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Understanding by Design

Brief Summary of Unit (including curricular context and unit goals): This unit acquaints students with

trigonometric functions in preparation for an in depth look at their behavior in the next unit. Therefore,

the primary goal of the unit is to use knowledge of geometry and algebra to discover trigonometric

properties and functions of triangles and the unit circle. The continuing goals include: 1) functions are

defined over a domain for which there is a specific output (range); 2) logical thinking and arguing are a

basis of mathematical theory; and 3) mathematical modeling in the real-world is dependent on the

scenario and is a simplified version of the original problem. Lectures in this unit are a guided

discussion/ dialogue between the teacher and students with a focus on understanding mathematical

theory and logical progression from one idea to the next in exploring trigonometry. All group work in

this unit is based on differentiate learning pairs, in which students are paired with someone of similar

but slightly higher (lower) capabilities, ensuring the zone of proximal development for each student.

Thinker problems are spread throughout the unit for those advanced students, while the struggling

student is ensured the help of their learning pair and the teachers guidance at every level.

Completed blueprint for each performance task X Completed rubrics

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

Established Goals:

The student will use knowledge of geometry and algebra to discover trigonometric properties and

functions of triangles and the unit circle. The student will create, prove, and use the unit circle to solve

trigonometric functions and their inverses. The student will be able to graph trigonometric functions

and understand how changing the amplitude and period cause a shift of the function. (SOL T.1, T.2,

T.3, T.4, T.6, T.9)

problem solving of triangles and for future models?

mathematical models in physics, and other What are the differences between

sciences. triangular and circular trigonometric

The origin of trigonometry has roots in functions? Why do we need both?

geometry and algebra, which can be What are the different ways to describe

mathematically proven. and solve trigonometric functions?

Graphs are used to help represent How do we use proofs in trigonometry to

mathematical relationships and are not understand its foundations?

necessarily unique to one function.

The six triangular trigonometric functions Create a unit circle using knowledge of

and how it relates to the circular triangular trigonometry and algebra

trigonometric functions Prove the Pythagorean theorem and its

The definitional difference and conversion applications to sine, cosine, and tangent

between degrees and radians functions

The unit circle is a comprehensive graph Use a unit circle to find trigonometric

of special angles constructed using the values for special angles

relations of triangular trigonometric With and without the use of a calculator,

functions find exact measurements of trigonometric

The relation and derivation of cosine and functions and their inverses

secant, sine and cosecant, tangent and Graph all six trigonometric functions and

cotangent, and their inverses. determine the amplitude, period, domain,

The graph for the mother function of all range, and phase shift represented in a

six trigonometric functions and how to graph.

determine phase shifts.

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

Performance Tasks: Other Evidence:

Real-Life Application Project Part 1: The student Pre-Assessment Quiz: 10 question quiz on

will demonstrate real-life transfer of foundational knowledge needed for the unit

understanding by writing several paragraphs

defending how to solve the problem without Quizzes: Short 5-10 question quizzes (on days

actually solving it. after weekend) to check understanding and

refresh for coming class.

Apply It Group Work: One random, unannounced

person from each group will turn in their work for Unit Test: Comprised of 3 parts: (1) Basic recall

a group grade on the Apply It lesson day(s). of definitional trigonometric functions; (2) given

a formula sheet, the student will demonstrate

Homework sets: Selected homework questions their understanding of application of properties

from among the suggested practice exercises are and functions; (3) Essential Question Essay the

collected and graded for accuracy. student will answer the essential questions in

approximately 3-6 sentences

1. Periodic Exit tickets with one thing learned/ did not understand.

2. Peer review, self-assessment, and discussion of real-life application

3. Discussion of unit test

Summary of Learning Activities:

1. Pre-Assessment Quiz: a 10 question quiz covering basic trigonometric understanding that will be

helpful for this unit.

2. The Impossible Triangle Challenge: A triangle with 2 line segments with endpoints on different

sides can create 3 regions within the triangle and a total number of sides of 9. Rearrange the two line

segments and you can get a total number of sides of 15. For this challenge, have the students

describe the conditions in which you can represent the numbers between 9 and 15. (Note: 12 is

impossible). Discuss. (Sobel & Maletsky, 1988, p. 43)

3. Review of Triangular Trigonometry Lecture: Review the definitions of triangular trigonometric

functions, reciprocal identities, definition of tangent in terms of cosine and sine, and the Pythagorean

Theorem.

4. Real-Life Application #1: The student will demonstrate real-life transfer of understanding by

writing several paragraphs defending how to solve the problem without actually solving it.

5. See the light Performance Task: Students will apply their understanding of right triangles,

congruence and Pythagorean Theorem. (Danielson & Marquez, 1998, pp. 179-181)

6. Circles Mini-Quiz: (Not a grade) 5 question quiz on circles, including (but not limited to), area,

circumference, and the equation of a circle. (Teacher developed)

7. Nature of Angles Lecture: Introduction of the unit circle, angle measures, and arc measurement,

as well as the relationship to radians. Begin constructing the Unit Circle on given handout. (Teacher

developed)

8. Take me out to the ball game Performance Task: Students will apply their understanding of

equal triangles, Pythagorean theorem, and angle sum. (Danielson & Marquez, 1998, pp. 185-188)

Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005) 3

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

9. Graph it- Angles Do Now: The student will demonstrate understanding from previous lesson on

graphing angles by graphing two angles (one positive, one negative) and answering questions.

(Teacher developed)

10. Special Angles Lecture: Using the definition of trigonometric functions and knowledge of the

unit circle, coordinate points on the unit circle are found for each of the special angles, having

already been labeled in previous lesson.

11. Unit Circle Quiz: 25 question quiz on previous lessons including how to find radians, graphing any

angle, points on the unit circle, and positive and negative values of sine and cosine. (Teacher

developed)

12. Values of Trigonometric Functions Lecture: Introduce reference angle and begin to discuss

possible solutions of trigonometric functions, using domain and range vocabulary; explain how to

use calculator for those problems with no reference angle.

13. Homework Set 1: (pg.354-355) #30, 32, 34; (pg. 371) #32, 38; (pg. 387-388) 10-20 even; (pg. 397)

#4,16; Thinker problem (pg. 425) #25. (Swokowski & Cole, 2003)

14. Apply it- Values of Trigonometric Functions: This whole class is devoted to applying all previous

knowledge to real-world problems. The teacher will demonstrate, through working examples, the

expectations of the Real-Life Applications #1 Performance Task. The problems to be worked in class

are the following: #33 (pg. 426), #39 (pg. 398), #53-54 (pg. 429). All (but the first) are related

(ozone and communications satellite); discuss therefore what complications in real-life would result

in an altered mathematical model. Adjustment can be made to accommodate interest and learner

development. (Swokowski & Cole, 2003)

15. Functions Mini-Quiz: (Not graded) 5 question quiz on function vocabulary including (but not

limited to) domain, range, shifts, and asymptotes. (Teacher developed)

16. Graph It #1 Lecture: Introduce graphing the cosine, sine and tangent functions; include

identifying and modeling amplitude, period, frequency, and shifts.

17. Ferris Wheel Performance Task: Students will apply their understanding of periodic functions

to graph and find the function of a Ferris wheel. (Danielson & Marquez, 1998, pp. 119-123)

18. Graph It #2 Lecture: Use existing knowledge of cosine, sine and tangent to graph cosecant,

cosine, and cotangent; compare and contrast domain, range, amplitude, period.

19. Homework 2: (pg. 408-409) #6, 18, 34, 41-44; (pg. 417-418) #16, 36, 50; Thinker problem (pg.

418) #54. (Swokowski & Cole, 2003)

20. Apply It- Graphs: This whole class is devoted to applying all previous knowledge to real-world

problems. The teacher will demonstrate, through working examples, the expectations of the Real-

Life Applications #1 Performance Task. The problems to be worked in class are the following: #73-

74 (pg.431), #76-77(pg.437). Discuss what complications in real-life would result in an altered

mathematical model. Adjustment can be made to accommodate interest and learner development.

(Swokowski & Cole, 2003)

21. Unit Test: Comprised of 3 parts: (1) Basic recall of definitional trigonometric functions; (2) given a

formula sheet, the student will demonstrate their understanding of application of properties and

functions; (3) Essential Question Essay the student will answer the essential questions in

approximately 3-6 sentences

22. Unit Discussion: (up to 1 class period in length) Lead discussion of missed questions on Unit test

and how to arrive at the correct answer. Discuss also the Real-Life Application #1 assignment and

introduce the second stage for next unit.

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

Consider the WHERETO elements. You must include enough instruction for 10 lessons (~90 min each).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Start with the (1) Pre- Start with (8) Take me out to Start with (9) Graph it- Start with (11) Unit Circle (13) Homework set #1 due.

assessment. Use (2) The the ball game as a quick Angles and transition Quiz, collect for grading and This class is devoted to

Impossible Triangle review of previous lesson and discussion of answers to discuss briefly the answers. applying the previous lectures

Challenge to spark discussion informal assessment. lecture: (10) Special Angles. Transition from unit circle to and understandings to real-

on why trigonometry of Transition to (6) Circle Mini- Use Exit ticket to assess gaps lecture on (12) Values of world situations while

triangles is important. Quiz by asking In what other in understanding by asking for Trigonometric Functions, in modeling the structure of the

Transition into lecture: (3) ways do we represent angles? one remaining question after which functions are solved Real-Life assignment. Split

Review of Triangular Trade with partner and grade the previous lectures. using reference angles or any into 2-pair groups, based on

Trigonometry, and use (5) for immediate feedback and angle using a calculator. Close differentiated learning groups

See the light performance transition to lecture: (7) with any questions so far on to solve problem set, as

task to apply lecture. Close Nature of Angles. Close by the homework set. described for (14) Apply it-

with Unit overview, how this handing out unit circle handout Values of Trigonometric

trigonometry will be different to be used next lesson and functions. Collect one

than geometry and introduce assign them to graph and label random, unannounced group

(4) Real-Life Assignment #1. each special angle members work for assessing

(0,30,45,60,90) on the circle. purposes. Each student will

reflect on the effectiveness of

the application of

trigonometry.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Start with (15) Functions Start with (17) Ferris Wheel (19) Homework set #2 due. Peer-review of (4) Real-life (4) Real-Life Assignment #1

Mini-Quiz, trade with learning and transition the discussion of This class is devoted to Assignment #1. This means due. (21) Unit Test.

partner for grading and answer to lecture: (18) Graph applying the previous lectures the students should have it

immediate feedback. it #2. Close with any questions and understandings to real- completed and bring it to class 11.

Transition from general so far on the homework set. world situations while to exchange. They then have (22) Unit Discussion: (up to 1

functions to the lecture on modeling the structure of the this class period to ask final class period in length) Lead

trigonometric functions: (16) Real-Life assignment. Split questions and make changes to discussion of missed questions

Graph it #1. into 2-pair groups, based on their final draft. on Unit test and how to arrive

differentiated learning groups at the correct answer. Discuss

to solve problem set, as also the Real-Life Application

described for (20) Apply it- #1 assignment and introduce

Graphs. Collect one random, the second stage for the next

unannounced group members unit. (Optional: time

work for assessing purposes. permitting, start next unit)

Each student will reflect on the

effectiveness of the application

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

of trigonometry.

The student will demonstrate real-life transfer of understanding by writing several paragraphs defending how to solve the

problem without actually solving it.

Clearly states given information

Clearly states extraneous information

Includes explanation of information still

needed.

Diagram

Neat figure

Clearly labeled

Labeled any extraneous information

Highlighted missing information

Problem is stated but NOT in

Problem is clearly stated in Problem is NOT clearly stated

student's own words and

student's own words and and does NOT includes what is

Problem Stated may/may not include what is

includes what is being solved being solved for , with NO brief

being solved for , with NO brief

for , with brief explanation explanation

explanation

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

(One paragraph's worth) (One paragraph's worth)

(One paragraph's worth)

proficiently explains HOW to attempts novicely to explain

intermediately explains HOW to

Paragraph: go about solving the problem HOW to go about solving the

go about solving the problem in

Describe in brief detail and includes problem in brief detail and does

brief detail and includes

mathematical terms from NOT includes mathematical

mathematical terms from class

class terms from class

(One paragraph's worth) (One paragraph's worth) (One paragraph's worth)

proficiently explains WHY intermediately explains WHY attempts novicely to explain

Paragraph:

the described method is the described method is efficient, WHY the described method is

Defend

efficient, using mathematical using mathematical terms from efficient, and does NOT use

terms from class class mathematical terms from class

A >20

B 19-18

C 17-16

D 15-14

F <13

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

References

Danielson, C., & Marquez, E. (1998). A Collection of Performance Tasks and Rubrics: High School

Mathematics. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Sobel, M., & Maletsky, E. (1988). Teaching Mathematics: A sourcebook of aids, activities, and

strategies (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Swokowski, E., & Cole, J. (2003). Algebra and Trigonometry with Analytic Geometry (10th ed.). Pacific

Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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