet
Book of the Netherworld Shai
Books of Breathing Hu
Mortuary temple Sia
Ancient Egyptian oering formula War deities
Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrices Anhur
Bast
Egyptian mythology
Maahes
Ancient Egyptian creation myths Pakhet
Egyptian pantheon Sekhmet
Ennead Other deities
Atum Bes
Shu Chnum
Tefnut Seker
Geb Seshat
Nut (Nuit) Tawaret
Osiris Montu
Isis Nepthys
Set Bastet
Nephthys Ammit
Ogdoad of Hermopolis Bes
Amun and Amunet
Religious concepts
Huh and Hauhet
Kuk and Kauket Ba
114 CHAPTER 17. OUTLINE OF ANCIENT EGYPT

Ka 17.8 Scholars
Akh
Egyptologists
Duat
Margaret Benson
Atenism
Alan Gardiner
Egyptian soul
Zahi Hawass
Ennead
Salima Ikram
William Matthew Flinders Petrie
17.6.3 Ancient Egyptian language Alan Gardiner
Auguste Mariette
Ancient Egyptian language
E. A. Wallis Budge
Stages of ancient Egyptian language douard Naville
Edward R. Ayrton
Archaic Egyptian before 2600 BC, the lan-
Bob Brier
guage of the Early Dynastic Period. Egyptian
writing in the form of labels and signs has been Edwin Smith (Egyptologist)
dated to 3200 BC. Flinders Petrie
Old Egyptian 2686 BC 2181 BC, the lan-
guage of the Old Kingdom
Middle Egyptian 2055 BC 1650 BC, char-
17.9 Publications about ancient
acterized the Middle Kingdom (2055 BC Egypt
1650 BC), but endured through the early 18th
Dynasty until the Amarna Period(1353 BC), Ancient Egypt (magazine)
and continued on as a literary language into the
4th century AD. Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Practical Guide
Late Egyptian 1069 BC 700 BC, character- Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt
ized the Third Intermediate Period (1069 BC
700 BC), but started earlier with the Amarna The Hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt
Period (1353 BC).
Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt
Demotic 7th century BC 5th century AD,
from the Late Period through Roman times Reading Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to An-
cient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture
Coptic 1st century AD 17th century AD,
from early Roman times to early modern times

Egyptian writing
17.10 See also
Hieroglyphs Outline of classical studies
Hieratic
Egyptian calendar
Demotic
Beautiful festival of the valley
Ancient Egyptian literature
Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian Egyptian burial rituals and protocol

Racial characteristics of ancient Egyptians


Writing in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptian race controversy

Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination


17.7 Egyptian economy
Ancient Egyptian Boats (First Dynasty) Abydos
Foreign contacts of ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptian Deities in popular culture

Palace economy Ancient Egyptian cattle


17.12. EXTERNAL LINKS 115

Ancient Egyptian units of measurement

Ancient Egyptians (TV series)


Architecture and sculptures of Ancient Egypt

Cities of ancient Egypt


Glossary of Ancient Egypt artifacts

List of portraiture oerings with Ancient Egyptian


hieroglyphs

Portraiture in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian lists

List of ancient Egypt topics


List of ancient Egyptian dynasties

List of ancient Egyptian palettes


List of ancient Egyptian papyri

List of ancient Egyptian scribes


List of ancient Egyptian sites

List of ancient Egyptians


Adjectival and demonymic forms of regions in
Greco-Egyptian antiquity

17.11 References
[1] Chronology. Digital Egypt for Universities, University
College London. Retrieved 25 March 2008.

[2] Dodson (2004) p. 46

[3] Ward, Cheryl. "Worlds Oldest Planked Boats", in


Archaeology (Volume 54, Number 3, May/June 2001).
Archaeological Institute of America.

[4] Clayton (1994) p. 153

[5] Kathryn A. Bard, An Introduction to the Archaeology of


Ancient Egypt (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2008), 41.

17.12 External links


Chapter 18

Cities of the ancient Near East

The earliest cities in history appear in the ancient Near


East. The area of the ancient Near East covers roughly
that of the modern Middle East; its history begins in the
4th millennium BC and ends, depending on the inter-
pretation of the term, either with the conquest by the
Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC or that by
Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.
The largest cities of the Bronze Age Near East housed
several tens of thousands. Memphis in the Early Bronze
Age with some 30,000 inhabitants was the largest city of
the time by far. Ur in the Middle Bronze Age is esti-
mated to have had some 65,000 inhabitants; Babylon in
the Late Bronze Age similarly had a population of some
5060,000, while Niniveh had some 2030,000, reaching
100,000 only in the Iron Age (ca. 700 BC).
The KI determinative was the Sumerian term for a
city or city state.[1] In Akkadian and Hittite orthogra-
phy, URU became a determinative sign denoting a city,
or combined with KUR land the kingdom or terri-
tory controlled by a city, e.g. LUGAL KUR
URU
Ha-at-ti the king of the country of (the city of)
Hatti".

18.1 Mesopotamia
Further information: Geography of Mesopotamia and
Mesopotamia

18.1.1 Lower Mesopotamia


(ordered from north to south)

Eshnunna (Tell) Kutha (Tell Ibrahim)


Diniktum Jemdet Nasr (NI.RU)
Tutub (Khafajah) Kish (Tell Uheimir & Ingharra)
Der (Tell Aqar, Durum?) Babilim (Babylon)
Sippar (Tell Abu Habbah) Borsippa (Birs Nimrud)
Sippar-Amnanum (Tell ed-Der) Mashkan-shapir (Tell Abu Duwari)

116
18.1. MESOPOTAMIA 117

Dilbat (Tell ed-Duleim) Urfa

Nippur (Afak) Shanidar cave

Marad (Tell Wannat es-Sadum) Urkesh (Tell Mozan)

Adab (Tell Bismaya) Tell Leilan (Shekhna, Shubat-Enlil)

Isin (Ishan al-Bahriyat) Tell Arbid

Kisurra (Tell Abu Hatab) Harran

Shuruppak (Tell Fara) Chagar Bazar

Bad-tibira (Tell al-Madineh?) Itabalhum

Zabalam (Tell Ibzeikh) Kahat (Tell Barri)

Umma (Tell Jokha) Tell el Fakhariya (Washukanni?)

Girsu (Tello or Telloh) Hadatu

Lagash (Tell al-Hiba) Carchemish (Djerabis)

Urum (Tell Uqair) Til Barsip

Uruk (Warka) Tell Chuera

Larsa (Tell as-Senkereh) Mumbaqat (Tall Munbqa, also Ekalte (Mum-


baqat))
Ur (Tell al-Muqayyar)
Al-Rawda
Kuara (Tell al-Lahm)
Nabada l Beydar)
Eridu (Tell Abu Shahrain)
Nagar (Tell Brak)
Tell al-'Ubaid
Telul eth-Thalathat
Akshak
Tepe Gawra
Akkad
Tell Arpachiyah (Tepe Reshwa)

18.1.2 Upper Mesopotamia Shibaniba (Tell Billa)


Tarbisu (Sherif Khan)
Nineveh (Ninua)
Qatara or Karana (Tell al-Rimah)
Tell Hamoukar
Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad)
Tell Shemshara
Arbil (Urbilim, Arba-Ilu)
Tell Taya
Tell Hassuna
Balawat (Imgur-Enlil)
Tell es-Sweyhat
Map of Syria in the second millennium BC Nimrud (Kalhu)
(ordered from north to south) Emar (Tell Meskene)
118 CHAPTER 18. CITIES OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Qal'at Jarmo 18.2.1 Tepe Sialk


Arrapha Susa

Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta Kabnak (Haft Tepe)

Dur Untash (Chogha Zanbil)


Assur
Shahr-i-Sokhte
Shubat-Enlil
Pasargadai
Ekallatum
Naqsh-e Rustam
Nuzi (Yorghan Tepe, Gasur)
Estakhr (Istakhr)
Tell al-Fakhar (Kuruhanni?) Parsa (Persepolis)
Terqa (Tell Ashara) Tall-i Bakun

Doura Europos Anshan (Tall-i Malyan or Tepe Malyan)

Mari (Tell Hariri) Konar Sandal

Shimashki (Kerman)
Haradum (Khirbet ed-Diniyeh)
Tepe Yahya
Tell es Sawwan
Marhasi (Warae, Marhai, Marhashi, Parhasi,
Nerebtum or Kiti (Tell Ishchali) Barhasi)

Tell Agrab

Dur-Kurigalzu (Aqar Quf)


18.3 Anatolia

Shaduppum (Tell Harmal)

Seleucia

Ctesiphon (Taq Kisra)

Zenobia (Halabiye)

Zalabiye

Hatra
Settlements of Bronze Age Anatolia, based on Hittite records.

18.2 Zagros ( West and South ) (ordered from north to south)

(ordered from north to south) Miletus

Sfard (Sardis)
Hamedan ( Ecbatana or Hegmataneh )
Nicaea
Takht-i-Suleiman
Sapinuwa
Behistun
Yazilikaya
Godin Tepe
Alaca Hyk
Awan Maat Hyk

Chogha Mish Alishar Hyk


18.4. THE LEVANT 119

Hattusa Bet Shemesh (house of Shamash)

Ilios (Wilusa, Ilion, Troas, Troy) Bet-el

Kanesh (Nesa, Kltepe) Bethsaida (later name of the capital of Geshur; et-
Tell)
Arslantepe (Malatya)
Bezer (Bosra in Syria)
ayn (Amed, Diyarbakir)
Byblos (Gubla, Kepen)
Sam'al (Zincirli Hyk)
Dan, former Laish (Tel Dan, Tell el-Qadi)
atalhyk
Damascus (Dimasqu, Dimashq)
Beycesultan
Deir Alla (Pethor?)
Karatepe
Dhiban (Dibon)
Tushhan (Ziyaret Tepe)
Dor (D-jr, Dora)
Adana
Ebla (Tell Mardikh)
Tarsus
En Gedi, also Hazazon-tamar (Tel Goren)
Zephyrion (Mersin)
Enfeh (Ampi)
Gzlkule
Ekron (Tel Miqne, Khirbet el-Muqanna)
Sultantepe
Et-Tell (Ai?)
Attalia (Antalya)
Gath

Gaza
18.4 The Levant
Gezer
In alphabetical order: Gibeah (Tell el-Ful?)

Acco (Acre) Gomorrah

Admah (one of the ve cities of the plain) Hamath (Hama, Epiphania)

Adoraim (Adora, Dura) Hazor

Alalah (Alalakh) Hebron

Aleppo Jawa

Aphek (Antipatris, Tell Ak) Jericho (Tell es-Sultan)

Arad (Arad Rabbah?; Tel Arad)


Jerusalem (Jebus, City of David, Zion)
Arqa (Arkat)
Jezreel
Arwad (island o Tartus; Aradus, Arvad, Arphad,
Ruad Island) Kabri (one of several cities called Rehov)
Ashdod Kadesh Barnea
Ashkelon Kedesh (Qadesh in Galilee)
Baalbek (Heliopolis) Khirbet Kerak (Tel Bet Yerah; later Al-Sinnabra)
Batroun (Botrys) Khirbet el-Qom (Makkedah/Maqqedah)
Beersheba (Tel Sheva, Tell es-Seba) Khirbet Qeiyafa (Sha'arayim? / Neta'im?)

Beth Shean (Beth Shan) Kir of Moab (Kerak)


120 CHAPTER 18. CITIES OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Ugarit (Ras Shamra)

Umm el-Marra

Zeboim

Zemar (Sumura, Sumur)

Zoara (Zoar, Bela)

18.5 Arabian Peninsula


Main article: Ancient towns in Saudi Arabia

Kumidi (Kamid al lawz)


Lachish (Tel Lachish, Tell ed-Duweir)
Megiddo (Tel Megiddo, Tell el-Mutesellim)
Qatna (Tell Mishrifeh)
Rabat Amon (Hellenistic Philadelphia)
The Arabian Peninsula and the Horn of Africa, separated by just
Rehov (Jordan Valley) (Tel Rehov) a few miles of the Red Sea, have a history of related settlements,
especially near the coast.
Samaria (Shomron)
Sarepta
Bakkah (Mecca)
Sharuhen (Tell el-Far'ah South?, Tell el-'Ajjul?, Tel
Haror?) Barbar Temple

Shiloh Dedan (Al-`Ula)

Sidon Dibba Al-Hisn

Sodom Dumat Al-Jandal (Dumah)

Tadmor (Palmyra) Eudaemon

Tall Zira'a aram

Tell Balata (Shechem) Kaminahu (Kamna)

Tell el-Hesi (Eglon?) Lihyan

Tell Kazel Qal'at al-Bahrain

Tell Qarqur (Karkar?) Qarnwu (Krna)

Tell Tweini (Gibala?) Mada'in Saleh (Al-Hijr, el Hijr, and Hegra)

Tirzah (Tell el-Farah North) Ma'rib

Tyros (Tylos, Tyre) irw


18.9. NOMES 121

Tayma (Tema)
Tell Abraq
Ubar (Aram, Iram, Irum, Irem, Erum)
Yathrib (Medina)

18.6 Kerma (Doukki Gel)


Jebel Barkal
Napata
Mero
Aksum (Axum)
The nomes of Ancient Egypt, in lower Egypt

18.7 Horn of Africa


Adulis
Keskese
Matara
Qohaito
Sembel
Yeha

18.8 Egypt
Main article: List of ancient Egyptian sites

This is a list of ancient Egyptian sites, throughout all


of Egypt and Nubia. Sites are listed by their classical
name whenever possible, if not by their modern name,
and lastly with their ancient name if no other is available.

18.9 Nomes
A nome is a subnational administrative division of An-
cient Egypt.

18.9.1 Lower Egypt

18.9.2 Upper Egypt


Nome 1: Land of the arch or To Khentit: the frontier The nomes of Ancient Egypt, in upper Egypt
(Ta-Seti)
Nome 2: Throne of Horus Nome 4: The sceptre

Nome 3: The rural (Shrine) Nome 5: The two falcons


122 CHAPTER 18. CITIES OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Nome 6: The crocodile Khufus Pyramid (Great Pyramid)


Khafres Pyramid
Nome 7: Sistrum
Menkaures Pyramid
Nome 8: Great lands Great Sphinx of Giza
Nome 9: Minu (Min) Heliopolis (Modern: "Tell Hisn", Ancient:
"Iunu")
Nome 10: Cobra
Letopolis (Modern: "Ausim", Ancient:
Nome 11: The Set animal (Seth) "Khem")
Nome 12: Viper mountain Hermopolis Parva (Modern: "El-Baqliya" Ancient:
"Ba'h")
Nome 13: Upper pomegranate tree (Upper
Sycamore and Viper) Iseum (Modern: "Behbeit el-Hagar", Ancient:
"Hebyt")
Nome 14: Lower pomegranate tree (Lower
Sycamore and Viper) Kom el-Hisn (Ancient: "Imu" or "Yamu")
Nome 15: Hare Leontopolis (Yahudiya) (Modern: "Tell el-
Yahudiya", Ancient: "Nay-Ta-Hut")
Nome 16: Oryx
Leontopolis (Modern: "Tell el-Muqdam")
Nome 17: The black dog (Jackal)
Nome 18: Falcon with spread wings (Nemty) Naukratis (Modern: "el-Gi'eif", "el-Niqrash",el-
Nibeira")
Nome 19: The pure sceptre (Two Sceptres)
Memphite Necropolis (Memphis)
Nome 20: Upper laurel (Southern Sycamore)
Abu Ghurab
Nome 21: Lower laurel (Northern Sycamore) Abusir (Busiris)
Nome 22: Knife Pyramid of Neferefre
Pyramid of Neferirkare
Pyramid of Nyuserre
18.10 Lower Egypt (The Nile Pyramid of Sahure
Delta) Sun temple of Nyuserre
Sun temple of Userkaf
Alexandria Dahshur
Great Library of Alexandria Bent Pyramid
Pharos of Alexandria Black Pyramid
Pompeys Pillar Red Pyramid
White Pyramid
Athribis (Modern: "Tell Atrib", Ancient: "Hut-
Heryib" or "Hut-Tahery-Ibt") Helwan
Mit Rahina
Avaris (Modern: "Tell el-Dab'a", Ancient: "Pi-
Ri'amsese") Saqqara
Sekhemkhet's Buried Pyramid
Behbeit el-Hagar
Gisr el-mudir
Bilbeis Haram el-Shawaf
Bubastis (Modern: "Tell Basta", Ancient: "Bast") Mazghuna
Pyramid of Ibi
Busiris (Modern: "Abu Sir Bana") Pyramid of Khendjer
Buto (Modern: "Tell el-Fara'in", Ancient: "Pe") Pyramid of Teti
Pyramid of Unas
Cairo (or near Cairo)
Pyramid of Userkaf
Abu Rawash Step Pyramid of Djoser
Giza Necropolis (Giza Plateau) Southern South Saqqara pyramid
18.12. UPPER EGYPT 123

Zawyet el'Aryan el-'Amarna (Ancient: "Akhetaten")

Mendes (Modern: "Tell el-Rub'a", Ancient: "'An- el-Sheikh Sa'id


pet")
Faiyum
Tell Tebilla
Crocodilopolis (Hellenistic: "Arsinoe")
Qantir / El-Khata'na
el-Lahun
Sais (Modern: "Sa el-Hagar", Ancient: "Zau") el-Lisht
Saft el-Hinna (Ancient: "Per-Sopdu") Hawara
Herakleopolis Magna (Modern: "Ihnasiyyah
Sebennytos (Modern: "Samannud", Ancient: "Tjeb-
al-Madinah", Ancient: "Henen-Nesut")
nutjer")
Kom Medinet Ghurab
Shagamba
Meidum
Suwa Sidment el-Gebel
Taposiris Magna (Modern: "Abusir") Seila
Tarkhan
Tanis (Modern: "San el-Hagar", Ancient:
"Djan'net") Hermopolis Magna (Modern: "El Ashmunein", An-
cient: "Khmun")
Tell el-Maskhuta (Ancient: "Tjeku")
Hebenu (Modern: "Kom el-Ahmar")
Tell el-Rataba
Beni Hasan
Tell el-Sahaba
Speos Artemidos (Modern: "Istabl 'Antar")
Tell Nabasha
Zawyet el-Maiyitin
Tell Qua'
Hur (Ancient: "Herwer")
Terenuthis (Modern: "Kom Abu Billo")
Lykopolis (Modern: "Asyut", Ancient: "Zawty")
Thmuis (Modern: "Tell el-Timai")
Meir
Tura
Oxyrhynchus (Modern: "el-Bahnasa", Ancient:
Xois (Modern: "Sakha") "Per-Medjed")

Sharuna
18.11 Middle Egypt Tuna el-Gebel

The area from about Al Fayyum to Asyut is usually re-


ferred to as Middle Egypt. 18.12 Upper Egypt
Akoris (Modern: "Tihna el-Gebel") 18.12.1 Northern Upper Egypt
Fraser Tombs
Abydos (Ancient: "Abedju")
Ankyronpolis (Modern: "el-Hiba", Ancient: "Teud-
joi") el-'Araba el Madfuna
Kom el-Sultan
Antinoopolis (Modern: "el-Sheikh 'Ibada")
Umm el-Qa'ab
Deir el-Bersha Shunet ez Zebib
Deir el-Gabrawi Osireion

Dishasha Apollinopolis Parva (Modern: "Qus", Ancient:


"Gesa" or "Gesy")
Dja (Modern: "Medinet Madi" Ancient: "Nar-
mouthis") Qus Necropolis
124 CHAPTER 18. CITIES OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Antaeopolis (Modern: "Qaw el-Kebir", Ancient: Gebel el-Silsila (Ancient: "Kheny")


"Tjebu" or "Djew-Qa")
Hermonthis (Modern: "Armant", Ancient: "Iuny")
Ar Raqqinah (Known as "Reqaqnah")
Hierakonpolis (Modern: "Kom el-Ahmar", Ancient:
Athribis (Modern: "Wannina", Ancient: "Hut- "Nekhen")
Repyt")
Kom al-Ahmar Necropolis
Beit Khallaf
Kom Ombo
Tentyris (Modern: "Dendera", Ancient: "Iunet" or
"Tantere") Ombos (Modern: "Kom Ombo", Ancient:
"Nubt")
Temple of Hathor
Latopolis (Modern: "Esna", Ancient: "Iunyt, Senet,
Diospolis Parva (Modern: "Hiw", Ancient: "Hut- Tasenet")
Sekhem")
Medamud
el-Hawawish
Thebes (Modern: "Luxor", Ancient: "Niwt-rst" or
el-Salamuni "Waset")

Khemmis or Panopolis (Modern: "Akhmin", An- Deir el-Medina


cient: "Ipu" or "Khent-Min") Temple of Hathor
Gebel el-Haridi Workmens Village
Workmens Tombs
Khenoboskion (Modern: "el-Qasr", "el-Saiyad")
Shrine to Meretseger & Ptah
Koptos (Modern: "Qift", Ancient: "Gebtu") Deir el-Bahri
Naga ed-Der Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II
Nag' el-Madamud (Ancient: "Mabu") Mortuary Temple of Thotmose III
Ombos (Naqada) (Modern: "Naqada", Ancient: el-Malqata
"Nubt") Palace of Amenhotep III
Shanhr Deir el-Shelwit
Karnak (Ancient: "Ipet-Isut")
18.12.2 Southern Upper Egypt Temple of Amenhotep IV
Precinct of Amon-Re
Aphroditopolis (Modern: "Gebelein", Ancient: Precinct of Montu
"Per-Hathor") Precinct of Mut
Apollinopolis Magna (Modern: "Edfu", Ancient: Luxor (Ancient: "Ipet-Resyt")
"Djeba, Mesen") Temple of Amun
Aswan Medinet Habu
Mortuary Temple & Palace of Ramesses
Agilkia Island
III
Elephantine Island Mortuary Temple of Ay & Horemheb
New Kalabsha Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III
Northern Granite Quarries Colossi of Memnon
Philae Island Mortuary Temple of Merneptah
Qubbet el-Hawa Mortuary Temple of Ramesses IV
Sehel Island Mortuary Temple of Thutmose IV
Southern Granite Quarries Mortuary Temple of Thutmose III
el-Mo'alla (Ancient: "Hefat") Qasr el-'Aguz
Eileithyiaspolis (Modern: "el-Kab", Ancient: Temple of Thoth
"Nekheb") Qurna
18.14. UPPER NUBIA 125

Mortuary Temple of Seti I Pselchis (Modern: "el-Dakka", Ancient: "Pselqet")


Tombs of the Nobles Temple of Dakka
el-Assasif
el-Khokha Talmis (Modern: "Kalabsha")
el-Tarif Beit el-Wali
Dra' Abu el-Naga'
Temple of Derr
Qurnet Murai
Gerf Hussein
Sheikh Abd el-Qurna
Ramesseum (Mortuary Temple of Ramesses Qasr Ibrim
II)
Wadi es-Sebua
Valley of the Kings (Modern: "Wadi el-
Muluk") Taphis (Modern: "Tafa")
Valley of the Queens (Modern: "Biban el-
Tutzis (Modern: "Dendur")
Harim")
Tzitzis (Modern: "Qertassi")
Tuphium (Modern: "Tod", Ancient: "Djerty")

18.13 Lower Nubia 18.14 Upper Nubia


'Amara East

'Amara West[2]

Abahuda (Abu Oda)

Aksha (Serra West)

Askut Island

Buhen

Dabenarti

Dibeira

Dorginarti Island

Faras

Gebel el-Shams

Gebel Barkal
Map of Nubia Kor

Kumma
Amada
Meinarti Island
Abu Simbel
Qustul
Contra Pselchis (Modern: "Quban", Ancient:
"Baki") Semna

Debod Semna South

el-Lessiya Serra East

Mi'am (Modern: "'Aniba") Shalfak

Primis (Modern: "Qasr Ibrim") Uroarti Island


126 CHAPTER 18. CITIES OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

18.15 The Oases and Pelusium (Sin)


Mediterranean coast Rud el-'Air

Siwa Oasis Serabit el-Khadim

Aghurmi Tell Kedwa

el-Zeitun Wadi Maghareh


Gebel el-Mawta
Qaret el-Musabberin
18.17 Eastern Desert
Umm el-'Ebeida
Bahriya Oasis Wadi Hammamat

el-Qasr
el-Bawiti 18.18 Notes and references
el-Hayz
[1] Electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (EPSD)
Farafra Oasis
[2] The British Museum, Amara West: investigating life in an
'Ain el-Wadi Egyptian town
el-Qasr
el-Dakhla Oasis 18.19 Bibliography
Amheida
Atlas of Ancient Egypt, John Baines & Jaromir
Balat
Malek, America University of Cairo Press, 2002
Deir el-Hager
el-Qasr
Kellis (Modern: "Ismant el-Kharab") 18.20 See also
Mut el-Kharab
City-state
Qaret el-Muzawwaqa
Sumerian King List
el-Kharga Oasis
Historical cities
Baris
Gebel el-Teir Short chronology timeline

Hibis List of oldest continuously inhabited cities


Kysis (Modern: "Dush")
Nadurs
18.21 References
Qasr el-Ghueida
Qasr Zaiyan
18.22 External links
Mediterranean Coast
Geospatial: Mapping Iraqs Ancient Cities
Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham
Ancient cities grew pretty much like modern ones,
say scientists (February 2015), Christian Science
18.16 Sinai Monitor

Aqaba
Arsinoe
Eilat (Elath)
Kuntillet Ajrud
Chapter 19

History of ancient Egypt

The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the 19.2 Neolithic Egypt
early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley
to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Pe-
19.2.1 Neolithic period
riod is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and
Lower Egypt were unied, until the country fell under
The Nile has been the lifeline for Egyptian culture since
Macedonian rule, in 332 BC.
nomadic hunter-gatherers began living along it during the
Pleistocene. Traces of these early people appear in the
form of artifacts and rock carvings along the terraces of
19.1 Chronology the Nile and in the oases. To the Egyptians the Nile meant
life and the desert meant death, though the desert did pro-
Note For alternative 'revisions to the chronology of vide them protection from invaders.
Egypt, see Egyptian chronology. Along the Nile in the 12th millennium, an Upper Pale-
olithic grain-grinding culture using the earliest type of
sickle blades had replaced the culture of hunting, shing,
Egypts history is split into several dierent periods ac-
and hunter-gatherers using stone tools. Evidence also in-
cording to the ruling dynasty of each pharaoh. The dating
dicates human habitation and cattle herding in the south-
of events is still a subject of research. The conservative
western corner of Egypt near the Sudan border before the
dates are not supported by any reliable absolute date for
8th millennium BC.
a span of about three millennia. The following is the list
according to conventional Egyptian chronology. Despite this, the idea of an independent bovine domesti-
cation event in Africa must be abandoned because subse-
quent evidence gathered over a period of thirty years has
Prehistoric Egypt (Prior to 3100 BC)
failed to corroborate this.[1]
Naqada III (the protodynastic period"; approxi- The oldest-known domesticated cattle remains in Africa
mately 31003000 BC) are from the Faiyum c. 4400 BC.[2] Geological evidence
and computer climate modeling studies suggest that nat-
Early Dynastic Period (FirstSecond Dynasties) ural climate changes around the 8th millennium began
to desiccate the extensive pastoral lands of North Africa,
Old Kingdom (ThirdSixth Dynasties) eventually forming the Sahara by the 25th century BC.

First Intermediate Period (Seventh and Eighth Continued desiccation forced the early ancestors of the
Eleventh Dynasties) Egyptians to settle around the Nile more permanently and
forced them to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. How-
Middle Kingdom (TwelfthThirteenth Dynasties) ever, the period from 9th to the 6th millennium BC has
left very little in the way of archaeological evidence.
Second Intermediate Period (Fourteenth
Seventeenth Dynasties)
19.2.2 Prehistoric Egypt
New Kingdom (EighteenthTwentieth Dynasties)
Main article: Prehistoric Egypt
Third Intermediate Period (also known as the Further information: Naqada
Libyan Period; Twenty-rstTwenty-fth Dynas- The Nile valley of Egypt was basically uninhabitable un-
ties) til the work of clearing and irrigating the land along the
banks was started.[3] However it appears that this clear-
Late Period (Twenty-sixthThirty-rst Dynasties) ance and irrigation was largely under way by the 6th mil-

127
128 CHAPTER 19. HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT

ing the two, is that Badari sites are Chalcolithic while the
Tasian sites remained Neolithic and are thus considered
technically part of the Stone Age.[7]
The Amratian culture is named after the site of el-Amreh,
about 120 kilometres (75 mi) south of Badari. El-Amreh
was the rst site where this culture was found unmingled
with the later Gerzeh culture. However, this period is
better attested at Nagada, and so is also referred to as
the Naqada I culture.[8] Black-topped ware continued
to be produced, but white cross-line ware, a type of pot-
tery decorated with close parallel white lines crossed by
another set of close parallel white lines, began to be pro-
duced during this time. The Amratian period falls be-
tween S.D. 30 and 39.[9] Newly excavated objects indi-
cate that trade between Upper and Lower Egypt existed
at this time. A stone vase from the north was found at
el-Amreh, and copper, which is not present in Egypt, was
apparently imported from the Sinai Peninsula or perhaps
Nubia. Obsidian[10] and an extremely small amount of
gold[9] were both denitively imported from Nubia dur-
ing this time. Trade with the oases was also likely.[10]
A Gerzeh culture vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the The Gerzeh culture (Naqada II), named after the site
Louvre. of el-Gerzeh, was the next stage in cultural development,
and it was during this time that the foundation for ancient
Egypt was laid. The Gerzeh culture was largely an unbro-
lennium. By that time, Nile society was already engaged ken development out of the Amratian, starting in the Nile
in organized agriculture and the construction of large Delta and moving south through Upper Egypt; however, it
buildings.[4] failed to dislodge the Amratian in Nubia.[11] The Gerzeh
culture coincided with a signicant drop in rainfall[11]
At this time, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of
and farming produced the vast majority of food.[11] With
Egypt were herding cattle and also constructing large
increased food supplies, the populace adopted a much
buildings. Mortar was in use by the 4th millennium.
more sedentary lifestyle, and the larger settlements grew
The people of the valley and the Nile Delta were self-
to cities of about 5000 residents.[11] It was in this time
sucient and were raising barley and emmer, an early va-
that the city dwellers started using adobe to build their
riety of wheat, and stored it in pits lined with reed mats.[5]
cities.[11] Copper instead of stone was increasingly used to
They raised cattle, goats and pigs and they wove linen and
make tools[11] and weaponry.[12] Silver, gold, lapis lazuli
baskets.[5] Prehistory continues through this time, vari-
(imported from Badakhshan in what is now Afghanistan),
ously held to begin with the Amratian culture.
and Egyptian faience were used ornamentally,[13] and the
Between 5500 BC and the 31st century BC, small settle- cosmetic palettes used for eye paint since the Badari cul-
ments ourished along the Nile, whose delta empties into ture began to be adorned with reliefs.[12]
the Mediterranean Sea.
By the 33rd century BC, just before the First Dynasty of
The Tasian culture was the next to appear; it existed Egypt, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms known from
in Upper Egypt starting about 4500 BC. This group later times as Upper Egypt to the south and Lower Egypt
is named for the burials found at Deir Tasa, a site on to the north.[14] The dividing line was drawn roughly in
the east bank of the Nile between Asyut and Akhmim. the area of modern Cairo.
The Tasian culture is notable for producing the earliest
blacktop-ware, a type of red and brown pottery painted
black on its top and interior.[6]
19.3 Dynastic Egypt
The Badari culture, named for the Badari site near Deir
Tasa, followed the Tasian; however, similarities mean
many avoid dierentiating between them at all. The 19.3.1 Early dynastic period
Badari culture continued to produce the kind of pot-
tery called blacktop-ware (although its quality was much Main article: Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)
improved over previous specimens), and was assigned The historical records of ancient Egypt begin with Egypt
the sequence dating numbers between 21 and 29.[7] The as a unied state, which occurred sometime around 3150
signicant dierence, however, between the Tasian and BC. According to Egyptian tradition, Menes, thought to
Badari, which prevents scholars from completely merg- have unied Upper and Lower Egypt, was the rst king.
19.3. DYNASTIC EGYPT 129

to ancient Egypt. There also are several possible spellings


of the names. Typically, Egyptologists divide the history
of pharaonic civilization using a schedule laid out rst
by Manetho's Aegyptiaca, which was written during the
Ptolemaic Kingdom during the third century BC.
Prior to the unication of Egypt, the land was settled with
autonomous villages. With the early dynasties, and for
much of Egypts history thereafter, the country came to
be known as the Two Lands. The pharaohs established a
national administration and appointed royal governors.
According to Manetho, the rst pharaoh was Menes, but
archeological ndings support the view that the rst ruler
to claim to have united the two lands was Narmer, the
nal king of the Naqada III period. His name is known
primarily from the famous Narmer Palette, whose scenes
have been interpreted as the act of uniting Upper and
Lower Egypt. Menes is now thought to be one of the titles
of Hor-Aha, the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty.
Funeral practices for the elite resulted in the construc-
tion of mastabas, which later became models for subse-
quent Old Kingdom constructions such as the step pyra-
mid, thought to have originated during the Third Dynasty
of Egypt.

19.3.2 Old Kingdom

Main article: Old Kingdom of Egypt


The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as span-
ning the period of time when Egypt was ruled by the
Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty (26862181
BCE). The royal capital of Egypt during this period was
located at Memphis, where Djoser (26302611 BCE) es-
tablished his court.
The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for
the large number of pyramids, which were constructed at
this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, this
epoch is frequently referred to as the Age of the Pyra-
Stela of the Second Dynasty pharaoh Nebra, displaying the hiero- mids. The rst notable pharaoh of the Old Kingdom was
glyph for his Horus name within a serekh surmounted by Horus. Djoser of the Third Dynasty, who ordered the construc-
On display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. tion of the rst pyramid, the Pyramid of Djoser, in Mem-
phis necropolis of Saqqara.
It was in this era that formerly independent states became
This Egyptian culture, customs, art expression, architec- nomes (districts) ruled solely by the pharaoh. Former
ture, and social structure was closely tied to religion, re-local rulers were forced to assume the role of nomarch
markably stable, and changed little over a period of nearly (governor) or work as tax collectors. Egyptians in this
3000 years. era worshiped the pharaoh as a god, believing that he en-
Egyptian chronology, which involves regnal years, be- sured the annual ooding of the Nile that was necessary
gan around this time. The conventional chronology was for their crops.
accepted during the twentieth century, but it does not The Old Kingdom and its royal power reached their
include any of the major revision proposals that also zenith under the Fourth Dynasty. Sneferu, the dynastys
have been made in that time. Even within a single founder, is believed to have commissioned at least three
work, archaeologists often oer several possible dates, or pyramids; while his son and successor Khufu (Greek
even several whole chronologies as possibilities. Conse- Cheops) erected the Great Pyramid of Giza, Sneferu had
quently, there may be discrepancies between dates shown more stone and brick moved than any other pharaoh.
here and in articles on particular rulers or topics related Khufu, his son Khafra (Greek Chephren), and his grand-
130 CHAPTER 19. HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT

cialists, including stonecutters, painters, mathematicians


and priests.
The Fifth Dynasty began with Userkaf c. 2495 BC and
was marked by the growing importance of the cult of the
sun god Ra. Consequently, less eorts were devoted to
the construction of pyramid complexes than during the
Fourth Dynasty and more to the construction of sun tem-
ples in Abusir. The decoration of pyramid complexes
grew more elaborate during the dynasty and its last king,
Unas, was the rst to have the Pyramid Texts inscribed in
his pyramid.
Egypts expanding interests in trade goods such as ebony,
incense such as myrrh and frankincense, gold, copper and
other useful metals compelled the ancient Egyptians to
navigate the open seas. Evidence from the pyramid of
Sahure, second king of the dynasty, shows that a regular
trade existed with the Syrian coast to procure cedar wood.
Pharaohs also launched expeditions to the famed Land of
Punt, possibly the Horn of Africa, for ebony, ivory and
aromatic resins.
During the Sixth Dynasty (23452181 BCE), the power
of pharaohs gradually weakened in favor of powerful no-
marchs. These no longer belonged to the royal family and
their charge became hereditary, thus creating local dy-
nasties largely independent from the central authority of
the pharaoh. Internal disorders set in during the incred-
ibly long reign of Pepi II Neferkare (22782184 BCE)
towards the end of the dynasty. His death, certainly well
past that of his intended heirs, might have created succes-
sion struggles and the country slipped into civil wars mere
decades after the close of Pepi IIs reign. The nal blow
came when the 4.2 kiloyear event struck the region in the
22nd century BC, producing consistently low Nile ood
levels.[15] The result was the collapse of the Old Kingdom
followed by decades of famine and strife.

Greywacke statue of the pharaoh Menkaure and his queen con-


sort, Khamerernebty II. Originally from his Giza temple, now on 19.3.3 First Intermediate Period
display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Main article: First Intermediate Period of Egypt
After the fall of the Old Kingdom came a roughly 200-
son Menkaure (Greek Mycerinus) all achieved lasting year stretch of time known as the First Intermediate Pe-
fame in the construction of the Giza pyramid complex. riod, which is generally thought to include a relatively ob-
To organize and feed the manpower needed to cre- scure set of pharaohs running from the end of the Sixth
ate these pyramids required a centralized government to the Tenth and most of the Eleventh Dynasties. Most of
with extensive powers, and Egyptologists believe the Old these were likely local monarchs who did not hold much
Kingdom at this time demonstrated this level of sophis- power outside of their nome. There are a number of texts
tication. Recent excavations near the pyramids led by known as Lamentations from the early period of the
Mark Lehner have uncovered a large city that seems to subsequent Middle Kingdom that may shed some light on
have housed, fed and supplied the pyramid workers. Al- what happened during this period. Some of these texts re-
though it was once believed that slaves built these mon- ect on the breakdown of rule, others allude to invasion
uments, a theory based on The Exodus narrative of the by Asiatic bowmen. In general the stories focus on a
Hebrew Bible, study of the tombs of the workmen, who society where the natural order of things in both society
oversaw construction on the pyramids, has shown they and nature was overthrown.
were built by a corve of peasants drawn from across It is also highly likely that it was during this period that all
Egypt. They apparently worked while the annual ood of the pyramid and tomb complexes were robbed. Fur-
covered their elds, as well as a very large crew of spe- ther lamentation texts allude to this fact, and by the be-
19.3. DYNASTIC EGYPT 131

Pottery model of a house used in a burial from the First Interme-


diate Period, on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.

ginning of the Middle Kingdom mummies are found dec-


orated with magical spells that were once exclusive to the
pyramid of the kings of the Sixth Dynasty.
By 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs, the Ninth and Tenth
Dynasties, consolidated Lower Egypt from their capi-
tal in Heracleopolis Magna. A rival line, the Eleventh
Dynasty based at Thebes, reunited Upper Egypt, and a An Osiris statue of Mentuhotep II, the founder of the Middle
clash between the rival dynasties was inevitable. Around Kingdom
2055 BC, the Theban forces defeated the Heracleopoli-
tan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands. The reign of
its rst pharaoh, Mentuhotep II, marks the beginning of and Heracleapolitan dynasties until the 39th regnal year
the Middle Kingdom. of Mentuhotep II, second successor of Intef II. At this
point, the Herakleopolitans were defeated and the The-
ban dynasty consolidated their rule over Egypt. Men-
19.3.4 Middle Kingdom tuhotep II is known to have commanded military cam-
paigns south into Nubia, which had gained its indepen-
Main article: Middle Kingdom of Egypt dence during the First Intermediate Period. There is also
The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of evidence for military actions against the Southern Levant.
ancient Egypt stretching from the 39th regnal year of The king reorganized the country and placed a vizier at
Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the the head of civil administration for the country.
Thirteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 and 1650 BC. Mentuhotep II was succeeded by his son, Mentuhotep III,
The period comprises two phases, the Eleventh Dynasty, who organized an expedition to Punt. His reign saw the
which ruled from Thebes, and then the Twelfth Dynasty, realization of some of the nest Egyptian carvings. Men-
whose capital was Lisht. These two dynasties were orig- tuhotep III was succeeded by Mentuhotep IV, the nal
inally considered the full extent of this unied kingdom, pharaoh of this dynasty. Despite being absent from vari-
but some historians now[16] consider the rst part of the ous lists of pharaohs, his reign is attested from a few in-
Thirteenth Dynasty to belong to the Middle Kingdom. scriptions in Wadi Hammamat that record expeditions to
The earliest pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom traced their the Red Sea coast and to quarry stone for the royal mon-
origin to two nomarchs of Thebes, Intef the Elder, who uments.
served a Heracleopolitan pharaoh of the Tenth Dynasty, The leader of this expedition was his vizier Amen-
and his successor, Mentuhotep I. The successor of the lat- emhat, who is widely assumed to be the future pharaoh
ter, Intef I, was the rst Theban nomarch to claim a Horus Amenemhat I, the rst pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty.
name and thus the throne of Egypt. He is considered the Amenemhat is therefore assumed by some Egyptologists
rst pharaoh of the Eleventh Dynasty. His claims brought to have either usurped the throne or assumed power after
the Thebans into conict with the rulers of the Tenth Dy- Mentuhotep IV died childless.
nasty. Intef I and his brother Intef II undertook several Amenemhat I built a new capital for Egypt, Itjtawy,
campaigns northwards and nally captured the important thought to be located near the present-day Lisht, al-
nome of Abydos. though Manetho claims the capital remained at Thebes.
Warfare continued intermittently between the Thebean Amenemhat forcibly pacied internal unrest, curtailed
132 CHAPTER 19. HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT

the rights of the nomarchs, and is known to have at


launched at least one campaign into Nubia. His son
Senusret I continued the policy of his father to recapture
Nubia and other territories lost during the First Interme-
diate Period. The Libu were subdued under his forty-ve
year reign and Egypts prosperity and security were se-
cured.
Senusret III (18781839 BC) was a warrior king, leading
his troops deep into Nubia, and built a series of massive
forts throughout the country to establish Egypts formal
boundaries with the unconquered areas of its territory.
Amenemhat III (18601815 BC) is considered the last
great pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.
Egypts population began to exceed food production lev-
els during the reign of Amenemhat III, who then ordered
the exploitation of the Faiyum and increased mining op-
erations in the Sinai Peninsula. He also invited settlers
from Western Asia to Egypt to labor on Egypts monu-
ments. Late in his reign, the annual oods along the Nile
began to fail, further straining the resources of the gov-
ernment. The Thirteenth Dynasty and Fourteenth Dy-
nasty witnessed the slow decline of Egypt into the Second
Intermediate Period, in which some of the settlers invited
by Amenemhat III would seize power as the Hyksos.

19.3.5 Second Intermediate Period and the


Hyksos
Main articles: Second Intermediate Period of Egypt and
Hyksos
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when
Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the
Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. This
period is best known as the time the Hyksos made their
appearance in Egypt, the reigns of its kings comprising
the Fifteenth Dynasty.
The Thirteenth Dynasty proved unable to hold onto the
long land of Egypt, and a provincial family of Lev- Statuette of Merankhre Mentuhotep, a minor pharaoh of the
Sixteenth Dynasty, reigning over the Theban region c. 1585 BC.
antine descent located in the marshes of the eastern
Delta at Avaris broke away from the central authority
to form the Fourteenth Dynasty. The splintering of the
unable to stop these new migrants from traveling to Egypt
land most likely happened shortly after the reigns of the
powerful Thirteenth Dynasty pharaohs Neferhotep I and from the Levant because their kingdoms were struggling
Sobekhotep IV c. 1720 BC.[17][18] to cope with various domestic problems, including pos-
sibly famine and plague.[20] Be it military or peaceful,
While the Fourteenth Dynasty was Levantine, the Hyk- the weakened state of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dy-
sos rst appeared in Egypt c. 1650 BC when they took nasty kingdoms could explain why they rapidly fell to the
control of Avaris and rapidly moved south to Memphis, emerging Hyksos power.
thereby ending the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties.
The outlines of the traditional account of the invasion The Hyksos princes and chieftains ruled in the eastern
of the land by the Hyksos is preserved in the Aegypti- Delta with their local Egyptian vassals. The Fifteenth Dy-
aca of Manetho, who records that during this time the nasty rulers established their capital and seat of govern-
Hyksos overran Egypt, led by Salitis, the founder of the ment at Memphis and their summer residence at Avaris.
Fifteenth Dynasty. More recently, however, the idea of a The Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern Nile
simple migration, with little or no violence involved, has Delta and central Egypt but relentlessly pushed south for
gained some support.[19] Under this theory, the Egyptian the control of central and Upper Egypt. Around the time
rulers of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties were Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling
19.3. DYNASTIC EGYPT 133

house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself


up as the Sixteenth Dynasty. Another short lived dynasty
might have done the same in central Egypt, proting from
the power vacuum created by the fall of the 13th dynasty
and forming the Abydos Dynasty.[21]
By 1600 BC, the Hyksos had successfully moved south
in central Egypt, eliminating the Abydos Dynasty and di-
rectly threatening the Sixteenth Dynasty. The latter was
to prove unable to resist and Thebes fell to the Hyksos for
a very short period c. 1580 BC.[21] The Hyksos rapidly
withdrew to the north and Thebes regained some inde-
pendence under the Seventeenth Dynasty. From then on,
Hyksos relations with the south seem to have been mainly
of a commercial nature, although Theban princes appear
to have recognized the Hyksos rulers and may possibly
have provided them with tribute for a period.
The Seventeenth Dynasty was to prove the salvation of
Egypt and would eventually lead the war of liberation that
drove the Hyksos back into Asia. The two last kings of
this dynasty were Seqenenre Tao and Kamose. Ahmose
I completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos
from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole
of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in
its formerly subject territories of Nubia and the South-
ern Levant.[22] His reign marks this beginning of the
Eighteenth Dynasty and the New Kingdom.
Golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun

19.3.6 New Kingdom of Karnak including the Luxor Temple, which consisted
of two pylons, a colonnade behind the new temple en-
Main article: New Kingdom of Egypt
trance, and a new temple to the goddess Maat.

Possibly as a result of the foreign rule of the Hyksos dur-


ing the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty
saw Egypt attempt to create a buer between the Levant
and Egypt, and attain its greatest territorial extent. It ex-
panded far south into Nubia and held wide territories in
the Near East. Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for
control of modern-day Syria.

Eighteenth Dynasty

This was a time of great wealth and power for Egypt.


Some of the most important and best-known pharaohs
ruled at this time. Hatshepsut was a pharaoh at this time.
Hatshepsut is unusual as she was a female pharaoh, a rare
occurrence in Egyptian history. She was an ambitious
and competent leader, extending Egyptian trade south
into present-day Somalia and north into the Mediter-
ranean. She ruled for twenty years through a combina-
tion of widespread propaganda and deft political skill. Egypt and its world in 1300 BC.
Her co-regent and successor Thutmose III (the Napoleon
of Egypt) expanded Egypts army and wielded it with Ramesses I reigned for two years and was succeeded by
great success. Late in his reign he ordered her name his son Seti I. Seti I carried on the work of Horemheb in
hacked out from her monuments. He fought against restoring power, control, and respect to Egypt. He also
Asiatic people and was the most successful of Egyptian was responsible for creating the temple complex at Aby-
pharaohs. Amenhotep III built extensively at the temple dos.
134 CHAPTER 19. HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT

to the throne by Chancellor Bay, a West Asian commoner


who served as vizier behind the scenes. At Siptahs early
death, the throne was assumed by Twosret, the queen
dowager of Seti II and possibly Amenmesses sister.
A period of anarchy at the end of Twosrets short reign
saw a native reaction to foreign control leading to the exe-
cution of Bay and the enthronement of Setnakhte, estab-
lishing the Twentieth Dynasty.

Twentieth Dynasty

The last great pharaoh from the New Kingdom is


widely considered Ramesses III, the son of Setnakhte who
reigned three decades after the time of Ramesses II. In
Year 8 of his reign, the Sea People invaded Egypt by land
and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land
and sea battles. He claimed that he incorporated them as
subject people and settled them in Southern Canaan, al-
though there is evidence that they forced their way into
Canaan. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed
to the formation of new states in this region such as Philis-
tia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire. He was also
compelled to ght invading Libyan tribesmen in two ma-
jor campaigns in Egypts Western Delta in his Year 6 and
Year 11 respectively.[23]
The heavy cost of these battles slowly exhausted Egypts
Colossal depictions of Ramesses II at one of the Abu Simbel tem- treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the
ples. Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of these dicul-
ties is stressed by the fact that the rst known strike action
in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses
Arguably Ancient Egypts power as a nation-state peaked IIIs reign, when the food rations for the Egypts favoured
during the reign of Ramesses II (the Great) of the and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village
Nineteenth Dynasty. He reigned for 67 years from the age of Deir el-Medina could not be provisioned.[24] Some-
of 18 and carried on his immediate predecessors work thing in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching
and created many more splendid temples, such as that of the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost
Abu Simbel temples on the Nubian border. He sought to two full decades until 1140 BC.[25] One proposed cause
recover territories in the Levant that had been held by is the Hekla 3 eruption in Iceland, but the dating of that
the Eighteenth Dynasty. His campaigns of reconquest event remains in dispute.
culminated in the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC, where
Following Ramesses IIIs death there was endless bicker-
he led Egyptian armies against those of the Hittite king
ing between his heirs. Three of his sons would go on to as-
Muwatalli II and was caught in historys rst recorded
sume power as Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI and Ramesses
military ambush.
VIII, respectively. However, at this time Egypt was also
Ramesses II was famed for the huge number of children increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal
he sired by his various wives and concubines; the tomb ooding levels of the Nile, famine, civil unrest and ocial
he built for his sons (many of whom he outlived) in the corruption. The power of the last pharaoh, Ramesses XI,
Valley of the Kings has proven to be the largest funerary grew so weak that in the south the Theban High Priests
complex in Egypt. of Amun became the eective de facto rulers of Up-
His immediate successors continued the military cam- per Egypt, while Smendes controlled Lower Egypt even
paigns, though an increasingly troubled court compli- before Ramesses XIs death. Smendes would eventually
cated matters. Ramesses II was succeeded by his son found the Twenty-rst Dynasty at Tanis.
Merneptah and then by Merenptahs son Seti II. Seti
IIs throne seems to have been disputed by his half-
19.3.7 Third Intermediate Period
brother Amenmesse, who may have temporarily ruled
from Thebes. Main article: Third Intermediate Period
Upon his death, Seti II son Siptah, who may have been After the death of Ramesses XI, his successor Smendes
aicted with poliomyelitis during his life, was appointed ruled from the city of Tanis in the north, while the High
19.3. DYNASTIC EGYPT 135

who served as the commander of the armies under the


last ruler of the Twenty-First Dynasty, Psusennes II. He
unied the country, putting control of the Amun clergy
under his own son as the High Priest of Amun, a post
that was previously a hereditary appointment. The scant
and patchy nature of the written records from this pe-
riod suggest that it was unsettled. There appear to have
been many subversive groups, which eventually led to the
creation of the Twenty-Third Dynasty, which ran con-
current with the latter part of the Twenty-Second Dy-
nasty. The country was reunited by the Twenty-Second
Dynasty founded by Shoshenq I in 945 BC (or 943 BC),
who descended from Meshwesh immigrants, originally
from Ancient Libya. This brought stability to the coun-
try for well over a century. After the reign of Osorkon
II the country had again splintered into two states with
Shoshenq III of the Twenty-Second Dynasty controlling
Lower Egypt by 818 BC while Takelot II and his son (the
future Osorkon III) ruled Middle and Upper Egypt.
After the withdrawal of Egypt from Nubia at the end of
the New Kingdom, a native dynasty took control of Nu-
bia. Under king Piye, the Nubian founder of Twenty-
Fifth Dynasty, the Nubians pushed north in an eort to
crush his Libyan opponents ruling in the Delta. Piye
Sphinx of the Nubian pharaoh Taharqa. managed to attain power as far as Memphis. His op-
ponent Tefnakhte ultimately submitted to him, but he
was allowed to remain in power in Lower Egypt and
founded the short-lived Twenty-Fourth Dynasty at Sais.
The Kushite kingdom to the south took full advantage
of this division and political instability and defeated the
combined might of several native-Egyptian rulers such
as Peftjaubast, Osorkon IV of Tanis, and Tefnakht of
Sais. Piye established the Nubian Twenty-Fifth Dynasty
and appointed the defeated rulers as his provincial gover-
nors. He was succeeded rst by his brother, Shabaka, and
then by his two sons Shebitku and Taharqa. Taharqa re-
united the Two lands of Northern and Southern Egypt
and created an empire that was as large as it had been
since the New Kingdom. The 25th dynasty ushered
25th Dynasty in a renaissance period for Ancient Egypt.[27] Religion,
the arts, and architecture were restored to their glorious
Old, Middle, and New Kingdom forms. Pharaohs, such
Priests of Amun at Thebes had eective rule of the as Taharqa, built or restored temples and monuments
south of the country, whilst still nominally recognizing throughout the Nile valley, including at Memphis, Kar-
Smendes as king.[26] In fact, this division was less signif- nak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal, etc.[28] It was during the 25th
icant than it seems, since both priests and pharaohs came dynasty that the Nile valley saw the rst widespread con-
from the same family. Piankh, assumed control of Up- struction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) since the
per Egypt, ruling from Thebes, with the northern limit of Middle Kingdom.[29][30][31]
his control ending at Al-Hibah. (The High Priest Herihor
had died before Ramesses XI, but also was an all-but- The international prestige of Egypt declined considerably
by this time. The countrys international allies had fallen
independent ruler in the latter days of the kings reign.)
The country was once again split into two parts with the under the sphere of inuence of Assyria and from about
priests in Thebes and the Pharaohs at Tanis. Their reign 700 BC the question became when, not if, there would
seems without other distinction, and they were replaced be war between the two states. Taharqa's reign and that
without any apparent struggle by the Libyan kings of the of his successor, Tanutamun, were lled with constant
Twenty-Second Dynasty. conict with the Assyrians against whom there were nu-
merous victories, but ultimately Thebes was occupied and
Egypt has long had ties with Libya, and the rst king of Memphis sacked.
the new dynasty, Shoshenq I, was a Meshwesh Libyan,
136 CHAPTER 19. HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT

19.3.8 Late Period 19.3.10 Ptolemaic dynasty

Main article: Late Period of Ancient Egypt Main article: Ptolemaic dynasty

From 671 BC on, Memphis and the Delta region became In 332 BC Alexander III of Macedon conquered Egypt
the target of many attacks from the Assyrians, who ex- with little resistance from the Persians. He was welcomed
pelled the Nubians and handed over power to client kings by the Egyptians as a deliverer. He visited Memphis, and
of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. Psamtik I was the rst rec- went on a pilgrimage to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis
ognized as the king of the whole of Egypt, and he brought of Siwa. The oracle declared him the son of Amun. He
increased stability to the country during a 54-year reign conciliated the Egyptians by the respect he showed for
from the new capital of Sais. Four successive Saite kings their religion, but he appointed Greeks to virtually all the
continued guiding Egypt successfully and peacefully from senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city,
610526 BC, keeping the Babylonians away with the help Alexandria, to be the new capital. The wealth of Egypt
of Greek mercenaries. could now be harnessed for Alexanders conquest of the
rest of the Persian Empire. Early in 331 BC he was ready
By the end of this period a new power was growing in
to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia. He left
the Near East: Persia. The pharaoh Psamtik III had to
Cleomenes as the ruling nomarch to control Egypt in his
face the might of Persia at Pelusium; he was defeated and
absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt.
briey escaped to Memphis, but ultimately was captured
and then executed. Following Alexanders death in Babylon in 323 BC, a
succession crisis erupted among his generals. Initially,
Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexanders half-
brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon,
19.3.9 Persian domination and then as regent for both Philip III and Alexanders in-
fant son Alexander IV of Macedon, who had not been
Main article: History of Achaemenid Egypt born at the time of his fathers death. Perdiccas appointed
Ptolemy, one of Alexanders closest companions, to be
Achaemenid Egypt can be divided into three eras: the satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled Egypt from 323 BC,
rst period of Persian occupation when Egypt became a nominally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and
satrapy, followed by an interval of independence, and the Alexander IV. However, as Alexander the Great's empire
second and nal period of occupation. disintegrated, Ptolemy soon established himself as ruler
in his own right. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt
The Persian king Cambyses assumed the formal title
against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consol-
of Pharaoh, called himself Mesuti-Re (Re has given
idated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas
birth), and sacriced to the Egyptian gods. He founded
during the Wars of the Diadochi (322301 BC). In 305
the Twenty-seventh dynasty. Egypt was then joined
BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. As Ptolemy I Soter
with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the
(Saviour), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty that was
Achaemenid Empire.
to rule Egypt for nearly 300 years.
Cambyses successors Darius I the Great and Xerxes pur-
The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions by mar-
sued a similar policy, visited the country, and warded
rying their siblings, had themselves portrayed on pub-
o an Athenian attack. It is likely that Artaxerxes I and
lic monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and partici-
Darius II visited the country as well, although it is not at-
pated in Egyptian religious life.[32][33] Hellenistic culture
tested in our sources, and did not prevent the Egyptians
thrived in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest. The
from feeling unhappy.
Ptolemies had to ght native rebellions and were involved
During the war of succession after the reign of Darius II, in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the king-
which broke out in 404, they revolted under Amyrtaeus dom and its annexation by Rome.
and regained their independence. This sole ruler of the
Twenty-eighth dynasty died in 399, and power went to
the Twenty-ninth dynasty. The Thirtieth Dynasty was es- 19.4 References
tablished in 380 BC and lasted until 343 BC. Nectanebo
II was the last native king to rule Egypt. [1] Barich, Barbara E. (1998). People, Water, and Grain:
Artaxerxes III (358338 BC) reconquered the Nile val- The Beginnings of Domestication in the Sahara and the
ley for a brief period (343332 BC). In 332 BC Mazaces Nile Valley. l'Erma di Bretschneider. ISBN 978-88-8265-
handed over the country to Alexander the Great without 017-9.
a ght. The Achaemenid empire had ended, and for a [2] Barbara E. Barich et al. (1984) Ecological and Cultural
while Egypt was a satrapy in Alexanders empire. Later Relevance of the Recent New Radiocabon dates from
the Ptolemies and then the Romans successively ruled the Libyan Sahara, in Lech Krzyaniak and Micha Kobus-
Nile valley. iewicz [eds.], Origin and Early Development of Food-
19.5. FURTHER READING 137

Producing Cultures in Northeastern Africa, Pozna, Poz- [26] Cerny, p.645


na Archaeological Museum, pp. 41117.
[27] Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civiliza-
[3] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles tion. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 219
Schribners Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 51. 221. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
[4] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient [28] Bonnet, Charles (2006). The Nubian Pharaohs. New
Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 6. York: The American University in Cairo Press. pp. 142
[5] Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times, p. 52. 154. ISBN 978-977-416-010-3.

[6] Gardiner (1964), p.388 [29] Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. Califor-
nia, USA: University of California Press. pp. 161163.
[7] Gardiner (1964), p.389 ISBN 0-520-06697-9.
[8] Grimal (1988) p.24 [30] Emberling, Geo (2011). Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of
[9] Gardiner (1964), 390. Africa. New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient
World. pp. 911. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9.
[10] Grimal (1988) p.28
[31] Silverman, David (1997). Ancient Egypt. New York: Ox-
[11] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient ford University Press. pp. 3637. ISBN 0-19-521270-3.
Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 16.
[32] Bowman (1996) pp25-26
[12] Gardiner (1694), p.391
[33] Stanwick (2003)
[13] Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 17.

[14] Adkins, L. and Adkins, R. (2001) The Little Book of Egyp-


tian Hieroglyphics, p155. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
19.5 Further reading
ISBN .

[15] The Fall of the Old Kingdom by Fekri Hassan


19.5.1 Pharaonic Egypt

[16] Callender, Gae. The Middle Kingdom Renasissance from Adkins, L.; Adkins, R (2001). The Little Book
The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford, 2000 of Egyptian Hieroglyphics. London: Hodder and
Stoughton.
[17] Janine Bourriau, The Second Intermediate Period (c.
16501550 BC) in The Oxford History of Ancient
Baines, John and Jaromir Malek (2000). The Cul-
Egypt, ed: Ian Shaw, (Oxford University Press: 2002),
tural Atlas of Ancient Egypt (revised ed.). Facts on
paperback, pp.178179 & 181
File. ISBN 0-8160-4036-2.
[18] Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
(BASOR) 315, 1999, pp.4773. Bard, KA (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology
of Ancient Egypt. NY, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-
[19] Booth, Charlotte. The Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.10. 18589-0.
Shire Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1

[20] Manfred Bietak: Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bierbrier, Morris (1984). The Tomb Builders of the
Bronze Age, BASOR 281 (1991), pp. 2172 see in par- Pharaohs. New York, NY: Charles Scribners Sons.
ticular p. 38 ISBN 0-684-18229-7.

[21] Kim Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Booth, Charlotte (2005). The Hyksos Period in
Second Intermediate Period, Museum Tusculanum Press, Egypt. Shire Egyptology. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1.
(1997)
Cerny, J (1975). Egypt from the Death of Ramesses
[22] Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt p. 194. Li-
III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The
brairie Arthme Fayard, 1988.
Middle East and the Aegean Region c.13801000
[23] Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell BC. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-
Books, 1992. p.271 08691-4.
[24] William F. abbey , The Strikes in Ramses IIIs Twenty- Clarke, Somers; R. Engelbach (1990). Ancient
Ninth Year, JNES 10, No. 3 (July 1951), pp. 137145
Egyptian Construction and Architecture. Dover Pub-
[25] Frank J. Yurco, End of the Late Bronze Age and Other lications. ISBN 0-486-26485-8.
Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause in Gold of Praise: Stud-
ies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente, ed: Clayton, Peter A. (1994). Chronicle of the
Emily Teeter & John Larson, (SAOC 58) 1999, pp.456 Pharaohs. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-
458 05074-0.
138 CHAPTER 19. HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT

Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete Wilkinson, R. H. (2000). The Complete Temples of
Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN
ISBN 0-500-05128-3. 0-500-05100-3.

Edgerton, William F. (July 1951). The Strikes in Wilkinson, R.H. (2003). The Complete Gods and
Ramses IIIs Twenty-Ninth Year. Jnes 10 (No. 3 Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and
ed.). Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05120-8.

Gillings, Richard J. (1972). Mathematics in the Time Wilkinson, R.H. (2010). The Rise and Fall of
of the Pharaohs. New York: Dover. ISBN 0-262- Ancient Egypt: The History of a Civilisation from
07045-6. 3000BC to Cleopatra. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN
978-0-7475-9949-4.
Greaves, R.H.; O.H. Little (1929). Gold Resources
of Egypt, Report of the XV International Geol. Yurco, Frank J. (1999). End of the Late Bronze
Congress, South Africa. Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause.
Saoc 58.
Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt.
Blackwell Books. ISBN 0-631-17472-9.
19.5.2 Ptolemaic Egypt
Herodotus ii. 55 and vii. 134
Bowman, Alan K (1996). Egypt after the Pharaohs
Kemp, Barry (1991). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a 332 BC AD 642 (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of
Civilization. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01281-3. California Press. pp. 2526. ISBN 0-520-20531-6.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson (1996). The Third In- Lloyd, Alan Brian (2000). The Ptolemaic Period
termediate Period in Egypt (1100650 BC) (3rd ed.). (33230 BC) In The Oxford History of Ancient
Warminster: Aris & Phillips Limited. Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press.
Lehner, Mark (1997). The Complete Pyramids.
London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05084- Stanwick, Paul Edmond (2003). Portraits of
8. the Ptolemies: Greek kings as Egyptian pharaohs.
Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-
Lucas, Alfred (1962). Ancient Egyptian Materials 77772-8.
and Industries, 4th Ed. London: Edward Arnold
Publishers.

Peter Der Manuelian (1998). Egypt: The World 19.6 External links
of the Pharaohs. Bonner Strae, Cologne Ger-
many: Knemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. ISBN The people of ancient Egypt
3-89508-913-3.
Ancient Egyptian History
Myliwiec, Karol (2000). The Twighlight of Ancient
Ancient Egyptian History Aldokkan
Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E.(trans. by David Lor-
ton). Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Glyphdoctors: Online courses in Egyptian hiero-
glyphics and history
Nicholson, Paul T.; et al. (2000). Ancient Egyptian
Materials and Technology. Cambridge, UK: Cam- The Ancient Egypt Site
bridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45257-0.
Nile File an interactive introduction to ancient
Romer, John. A History of Ancient Egypt:From the Egypt for children
First Farmers to the Great Pyramid. Allen Lane
(2012). ISBN 978-1-84614-377-9 Seven Wonder of the World Ancient Times
Brian Brown (ed.) (1923) The Wisdom of the Egyp-
Robins, Gay (2000). The Art of Ancient Egypt. Har-
tians. New York: Brentanos
vard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00376-4.
Texts from the Pyramid Age Door Nigel C. Strud-
Scheel, Bernd (1989). Egyptian Metalworking and
wick, Ronald J. Leprohon, 2005, Brill Academic
Tools. Haverfordwest, Great Britain: Shire Publica-
Publishers
tions Ltd. ISBN 0-7478-0001-4.
Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book Door
Shaw, Ian (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient Marshall Clagett, 1989
Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-500-
05074-0. WWW-VL: History: Ancient Egypt
19.6. EXTERNAL LINKS 139

A Short History of Ancient Egypt

Illustrated overview of the history of Egypt


Chapter 20

List of ancient Egyptian sites

This is a list of ancient Egyptian sites, throughout all


of Egypt and Nubia. Sites are listed by their classical
name whenever possible, if not by their modern name,
and lastly with their ancient name if no other is available.

20.1 Nomes

The nomes of Ancient Egypt, in lower Egypt

A nome is a subnational administrative division of An-


cient Egypt.

20.1.1 Lower Egypt

20.1.2 Upper Egypt


Nome 1: Land of the arch or To Khentit: the frontier The nomes of Ancient Egypt, in upper Egypt
(Ta-Seti)
Nome 2: Throne of Horus Nome 7: Sistrum

Nome 3: The rural (Shrine) Nome 8: Great lands

Nome 4: The sceptre Nome 9: Minu (Min)

Nome 5: The two falcons Nome 10: Cobra


Nome 6: The crocodile Nome 11: The Set animal (Seth)

140
20.2. LOWER EGYPT (THE NILE DELTA) 141

Nome 12: Viper mountain Hermopolis Parva (Modern: "El-Baqliya" Ancient:


"Ba'h")
Nome 13: Upper pomegranate tree (Upper
Sycamore and Viper) Iseum (Modern: "Behbeit el-Hagar", Ancient:
"Hebyt")
Nome 14: Lower pomegranate tree (Lower
Sycamore and Viper) Kom el-Hisn (Ancient: "Imu" or "Yamu")

Nome 15: Hare Leontopolis (Yahudiya) (Modern: "Tell el-


Yahudiya", Ancient: "Nay-Ta-Hut")
Nome 16: Oryx
Leontopolis (Modern: "Tell el-Muqdam")
Nome 17: The black dog (Jackal)
Naukratis (Modern: "el-Gi'eif", "el-Niqrash",el-
Nome 18: Falcon with spread wings (Nemty) Nibeira")

Nome 19: The pure sceptre (Two Sceptres) Memphite Necropolis (Memphis)

Nome 20: Upper laurel (Southern Sycamore) Abu Ghurab


Abusir (Busiris)
Nome 21: Lower laurel (Northern Sycamore)
Pyramid of Neferefre
Nome 22: Knife Pyramid of Neferirkare
Pyramid of Nyuserre
Pyramid of Sahure
20.2 Lower Egypt (The Nile Delta) Sun temple of Nyuserre
Sun temple of Userkaf
Alexandria
Dahshur
Great Library of Alexandria Bent Pyramid
Pharos of Alexandria Black Pyramid
Pompeys Pillar Red Pyramid
White Pyramid
Athribis (Modern: "Tell Atrib", Ancient: "Hut-
Heryib" or "Hut-Tahery-Ibt") Helwan
Mit Rahina
Avaris (Modern: "Tell el-Dab'a", Ancient: "Pi-
Saqqara
Ri'amsese")
Sekhemkhet's Buried Pyramid
Behbeit el-Hagar Gisr el-mudir
Bilbeis Haram el-Shawaf
Mazghuna
Bubastis (Modern: "Tell Basta", Ancient: "Bast") Pyramid of Ibi
Busiris (Modern: "Abu Sir Bana") Pyramid of Khendjer
Pyramid of Teti
Buto (Modern: "Tell el-Fara'in", Ancient: "Pe") Pyramid of Unas
Cairo (or near Cairo) Pyramid of Userkaf
Step Pyramid of Djoser
Abu Rawash Southern South Saqqara pyramid
Giza Necropolis (Giza Plateau) Zawyet el'Aryan
Khufus Pyramid (Great Pyramid)
Mendes (Modern: "Tell el-Rub'a", Ancient: "'An-
Khafres Pyramid
pet")
Menkaures Pyramid
Great Sphinx of Giza Tell Tebilla
Heliopolis (Modern: "Tell Hisn", Ancient: Qantir / El-Khata'na
"Iunu")
Sais (Modern: "Sa el-Hagar", Ancient: "Zau")
Letopolis (Modern: "Ausim", Ancient:
"Khem") Saft el-Hinna (Ancient: "Per-Sopdu")
142 CHAPTER 20. LIST OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SITES

Sebennytos (Modern: "Samannud", Ancient: "Tjeb- Herakleopolis Magna (Modern: "Ihnasiyyah


nutjer") al-Madinah", Ancient: "Henen-Nesut")

Shagamba Kom Medinet Ghurab


Meidum
Suwa
Sidment el-Gebel
Taposiris Magna (Modern: "Abusir") Seila
Tanis (Modern: "San el-Hagar", Ancient: Tarkhan
"Djan'net")
Hermopolis Magna (Modern: "El Ashmunein", An-
Tell el-Maskhuta (Ancient: "Tjeku") cient: "Khmun")

Tell el-Rataba Hebenu (Modern: "Kom el-Ahmar")

Tell el-Sahaba Beni Hasan


Speos Artemidos (Modern: "Istabl 'Antar")
Tell Nabasha
Zawyet el-Maiyitin
Tell Qua'
Hur (Ancient: "Herwer")
Terenuthis (Modern: "Kom Abu Billo")
Lykopolis (Modern: "Asyut", Ancient: "Zawty")
Thmuis (Modern: "Tell el-Timai")
Meir
Tura
Oxyrhynchus (Modern: "el-Bahnasa", Ancient:
Xois (Modern: "Sakha") "Per-Medjed")
Sharuna
20.3 Middle Egypt Tuna el-Gebel

The area from about Al Fayyum to Asyut is usually re-


ferred to as Middle Egypt. 20.4 Upper Egypt
Akoris (Modern: "Tihna el-Gebel") 20.4.1 Northern Upper Egypt
Fraser Tombs Abydos (Ancient: "Abedju")
Ankyronpolis (Modern: "el-Hiba", Ancient: "Teud- el-'Araba el Madfuna
joi")
Kom el-Sultan
Antinoopolis (Modern: "el-Sheikh 'Ibada") Umm el-Qa'ab
Deir el-Bersha Shunet ez Zebib
Osireion
Deir el-Gabrawi
Apollinopolis Parva (Modern: "Qus", Ancient:
Dishasha
"Gesa" or "Gesy")
Dja (Modern: "Medinet Madi" Ancient: "Nar-
Qus Necropolis
mouthis")
Antaeopolis (Modern: "Qaw el-Kebir", Ancient:
el-'Amarna (Ancient: "Akhetaten")
"Tjebu" or "Djew-Qa")
el-Sheikh Sa'id
Ar Raqqinah (Known as "Reqaqnah")
Faiyum Athribis (Modern: "Wannina", Ancient: "Hut-
Crocodilopolis (Hellenistic: "Arsinoe") Repyt")
el-Lahun Beit Khallaf
el-Lisht Tentyris (Modern: "Dendera", Ancient: "Iunet" or
Hawara "Tantere")
20.4. UPPER EGYPT 143

Temple of Hathor Latopolis (Modern: "Esna", Ancient: "Iunyt, Senet,


Tasenet")
Diospolis Parva (Modern: "Hiw", Ancient: "Hut-
Sekhem") Medamud
el-Hawawish Thebes (Modern: "Luxor", Ancient: "Niwt-rst" or
"Waset")
el-Salamuni
Deir el-Medina
Khemmis or Panopolis (Modern: "Akhmin", An-
cient: "Ipu" or "Khent-Min") Temple of Hathor
Workmens Village
Gebel el-Haridi Workmens Tombs
Khenoboskion (Modern: "el-Qasr", "el-Saiyad") Shrine to Meretseger & Ptah

Koptos (Modern: "Qift", Ancient: "Gebtu") Deir el-Bahri


Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
Naga ed-Der
Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II
Nag' el-Madamud (Ancient: "Mabu") Mortuary Temple of Thotmose III

Ombos (Naqada) (Modern: "Naqada", Ancient: el-Malqata


"Nubt") Palace of Amenhotep III
Deir el-Shelwit
Shanhr
Karnak (Ancient: "Ipet-Isut")
Temple of Amenhotep IV
20.4.2 Southern Upper Egypt Precinct of Amon-Re
Aphroditopolis (Modern: "Gebelein", Ancient: Precinct of Montu
"Per-Hathor") Precinct of Mut
Luxor (Ancient: "Ipet-Resyt")
Apollinopolis Magna (Modern: "Edfu", Ancient:
"Djeba, Mesen") Temple of Amun
Medinet Habu
Aswan
Mortuary Temple & Palace of Ramesses
Agilkia Island III
Elephantine Island Mortuary Temple of Ay & Horemheb
New Kalabsha Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III
Northern Granite Quarries Colossi of Memnon
Philae Island Mortuary Temple of Merneptah
Qubbet el-Hawa Mortuary Temple of Ramesses IV
Sehel Island Mortuary Temple of Thutmose IV
Southern Granite Quarries Mortuary Temple of Thutmose III
el-Mo'alla (Ancient: "Hefat") Qasr el-'Aguz
Temple of Thoth
Eileithyiaspolis (Modern: "el-Kab", Ancient:
"Nekheb") Qurna
Mortuary Temple of Seti I
Gebel el-Silsila (Ancient: "Kheny")
Tombs of the Nobles
Hermonthis (Modern: "Armant", Ancient: "Iuny")
el-Assasif
Hierakonpolis (Modern: "Kom el-Ahmar", Ancient: el-Khokha
"Nekhen") el-Tarif
Kom al-Ahmar Necropolis Dra' Abu el-Naga'
Qurnet Murai
Kom Ombo Sheikh Abd el-Qurna
Ombos (Modern: "Kom Ombo", Ancient: Ramesseum (Mortuary Temple of Ramesses
"Nubt") II)
144 CHAPTER 20. LIST OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SITES

Valley of the Kings (Modern: "Wadi el- Taphis (Modern: "Tafa")


Muluk")
Tutzis (Modern: "Dendur")
Valley of the Queens (Modern: "Biban el-
Harim") Tzitzis (Modern: "Qertassi")
Tuphium (Modern: "Tod", Ancient: "Djerty")
20.6 Upper Nubia
20.5 Lower Nubia 'Amara East
'Amara West[1]
Abahuda (Abu Oda)
Aksha (Serra West)
Askut Island
Buhen
Dabenarti
Dibeira
Dorginarti Island
Faras
Gebel el-Shams
Gebel Barkal
Kor
Kumma
Map of Nubia
Meinarti Island

Amada Qustul

Abu Simbel Semna

Contra Pselchis (Modern: "Quban", Ancient: Semna South


"Baki") Serra East
Debod Shalfak
el-Lessiya Uroarti Island
Mi'am (Modern: "'Aniba")
Primis (Modern: "Qasr Ibrim") 20.7 The Oases and
Pselchis (Modern: "el-Dakka", Ancient: "Pselqet") Mediterranean coast
Temple of Dakka
Siwa Oasis
Talmis (Modern: "Kalabsha")
Aghurmi
Beit el-Wali el-Zeitun
Temple of Derr Gebel el-Mawta
Gerf Hussein Qaret el-Musabberin
Qasr Ibrim Umm el-'Ebeida
Wadi es-Sebua Bahriya Oasis
20.10. NOTES AND REFERENCES 145

el-Qasr 20.10 Notes and references


el-Bawiti
[1] The British Museum, Amara West: investigating life in an
el-Hayz Egyptian town
Farafra Oasis

'Ain el-Wadi 20.11 Bibliography


el-Qasr
Atlas of Ancient Egypt, John Baines & Jaromir
el-Dakhla Oasis
Malek, America University of Cairo Press, 2002
Amheida
Balat
Deir el-Hager
el-Qasr
Kellis (Modern: "Ismant el-Kharab")
Mut el-Kharab
Qaret el-Muzawwaqa

el-Kharga Oasis

Baris
Gebel el-Teir
Hibis
Kysis (Modern: "Dush")
Nadurs
Qasr el-Ghueida
Qasr Zaiyan

Mediterranean Coast

Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham

20.8 Sinai
Aqaba

Arsinoe

Eilat (Elath)

Kuntillet Ajrud

Pelusium (Sin)

Rud el-'Air

Serabit el-Khadim

Tell Kedwa

Wadi Maghareh

20.9 Eastern Desert


Wadi Hammamat
Chapter 21

4.2 kiloyear event

The 4.2 kiloyear BP aridication event was one of the 3.[1][13][14] Despite this, evidence for the 4.2 kyr event in
most severe climatic events of the Holocene period.[1] northern Europe is ambiguous, suggesting the origin and
Starting in about 2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire impact of this event is spatially complex.[15]
22nd century BC. The drought may have initiated south-
eastward habitat tracking within the Indus Valley Civi-
lization.[2] 21.2 Aftermath
The 4.2 kiloyear BP event has been hypothesised to have
caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as
21.2.1 Ancient Egypt
well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the
Liangzhu culture in the lower Yangtze River area.[3] How-
In c. 2150 BC the Old Kingdom was hit by a series of
ever, this theory has been criticised by archaeologists,
exceptionally low Nile oods. It has been suggested that
with political causes for the collapse of these polities
this may have impacted the collapse of the centralised
thought to be more probable.
government in ancient Egypt at this time.[16] Contempo-
rary texts claim that famines, social disorder, and frag-
mentation subsequently occurred. There may however be
21.1 Evidence a strong element of political bias to these writings, since
the Egyptian elite believed the stability of Egypt was de-
pendant on a unied state, and would have been moti-
28.0
vated to present decentralisation as disastrous. After a
28.5
phase of rehabilitation and restoration of order in various
29.0
provinces, Egypt was eventually reunied within a new
29.5
paradigm of kingship. The process of recovery depended
Temperature (C)

30.0
on capable provincial administrators, a more formalised
30.5
justice system, irrigation projects, and an administrative
31.0
reform.
31.5

32.0

21.2.2 Mesopotamia
32.5
8.2 kYr Event

33.0
11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Years Before Present (1950)


The aridication of Mesopotamia may have been related
Central Greenland reconstructed temperature. Unlike the 8.2 to the onset of cooler sea surface temperatures in the
kiloyear event, the 4.2 kiloyear event has no prominent signal North Atlantic (Bond event 3), as analysis of the modern
in the Gisp2 ice core that has an onset at 4.2 ka BP. instrumental record shows that large (50%) interannual
reductions in Mesopotamian water supply result when
A phase of intense aridity about 4.2 ka BP is recorded subpolar northwest Atlantic sea surface temperatures are
across North Africa,[4] the Middle East,[5] the Red Sea,[6] anomalously cool.[17] The headwaters of the Tigris and
the Arabian peninsula,[7] the Indian subcontinent,[2] and Euphrates Rivers are fed by elevation-induced capture of
midcontinental North America.[8] Glaciers throughout winter Mediterranean rainfall.
the mountain ranges of western Canada advanced at about The Akkadian Empire in 2300 BC was the second
this time.[9] Evidence has also been found in an Italian civilization to subsume independent societies into a
cave owstone,[10] the Kilimanjaro Ice sheet,[11] and in single state (the rst being ancient Egypt at around
Andean glacier ice.[12] The onset of the aridication in 3100 BC). It has been claimed that the collapse of
Mesopotamia about 4100 BP also coincided with a cool- the state was inuenced by a wide-ranging, centuries-
ing event in the North Atlantic, known as Bond event long drought.[18] Archaeological evidence documents

146
21.3. SEE ALSO 147

widespread abandonment of the agricultural plains of years BP Longshan was displaced by the Yueshi culture
northern Mesopotamia and dramatic inuxes of refugees which was relatively underdeveloped.
into southern Mesopotamia around 2170 BC.[19] A 180-
km-long wall, the Repeller of the Amorites, was built
across central Mesopotamia to stem nomadic incursions 21.3 See also
to the south. Around 2150 BC, the Gutian people, who
originally inhabited the Zagros Mountains, defeated the Climate change
demoralized Akkadian army, took Akkad, and destroyed
it around 2115 BC. Widespread agricultural change in the Timeline of environmental history
Near East is visible at the end of the third millennium
Bond event
BC.[20]
Resettlement of the northern plains by smaller sedentary 5.9 kiloyear event
populations occurred near 1900 BC, three centuries after 8.2 kiloyear event
the collapse.[19]

21.2.3 Arabian peninsula 21.4 References

In the Persian Gulf region, there is a sudden change in [1] deMenocal, Peter B. (2001). Cultural Responses to
Climate Change During the Late Holocene. Science.
settlement pattern, style of pottery and tombs at this time.
292 (5517): 667673. Bibcode:2001Sci...292..667D.
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[2] Staubwasser, M.; et al. (2003). Climate change
at the 4.2 ka BP termination of the Indus val-
21.2.4 Spain ley civilization and Holocene south Asian mon-
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post-glacial climate events in West Asia and North Africa
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Recent studies show that the motilla
126 (4): 435456. Bibcode:1994E&PSL.126..435G.
sites from the Bronze Age in La Mancha may
doi:10.1016/0012-821X(94)90123-6.
be the most ancient system of groundwater col-
lection in the Iberian Peninsula. ... These were [5] Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Kaufman, Aaron
built during the Climatic Event 4.2 ka cal BP in (1997). Late Quaternary Paleoclimate in the Eastern
a time of environmental stress due to a period Mediterranean Region from Stable Isotope Analysis of
of severe, prolonged drought.[21] Speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel. Quaternary Research.
47 (2): 155168. Bibcode:1997QuRes..47..155B.
doi:10.1006/qres.1997.1883.
The authors analysis veried a relationship between the
geological substrate and the spatial distribution of the [6] Arz, Helge W.; et al. (2006). A pronounced
motillas. dry event recorded around 4.2 ka in brine sediments
from the northern Red Sea. Quaternary Research.
66 (3): 432441. Bibcode:2006QuRes..66..432A.
21.2.5 China doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2006.05.006.
[7] Parker, Adrian G.; et al. (2006). A record of
The drought may have caused the collapse of Neolithic Holocene climate change from lake geochemical analy-
Cultures around Central China during the late third mil- ses in southeastern Arabia (PDF). Quaternary Research.
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the Yellow River saw a series of extraordinary oods.[23] doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2006.07.001. Archived from the
In the Yishu River Basin, the ourishing Longshan culture original (PDF) on October 29, 2008.
was hit by a cooling that made the paddies shortfall in out- [8] Booth, Robert K.; et al. (2005). A severe centennial-
put or even no seeds were gathered. The scarcity in natu- scale drought in midcontinental North America 4200
ral resource led to substantial decrease in population and years ago and apparent global linkages. The Holocene.
subsequent drop in archaeological sites.[24] About 4000 15 (3): 321328. doi:10.1191/0959683605hl825ft.
148 CHAPTER 21. 4.2 KILOYEAR EVENT

[9] Menounos, B.; et al. (2008). Western Canadian [21] Mejas Moreno, M., Bentez de Lugo Enrich, L., Pozo
glaciers advance in concert with climate change Tejado, J. del y Moraleda Sierra, J. 2014. Los primeros
c. 4.2 ka. Geophysical Research Letters. 35 aprovechamientos de aguas subterrneas en la Pennsula
(7): L07501. Bibcode:2008GeoRL..3507501M. Ibrica. Las motillas de Daimiel en la Edad del Bronce de
doi:10.1029/2008GL033172. La Mancha. Boletn Geolgico y Minero, 125 (4): 455-
474 ISSN 0366-0176
[10] Drysdale, Russell; et al. (2005). Late Holocene drought
responsible for the collapse of Old World civilizations [22] Wu, Wenxiang; Liu, Tungsheng (2004). Possi-
is recorded in an Italian cave owstone. Geology. ble role of the Holocene Event 3 on the collapse
34 (2): 101104. Bibcode:2006Geo....34..101D. of Neolithic Cultures around the Central Plain of
doi:10.1130/G22103.1. China. Quaternary International. 117 (1): 153166.
Bibcode:2004QuInt.117..153W. doi:10.1016/S1040-
[11] Thompson,L.G; et al. (2002). Kilimanjaro
6182(03)00125-3.
Ice Core Records Evidence of Holocene Cli-
mate Change in Tropical Africa. Science. [23] Chun Chang Huang; et al. (2011). Extraordi-
298: 58993. Bibcode:2002Sci...298..589T. nary oods related to the climatic event at 4200 a
doi:10.1126/science.1073198. PMID 12386332. BP on the Qishuihe River, middle reaches of the
[12] Davis, Mary E.; Thompson, Lonnie G. (2006). An Yellow River, China. Quaternary Science Reviews.
Andean ice-core record of a Middle Holocene mega- 30 (34): 460468. Bibcode:2011QSRv...30..460H.
drought in North Africa and Asia (PDF). Annals of doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.12.007.
Glaciology. 43: 3441. Bibcode:2006AnGla..43...34D. [24] Gao, Huazhong; Zhu, Cheng; Xu, Weifeng (2007). En-
doi:10.3189/172756406781812456. Archived from the vironmental change and cultural response around 4200
original (PDF) on July 11, 2007. cal. yr BP in the Yishu River Basin, Shandong.
[13] Bond, G.; et al. (1997). A Pervasive Millennial- Journal of Geographical Sciences. 17 (3): 285292.
Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and doi:10.1007/s11442-007-0285-5.
Glacial Climates (PDF). Science. 278 (5341):
12571266. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.1257B.
doi:10.1126/science.278.5341.1257. 21.5 Further reading
[14] Two examples of abrupt climate change. Lamont-
Doherty Earth Observatory. Archived from the original Weiss, H., ed. (2012). Seven Generations Since the
on 2007-08-23. Fall of Akkad. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN
[15] Roland, Thomas P; et al. (2014). Was there a
9783447068239.
'4.2 ka event' in Great Britain and Ireland? Evi-
dence from the peatland record. Quaternary Science
Reviews. 83: 1127. Bibcode:2014QSRv...83...11R. 21.6 External links
doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.10.024.
[16] Stanley, Jean-Daniel; et al. (2003). Nile ow failure at The Egyptian Old Kingdom, Sumer and Akkad
the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic
and petrologic evidence. Geoarchaeology. 18 (3): 395 The End of the Old Kingdom
402. doi:10.1002/gea.10065.
[17] Cullen, Heidi M.; deMenocal, Peter B. (2000). North
Atlantic inuence on Tigris-Euphrates streamow. In-
ternational Journal of Climatology. 20 (8): 853
863. Bibcode:2000IJCli..20..853C. doi:10.1002/1097-
0088(20000630)20:8<853::AID-JOC497>3.0.CO;2-M.
[18] Kerr, Richard A. (1998). Sea-Floor Dust Shows
Drought Felled Akkadian Empire. Science. 279
(5349): 325326. Bibcode:1998Sci...279..325K.
doi:10.1126/science.279.5349.325.
[19] Weiss, H; et al. (1993). The Gene-
sis and Collapse of Third Millennium North
Mesopotamian Civilization. Science. 261
(5124): 9951004. Bibcode:1993Sci...261..995W.
doi:10.1126/science.261.5124.995. PMID 17739617.
[20] Riehl, S. (2008). Climate and agriculture in the ancient
Near East: a synthesis of the archaeobotanical and sta-
ble carbon isotope evidence. Vegetation History and Ar-
chaeobotany. 17 (1): 4351. doi:10.1007/s00334-008-
0156-8.
Chapter 22

5.9 kiloyear event

that followed.
For example, Cremaschi (1998) describes evidence of
rapid aridication in Tadrart Acacus of southwestern
Libya, in the form of increased aeolian erosion, sand in-
cursions and the collapse of the roofs of rock shelters.[5]
The 5.9 kiloyear event was also recorded as a cold event
in the Erhai Lake (China) sediments.[6]

22.2 Eects
A satellite image of the Sahara. The Congo Rainforest lies to its
south. In the eastern Arabian Peninsula, the 5.9 kiloyear event
may have contributed to an increase in relatively greater
The 5.9 kiloyear event was one of the most intense social complexity and have corresponded to an end of the
aridication events during the Holocene Epoch. It oc- local Ubaid period.[7]
curred around 3900 BC (5900 years Before Present) and
Also, by causing a period of cooling in Europe, it may
ended the Neolithic Subpluvial and probably initiating the
have contributed to the decline of Old Europe and the
most recent desiccation of the Sahara, as well a ve cen-
rst Indo-European migrations into the Balkans from the
tury period of colder climate in more northerly latitudes.
Pontic-Caspian Steppe, according to the book The Horse,
It also triggered human migration to river valleys, such the Wheel, and Language, by David W. Anthony.
as from central North Africa to the Nile, which even-
tually led to the emergence of the rst complex, highly
organized, state-level societies in the 4th millennium 22.3 See also
BC.[1] It is associated with the last round of the Sahara
pump theory. Timeline of environmental history
Bond event

22.1 Cause 4.2 kiloyear event


8.2 kiloyear event
A model by Claussen et al. (1999) suggested rapid deser-
tication, associated with vegetation-atmosphere interac-
tions following a cooling event, Bond event 4.[2] Bond et 22.4 References
al. (1997) identied a North Atlantic cooling episode
5900 years ago from ice-rafted debris as well as other [1] Brooks, Nick (2006). Cultural responses to
such now called Bond events, which indicate the exis- aridity in the Middle Holocene and increased
tence of a quasiperiodic cycle of Atlantic cooling events social complexity. Quaternary International.
approximately every 1470 years 500 years.[3] For some 151 (1): 2949. Bibcode:2006QuInt.151...29B.
reason, all the earlier arid events (including the 8.2 kilo- doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2006.01.013.
year event) were followed by recovery, as is attested by [2] Claussen, Mark; et al. (1999). Simulation of
the wealth of evidence of humid conditions in the Sahara an Abrupt Change in Saharan Vegetation in the
between 10,000 and 6,000 BP.[4] However, it appears that Mid-Holocene. Geophysical Research Letters. 26
the 5.9 kiloyear event was followed by a partial recovery (14): 203740. Bibcode:1999GeoRL..26.2037C.
at best, with accelerated desiccation in the millennium doi:10.1029/1999GL900494.

149
150 CHAPTER 22. 5.9 KILOYEAR EVENT

[3] Bond, G.; et al. (1997). A Pervasive Millennial-


Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and
Glacial Climates (PDF). Science. 278 (5341):
125766. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.1257B.
doi:10.1126/science.278.5341.1257.

[4] Petit-Maire, N.; Beufort, L.; Page, N. (1997). Holocene


climate change and man in the present day Sahara desert.
In Nzhet Dalfes, H.; Kukla, G.; Weiss, H. Third Millen-
nium BC Climate Change and Old World Collapse. Berlin:
Springer. pp. 297308. ISBN 978-3-540-61892-8.

[5] Cremaschi, M. (1998). Late Quaternary geological evi-


dence for environmental changes in south-western Fezzan
(Libyan Sahara)". In Cremaschi, M.; Di Lernia, S. Wadi
Teshuinat: Palaeoenvironment and prehistory in south-
western Fezzan (Libyan Sahara). Firenze: Ed. All' In-
segna del Giglio. pp. 1347. ISBN 978-88-7814-144-5.

[6] Zhou, Jing; Wang, Sumin; Yang, Guishan; Xiao, Haifeng.


Younger Dryas Event and Cold Events in Early-Mid
Holocene: Record from the sediment of Erhai Lake
(PDF). Advances in Climate Change Research. 3 (sup-
plement): 4144. 1673-1719 (2007) Suppl.0041-04.
Archived from the original (pdf) on 10 September 2008.
Retrieved 3 June 2014.

[7] Parker, Adrian G.; Goudie, Andrew S.; Stokes, Stephen;


White, Kevin; Hodson, Martin J.; Manning, Michelle;
Kennet, Derek (2006). A record of Holocene cli-
mate change from lake geochemical analyses in south-
eastern Arabia (PDF). Quaternary Research. Elsevier.
66 (3): 465476. Bibcode:2006QuRes..66..465P.
doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2006.07.001. Archived from the
original (pdf) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 3 June
2014.
Chapter 23

Abadiyeh

Abadiyeh may refer to the following places:

Abadiyeh, Egypt, an archaeological site in Egypt


Abadiyeh, Lebanon, a town near Beirut

151
Chapter 24

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire (/kimnd/, from Old Per- the Parthian Empire.[15]
sian Haxmaniiya,[11] c. 550330 BC),
The historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire went far
also called the (First) Persian Empire,[12] was an empire beyond its territorial and military inuences and included
based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
cultural, social, technological and religious inuences as
Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and well. Many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in
Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley
their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange,[17] some
in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history, being employed by or allied to the Persian kings. The
spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger
impact of Cyruss edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian
than any previous empire in history. It is equally notable texts, and the empire was instrumental in the spread of
for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic ad- Zoroastrianism as far east as China. The empire also set
ministration (through satraps under the King of Kings), the tone for the politics, heritage and history of modern
for building infrastructure such as road systems and a Iran.[18]
postal system, the use of an ocial language across its
territories, and the development of civil services and a
large professional army. The empires successes inspired
similar systems in later empires.[13] It is noted in Western 24.1 History
history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during
the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the 24.1.1 Achaemenid timeline
Jewish exiles in Babylon. The Mausoleum at Halicarnas-
sus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was Astronomical year numbering
built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well.
By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the Dates are approximate,
southwestern portion of the Iranian Plateau in the re- consult particular article
gion of Persis,[14] which came to be their heartland.[15] for details
From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat Due to the short duration
the Medes, Lydia, and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, es- of their reigns, Smerdis
tablishing the Achaemenid Empire. The delegation of (522 BC), Xerxes II and
power to local governments is thought to have eventually Sogdianus (both in 424 BC)
weakened the kings authority, causing resources to be ex- are not shown.
pended in attempts to subdue local rebellions, and lead-
ing to the disunity of the region at the time of Alexander
the Great's invasion in 334 BC.[15] This viewpoint, how- 24.1.2 Origin
ever, is challenged by some modern scholars who argue
that the Achaemenid Empire was not facing any such Main articles: Achaemenes, Teispids, and Achaemenid
crisis around the time of Alexander, and that only in- family tree
ternal succession struggles within the Achaemenid fam-
ily ever came close to weakening the empire.[15] Alexan-
der, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great,[16] conquered The Persian nation contains a number of
the empire in its entirety by 330 BC. Upon his death, tribes as listed here. ... : the Pasargadae,
most of the empires former territory came under the rule Maraphii, and Maspii, upon which all the
of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in ad- other tribes are dependent. Of these, the
dition to other minor territories which gained indepen- Pasargadae are the most distinguished; they
dence at that time. The Persian population of the central contain the clan of the Achaemenids from
plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes
are the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of

152
24.1. HISTORY 153

which are attached to the soil, the remainder


-the Dai, Mardi, Dropici, Sagarti, being
nomadic.
Herodotus, Histories 1.101 & 125

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of


the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Per-
sian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)

The term Achaemenid means of the family of


the Achaemenis/Achaemenes (Old Persian: Hax-
Relief of Cyrus the Great. mani ; a bahuvrihi compound translating to having a
friends mind).[21] Despite the derivation of the name,
Achaemenes was himself a minor seventh-century ruler
The Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic of the Anshan in southwestern Iran, and a vassal of
Persians. The name Persia is a Greek and Latin pro- Assyria.[19] It was not until the time of Cyrus the Great
nunciation of the native word referring to the country of (Cyrus II of Persia), a descendant of Achaemenes, that
the people originating from Persis (Old Persian: Prsa), the Achaemenid Empire developed the prestige of an
their home territory located north of the Persian Gulf in empire and set out to incorporate the existing empires of
southwestern Iran.[19] the ancient east, becoming the vast Persian Empire of
ancient legend.[22]
The Achaemenid Empire was not the rst Iranian empire,
as by 6th century BC another group of ancient Iranian At some point in 550 BC, Cyrus rose in rebellion against
peoples had already established the short lived Median the Medes (most likely due to their mismanagement of
Empire.[19] The Medes had originally been the dominant Persis), eventually conquering the Medes and creating the
Iranian group in the region, freeing themselves of As- rst Persian empire. Cyrus the Great utilized his tacti-
syrian domination and rising to power at the end of the cal genius,[23] as well as his understanding of the socio-
political conditions governing his territories, to eventually
seventh century BC, incorporating the Persians into their
empire. incorporate into the Empire neighbouring Lydia and the
The Iranian peoples had arrived in the region of what Neo-Babylonian Empire, also leading the way for his suc-
is today Iran c. 1000 BC[20] and had for a num- cessor, Cambyses II, to venture into Egypt and defeat the
ber of centuries fallen under the domination of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt.
Neo-Assyrian Empire (911609 BC), based in north- Cyrus the Greats political acumen was reected in his
ern Mesopotamia. However, the Medes and Persians management of his newly formed empire, as the Persian
(together with the Scythians, Babylonians), Cimmerians, Empire became the rst to attempt to govern many dif-
Persians and Chaldeans played a major role in the over- ferent ethnic groups on the principle of equal responsi-
throw of the Assyrian empire and establishment of the bilities and rights for all people, so long as subjects paid
rst Persian empire. their taxes and kept the peace.[24] Additionally, the king
154 CHAPTER 24. ACHAEMENID EMPIRE

agreed not to interfere with the local customs, religions, when writing about the Persians, identied Achaemenes
and trades of its subject states,[24] a unique quality that with Perses, ancestor of the Persians in Greek mythol-
eventually won Cyrus the support of the Babylonians. ogy.[26] According to Plato, Achaemenes was the
This system of management ultimately became an issue same person as Perses, a son of the Ethiopian queen
for the Persians, as with a larger empire came the need Andromeda and the Greek hero Perseus, and a grand-
for order and control, leading to expenditure of resources son of Zeus. Later writers believed that Achaemenes and
and mobilization of troops to quell local rebellions, and Perseus were dierent people, and that Perses was an an-
weakening the central power of the king. By the time of cestor of the king.[27] This account further conrms that
Darius III, this disorganization had almost led to a dis- Achaemenes could well have been a signicant Anshan
united realm.[15] leader and an ancestor of Cyrus the Great. Regardless,
both Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great were related,
The Persians from whom Cyrus hailed were originally
nomadic pastoralists in the western Iranian Plateau and prominent kings of Persia, under whose rule the empire
expanded to include much of the ancient world.
by 850 BC were calling themselves the Parsa and their
constantly shifting territory Parsua, for the most part lo-
calized around Persis.[15] As Persians gained power, they
developed the infrastructure to support their growing in-
24.1.3 Formation and expansion
uence, including creation of a capital named Pasargadae
and an opulent city named Persepolis.
Begun during the rule of Darius I the Great and com-
pleted some 100 years later,[25] Persepolis was a symbol
of the empire serving both as a ceremonial centre and a
center of government.[25] It had a special set of gradually
progressive stairways named All Countries[25] around
which carved relief decoration depicted scenes of hero-
ism, hunting, natural themes, and presentation of the gifts
to the Achaemenid kings by their various subjects, possi-
bly during the spring festival, Nowruz. The core structure
was composed of a multitude of square rooms or halls, the
biggest of which was called Apadana.[25] Tall, decorated
columns welcomed visitors and emphasized the height of
the structure. Later on, Darius also utilized Susa and
Ecbatana as his governmental centres, developing them The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire
to a similar metropolitan status.
Accounts of the Achaemenid family tree can be derived
from either documented Greek or Roman accounts, or
from existing documented Persian accounts such as those
found in the Behistun Inscription. However, since most
existing accounts of this vast empire are in works of
Greek philosophers and historians, and since many of the
original Persian documents are lost, not to mention be-
ing subject to varying scholarly views on their origin and
possible motivations behind them, it is dicult to cre-
ate a denitive and completely objective list. Nonethe-
less, it is clear that Cyrus and Darius were critical in the
expansion of the empire. Cyrus is often believed to be
the son of Cambyses I, grandson of Cyrus I, the father of
Cambyses II, and a relative of Darius through a shared an- The Gate of All Nations, Persepolis
cestor, Teispes. Cyrus the Great is also believed to have
been a family member (possibly grandson) of the Median Further information: Battle of the Persian Border,
king Astyages through his mother, Mandane of Media. A Persian Revolt, Battle of Pteria, Battle of Opis, Battle of
minority of scholars argue that perhaps Achaemenes was Pelusium (525 BC), Achaemenid invasion of the Indus
a retrograde creation of Darius in order to reconcile his Valley, and European Scythian campaign of Darius I
connection with Cyrus after gaining power.[19]
Ancient Greek writers provide some legendary informa- The empire took its unied form with a central admin-
tion about Achaemenes by calling his tribe the Pasar- istration around Pasargadae erected by Cyrus the Great.
gadae and stating that he was raised by an eagle". Plato, The empire ended up conquering and enlarging the Me-
dian Empire to include in addition many more territories,
24.1. HISTORY 155

giving his subjects freedom to practice local customs. To


reinforce this image, he instituted policies of religious
freedom, and restored temples and other infrastructure in
the newly acquired cities (Most notably the Jewish inhab-
itants of Babylon, as recorded in the Cyrus Cylinder and
the Tanakh). As a result of his tolerant policies he came
to be known by those of the Jewish faith as the anointed
of the Lord.[29][30]
His immediate successors were less successful. Cyrus
son Cambyses II conquered Egypt in 525 BC, but died in
July 522 BC during a revolt led by a sacerdotal clan that
had lost its power following Cyrus conquest of Media.
The cause of his death remains uncertain, although it may
have been the result of an accident.[31]
According to Herodotus, Cambyses II had originally ven-
tured into Egypt to take revenge for the pharaoh Amasiss
trickery when he sent a fake Egyptian bride whose fam-
ily Amasis had murdered,[32] instead of his own daugh-
ter, to wed Cambyses II. Additionally negative reports of
mistreatment caused by Amasis, given by Phanes of Hali-
carnassus, a wise counsellor serving Amasis, further bol-
stered Cambysess resolve to venture into Egypt. Amasis
died before Cambyses II could face him, but his succes-
sor Psamtik III was defeated by Cambyses II in the Battle
A well preserved Persian column showing the details of the cap- of Pelusium.
ital of the columns in Persepolis
While Cambyses II was in Egypt, the Zoroastrian priests,
whom Herodotus called Magi, usurped the throne for one
of their own, Gaumata, who then pretended to be Cam-
byses IIs younger brother Bardiya (Greek: Smerdis or
Tanaoxares/Tanyoxarkes[31] ), who had been assassinated
some three years earlier. Owing to the strict rule of Cam-
byses II, especially his stance on taxation,[33] and his long
absence in Egypt, the whole people, Perses, Medes and
all the other nations, acknowledged the usurper, espe-
cially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years.[34]
Cambyses II himself would not be able to quell the im-
posters, as he died on the way back from Egypt.
The claim that Gaumata had impersonated Bardiya
(Smerdis), is derived from Darius the Great and the
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
records at the Behistun Inscription. Historians are di-
vided over the possibility that the story of the impostor
was invented by Darius as justication for his coup.[35]
for example in Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, Egypt,
Darius made a similar claim when he later captured Baby-
and Central Asia. During the reigns of Darius I and his
lon, announcing that the Babylonian king was not, in fact,
son Xerxes I it engaged in military conict with some of
Nebuchadnezzar III, but an impostor named Nidintu-
the major city-states of Ancient Greece, and although it
bel.[36]
came close to defeating the Greek army, this war ulti-
mately led to the empires overthrow.[28] According to the Behistun Inscription, Gaumata ruled
for seven months before being overthrown in 522 BC by
In 559 BC, Cambyses I the Elder was succeeded as the
Darius the Great (Darius I) (Old Persian Dryavu, who
king of Ann by his son Cyrus the Great, who also suc-
holds rm the good, also known as Darayarahush or
ceeded the still-living Arsames as the King of Persia, thus
Darius the Great). The Magi, though persecuted, con-
reuniting the two realms. Cyrus is considered to be the
tinued to exist, and a year following the death of the
rst true king of the Persian Empire, as his predecessors
rst pseudo-Smerdis (Gaumata), saw a second pseudo-
were subservient to the Medes. Cyrus the Great con-
Smerdis (named Vahyazdta) attempt a coup. The coup,
quered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Cyrus was politically
though initially successful, failed.[37]
shrewd, modeling himself as the savior of conquered
nations, often allowing displaced people to return, and Herodotus writes[38] that the native leadership debated
156 CHAPTER 24. ACHAEMENID EMPIRE

the best form of government for the empire. It was agreed and to Macedonians specically as Yaun Takabara or
that an oligarchy would divide them against one another, Greeks with hats that look like shields, possibly refer-
and democracy would bring about mob rule resulting in ring to the Macedonian kausia hat.[43]
a charismatic leader resuming the monarchy. Therefore,
they decided a new monarch was in order, particularly
since they were in a position to choose him. Darius I
was chosen monarch from among the leaders. He was
cousin to Cambyses II and Bardiya (Smerdis), claiming
Ariaramnes as his ancestor.
The Achaemenids thereafter consolidated areas rmly
under their control. It was Cyrus the Great and Darius the
Great who, by sound and farsighted administrative plan-
ning, brilliant military maneuvering, and a humanistic
world view, established the greatness of the Achaemenids
and, in less than thirty years, raised them from an obscure
tribe to a world power. It was during the reign of Darius
the Great (Darius I) that Persepolis was built (518516
BC) and which would serve as capital for several genera-
tions of Achaemenid kings. Ecbatana (Hagmatna City
of Gatherings, modern: Hamadan) in Media was greatly
expanded during this period and served as the summer
capital.
Ever since the Macedonian king Amyntas I surrendered
his country to the Persians in about 512-511, Macedo-
nians and Persians were strangers no more as well.[39]
Subjugation of Macedonia was part of Persian military The Persian queen Atossa, Darius the Great's wife and mother
operations initiated by Darius the Great (521486) in of Xerxes I
513 - after immense preparations - a huge Achaemenid
army invaded the Balkans and tried to defeat the Eu- By the 5th century BC the Kings of Persia were either
ropean Scythians roaming to the north of the Danube ruling over or had subordinated territories encompassing
river.[39] Darius army subjugated several Thracian peo- not just all of the Persian Plateau and all of the territo-
ples, and virtually all other regions that touch the Euro- ries formerly held by the Assyrian Empire (Mesopotamia,
pean part of the Black Sea, such as parts of nowadays the Levant, Cyprus and Egypt), but beyond this all of
Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, before it re- Anatolia and Armenia, as well as the Southern Cau-
turned to Asia Minor.[39][40] Darius left in Europe one casus and parts of the North Caucasus, Azerbaijan,
of his commanders named Megabazus whose task was Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, all of Bulgaria, Paeonia, Thrace
to accomplish conquests in the Balkans.[39] The Persian and Macedonia to the north and west, most of the Black
troops subjugated gold-rich Thrace, the coastal Greek Sea coastal regions, parts of Central Asia as far as the
cities, as well as defeating and conquering the powerful Aral Sea, the Oxus and Jaxartes to the north and north-
Paeonians.[39][41][42] Finally, Megabazus sent envoys to east, the Hindu Kush and the western Indus basin (cor-
Amyntas, demanding acceptance of Persian domination, responding to modern Afghanistan and Pakistan) to the
which the Macedonians did. The Balkans provided many far east, parts of northern Arabia to the south, and parts
soldiers for the multi-ethnic Achaemenid army. Many of northern Libya to the south-west, and parts of Oman,
of the Macedonian and Persian elite intermarried, such China, and the UAE.[44][45][46][47][48][49]
as the Persian ocial Bubares who married Amyntas
daughter, Gygaea. Family ties the Macedonian rulers
Amyntas and Alexander enjoyed with Bubares ensured 24.1.4 Greco-Persian Wars
them good relations with the Persian kings Darius and
Xerxes I.[39] The Persian invasion led indirectly to Mace- Main article: Greco-Persian Wars
donias rise in power and Persia had some common in- The Ionian Revolt in 499 BC, and associated revolts in
terests in the Balkans; with Persian aid, the Macedonians Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions
stood to gain much at the expense of some Balkan tribes by several regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, last-
such as the Paeonians and Greeks. All in all, the Mace- ing from 499 to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was
donians were willing and useful Persian allies. Macedo- the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with
nian soldiers fought against Athens and Sparta in Xerxes the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with
army.[39] The Persians referred to both Greeks and Mace- the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus
donians as Yauna ("Ionians", their term for Greeks), and Aristagoras. In 499 BC, the then tyrant of Miletus,
Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the Persian
24.1. HISTORY 157

Odryses
Byzantium Chalcedon
Perinthus Astakos

Maronea Doriskos Proconnesus


Abdera
Aenus Cyzicus

Eion Thasos Lampsacus


Sestos
Samothrace
Epidamnus Pella Therma Stagira Abydos
Imbros
Xerxes Ilium
Methoni Olynthus Canal
Apollonia Torone Lemnos Antandrus PERSIAN
Aegae Pydna Adramyttium
Potidaea Assus
EMPIRE
Lesbos Pergamon

Kasthanaia Pitane
Mytilene
Larissa
Dodona Pherae Skiathos Phocaea Sardis
Skyros
Smyrna
480 498
Korkyra Pharsalus Clazomenae
Cape Artemision
Kassope Ambracia Thermopylae
Chios
Colophon Tralles
480 Chalcis
Anactorium Ephesus
Eretria Mycale
Delphi Thebes 479
Marathon Karystos Samos
Leucas Miletus
Naupactus 490 Andros
Plataea 479 Ikaros Mylasa