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Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Electrical Power and Energy Systems


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

Analysis of FACTS devices on Security Constrained Unit Commitment


problem
S. Sreejith a,, Sishaj P. Simon b, M.P. Selvan b
a
Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India
b
National Institute of Technology, Trichy, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper focuses on solving Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) problem using ABC algo-
Received 3 June 2013 rithm incorporating FACTS devices. The objective of the SCUC problem is to obtain the minimum operat-
Received in revised form 23 September ing cost simultaneously maintaining the security of the system. The SCUC problem is decomposed into
2014
Unit Commitment (UC), the master problem and Security-Constrained Economic Dispatch (SCED) as
Accepted 27 October 2014
Available online 26 November 2014
the sub-problem. The existing generation constraints, such as hourly power demand, system reserves,
and minimum up/down time limits, ramp up/down limits are included in the SCUC problem formulation.
The ability of FACTS devices to control the power ow through designated routes in transmission lines
Keywords:
Security Constrained Unit Commitment
and thereby reducing the overloading of lines are studied. The solution of SCUC problem is also analyzed
Articial bee colony during a single line outage contingency. The SCUC is carried out incorporating FACTS devices such as SVC,
FACTS devices TCSC, STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC and IPFC. The modeling of the FACTS devices within the power system net-
Power ow work and nding a suitable location are discussed. The SCUC has been solved and validated on an IEEE
Line outage 118-bus test system and a practical South Indian 86 bus utility.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction conditions. This will reduce the burden of generators which are
committed to meet the sudden load demand thus making the gen-
Unit Commitment (UC) plays an important role in the economic eration more economical. The unit commitment schedule alone is
and stable operation of a power system. The main objective of UC usually infeasible if the network security constraints are not con-
problem is to nd an optimal schedule to commit the generating sidered in the traditional UC problem formulation [1]. SCUCP is
units, which minimizes the dispatch cost for meeting the fore- the generalization of UCP which takes into account the transmis-
casted system load while satisfying system and unit constraints. sion security limits [3,4]. Lagrangian Relaxation (LR) is applied to
It is expected that the power utilities generates their power at min- solve SCUC problem [5] which has the limitation of unreasonable
imal cost and the dispatch of the generators are in such a way that relaxations for discrete variables. In [6] Genetic Algorithm is
the transmission capacity limits are not exceeded. During the applied to solve unit commitment problem which has the draw-
scheduling of generating units, security of the system is taken into back of unstable computational efciency. In [7] an efcient
consideration by ensuring that the line ows and voltages are decomposition method named hybrid sub gradient and Dantzig
within the limit which is then called as Security-Constrained Unit Wolfe method is applied for long term SCUC. Benders decomposi-
Commitment [1]. tion is applied [8] for SCUC, which decomposes the SCUC into UC
During last decade, Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) master problem and security checking as sub-problem, which are
devices are broadly used for maximizing the loadability of already then coordinated through Benders cut. However, the excess
available power system transmission networks. The possibility of decomposition may lead to sub optimal solutions. The power ow
operating the power system at the minimum cost whilst satisfying and voltage constraints were considered as independent variables
the network and generation constraints is one of the main issues in in [9] while solving SCUC. Authors in paper [10] introduces an ef-
stretching transmission capacity by the use of FACTS [2]. Incorpo- cient SCUC approach with ac constraints, which uses Benders
rating FACTS devices into a power system network improves the decomposition for separating the Unit Commitment (UC) in the
power ow and loadability of the line during variable load master problem from the network security check in sub problems.
The master problem applies the augmented Lagrangian Relaxation
(LR) method and dynamic programming (DP) to solve UC. The sub
Corresponding author. problem checks ac network security constraints for the UC solution

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.10.049
0142-0615/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293 281

Nomenclature

BF(i,t) power ow through branch i at time t (MVA) Q min


Gi ; Q Gi
max
minimum and maximum reactive power generation
BF max
i maximum power ow limits for branch i (MVA) limit for unit i
Fi(Pi,t) production cost ($) R(i,t) system spinning reserve at tth hour (MW/hour)
a,b,c cost co-efcient of ith generator unit SU ti ; SDti start up cost and shut down cost of unit i at time t,
off
Dt total system demand at time t Ton
i ; Ti minimum up-time and down time of ith generator
DR(i) ramp-down rate limit of ith generator unit unit
tp tness value of the solution p T dispatch period in hours
Gij,Bij conductance and susceptance between bus i and UR(i) ramp-up rate limit of ith generator unit
bus j V(i,t) voltage magnitude of bus i at time t (pu)
I(i,t) commitment state of ith unit at tth hour V min
i ; V max
i minimum and maximum voltage magnitude limit at
N total number of generating units bus i (pu)
NB number of buses Xon(i,t) ON duration of ith generator unit till time t
NB-1 number of buses excluding slack bus Xoff(i,t) OFF duration of ith generator unit till time t
NPQ number of PQ buses i Index for generator unit
P(i,t) power level of ith generator unit at tth hour (MW) t index for time
PG(i,t),QG(i,t) active and reactive power generation at bus i at time t Ne total number of bee position
PD(i,t),QD(i,t) active and reactive power demand at bus i at time t, Bsv c;X TCSC reactance of SVC and TCSC
P(i,min) minimum power output of ith generator unit (MW) VvR,VcR shunt and series source voltage magnitude
P(i,max) maximum power output of ith generator unit (MW) dvR,dcR phase angle of shunt and series sources

to determine whether a converged and secure ac power ow can IEEE 118-bus test system and a practical South Indian 86 bus utility
be obtained. In Ref. [11], an effective ac corrective/preventive based on 2 different case studies given as follows
contingency dispatch over a 24-h period is proposed based on
Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) model. Here, along Case 1: SCUC for IEEE 118-bus test system and South Indian 86
with UC and SCOPF, Load Shedding (LS) for steady state and contin- bus utility.
gencies is also considered. The authors propose a constraint logic Case 2: SCUC for 118-bus system and South Indian 86 bus
programming (CLP) algorithm in [12] to solve the thermal Unit utility with FACTS devices.
Commitment (UC) problem. The algorithm combines the charac- a. FACTS devices placed in the maximum loaded line.
teristics of the logic programming with the constraint satisfaction b. FACTS devices placed in the optimal location.
as well as the depth-rst branch and bound search techniques to
provide an efcient and exible approach to the UC problem. In Mathematical modeling of facts devices
[13] a binary/real coded articial bee colony (BRABC) algorithm
is applied to solve the thermal Unit Commitment problem (UCP). Static Var Compensator
However, probing into the literature survey, very few works have
been carried out in the area of UCP incorporating FACTS devices. The SVC [16] is an automated shunt connected impedance
In the restructured power system environment, where security matching device, designed to bring the system closer to unity
and economic criteria are considered to be a vital one, this paper power factor. If the power systems reactive load is capacitive
investigates the SCUC problem with the incorporation of FACTS (leading), the SVC will use reactors (usually in the form of Thyris-
devices. tor-Controlled Reactors) to consume VARs from the system, lower-
ing the system voltage. Under inductive (lagging) conditions, the
capacitor banks are automatically switched in, thus providing a
rise in system voltage. SVC can be seen as an adjustable reactance
Proposed work with either ring-angle limits or reactance limits. The equivalent
circuit shown in Fig. 1 is used to derive the SVC nonlinear power
This paper solves SCUC using ABC algorithm proposed by Karab-
oga [14,15]. FACTS devices are incorporated in the power system
network and the following conditions are investigated Vi
(a) The role of FACTS devices for improving the power ow and Isvc
the corresponding reduction in the total generation cost.
(b) The role of FACTS devices for the system security due to the
occurrence of contingency (i.e.), here a contingency is simu-
lated by randomly opening a loaded transmission line. The
capability of the FACTS devices to handle the power ow
in the network without violating the constraints during a
transmission line outage is studied. Bsvc

Based on the literature review ABC algorithm can be used as a


optimization tool which is efcient in solving constrained optimi-
zation problems [14]. Therefore ABC algorithm is used for solving
the SCUC incorporating FACTS devices. Binary coded ABC is used
to solve the master UC problem and real coded ABC is used to solve
the SCED sub-problem. The analysis is performed on a benchmark Fig. 1. Static Var Compensator.
282 S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293

equations and the linearised equations required by Newtons YVR


method. The reactive power drawn by the SVC, which is also the Ii
reactive power injected at bus i is given as follows VVRdVR
IVR
Q sv c V 2i Bsv c 1
The SVC susceptance BSVC is varied to keep the nodal voltage at the
desired value.

Thyristor Controller Series Compensator

The TCSC is a key member in the FACTS family which allows Fig. 3. Equivalent circuit of STATCOM.
rapid and continuous changes in the transmission line impedance
[16,17]. Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) is used
in power systems to dynamically control the reactance of a trans- it performs the same voltage regulation function as the SVC but in
mission line in order to provide sufcient load compensation. The a more robust manner because, unlike the SVC, its operation is not
TCSC consists of a capacitor in parallel with a Thyristor Controlled impaired by the presence of low voltages. The equivalent circuit of
Reactor (TCR) as shown in Fig. 2. Actual TCSC system consists of the STATCOM is shown in Fig. 3. In steady-state fundamental fre-
many TCSC modules with a xed series capacitor. Active power quency studies, the STATCOM may be represented in the same
ow through the compensated branch can be maintained at a spec- way as a synchronous condenser, which in most cases is the model
ied level under a wide range of operating conditions. of a synchronous generator with zero active power generation. A
For inductive operation more exible model may be realized by representing the STATCOM
as a variable voltage source VvR, for which the magnitude and
1
Bii Bjj 2 phase angle may be adjusted using a suitable iterative algorithm,
X TCSC
to satisfy a specied voltage magnitude at the point of connection
with the AC network. The shunt voltage source of the three-phase
1
Bij Bji 3 STATCOM may be represented by:
X TCSC
Ev R V v R cos dv R j sin dv R 8
where XTCSC is the reactance of the TCSC.
For capacitive mode of operation the signs are reversed. The active and reactive power equations for the converter and bus
The active and reactive power equations at bus i are i are given by

Pi V i V j Bij sinhi  hj 4 Pv R V 2v R Gv R V v R V i Gv R cosdv R  hi Bv R sindv R  hi 9

Q i V 2i Bii  V i V j Bij coshi  hj 5 Q v R V 2v R Bv R V v R V i Gv R sindv R  hi  Bv R cosdv R  hi 10

The active and reactive power equations at bus j are


Pi V 2i Gv R V i V v R Gv R coshi  dv R Bv R sinhi  dv R 11
Pj V j V i Bji sinhj  hi 6
Q i V 2i Bv R V i V v R Gv R sinhi  dv R  Bv R coshi  dv R 12
Qj V 2j Bjj  V j V i Bji coshi  hi 7
Static synchronous series compensator
Static synchronous compensator
The SSSC performs a similar function to the static phase shifter,
The STATCOM consists of one VSC and its associated shunt-con- it injects voltage in quadrature with one of the line end voltages in
nected transformer [16]. It is the static counterpart of the rotating order to regulate active power ow. However, the SSSC is a far
synchronous condenser but it generates or absorbs reactive power more versatile controller than the phase shifter because it does
at a faster rate because no moving parts are involved. In principle, not draw reactive power from the AC system; it has its own reac-
tive power provisions in the form of a DC capacitor. This character-
istic makes the SSSC capable of regulating active power ow. The
equivalent circuit of SSSC is shown in Fig. 4. The series voltage
XC source of the three-phase SSSC may be represented by
EcR V cR cos dcR j sin dcR 13
i j

Ii ILOOP
Ij
Bus i Bus j

YcR
Vjj Ij
Ii
Vi VcRdcR
Vj
IVR
XL

Fig. 2. Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator. Fig. 4. Equivalent circuit of SSSC.


S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293 283

The magnitude and phase angle of the SSSC are adjusted by connection with the AC system. The UPFC equivalent circuit shown
using any suitable iterative algorithm to satisfy a specied active in Fig. 5 consists of a shunt-connected voltage source, a series-con-
and reactive power ow through the line with SSSC. Similar to nected voltage source, and an active power constraint equation
the STATCOM, maximum and minimum limits will exist for the which links the two voltage sources. The two voltage sources are
voltage magnitude VcR, which are the functions of SSSC capacitor connected to the AC system through inductive reactance repre-
rating; the voltage phase angle VcR can take any value between 0 senting the VSC transformers. In a three-phase UPFC, suitable
and 2p radians. The real and reactive power ow equations are expressions for the two voltage sources and the power constraint
given by equations are given as

Pij V 2i Gii  V i V j Gij cos hij Bij sin hij Ev R V v R cos dv R j sin dv R 19
 V i V cR Gij coshi  dcR Bij sinhi  dcR 14
EcR V cR cos dcR j sin dcR 20
Q ij V 2i Bii  V i V j Gij sin hij  Bij cos hij
RefEv R Iv R Ev R Im g 0 21
 V i V cR Gij sinhi  dcR  Bij coshi  dcR 15
The active and reactive power equations at bus i are
Pji V 2j Gjj  V i V j Gij cos hji Bij sin hji Pi V 2i Gii V i V j Gij coshi  dj Bij sinhi  dj
V j V cR Gij coshj  dcR Bij sinhj  dcR 16 V i V cR Gij coshi  dcR Bij sinhi  dcR 22
V i V cR Gv R coshi  dcR Bv R sinhi  dcR
Q ji V 2j Bjj  V i V j Gij sin hji  Bij cos hji
V j V cR Gij sinhj  dcR  Bij coshj  dcR 17 Q i V 2i Bii V i V j Gij sinhi  dj  Bij coshi  dj
V i V cR Gij sinhi  dcR  Bij coshi  dcR 23
The power ow constraint is given by
V i V cR Gv R sinhi  dcR  Bv R coshi  dcR
ReV cR Iji 0 18
The active and reactive power equations at bus j are

Unied power ow controller Pj V 2j Gjj V j V i Gji coshj  di Bji sinhj  di


V j V cR Gjj coshj  dcR Bjj sinhj  dcR 24
The UPFC consists of two VSCs sharing a common capacitor on
their DC side and a unied control system [18]. The equivalent cir- Q j V 2j Bjj V j V i Gji sinhj  di  Bji coshj  di
cuit of the UPFC is given in Fig. 5. The UPFC allows simultaneous
control of active power ow, reactive power ow, and voltage
V j V cR Gjj sinhj  dcR  Bjj coshj  dcR 25
magnitude at the UPFC terminals. Alternatively, the controller In a series converter,
may be set to control one or more of these parameters in any com-
bination or to control none of them. The active power demanded PcR V 2cR Gjj V cR V i Gij cosdcR  di Bij sindcR  di
by the series converter is drawn by the shunt converter from the V cR V j Gjj cosdcR  dj Bjj sindcR  dj 26
AC network and supplied through the DC link. The output voltage
of the series converter is added to the nodal voltage, say at bus i, to Q cR V 2cR Bjj V cR V i Gij sindcR  di  Bij cosdcR  di
boost the nodal voltage at bus j. The voltage magnitude of the
V cR V j Gjj sindcR  dj  Bjj cosdcR  dj 27
output voltage VcR provides voltage regulation, and the phase angle
dcR determines the mode of power ow control. In addition to pro- Also in a Shunt converter,
vide a supporting role in the active power exchange that takes
place between the series converter and the AC system, the shunt Pv R V 2v R Gv R V cR V i Gv R cosdv R  di Bv R sindv R  di 28
converter may also generate or absorb reactive power in order to
provide independent voltage magnitude regulation at its point of Q v R V 2v R Bv R V cR V j Gv R sindv R  dj  Bv R cosdv R  dj 29

Interline power ow controller

The IPFC, addresses the problem of compensating a number of


transmission lines at a given substation [19,20]. Conventionally,
series capacitive compensation (xed, thyristor controlled or
SSSC-based) is employed to increase the transmittable real power
over a given line and also to balance the loading of a normally
encountered multiline transmission system. However, series reac-
tive compensators are unable to control the reactive power ow
and thereby results in improper load balancing of transmission
lines. This problem occurs when the ratio of reactive to resistance
line impedance (X/R) is relatively low. Series reactive compensa-
tion reduces only the effective reactive impedance X and, thus, sig-
nicantly decreases the effective X/R ratio and thereby increases
the reactive power ow and losses in the line. The IPFC scheme,
together with independently controllable reactive series compen-
sation of each individual line enables the transfer of real power
between the compensated lines by real power transfer, compen-
Fig. 5. Equivalent circuit of UPFC. sates against resistive line voltage drops and the corresponding
284 S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293

reactive power demand, and increases the effectiveness of the security constraints using Newton Raphson load ow model for
overall compensating system for dynamic disturbances. In other any violation in dispatch or line over load. Unit commitment pro-
words, the IPFC can potentially provide a highly effective scheme gram will re-run until the system security is not jeopardized. The
for power transmission management at a multiline substation, objective function of the SCUC is given by
where as the other available FACTS devices can control the real ( )
XT XN
and reactive power ow through single transmission line only. Minimize t t
Fi Pi;t :Ii;t SUi :Ii;t  1  Ii;t1 SDi  1  Ii;t
The power ow through a line can be regulated by controlling both t1 i1
magnitudes and angles of the series voltage injections. The con- 35
verters have the capability of independently generating or absorb-
ing the reactive power. The complex power injected by series where
converter connected in between bus i and bus j as shown in Fi Pi;t a b  Pi;t c  P2i;t 36
Fig. 6 can be written as
X
n Subjected to
Pij V 2i Gii  V i V j Gij cos hij  Bij sin hij 1. Power balance constraints
j1;ji X
N

X
n PGi;t  PDi;t Vi;t Vj;t Gij cos hij Bij sin hij i 2 NB1 37
 V i Vsej Gij coshij  hseij  Bij sinhij  hseij 30 j1

j1;ji
X
N

X
n Q Gi;t  Q Di;t Vi;t Vj;t Gij sin hij  Bij cos hij i 2 NPQ 38
Q ij V 2i Bii  V i V j Gij sin hij  Bij cos hij j1
j1;ji
X
n h2. MinimumiON/OFF 
constraints

 V i Vseij Gij sinhij  hseij  Bij coshij  hseij 31 Xon
i;t1  T on
i  I i;t1  Ii;t P 0 39
j1;ji
h i  
X
n Xoff off
i;t1  Ti  Ii;t  Ii;t1 P 0 40
Pji V 2i Gii  V i V j Gij coshj  hi  Bij sinhj  hi
j1;ji 3. Unit ramp constraints
X
n Pi;t  Pi;t 6 URi 41
 V i Vseij Gij coshij  hseij  Bij sinhij  hseij 32
j1;ji Pi;t1  Pi;t 6 DRi 42

X
n 4. Spinning reserve constraints
Q ji V 2j Bii  V i V j Gij sinhj  hi  Bij coshj  hi X
N
 
j1;ji Pi;max  Ii;t P Loadt k 2 1; T 43
i1
X
n
 V i Vseij Gij sinhij  hseij  Bij coshij  hseij 33 5. Security constraints
j1;ji
Vmin
i 6 Vi;t 6 Vmax
i i 2 NB1 44
ReVseij Iji Vseik Iki 0 34
jBFi;t j 6 BFmax
i i 2 NB 45
6. Reactive power generation limits
Problem formulation
Q min max
Gi 6 Q Gi;t 6 Q Gi 46
The objective of the Security-Constrained Unit Commitment 7. FACTS device limits
problem is to minimize the total generation cost of the committed Bsv cmin 6 Bsv c 6 Bsv cmax 47
generators in addition with the start up cost of initially committed
units in that particular hour. After determining the set of commit- X TCSCmin 6 X TCSC 6 X TCSCmax 48
ted generation units, economic dispatch is carried out for these
units. This generated dispatch is again checked with the network V v Rmin 6 V v R 6 V v Rmax 49

V cRmin 6 V cR 6 V cRmax 50

dv Rmin 6 dv R 6 dv Rmax 51

dcRmin 6 dcR 6 dcRmax 52

ABC algorithm for SCUC with FACTS devices

The articial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a swarm-based


meta-heuristic algorithm, introduced by Karaboga [14,15] for opti-
mizing numerical problems. ABC algorithm is capable in nding
the optimal solution in various engineering and research problems.
This algorithm has been efciently tested on various benchmark
test functions and the results are found to be encouraging. There-
fore in this research work ABC algorithm is suitably implemented
Fig. 6. Equivalent circuit of IPFC. as binary coded ABC for UC problem and real coded ABC for SCED.
S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293 285

Since two methods of ABC algorithm is used, it is denoted as employed as the selection operation between old and new food
Hybrid ABC in this paper. The ABC model consists of three essential sources. The term (xpq  xkq) in (54) represents the changing direc-
components: employed bees, onlooker bees or unemployed bees tion and distance from food sources with respect to the current rel-
and the food sources. Employed bees y around in a multidimen- ative position of the Sun and bee. The term /pq (54) generates a
sional search space and choose their food sources depending on random number which forces the bee to explore a new position.
their own experience. Once the employed bees complete their The Prp in (53) indicates the exploiting behavior for nding the best
search process, they share their food source information with food sources. Thus, a balance between exploration and exploitation
unemployed bees or onlooker bees waiting in the hive by waggle is found in the ABC algorithm. If a solution representing a food
dancing in the dancing area. By performing this dance, successful source is not improved by a predetermined number of trials, then
foragers share information such as direction and distance to that food source is abandoned and the employed bee associated
patches of owers and quality of food sources to their hive mates with that food source becomes a scout. The number of trials for
(unemployed bee). The waggle dance gives information about the releasing a food source is equal to the value of limit count (LC),
angle d between the Suns position with respect to the direction which is an important control parameter of the ABC algorithm. If
of food sources (Fig. 7). The duration of the waggle dance signies the abandoned source is xpq and q 2 f1; 2 . . . Dg, then the scout dis-
the distance. The total time period of the waggle dance indicates covers a new food source xpq using (55).
the distance of the food sources from the current position. It is
clear from Fig. 7 that the time duration of the waggle part of the xpq xqmin rand0; 1xqmax  xqmin 55
dance is 1 s, then the bee has to travel 1 km to reach the food
The termination criteria for ABC are taken as MCN (maximum num-
source. Finally, the quality of the food sources is transferred by
ber of iterations). The SCUC incorporating FACTS devices applying
releasing the alkenes from the abdomen. A waggle dance is carried
ABC algorithm is given as owchart in Fig. 8.
out with respect to the changing direction of the Sun. Therefore the
bees that follow the waggle dance are led to the food sources with-
out any error even though its relative angle with respect to the Sun Steps for binary coded ABC
changes. From the above information obtained from the foragers
(employed bees), the onlooker bees probabilistically choose the Step 1: Initialize the ABC parameters such as the colony size,
food sources using (53). number of employed and onlooker bees, limit value and maxi-
mum cycle number (MCN).
fitp
Prp PNe 53 Step 2: Initial generation of population
p1 fit q
A population of M initial solutions of binary strings is randomly
where tp is the tness value of the solution p which is proportional generated as bits of 1 or 0, which represents the ON/OFF status of
to the nectar amount of the food source in the bee position p. Now, generators.
the onlookers produce a modication in the position selected by it
using (54) and evaluate the nectar amount of the new source. Step 3: Repair and solve SCED.
v pq xpq /pq xpq  xkq 54
The randomly generated commitment status for each time
where p; k 2 f1; 2 . . . N e g and q 2 f1; 2 . . . Dg, D is the number of interval is checked for spinning reserve constraint (43) and mini-
parameters to be optimized, are randomly chosen indexes. mum ON/OFF (39-40) constraints violation. In case of any violation
Although k is determined randomly, it has to be different from p. the binary strings are repaired. When an initial solution is ran-
The /pq controls the production of neighborhood food sources. If domly generated or whenever a modication in the positions is
the nectar amount of the new source is higher than that of the pre- made by the employed and onlooker bees the strings may not sat-
vious one, the onlookers remember the new position; otherwise, it isfy the spinning reserve and minimum up/down time constraints.
retains the old one. In other words, a greedy selection method is If the committed units are not able to meet out the spinning
reserve (43), then additional units are to be turned ON. The less
expensive units that are in the OFF state are identied and turned
ON one by one till the power balance constraint is satised. If the
Sun Position spinning reserve constraint is satised, then the minimum ON/OFF
constraints (39-40) are checked for each unit over the scheduling
horizon in each interval. If there is any violation in the minimum
up or down time constraints, then repair mechanism is used to
overcome the violation. For instance, the minimum up and down
time for unit 1 is 4. For a scheduling interval of 12 h, if the actual
Food Source
off time for unit 1 is 3 h (5th7th h), then it violates the minimum
down time constraint. In this case, the unit status before 5th h or
after 7th h can be made 0. By doing so, if it violates the minimum
up time constraint, then the status of the units are made 1 during
the violated down time period. The minimum up/down time con-
straint violation and the subsequent repairing strategy affects the
power balance and spinning reserve constraint. In such cases the
Distance to be travelled = 1Km committed units may be in surplus or decit. If the committed
units are in surplus, then the units are turned OFF and if the com-
mitted units are less than the demand plus spinning reserve, then
Duration of Dance = 1 sec
the additional units are turned ON. In doing so, the units may be
able to satisfy the ON/OFF constraints and chosen. Again the min-
imum ON/OFF time constraint has to be checked. A minimum
Fig. 7. Foraging behavior of Honey bees. number of trials can be set for the repair mechanism.
286 S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293

Solving SCED using Real coded ABC algorithm

Start Start

Input system data, set binary ABC Generate random initial real coded population
parameters R=[Y1,Y2...Ymm] for the status of pth
population
Generate random initial population M=[X1,X2...Xm]
where, m is the number of food sources
Do repair scheme for constraint
management as given in section
Do repair scheme for constraint
management
Evaluate Fitness (FITold )value for
Collect Fitness (FITold )value for each employed bee position Vp
each employed bee position

Set iter=1
Set iter=1
Modify position of each employed bees using (54)
and Initialize limit count LM=0. Do strategy scheme
Modify position of each employed bees using (54)
for constraint management
and Initialize limit count LM=0. Do repair strategy for
constraint management
Evaluate Fitness (FITnew) of the
Calling SCED Program

Collect Fitness (FITnew) of the modified position Vpq


modified position Vpq

Apply greedy selection for the selection operation


between the old and the new position.
Apply greedy selection for the selection operation
If FITnew<FITold, increment LM
between the old and the new position.
If FITnew<FITold, increment LM
Compute probability Prpfor the fitness of the

Compute probability Pri for the fitness of the employed bee using equation (53)

employed bee using equation (53)


Modify onlookers position using (54) and
do repair strategy for constraint
Modify onlookers position
management
using (54) and do repair strategy for constraint
management
Calculate Fitness (FITnew) of the modified position
Collect Fitness (FITnew) of the modified position applying greedy selection. If FITnew<FITold,
applying greedy selection. If FITnew<FITold, increment LM
increment LM

Memorize the best solution at each interval and Scout bees are
Memorize the best solution at each interval and introduced to discover new solution when LM>limit
Scout bees are introduced to discover new value using equation (54)
iter=iter+1 solution when LM>limit value using (54)
iter=iter+1

Yes No
Is
Is
iterMCN iter MCN Yes

No
Yes
Is tT
Store best solution with corresponding
Yes Is
generator values and fitness value.
ppop
Then do p=p+1
No
No

Calculate total cost and Output the best solution


End
print the schedule of generated UC status
with fitness value

Fig. 8. SCUC incorporating FACTS devices.


S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293 287

Table 1 Step 5: Modication of position and selection of site by


Total generation cost in $ for SCUC (Case 1 and 2) in IEEE 118 bus system.
employed bees.
S. No. Solution techniques Total cost in SCUC without FACTS devices An employed bee produces a modication on the current posi-
1 LR [22] 1,984,081.00 tion using Eq. (54). The modied position is then checked for con-
2 MILP [22] 1,979,625.00 straints in Eqs. (39), and (40). If there is any violation in the
3 SDP [23] 1,714,255.63 constraints, then the repair strategy for spinning reserve and min-
4 Hybrid ABC 1,713,370.01
imum ON/OFF time constraints as discussed in step 3 is employed.
With FACTS devices Maximum loaded line With contingency
1 Hybrid ABC (SVC) 1,713,235.10 1,843,721.48 Security constrained economic dispatch is carried out and the t-
2 Hybrid ABC (TCSC) 1,713,252.90 1,845,334.27 ness value of the new food source position (new solution) is eval-
3 Hybrid ABC (STATCOM) 1,713,222.60 1,840,002.41 uated. The tness of the modied position is compared with the
4 Hybrid ABC (SSSC) 1,713,231.20 1,841,185.28 tness of the old position computed in step 3. Here a greedy
5 Hybrid ABC (UPFC) 1,713,203.10 1,835,219.26
6 Hybrid ABC (IPFC) 1,713,208.80 1,838,358.12
selection mechanism is employed as the selection operation
between the old and the new position. In case, if tness value of
the new position is better than the old one, then a limit count
is set.
Then security constrained economic load dispatch is done for
the feasible positions and constraints (36-38), (41-42) and Step 6: Recruit onlooker bees for selected sites.
(47-52) are satised.
An onlooker bee evaluates the nectar information taken from
Step 4: Evaluation of tness of the population. all employed bees and chooses a food source with a probability
Prp using Eq. (53) related to its tness value. Onlookers are placed
A tness function as in Eq. (56) is used. onto the food source sites by using a tness based selection
Fitness A1  %Cost 56 technique.

StringCost  MinCost Step 7: Modication of position by onlookers


%Cost 57
MaxCost  MinCost
As in the case of the employed bees discussed in step 4 the
where A is a positive weighting coefcient. String Cost is the indi- onlookers produce a modication on the position in its memory
vidual strings cost of generation, Min Cost and Max Cost are the using Eq. (54). As discussed in step 4 the modied positions are
minimum and maximum objective function value within the popu- changed to the corresponding ON/OFF status of the units. Con-
lation. Min Cost, Max Cost and String Cost are calculated using the straints (43) and (39-40) are checked for spinning reserve and min-
objective function (35). In Eq. (56) the individual with the lowest imum up/down time violations. If there is any violation in the
total cost has the highest tness. Determine the best tness among constraints, then they undergo the repair mechanism .Then SCED
the individuals, the corresponding minimum cost and the parame- is performed and the tness is evaluated. Again greedy selection
ters responsible for the minimum total cost. Set the cycle count as mechanism is employed as the selection operation between the
one and repeat the following steps until the maximum cycle num- old and new position.
ber (MCN), which is the termination criteria, is reached.

Table 2
Dispatch schedule (MW) and generation cost ( ) for South Indian 86 bus utility without FACTS devices.

Gen. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17


No. (h) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW)
1 98.03 98.03 98.03 98.03 98.03 107.1 107.1 107.1 107.1 94.29 94.29 94.29 112.1 112.1 112.1 112.1 112.1
2 115.1 115.1 115.1 115.1 115.1 107.9 107.91 107.9 107.9 102.0 102.0 102.0 96.37 96.37 96.37 96.37 96.37
3 148.6 148.6 148.6 148.6 148.6 84.32 84.32 84.32 84.32 148.8 148.8 148.8 47.25 47.28 47.25 47.25 47.25
4 171.0 171.0 171.0 171.0 171.0 57.50 57.50 57.50 57.50 39.33 39.33 39.33 111.7 111.7 111.7 111.7 111.7
5 146.0 146.0 146.0 146.0 146.0 69.19 69.19 69.19 69.19 80.45 80.45 80.45 115.0 115.0 115.0 115.0 115.0
6 168.8 168.8 168.8 168.8 168.8 152.0 152.0 152.0 152.0 74.59 74.59 74.59 49.83 49.83 49.83 49.83 49.83
7 187.2 187.2 187.2 187.2 187.2 92.41 92.41 92.41 92.41 86.76 86.76 86.76 102.5 102.5 102.5 102.5 102.5
8 158.5 158.5 158.5 158.5 158.5 155.6 155.6 155.6 155.6 120.8 120.8 120.8 146.4 146.4 146.4 146.4 146.4
9 133.3 133.3 133.3 133.3 133.3 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 152.2 152.2 152.2 175.2 175.2 175.2 175.2 175.2
10 148.9 148.9 148.9 148.9 148.9 162.8 162.8 162.8 162.8 143.2 143.2 143.2 170.4 170.4 170.4 170.4 170.4
11 177.3 177.3 177.3 177.3 177.3 166.2 166.2 166.2 166.2 157.2 157.2 157.2 148.5 148.5 148.5 148.5 148.5
12 179.2 179.2 179.2 179.2 179.2 188.3 188.3 188.3 188.3 104.9 104.9 104.9 140.2 140.2 140.2 140.2 140.2
13 233.3 233.3 233.3 233.3 233.3 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 119.7 119.7 119.7 102.5 102.5 102.5 102.5 102.5
14 138.9 138.9 138.9 138.9 138.9 173.7 173.7 173.7 173.7 173.9 173.9 173.9 143.7 143.7 143.7 143.7 143.7
15 159.5 159.5 159.5 159.5 159.5 199.5 199.5 199.5 199.5 212.1 212.1 212.1 93.59 93.59 93.59 93.59 93.57
16 113.3 113.3 113.3 113.3 113.3 141.9 141.9 141.9 141.9 227.3 227.3 227.3 183.6 183.6 183.6 183.6 183.6
17 251.9 251.9 251.9 251.9 251.9 24.51 24.51 24.51 24.51 164.0 164.0 164.0 185.6 185.6 185.6 185.6 185.6
18 227.7 227.7 227.7 227.7 227.7 153.2 153.2 153.2 153.2 116.8 116.8 116.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
19 256.3 256.3 256.3 256.3 256.3 68.26 68.26 68.26 68.26 181.2 181.2 181.2 96.46 96.46 96.46 96.46 96.46
20 237.8 237.8 237.8 237.8 237.8 23.14 23.14 23.14 23.14 154.8 154.8 154.8 175.2 175.2 175.2 175.2 175.2
21 221.0 221.0 221.0 221.0 221.0 124.7 124.7 124.7 124.7 217.7 217.7 217.7 85.69 85.69 85.69 85.66 85.69
22 147.3 147.3 147.3 147.3 147.3 122.9 122.9 122.9 122.9 234.4 234.4 234.4 160.7 160.7 160.7 160.7 160.7
23 138.7 138.7 138.7 138.7 138.7 137.8 137.8 137.8 137.8 131.3 131.3 131.3 130.8 130.8 130.8 130.8 130.8
24 147.0 147.0 147.0 147.0 147.0 135.9 135.9 135.9 135.9 45.02 45.02 45.02 99.90 99.90 99.90 99.90 99.90
Total generation cost for a time horizon of 24 h ( ) 14862190.00
288 S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293

Table 3 of limit. This operation is performed using Eq. (55). For the unit
Commitment status of IEEE 118-SCUC with FACTS devices. commitment problem xqmin and xqmax can be either 0 or 1.
Time Unit ON/OFF status
(h) Step 9: Memorize the best solution achieved so far. Increment
1 000110000110000000011001101110000001001100111000000000 the cycle count.
2 000110000110000000011001101110000001001100111000000000 Step 10: Increment iteration number. Stop the process, if itera-
3 000110000110000000011001101110000001001100111000000000 tion number is equal to the maximum number of cycles, and
4 000110000110000000011001101110000001001100111000000000
5 000110100110010000011001101110000101001100111000000100
compute the total prot for 24 h time interval. Otherwise go
6 000110100110010100111111101110000101001100111001001110 to step 2.
7 000110100110010100111111101111000111001100111011001110 Step 12: Compute the total prot for 24 h time interval. Stop the
8 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110 process, if the termination criteria are satised. Termination cri-
9 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110
teria used in this work is the specied time period. Otherwise
10 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110
11 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110 go to Step 3. The best tness and the corresponding position
12 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110 of the food source retained in the memory at the end of the ter-
13 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110 mination criteria is selected as the optimum commitment sche-
14 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110 dule of generating units involved in the power generation
15 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110
process for the scheduling time interval.
16 000110100110010100111111111111000111101100111011001110

Pseudo-code of the ABC algorithm to solve SCED problem

1: Initialize the control parameters, maximum cycle number


(MCN)and get the system data
235
SVC TCSC 2: Generate the initial population as in step 1
215 SSSC STATCOM 3: Evaluate the tness of the population
195
UPFC IPFC 4: for iter = 1; do the iteration loop
5: For each employed bee
Loss (MW)

175
produce new solution check for constraints
155 calculate the tness value using (35)
135
apply greedy selection process
6: Calculate the probability values Prp for the solutions using (53)
115 7: For each unemployed or onlooker bee
95 select a solution depending on Prp
produce new solution using check for constraints
75
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 calculate the tness value using (35)
Time period (Hr) apply greedy selection process
8: Abandon sources already exploited by the bees using (53)
Fig. 9. Loss comparison with FACTS devices. 9: Memorize the best solution achieved so far.
10: End of iteration loop

The best tness and the corresponding position of the food source
240 Without UPFC
UPFC in loaded line ( Line 21-22) retained in the memory at the end of the termination criteria is
220 UPFC in optimal location (Line 43-44)
UPFC loaded line - contigency ( Line 17-30) removed selected as the optimum output powers of generating units
200 UPFC in optimal location with contingency
involved in the economic dispatch process for the specied time
Loss (MW)

180 interval.
160
140 Numerical results
120
100
The proposed methodology is implemented using 2.33 GHz Pen-
tium IV, Windows XP with 3 GB of RAM and has been simulated in
80
the MATLAB 7.5 environment. The performance of FACTS devices in
60
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 regulating power ow in transmission lines and alleviating the vio-
Time period (Hr) lation of constraints are clearly demonstrated. SCUC is carried out
without incorporating FACTS devices using ABC algorithm and the
Fig. 10. Loss comparison with UPFC. results are compared with the existing results available in the liter-
ature. The FACTS devices are incorporated into the SCUC problem
and the performance of each FACTS devices during contingency
condition are illustrated. The ABC parameters are obtained by sta-
Step 8: Abandon sources exploited by the bees tistical evaluation. The colony size is taken as 200 and the maxi-
mum cycle number is 300. The unit shut down cost is not
If a solution representing a food source is not improved by a pre- included because the cost considered is negligible and can be
determined number of trials, then that food source is abandoned assumed to be zero. The network and generation data for IEEE
and the scout discovers a new food source to be replaced with Xp. 118 bus system is taken from [21]. The South Indian utility consists
The number of trials for releasing a solution is equal to the value of 86 buses, 131 lines and 17 generating units. The single line
Table 4
Dispatch schedule in MW for generators with FACTS devices during contigency.

Hour/gen. No. SVC TCSC STATCOM SSSC UPFC IPFC


Hour 20 Hour 21 Hour 22 Hour 20 Hour 21 Hour 22 Hour 20 Hour 21 Hour 22 Hour 20 Hour 21 Hour 22 Hour 20 Hour 21 Hour 22 Hour 20 Hour 21 Hour 22
1 030.00 025.28 OFF 030.00 010.33 OFF 025.36 030.00 OFF 016.40 030.00 OFF 016.05 026.67 OFF 025.45 030.00 OFF
2 030.00 022.89 OFF 030.00 015.00 OFF 030.00 030.00 OFF 030.00 030.00 OFF 008.32 005.00 OFF 030.00 030.00 OFF
3 025.00 021.77 OFF 030.00 030.00 OFF 030.00 011.57 OFF 030.00 030.00 OFF 030.00 018.53 OFF 030.00 030.00 OFF
4 300.00 212.00 171.20 300.00 255.34 229.66 171.28 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 271.19 300.00 281.71 300.00 226.66
5 235.70 229.60 231.45 295.73 232.32 290.11 231.14 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 189.88 300.00 300.00 300.00 263.38
6 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
7 100.00 084.38 100.00 100.00 061.61 079.36 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 067.33 100.00 074.07 100.00 082.03
8 OFF OFF 025.58 OFF OFF 005.00 OFF OFF 010.09 OFF OFF 030.00 OFF OFF 030.00 OFF OFF 013.29
9 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
10 300.00 218.00 197.95 151.13 300.00 OFF OFF OFF 271.43 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 259.91 300.00 300.00 300.00 187.43
11 129.70 350.00 350.00 350.00 116.01 174.30 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00 313.95 350.00 243.11 350.00 109.61
12 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
13 100.00 033.80 100.00 100.00 032.09 043.94 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 045.39 100.00 100.00 100.00 041.08

S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293


14 030.00 030.00 026.49 030.00 020.16 030.00 026.49 030.00 030.00 030.00 030.00 030.00 030.00 013.40 030.00 030.00 030.00 027.83
15 060.49 100.00 051.24 100.00 086.54 085.81 051.24 100.00 037.03 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 065.42 100.00 100.00 100.00 094.68
16 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
17 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
18 095.05 072.79 030.68 100.00 097.04 079.44 030.68 100.00 100.00 100.00 028.16 100.00 100.00 042.41 55.95 100.00 030.68 025.00
19 117.40 095.05 075.98 250.00 050.00 084.12 075.98 250.00 250.00 061.99 088.18 250.00 108.71 92.96 250.00 250.00 051.35 089.96
20 083.12 250.00 192.13 250.00 247.5 114.91 192.13 250.00 250.00 250.00 152.12 250.00 250.00 109.08 250.00 175.69 082.43 050.00
21 081.11 100.00 026.88 100.00 25.00 066.17 026.88 100.00 100.00 100.00 072.88 100.00 100.00 070.55 100.00 095.84 070.14 038.06
22 036.42 039.53 058.79 100.00 041.81 025.00 058.79 100.00 100.00 100.00 088.91 100.00 100.00 094.52 100.00 100.00 058.79 081.86
23 074.53 103.76 192.03 200.00 200.00 087.13 192.03 200.00 200.00 200.00 085.63 200.00 200.00 126.62 200.00 200.00 102.62 154.50
24 172.50 200.00 200.00 200.00 149.49 107.30 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 194.75 200.00 200.00 112.51 200.00 200.00 074.15 178.36
25 085.00 027.00 090.15 100.00 025.00 100.00 090.15 100.00 100.00 100.00 037.45 100.00 100.00 025.00 100.00 100.00 090.15 053.62
26 146.50 118.78 238.05 420.00 265.56 210.81 238.05 420.00 420.00 420.00 122.07 420.00 420.00 326.95 420.00 420.00 238.05 400.48
27 146.30 297.44 143.54 420.00 176.33 213.47 143.54 420.00 420.00 420.00 410.47 420.00 420.00 100.00 420.00 420.00 318.77 183.43
28 168.30 300.00 267.66 241.80 175.79 296.17 267.66 174.14 300.00 300.00 196.70 290.86 300.00 277.87 300.00 300.00 090.11 283.75
29 041.99 052.34 033.79 052.87 059.41 058.52 033.79 034.88 080.00 080.00 030.11 080.00 080.00 073.31 080.00 080.00 033.79 036.01
30 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
31 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
32 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
33 029.48 096.05 034.89 046.56 070.52 067.21 034.80 045.91 100.00 043.81 063.34 070.81 046.43 068.37 068.58 053.45 068.41 062.35
34 028.22 047.03 042.60 056.24 075.69 062.04 042.60 087.07 041.82 089.83 065.16 032.77 072.54 096.65 089.74 042.21 085.89 091.62
35 262.70 170.60 175.34 193.92 215.80 197.81 175.34 214.85 300.00 162.44 264.39 277.16 178.30 242.20 276.21 219.02 251.40 290.70
36 076.50 050.85 066.02 094.12 082.47 035.11 066.02 038.44 100.00 028.83 049.07 076.64 039.06 042.15 049.38 043.58 066.02 092.23
37 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
38 189.30 155.00 285.87 282.79 174.66 264.20 285.87 224.98 300.00 193.29 268.12 217.04 109.67 203.54 200.73 299.48 113.55 148.83
39 153.80 141.10 095.95 078.42 077.93 083.32 095.95 152.08 161.06 183.74 194.44 145.16 143.59 183.54 089.15 177.55 095.95 064.31
40 012.20 019.90 015.73 016.53 015.61 012.80 015.73 011.44 012.66 014.21 009.59 009.11 14.62 013.88 09.04 019.20 015.73 011.09
41 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
42 268.80 171.00 141.54 125.55 187.63 104.57 141.54 277.52 126.91 177.78 289.34 236.50 153.89 280.95 266.02 228.75 141.54 127.95
43 163.20 164.80 138.95 217.16 243.29 282.82 138.95 189.68 146.89 145.84 237.75 209.05 220.90 298.74 153.85 183.60 138.95 116.87
44 280.90 103.80 162.20 143.17 192.33 218.71 162.22 240.50 229.78 224.93 161.40 279.66 271.50 262.58 184.40 262.28 162.22 109.97
45 012.90 019.88 019.75 010.19 013.78 019.09 019.75 013.91 018.71 016.44 008.19 019.40 017.15 012.87 010.53 012.45 019.75 015.21
46 041.63 097.02 069.61 091.57 063.07 031.36 069.61 049.47 084.31 056.74 073.18 025.85 091.00 043.36 081.26 077.33 080.38 074.00
47 063.08 080.04 033.80 063.54 039.68 081.56 033.80 054.73 073.06 040.07 052.63 031.81 082.47 046.90 083.97 068.20 033.80 047.42
48 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
49 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF
50 061.66 066.79 047.44 097.20 031.73 040.95 047.44 067.57 095.45 042.37 034.22 038.59 049.85 083.35 071.26 098.16 041.01 027.61
51 099.09 052.05 071.80 083.48 093.92 059.84 071.80 035.47 027.73 075.15 038.53 066.26 032.01 084.60 070.96 087.11 041.66 050.72
52 032.40 034.74 027.83 087.48 032.96 037.07 027.83 084.22 045.82 071.03 030.80 046.48 49.05 074.26 099.82 081.28 041.32 068.68
53 043.03 033.90 031.54 029.09 032.14 033.56 031.54 029.83 027.74 025.92 031.06 029.23 029.91 040.24 031.39 030.37 029.77 031.95
54 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

289
290 S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293

Table 5 units are committed accordingly to satisfy hourly load demands.


Total generation cost in $ with FACTS devices in optimal locations. The total operation cost in a day is $1,713,370.01 which is less than
Device Optimal Generation Generation cost with the cost obtained with other methods available in literature as
location cost contingency given in Table 1. Obviously; SCUC schedule can satisfy transmis-
SVC Bus 11 171,2667.38 183,8730.21 sion, security and voltage constraints.
TCSC Line 6881 171,2671.86 184,0171.03 SCUC is also carried out in 86 bus South Indian utility without
STATCOM Bus 11 171,2538.00 183,2758.33 incorporating FACTS devices. First the unit commitment for the
SSSC Line 6881 171,2818.86 183,1715.87
UPFC Line 4344 171,2377.15 182,8638.18
generators are obtained and SCED is carried out next with the
IPFC Line 1718-113 171,2631.22 183,5719.49 committed generators for the specied demand. It should be noted
that the connected load for this South Indian system is high, and
transmission line parameters results in considerable line losses,
all the generators are committed for the load demands. The oper-
ating cost obtained for a time horizon of 24 h is 14862190.00.
The dispatch of all generators for a time horizon of 24 h is
Table 6
given in Table 2.
Generation cost with FACTS devices in South Indian 86 bus utility.

S. No. FACTS devices Generation cost ( )

1 Without FACTS devices 14862190.00 Case 2: SCUC for 118-bus system and South Indian 86 bus utility with
2 SVC 14860773.31 FACTS devices
3 TCSC 14861238.29
4 UPFC 14859498.86
FACTS devices placed in the maximum loaded line
5 IPFC 14860267.00
The performance of the FACTS devices may not be quantied if
it is placed in different locations of the test system. Therefore, all
the FACTS devices are placed individually at a single location and
its inuence on the total generation cost is studied. Based on load
diagram of a South Indian 86 bus system is given in Appendix A. The ow analysis the heavily loaded line in the IEEE 118-bus system
network datas for the 86 bus system is available in [13,24]. The is line 2122, where the series devices (TCSC, SSSC, UPFC) are
hourly load data and generation data are given in Appendix B and C. placed. Also the bus that needs more reactive power compensa-
tion is bus 7 where the shunt devices (SVC, STATCOM) are placed.
Case 1: SCUC for 118-bus system and South Indian 86 bus utility Since IPFC has to be placed in multiple lines, it is placed between
without FACTS devices line 2021 and 2022, where the bus 20 is taken as the common
bus. Each device is individually placed and simulated for 10 trials
SCUC is solved by considering the constraints using ABC algo- and the best cost is given in Table 1. The device parameters are
rithm. Suppose when UC is solved without considering security selected by trial and error approach such that the maximum
constraints (voltage and line limits), two kinds of violations are power ow is achieved and the total generation cost is minimum.
observed. The rst one is the line ow violation occurring at the The commitment status for the generators are given in Table 3. It
line 14 at 9th and 10th h and the second one is the violation of should be noted that the commitment status is found to be same
bus voltage at buses 2 and 4. The maximum capacity of line 14 when all the FACTS devices are placed individually at a time. The
is 100 MW. The violation is occurred because the power ow in differences in operating cost that is reected is based on the
the transmission line exceeded 100 MW. However, on getting the reduction in the losses due to the compensation provided by
solution of SCUC, the economical units such as G4G5 G10G11, the FACTS devices thereby increasing the active power ow. The
G2425, G2729, G36, G3940 and G4345 are used as base units. minimum total generation cost is achieved when UPFC is incorpo-
The expensive units such as G6, G89, G15, G1718, G3133, G38, rated in the network. Though the cost reduction is not that signif-
G4142, G4950 and G54 are not committed at all. The remaining icant for an individual day; the annual savings that can be

Table 7
Dispatch (MW) with SVC and TCSC in South Indian 86 bus utility.

Hour/gen. No. SVC TCSC


Hour 14 Hour 15 Hour 16 Hour 14 Hour 15 Hour 16
1 075.02 088.53 070.97 075.17 087.37 068.13
2 075.02 088.53 070.97 075.17 087.37 068.13
3 075.02 088.53 070.97 075.17 087.37 068.13
4 075.02 088.53 070.97 075.17 087.37 068.13
5 075.02 088.53 070.97 075.17 087.37 068.13
6 093.77 110.70 088.72 092.55 105.02 108.23
7 093.77 110.70 088.72 092.55 105.02 108.23
8 093.77 110.70 088.72 092.55 105.02 108.23
9 093.77 110.70 088.72 092.55 105.02 108.23
10 093.89 117.40 142.40 096.70 092.01 135.28
11 093.89 117.40 142.40 096.707 092.01 135.28
12 093.89 117.40 142.40 096.70 092.01 109.25
13 077.58 051.93 115.00 076.80 076.64 120.75
14 077.58 051.93 115.00 076.80 076.64 120.75
15 077.58 051.93 115.00 076.80 076.64 120.75
16 077.58 051.93 115.00 076.80 076.64 120.75
17 077.58 051.93 115.00 076.80 076.64 120.75
S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293 291

Table 8
Dispatch (MW) and generation cost ( ) for South Indian 86 bus utility with UPFC.

Gen. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 Generation Loss
No. (h) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) Cost () (MW)
1 66.45 66.45 66.45 66.45 66.45 83.06 83.06 83.06 83.06 62.99 62.99 62.99 105.4 105.4 105.4 105.4 105.4 598232.3 61.3
2 68.04 68.04 68.04 68.04 68.04 85.05 85.05 85.05 85.05 69.86 69.86 69.86 94.04 94.04 94.04 94.04 94.04 544601.8 63.3
3 23.97 23.97 23.97 23.97 23.97 29.96 29.96 29.96 29.96 106.2 106.2 106.2 88.56 88.56 88.56 88.56 88.56 587591.8 60.8
4 58.82 58.82 58.82 58.82 58.82 73.53 73.53 73.53 73.53 64.86 64.86 64.86 104.5 104.5 104.5 104.5 104.5 563109.0 62.3
5 43.35 43.35 43.35 43.35 43.35 54.19 54.19 54.19 54.19 119.4 119.4 119.4 66.44 66.44 66.44 66.44 66.44 572943.3 65.2
6 75.02 75.02 75.02 75.02 75.02 93.77 93.77 93.77 93.77 93.89 93.89 93.89 77.58 77.58 77.58 77.58 77.58 636359.8 68.7
7 88.53 88.53 88.53 88.53 88.53 110.7 110.7 110.7 110.7 117.4 117.4 117.4 51.93 51.93 51.93 51.93 51.93 534208.8 70.1
8 70.97 70.97 70.97 70.97 70.97 88.72 88.72 88.72 88.72 142.4 142.4 142.4 115.0 115.0 115.0 115.0 115.0 523677.8 74.2
9 53.72 53.72 53.72 53.72 53.72 67.14 67.14 67.14 67.14 209.6 209.6 209.6 90.51 90.51 90.51 90.51 90.51 593780.9 74.4
10 145.0 145.0 145.0 145.0 145.0 181.3 181.3 181.3 181.3 229.7 229.7 229.7 31.73 31.73 31.73 31.73 31.73 629590.0 78.2
11 65.13 65.13 65.13 65.13 65.13 81.41 81.41 81.41 81.41 30.87 30.87 30.87 202.8 202.8 202.8 202.8 202.8 550537.2 78.9
12 66.86 66.86 66.86 66.86 66.86 83.57 83.57 83.57 83.57 252.1 252.1 252.1 150.4 150.4 150.4 150.4 150.4 576426.3 76.2
13 59.02 59.02 59.02 59.02 59.02 59.02 73.78 73.78 73.78 73.78 222.5 222.5 222.5 132.8 132.8 132.8 132.8 576426.3 74.6
14 130.4 130.4 130.4 130.4 130.4 143.4 143.4 143.4 143.4 124.8 124.8 124.8 64.86 64.86 64.86 64.86 64.86 641794.8 71.3
15 56.84 56.84 56.84 56.84 56.84 72.54 72.54 72.54 72.54 206.1 206.1 206.1 186.1 186.1 186.1 186.1 186.1 648262.1 76.5
16 156.7 156.7 156.7 156.7 156.7 202 202 202 202 131.4 131.4 131.4 136.5 136.5 136.5 136.5 136.5 691331.3 77.2
17 76.21 76.21 76.21 76.21 76.21 128.8 128.8 128.8 128.8 233.1 233.1 233.1 125.3 125.3 125.3 125.3 125.3 666972.9 78.1
18 33.73 33.73 33.73 33.73 33.73 35.27 35.27 35.27 35.27 159.9 159.9 159.9 59.59 59.59 59.59 59.59 59.59 652795.7 70.9
19 153.9 153.9 153.9 153.9 153.9 158.4 158.4 158.4 158.4 235.7 235.7 235.7 56.22 56.22 56.22 56.22 56.22 586962.8 72.9
20 154.7 154.7 154.7 154.7 154.7 237.5 237.5 237.5 237.5 25.00 25.00 25.00 79.45 79.45 79.45 79.45 79.45 557935.3 73.0
21 182.9 182.9 182.9 182.9 182.9 218.3 218.3 218.3 218.3 170.0 170.0 170.0 21.22 21.22 21.22 21.22 21.22 541529.6 78.2
22 189.0 189.0 189.0 189.0 189.0 236.3 236.3 236.3 236.3 159.4 159.4 159.4 33.85 33.85 33.85 33.85 33.85 687236.7 77.2
23 188.5 188.5 188.5 188.5 188.5 235.6 235.6 235.6 235.6 224.4 224.4 224.4 83.76 83.76 83.76 83.76 83.76 584601.8 70.3
24 95.79 95.79 95.79 95.79 95.79 119.7 119.7 119.7 119.7 158.4 158.4 158.4 95.79 95.79 95.79 95.79 95.79 586962.8 66.3
Total generation cost for a time horizon of 24 h (0 ) 14334000.0

obtained can be considered as protable. Fig. 9 shows the loss FACTS devices placed in the optimal location
comparison with FACTS devices placed in the maximum loaded The FACTS devices are placed in their corresponding optimal
line. UPFC has the minimum loss for the 24 h schedule. This min- locations in the IEEE 118-bus test system. SVC and STATCOM are
imum loss results in the minimum active power generation; placed in bus 11, TCSC and SSSC in line 6581, UPFC in line 43
thereby the active power generation cost is found to be less when 44 and IPFC in line 1718-113 [20]. The optimal locations of FACTS
compared to the other devices. The SCUC is also carried out incor- devices are identied using ABC algorithm with due consideration
porating FACTS devices with a single line outage. Here one of the to voltage prole improvement, reduction in loss and active power
heavily loaded line (line 1730) in the IEEE 118-bus network is generation cost. The total generation cost for all FACTS devices are
disconnected for contingency. The performance of FACTS devices given in Table 5. It is clear from Tables 2 and 5, that the FACTS
in controlling power ow and alleviating the overloading of lines devices performs well in obtaining the minimum generation cost
are investigated. The SCUC without FACTS device fails to converge when they are placed in their optimal locations. It should be noted
since the power ow in certain lines are more than the specied that the commitment schedule is same as that of Case 2, which is
MVA limits violating the constraints. In other hand, the FACTS given in Table 3 .
device controls the power ow in lines, injects power whenever During contingency the same line 1730 as in Case 2(a) is dis-
required by compensating reactive power needed for the trans- connected. UPFC is found to perform better when placed in the
mission lines. optimal location (Line: 4344) and also during contingency (refer
The minimum generation cost obtained incorporating FACTS Fig. 10). The generation cost with FACTS device during contingency
devices with contingency is given in Table 1. It may be thought that is given in Table 5. It is observed that the cost of generation is more
the cost of the generation may be reduced in case of a contingency than the cost without contingency. UPFC is having the minimum
as the power ow may be met with lesser number of transmission cost of generation during contingency. The presence of FACTS
lines. However, this does not happen since the same load has to be device in the network improves the voltage in the buses to a cer-
met with less number of transmission lines which increases the tain level during contingency, thus maintaining the line ow and
power ow through the lines and changes the generation. The voltage limit.
increase in generation takes place in order to compensate the
increase in transmission losses. Since the change in power is not SCUC for South Indian 86 bus utility with FACTS devices
that signicant in an hour, the same commitment status is found In this case FACTS devices (SVC, TCSC, UPFC and IPFC) are
during contingency. Fig. 10 shows the real power loss with the incorporated in South Indian 86 bus utility and SCUC is carried
incorporation of UPFC in the network. The real power loss is out. The total operating cost for a time horizon of 24 h for all
increased during contingency which got reduced to a certain level the FACTS devices are given in Table 6. The commitment schedule
with the incorporation of UPFC. This increase in loss resulted in obtained is same for both cases, (i.e.) with and without FACTS
increase in active generation, thus increasing the operating cost. devices. When UPFC is incorporated, the cost incurred is
Among the FACTS devices, the cost of generation with UPFC is com- 14334000.00 which is less than the cost during its absence.
paratively low. The active power dispatch for all the generators The dispatch of all generators with SVC and TCSC for 14th, 15th
with FACTS devices during contingency for 20th, 21st and 22nd h and 16th h is given in Table 7. The dispatch of generating units
are given in Table 4. with UPFC along with the generation cost and real power loss
292 S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293

for a time horizon of 24 h is given in Table 8. This shows that the simultaneously to obtain the economic operation of generators
incorporation of FACTS into the network reduces the generation satisfying the security constraints. The proposed approach is val-
burden of the generating units. The series devices are meant for idated by testing on an IEEE 118-bus and a practical South Indian
compensating reactive power. With their inuence on the effec- 86 bus utility for a time horizon of 24 h. The proposed methodol-
tive impedance on the line they have an inuence on stability ogy gives better solution at par with other methods available in
and power ow. Converter based devices have their own advanta- the literature. The effect of installing FACTS device in a power sys-
ges compared to switch based devices. Recently the devices which tem network is clearly demonstrated in terms of power ow
are having the combination of shunt and series compensation are improvement and reduction in transmission line losses. The
considered more accountable. These devices are used for power improvement in obtaining the minimum total generation cost is
ow controllability. The higher volatility of power ows due to directly related to the reduction in losses and improvement in
the energy market activities requires a more exible usage of power ow. By incorporating FACTS devices, the transmission
the transmission capacity. Power ow control devices shift power lines can be loaded to a higher level to meet the required load
ows from overloaded parts of the power system to areas with demand. The investigation on the role of FACTS devices in an
free transmission capability. SCUC problem will be useful for the system operators in the
deregulated market.

Conclusion
Appendix A
This paper investigates the role of FACTS devices for obtaining
South Indian 86 bus utility.
SCUC solution using ABC algorithm. UC and SCED are solved
S. Sreejith et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 66 (2015) 280293 293

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