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PBI B 2012




A. Background of Research

For many years, English has been considered as an international

language. Almost all the people from many different countries around

the world use it to communicate. The area of English has always

become a special interest. Its because of the importance of English in

any scope of our lives. Today, the first international language is

English, and in this globalization era, millions of people want to

improve their English speaking or to ensure that their children achieve

good English speaking. Its because English speaking is one of the

ways to communicate.

Communication is an essential need for human being. Language

as a means of communication has an important role to reveal an

intention to someone else. Since language is a means of

communication, it is not enough for students to learn words, phrases

and grammatical feature if they want to produce language in their

daily communication or to interact with other in English. There are four

skills in teaching and learning a language : listening, speaking, reading,

and writing, but out of the four skills, speaking seems intuitively the

most important.

Many factors can cause the problem of the students speaking

skills, among other the students interest, the material, the media, and
technique in teaching English. In generally, the teacher teaches the

students by traditionally. Sometime,They get difficulties in using

English when their teacher ask them to come in front of the class to

speak, such as to describe something, to introduce, or to make a

dialogue with their friends.That is one of the problems faced by

students of the seventh grade of SMPN 3 DOLOPO.

That is why the researcher an alternative way to create suitable

and interesting techniques to students condition. They need any

practices to assists them in developing their speaking ability. It can be

done by Toss and Tell Us. Toss and Tell Us is a basic componen of

speaking skills.
Based on the background above and the difficulty that was faced

by students in junior high school in speaking, the researcher

concerned to find out whether game could significantly increase the

students speaking skill through the research entitled Improving

Students speaking skill using Toss and Tell us game at seventh grade


B. Problem Identification

In line with the background of the research, researcher shows the

problem which can be identified as follows:

1. How are the students speaking skills?

2. How does the teacher teach the English language?
3. How can the teacher use Toss and Tell Us Game?
4. How is the students response when learning speaking using Toss and

Tell Us Game?
5. Does the teacher get difficulty in using Toss and Tell Us Game ?
6. What is the material was the teacher use in teaching using Toss and

Tell Us Game ?
7. Is there any improving of using Toss and Tell Us Game in teaching


C. Problem Limitation

This research is focused on describing whether there is an

improvement students speaking skill of using Toss and Tell Us Game

D. Statement of Problem
Based on the explanation above, the researcher wants to give the

statements: Is there an improvement of using Toss and Tell Us Game in

teaching speaking at the seventh grade of SMPN 3 Dolopo in the

academic year 2015/2016?

E. Research Objective

The objective of this research is to describe whether there is an

improvement students speaking skill using toss and tell us game.

F. The Significances of the Research

1. For the Student
a. It is hoped to be able to create more enjoyable and meaningful

learning for the students.

b. This research is expected to give the motivation for the students
2. For the Teacher

This research is expected to give the inspiration for the teachers

in practice the teaching class especially for English language.

3. For the Intuition

a. The result of the research is hoped to be additional data for the

school and for head school in improving education quality and

quantity learning English in school.

b. This research is given the experiment to the school, because the

school is the place of the research.




A. Review of Literature
1. Speaking
a. Definition of Speaking
Speaking is an effective and efficient way used in real

communication. It is impossible if someone understands English in

written but he or she does not understand the productive abilities,

especially speaking. So, speaking is one of four skills which has

important role in daily life, even as a main skill in communication

among human beings. Moreover, speaking is a productive skill in

which speaker produces and uses the language to express

sequence ideas and at the same time he tries to get the idea or

the message. In this situation, there is a process of giving or

transpiring, encoding and understanding the messages.

In general, people do the communication in spoken form

prior in written form. Beside of that, we know that there are four

skills of English. In addition, it divided into two groups, the

productive and receptive skill. Speaking is productive skill. From

those definitions, the writer makes conclusion that speaking is an

activity used verbal and non-verbal symbols to express speakers

idea and felling to the listener in variety of context. It support by

the definition of speaking in Bailey book (2005:2) as follow:

Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning

that involves production and receiving and processing

information. but is often spontaneous, open-ended,

evolving, but it is not completely unpredictable.

Not only that definition, speaking has the others different

meaning. Henri Guntur Tarigan gives one of definition that

speaking is:

Berbicara adalah kemampuan mengucapkkan bunyi-bunyi

aetikulasi atau kata-kata untuk mengekspresikan,

menyatakan serta menyampaikan pikiran, gagasan dan

perasaan. Sebagai perluasan dari batasan ini dapat kita

katakan bahwa berbicara merupakan suatu sistem tanda-

tanda yang dapat didengar (aidibel) dan yang kelihatan

(vesibel) yang memeanfaatkan sejumlah otot dan jaringan

otot tubuh manusia demi maksud dan tujuan gagasan-

gagasan atau ide-ide yang dikombimasikan(1983:15).

Based on the definitions above it means that speaking is

an ability to pronounce, to convey thoughts, ideas and feelings.

The students speaking skill is if they are can communicate

with others and they understand each others.

b. Function Of Speaking

Speaking functions make the people do more activity in

their dailylife. In teaching speaking, it is necessary to be aware

of the different function of speaking it self. In daily activity the

communication has the different purposes that needed by the

students. The different purposes and function require the

different approach and method.

According the statement above, there are three functions

of speaking which cites by Richard in his book as follows:

1) Talk as Interaction

This refer to the conversation and describes interaction

among the people, thus it serves a primarily social function. The

main features of talk as interaction can be summarized as


a) Has a primarily social function

b) Be formal or casual
c) Uses Reflects role relationships
d) Reflects speakers identity
e) May conversational conventions
f) Reflects degrees of politeness
g) Employs many generic words
h) Uses conversational register
i) Is jointly constructed (2008:21-27).
2) Talk as Transaction
Talk as transaction refers to situations where the focus

is on what is said or done. The main features of talk as

transaction are:

a) It has a primarily information focus.

b) The focus is on the message and not the participants.
c) Participants employ communication strategies to make them

d) There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and

comprehension checks, as in the example from the preceding

classroom lesson.
e) There may be negotiation and digression.

3) Talk as Performance

The third type of talk that can usefully be distinguished has

been called talk as performance. This refers to public talk, that

is, talk that transmits information before an audience, such

as classroom presentations, public announcements, and

speeches. The main features of talk as performance are:

a) There is a focus on both message and audience

b) It reflects organization and sequencing
c) Form and accuracy is important
d) Language is more like written language
2. Teaching Speaking
a. What is Teaching Speaking ?

What is meant by teaching speaking according to Hayriye

Kayi in Activities to promote speaking in a second language is to

teach English language learners to :

1) Produce the English speech sounds and sounds patterns.
2) Use word and sentences stress, intonation patterns and the

rhythm of the second language.

3) Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper

social setting, audience, situation, and subject matter.

4) Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
5) Use language as a means of expressing values and judgment.
6) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural

pauses, which is called as fluency.

In those meanings of teaching speaking above, the

teacher must pay attention of some important aspects include

producing sentences, intonation, rhythm, and stress. Those

sound productions must be meaningful because it must be

produced logically from thoughts.

3. Toss and Tell Us Game

a) Definition of Game

In teaching learning process of second foreign language,

including the learners should be given how to learn English

and the teacher should be able to create interesting situation

so that the students can learn and understand the materials

Although some teachers of English see language games

as time consumers or classroom techniques for fun, games

have a special role in any foreign language teaching

becausee they facilitate foreign language learning especially

for children. With the introduction of communicative

language teaching, English language teaching and learning

has become much more demanding for teachers and

learners just like any other innovation poses challenges for its

According to wikipedia sites, games have become

important for English language learners and teachers not

only because they provide enjoyment and relaxation, but

also as they encourage students to use their language in a

creative and communicative mannera game is structured

playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes

used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work,

which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art,

which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological

elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many

games are also considered to be work (such as professional

players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw

puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as

Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games). It mean that game

to create interesting situation so that the students can learn

and understand the materials

( retrived at March 27


b) Procedure of Toss and Tell Us

This activity accesses linguistic knowledge from memory in

oral mode and provides students with practice in reading

short sentences aloud to the class. This practice is achieved

through understanding and speaking in response to short

directives covering a variety of subject. Students who are not

participating have an opportunity to learn information. For

example, the answers to the short directives so that when

their turns come they will be able to answer fluently.

Procedure of this game :
1) Select a student at random to roll the dice.
2) Have that student roll the dice to obtain a number from

the roll of dice sheet.

3) Then ask the student to choose a classmate, select

answer A,B, or C from the roll of dice sheet, and read it to

the selected classmate.

4) Then, selected student responds, If the student cannot

responds, have the first student read another one of the

three items (A, B, or C).

5) If the student again cannot respond, read the third choice.
6) Should the student still not be able to respond, that

student loses this turn. Have the first student roll again

and select a new student to answer.

7) Have the selected student respond and the turn his/her

back to the class.

8) Then, have the class vote on the performance as follows:

Thumb up = excellent, thumb horizontal = satisfactory,

thumb down = needs improvement.

9) Count the tallies and report the scores orally to the

selected classmate.
10) Have the student who rolled the dice pass them to

the student who responded, who then selects another

student at random and the activity continues.

B. Frame of Thought

This research is done in order to know the influence of Toss and

Tell us game in teaching speaking. Speaking is a skill used by someone

to communicate orally in daily life whether at school or outside the

school. Most teachers tired to find techniques in order to make

students interested in learning speaking. At least, they can speak in a

simple conversation freely.

Many students have difficulties in speaking skill. It caused by

some factors: first, they are too shy and afraid to speak in front of the

class because lack of self confidence. Second, they are unmotivated

and lack of practice. The last, they need an interesting technique to

stimulate them to speak in the class.

In order to solve the students problem faced by students at the

seventh grade of SMPN 3 Dolopo, and make the students more active,

toss and tell us game may can provide for helping the students to

improve their speaking ability. Toss and Tell Us present a real life

situation and provide the most useful and interesting lesson, so the

students can speak freely and confidently in the front of the class.

Based on the statement above, the researcher assume that Toss

and Tell Us can be very applicable to be used for teaching learning

English especially in speaking skill.

C. Hypothesis
Refering to the theories and the theoretical assumption above
the researcher formulated hypothesis action : there is an improvement
of students speaking skill through Toss and Tell Us game at the
seventh grade of SMPN 3 Dolopo.

A. Research Design
1. Method
The method used in this research is Classroom Action Research

(CAR). This study was taken to find detail information by doing

some actions which were deal with the problems occurred. Action

research is any systematic analysis lead by teacher researcher to

collect information with the goal increasing students outcome this

study also tried to describe the events or the real conditions that

happened in junior high school of SMPN 3 Dolopo. There are some

explanations of Classroom Action Research;

a. Definition of Classroom Action Research (CAR)

Classroom Action Research (CAR) adalah action research yang

dilaksanakan oleh guru di dalam kelas. Action Research pada

hakikatnya merupakan rangkaian riset-tindakan-riset-tindakan-.,

yang dilakukan secara siklik, dalam rangka memecahkan masalah,

sampai masalah itu terpecahkan.(Bitono,2007:23)

From those statements we conclude that classroom action

research is an inquiry which is done through the self reflection.

2. Model of classroom research

The Classroom Action Research CAR) procedure used in this

research is Kurt Lewins design. It consists of two cycles in which

each cycle contains four phases: planning, acting, observing, and

reflecting. Moreover. In this study, the researcher will conduct this

classroom action research into two cycles, As stated by Arikunto the

"Classroom Action Research should be implemented at least two

cycles continuosly . This means that a classroom action research

should be conducted at least in two cycles. If the results are less

satisfactory, researcher can perform the cycle once again in order to

achieve the criteria that have been determined.

In order to be clear, the researcher would like to present a model

of Action Research stated by Kurt Lewin in a figure below :


Reflecting Cycle I Acting



Reflecting Cycle II Acting


3. Cycle

The cycle of the classroom action research will be carry out in

two cycles to get the accurate data. Every cycle consists of two

meeting periods. One meeting is 35 minutes. In cycle 1, the

researcher will be implementing toss and tell us game with authentic

material which will be choosing.

The steps in cycle 1 are as follow:

a. Planning
In this steps, the researcher prepare lesson plan, preparing

the research instrument for collecting data, and preparing the

criteria of scoring the instrument.

b. Acting
In this step, the researcher implements the process

speaking by using Toss and Tell Us games.

c. Observation
The researcher observes the teaching and learning process

in the class from beginning until end of teaching and learning

process, records students speaking process in the class.

d. Reflecting
In this step, the researcher evaluates whether the teaching

learning process. If the result of evaluate is successful 100%

reached of students in a class pass KKM so the researcher will

be stop in this cycle. But if the result of cycle 1 doesnt meet

the target then cycle 2 will be carried out. The step same like

the cycle 1 but different material.

B. Setting of Research
1. Subject of the study
The population of this research was the seventh grade of the

SMPN 3 Dolopo. It is choose caused they are not enthusiastic and

not courage enough to involve in the speaking learning process.

They were encountered with the hesitance of practicing the

material as well as the drilling conducted by the teacher in the

learning process. In other words, the student usually have the

problems with their confidence. Therefore, they could not cope with

the class material. That is why they need an appropriate strategy to

help them improve their speaking.

2. Place of the study
Place of the study in SMPN 3 Dolopo, it is located on Jl.Raya Suluk

3. Time of Study

This research will be carry out on March 2016, and in each

meeting it takes 2 x 35 minutes of teach.

C. Technique of Collecting Data

In order to get some data, the researcher uses some techniques and

instruments of collecting data, they are :

1. Observation
Observation was done try identify teaching and learning

activities, especially speaking activities directed by the real

teacher, and to reveal problem of speaking activity in classroom. It

may be about the teachers performance during Classroom Action

Research and students response concerning the use of Toss and

Tell Us technique.
The teachers performance during Classroom Action Research will

be observed by using Communicative Orientation of Language

Teaching Observation Scheme by Genesse and Upshur.

And the other hand, to measure students progress in speaking

during Classroom Action Research, the researcher will use

observation table according to Mattews.

2. Questionnaire
For many reasons, the questionnaire is the most widely used

technique for obtaining information from subject. A questionnaire is

relatively economical, has the same questions for all subjects, and

can ensure anonymity. In this study, the researcher used

questionnaire to know the students response toward the teaching

learning activity during Classroom Action Research.

3. Test
Test used in this study is pre test and post test. To know students
existing knowledge of speaking ability, the researcher gives oral
test to the students. Because the test is oral test, the researcher
divided the score into four criteria, which are the scores of
pronunciation, grammar, fluency, and performance.

D. Technique of Analyzing Data

To analysis the data used techniques Miles and Hubermen (1992).

In this technique there are four steps such as following chart below

which is using interactive model.


Conclusion: drawing/verifying

To find the mean in of students score, the researcher users the

following formula :
X =fx
X= mean

F = frequency

N= total students in the class


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Candace Matthews. 14.Speaking Solution : Interaction, Presentation,

Listening, and Pronunciation Skills.New Jersey :Prentice-Hall Inc.

Fred Genesee and John A. Upshur. 16. Classroom Based Evaluation In

Second Language Education. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Hayriye Kayi in Activities to promote speaking in a second language.

James H. Memillan and Sally Schumacher. 2006. Research Education :

evidence Based Inquiry. New York : Pearson Education.

Sudjana.2002. Metode Statistika. Bandung: P.T.Tarsito.

Suharsimi Arikunto. 200. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: Bumi

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