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# Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

Understanding by Design

## School District: Regent University School: Teacher Ed & IDS Dept.

Brief Summary of Unit (including curricular context and unit goals): This unit acquaints students with
trigonometric functions in preparation for an in depth look at their behavior in the next unit. Therefore,
the primary goal of the unit is to use knowledge of geometry and algebra to discover trigonometric
properties and functions of triangles and the unit circle. The continuing goals include: 1) functions are
defined over a domain for which there is a specific output (range); 2) logical thinking and arguing are a
basis of mathematical theory; and 3) mathematical modeling in the real-world is dependent on the
scenario and is a simplified version of the original problem. Lectures in this unit are a guided
discussion/ dialogue between the teacher and students with a focus on understanding mathematical
theory and logical progression from one idea to the next in exploring trigonometry. All group work in
this unit is based on differentiate learning pairs, in which students are paired with someone of similar
but slightly higher (lower) capabilities, ensuring the zone of proximal development for each student.
Thinker problems are spread throughout the unit for those advanced students, while the struggling
student is ensured the help of their learning pair and the teachers guidance at every level.

## Unit design status: X Completed template pages stages 1, 2, 3

Completed blueprint for each performance task X Completed rubrics

## Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005) 1

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

## Unit Title: Introduction to Trigonometric Functions

Established Goals:
The student will use knowledge of geometry and algebra to discover trigonometric properties and
functions of triangles and the unit circle. The student will create, prove, and use the unit circle to solve
trigonometric functions and their inverses. The student will be able to graph trigonometric functions
and understand how changing the amplitude and period cause a shift of the function. (SOL T.1, T.2,
T.3, T.4, T.6, T.9)

## Trigonometric functions are essential to How do we use triangles in mathematical

problem solving of triangles and for future models?
mathematical models in physics, and other What are the differences between
sciences. triangular and circular trigonometric
The origin of trigonometry has roots in functions? Why do we need both?
geometry and algebra, which can be What are the different ways to describe
mathematically proven. and solve trigonometric functions?
Graphs are used to help represent How do we use proofs in trigonometry to
mathematical relationships and are not understand its foundations?
necessarily unique to one function.

## Students will know: Students will be able to:

The six triangular trigonometric functions Create a unit circle using knowledge of
and how it relates to the circular triangular trigonometry and algebra
trigonometric functions Prove the Pythagorean theorem and its
The definitional difference and conversion applications to sine, cosine, and tangent
The unit circle is a comprehensive graph Use a unit circle to find trigonometric
of special angles constructed using the values for special angles
relations of triangular trigonometric With and without the use of a calculator,
functions find exact measurements of trigonometric
The relation and derivation of cosine and functions and their inverses
secant, sine and cosecant, tangent and Graph all six trigonometric functions and
cotangent, and their inverses. determine the amplitude, period, domain,
The graph for the mother function of all range, and phase shift represented in a
six trigonometric functions and how to graph.
determine phase shifts.

## Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005) 2

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

## STAGE 2 ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE

Real-Life Application Project Part 1: The student Pre-Assessment Quiz: 10 question quiz on
will demonstrate real-life transfer of foundational knowledge needed for the unit
understanding by writing several paragraphs
defending how to solve the problem without Quizzes: Short 5-10 question quizzes (on days
actually solving it. after weekend) to check understanding and
refresh for coming class.
Apply It Group Work: One random, unannounced
person from each group will turn in their work for Unit Test: Comprised of 3 parts: (1) Basic recall
a group grade on the Apply It lesson day(s). of definitional trigonometric functions; (2) given
a formula sheet, the student will demonstrate
Homework sets: Selected homework questions their understanding of application of properties
from among the suggested practice exercises are and functions; (3) Essential Question Essay the
collected and graded for accuracy. student will answer the essential questions in
approximately 3-6 sentences

## Student Self-Assessment and Reflection

1. Periodic Exit tickets with one thing learned/ did not understand.
2. Peer review, self-assessment, and discussion of real-life application
3. Discussion of unit test

## STAGE 3 LEARNING PLAN

Summary of Learning Activities:
1. Pre-Assessment Quiz: a 10 question quiz covering basic trigonometric understanding that will be
2. The Impossible Triangle Challenge: A triangle with 2 line segments with endpoints on different
sides can create 3 regions within the triangle and a total number of sides of 9. Rearrange the two line
segments and you can get a total number of sides of 15. For this challenge, have the students
describe the conditions in which you can represent the numbers between 9 and 15. (Note: 12 is
impossible). Discuss. (Sobel & Maletsky, 1988, p. 43)
3. Review of Triangular Trigonometry Lecture: Review the definitions of triangular trigonometric
functions, reciprocal identities, definition of tangent in terms of cosine and sine, and the Pythagorean
Theorem.
4. Real-Life Application #1: The student will demonstrate real-life transfer of understanding by
writing several paragraphs defending how to solve the problem without actually solving it.
5. See the light Performance Task: Students will apply their understanding of right triangles,
congruence and Pythagorean Theorem. (Danielson & Marquez, 1998, pp. 179-181)
6. Circles Mini-Quiz: (Not a grade) 5 question quiz on circles, including (but not limited to), area,
circumference, and the equation of a circle. (Teacher developed)
7. Nature of Angles Lecture: Introduction of the unit circle, angle measures, and arc measurement,
as well as the relationship to radians. Begin constructing the Unit Circle on given handout. (Teacher
developed)
8. Take me out to the ball game Performance Task: Students will apply their understanding of
equal triangles, Pythagorean theorem, and angle sum. (Danielson & Marquez, 1998, pp. 185-188)
Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005) 3
Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann
9. Graph it- Angles Do Now: The student will demonstrate understanding from previous lesson on
graphing angles by graphing two angles (one positive, one negative) and answering questions.
(Teacher developed)
10. Special Angles Lecture: Using the definition of trigonometric functions and knowledge of the
unit circle, coordinate points on the unit circle are found for each of the special angles, having
already been labeled in previous lesson.
11. Unit Circle Quiz: 25 question quiz on previous lessons including how to find radians, graphing any
angle, points on the unit circle, and positive and negative values of sine and cosine. (Teacher
developed)
12. Values of Trigonometric Functions Lecture: Introduce reference angle and begin to discuss
possible solutions of trigonometric functions, using domain and range vocabulary; explain how to
use calculator for those problems with no reference angle.
13. Homework Set 1: (pg.354-355) #30, 32, 34; (pg. 371) #32, 38; (pg. 387-388) 10-20 even; (pg. 397)
#4,16; Thinker problem (pg. 425) #25. (Swokowski & Cole, 2003)
14. Apply it- Values of Trigonometric Functions: This whole class is devoted to applying all previous
knowledge to real-world problems. The teacher will demonstrate, through working examples, the
expectations of the Real-Life Applications #1 Performance Task. The problems to be worked in class
are the following: #33 (pg. 426), #39 (pg. 398), #53-54 (pg. 429). All (but the first) are related
(ozone and communications satellite); discuss therefore what complications in real-life would result
in an altered mathematical model. Adjustment can be made to accommodate interest and learner
development. (Swokowski & Cole, 2003)
15. Functions Mini-Quiz: (Not graded) 5 question quiz on function vocabulary including (but not
limited to) domain, range, shifts, and asymptotes. (Teacher developed)
16. Graph It #1 Lecture: Introduce graphing the cosine, sine and tangent functions; include
identifying and modeling amplitude, period, frequency, and shifts.
17. Ferris Wheel Performance Task: Students will apply their understanding of periodic functions
to graph and find the function of a Ferris wheel. (Danielson & Marquez, 1998, pp. 119-123)
18. Graph It #2 Lecture: Use existing knowledge of cosine, sine and tangent to graph cosecant,
cosine, and cotangent; compare and contrast domain, range, amplitude, period.
19. Homework 2: (pg. 408-409) #6, 18, 34, 41-44; (pg. 417-418) #16, 36, 50; Thinker problem (pg.
418) #54. (Swokowski & Cole, 2003)
20. Apply It- Graphs: This whole class is devoted to applying all previous knowledge to real-world
problems. The teacher will demonstrate, through working examples, the expectations of the Real-
Life Applications #1 Performance Task. The problems to be worked in class are the following: #73-
74 (pg.431), #76-77(pg.437). Discuss what complications in real-life would result in an altered
mathematical model. Adjustment can be made to accommodate interest and learner development.
(Swokowski & Cole, 2003)
21. Unit Test: Comprised of 3 parts: (1) Basic recall of definitional trigonometric functions; (2) given a
formula sheet, the student will demonstrate their understanding of application of properties and
functions; (3) Essential Question Essay the student will answer the essential questions in
approximately 3-6 sentences
22. Unit Discussion: (up to 1 class period in length) Lead discussion of missed questions on Unit test
and how to arrive at the correct answer. Discuss also the Real-Life Application #1 assignment and
introduce the second stage for next unit.

## Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005) 4

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

## Stage 3 Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction

Consider the WHERETO elements. You must include enough instruction for 10 lessons (~90 min each).
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
assessment. Use (2) The the ball game as a quick Angles and transition Quiz, collect for grading and This class is devoted to
Impossible Triangle review of previous lesson and discussion of answers to discuss briefly the answers. applying the previous lectures
Challenge to spark discussion informal assessment. lecture: (10) Special Angles. Transition from unit circle to and understandings to real-
on why trigonometry of Transition to (6) Circle Mini- Use Exit ticket to assess gaps lecture on (12) Values of world situations while
triangles is important. Quiz by asking In what other in understanding by asking for Trigonometric Functions, in modeling the structure of the
Transition into lecture: (3) ways do we represent angles? one remaining question after which functions are solved Real-Life assignment. Split
Review of Triangular Trade with partner and grade the previous lectures. using reference angles or any into 2-pair groups, based on
Trigonometry, and use (5) for immediate feedback and angle using a calculator. Close differentiated learning groups
See the light performance transition to lecture: (7) with any questions so far on to solve problem set, as
task to apply lecture. Close Nature of Angles. Close by the homework set. described for (14) Apply it-
with Unit overview, how this handing out unit circle handout Values of Trigonometric
trigonometry will be different to be used next lesson and functions. Collect one
than geometry and introduce assign them to graph and label random, unannounced group
(4) Real-Life Assignment #1. each special angle members work for assessing
(0,30,45,60,90) on the circle. purposes. Each student will
reflect on the effectiveness of
the application of
trigonometry.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Mini-Quiz, trade with learning and transition the discussion of This class is devoted to Assignment #1. This means due. (21) Unit Test.
partner for grading and answer to lecture: (18) Graph applying the previous lectures the students should have it
immediate feedback. it #2. Close with any questions and understandings to real- completed and bring it to class 11.
Transition from general so far on the homework set. world situations while to exchange. They then have (22) Unit Discussion: (up to 1
functions to the lecture on modeling the structure of the this class period to ask final class period in length) Lead
trigonometric functions: (16) Real-Life assignment. Split questions and make changes to discussion of missed questions
Graph it #1. into 2-pair groups, based on their final draft. on Unit test and how to arrive
differentiated learning groups at the correct answer. Discuss
to solve problem set, as also the Real-Life Application
described for (20) Apply it- #1 assignment and introduce
Graphs. Collect one random, the second stage for the next
unannounced group members unit. (Optional: time
work for assessing purposes. permitting, start next unit)
Each student will reflect on the
effectiveness of the application

## Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005)

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann
of trigonometry.

## Real-Life Application: Part 1

The student will demonstrate real-life transfer of understanding by writing several paragraphs defending how to solve the
problem without actually solving it.

## Given Information Provided (1pt) Missing (0 pt)

Clearly states given information
Clearly states extraneous information
Includes explanation of information still
needed.
Diagram
Neat figure
Clearly labeled
Labeled any extraneous information
Highlighted missing information

## 5-4 pts 3-2pts 1pt

Problem is stated but NOT in
Problem is clearly stated in Problem is NOT clearly stated
student's own words and
student's own words and and does NOT includes what is
Problem Stated may/may not include what is
includes what is being solved being solved for , with NO brief
being solved for , with NO brief
for , with brief explanation explanation
explanation

## Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005)

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann
(One paragraph's worth) (One paragraph's worth)
(One paragraph's worth)
proficiently explains HOW to attempts novicely to explain
intermediately explains HOW to
Paragraph: go about solving the problem HOW to go about solving the
go about solving the problem in
Describe in brief detail and includes problem in brief detail and does
brief detail and includes
mathematical terms from NOT includes mathematical
mathematical terms from class
class terms from class
(One paragraph's worth) (One paragraph's worth) (One paragraph's worth)
proficiently explains WHY intermediately explains WHY attempts novicely to explain
Paragraph:
the described method is the described method is efficient, WHY the described method is
Defend
efficient, using mathematical using mathematical terms from efficient, and does NOT use
terms from class class mathematical terms from class

A >20
B 19-18
C 17-16
D 15-14
F <13

## Source: Understanding by Design, Unit Design Planning Template (Wiggins/McTighe 2005)

Design Topic: Trigonometric Functions Subject(s): Mathematics Grade: 9 Designer: Hannah Wissmann

References

Danielson, C., & Marquez, E. (1998). A Collection of Performance Tasks and Rubrics: High School
Mathematics. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Sobel, M., & Maletsky, E. (1988). Teaching Mathematics: A sourcebook of aids, activities, and
strategies (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Swokowski, E., & Cole, J. (2003). Algebra and Trigonometry with Analytic Geometry (10th ed.). Pacific
Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.