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to Electrical Engineering

by EMANUEL GLUSKIN

Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel

representation of the time jimction f(t) is obtained, is analysed. v(t) is a known T-periodic

zerocrossing (i.e. without a touching of the time axes and dv/dt # 0 at the zero point)

function. L is a linear integral operator. The possibility of the zerocrossing representation of

f(t) appears when the parameter p is with certain limits de$ned by v and L. The representation

reduces the$nding of f(t) to the jinding of the zerocrossings, which in some cases may be

very simply done. The mathematical inaestigation is motivated by work in the theory of

jluorescent lamp circuits where the zerocrossing representation qf a current function appears

to be uxful. The equation is$nally generalized which also is associated with the applications.

I. Introduction

Periodic time functions having single zeros are commonly obtained in engineering

practice and theory. For a nonlinear circuit such a function may have some specific

importance as is revealed by a theory of the steady state operation of fluorescent

lamp circuits (1, 2). It appears necessary to analyse the equation for the lamp

current function (here f) which in a slightly simplified form may be written as

where L is an integral time-invariant operator which gives the steady-state current

response of a linear LC circuit to periodic voltage waves. This (typical cause-

consequence type) operator may be written as

n

L[ I(t) = K(z)1l(t-t)dt,

10

multiplied by weakly damping exponents) K(t), defined by the linear circuit

included in a nonlinear one. It is sufficient here to define only the asymptotical

(frequency) properties of L which may be simply done (see Appendix) for the

periodic process, using the coefficients y, which are connected with K by the

relation :

E. Gluskin

y,=

s0

* K(t)exp (- inwr) dt, CCI= 271/T.

The value p in (1) is real. As usual, sign (.f) = 1 for J> 0 and sign (.f) = - 1 for

,f< 0. For .f= 0, sign (.f) is undefined in the limits [- 1, + 11, c(t) is a given

continuous T-periodic zerocrossing time function which may have (per period) a

finite number of points of discontinuity of its derivative. The concept of zero-

crossing function means here that both left and right derivatives of the function

at each of its zero points are nonzeros (and of the same sign). For simplicity of

writing the equations, we assume that for t>(t) these derivatives are equal to each

other. We require that the number of zerocrossings per period is finite. This

requirement, which is relevant to the functions appearing in practical engineering,

ensures a nonzero distance between any two zerocrossings and a nonzero value of

the function at any point which is not at the crossing. As a basic result, the property

of the function to be zerocrossing remains when all the parameters which define

the function are changed in some nonzero limits or, alternatively, a bounded

function (without pauses where it would be identically zero) with a bounded

derivative may be found, to be added to the zerocrossing function, such that

the latter remains zerocrossing. Thus the zerocrossing character of ,f(t) with the

mathematically consequent properties of (1) are obtained exactly for p in some

limits, not only asymptotically as p + 0. The properties of (1) are connected with

the indeed very specific behavior, observed in experiment (l), of the system. The

upper limit for p, associated with the zerocrossing nature of ,f(t) is found, from

the condition of both .f(t) and d,f/dt, to be equal zero at a time point. In an

example associated with the context of(l), the critical p was found as U/a, where

U is amplitude of the input function of the system (see Section III), which shows

that such a critical value need not be very small. The critical p is not analysed in

this study, while the fact of its positiveness is widely used.

The smoothing property of the integral operator L ensures (see Section IV and

the Appendix for details) that its action on a finite function (r, in the above) creates

a function with a bounded derivative. As a result, for p small ,f(t) in (1) is a

zerocrossing function having the same number of zeros as [l(t). If ,f(t) is periodic,

the function sign (,f> is defined by the zerocrossings of ,f belonging to a period which

are functions of ,K The polarity of ,f between any two sequencing zerocrossings is

known in (1) since as p + 0, ,f- z and sign (.f) -+ sign (t.). Thus the second term

on the right-hand side of (I) is a known function of t and the zerocrossings. Thus

.f is represented in (1) using its zerocrossings. Even though the zerocrossings appear

as parameters whose values are unknown u priori, they are a very useful analytical

tool.

Proofs of the basic statements with which we begin are described in Section

TV. The Appendix presents the lengthy mathematical details. It has independent

numeration of equations.

is known that the solution exists, it can be obtained very simply. Using the fact

664 Pcrgamon Press pit

Zerocrossings of Periodic Time Functions

to a period, we rewrite (1) as

with the known function z and find the zerocrossings from m equations f (t,) = 0 :

v(tJ = ,uz(t,; t,, t2,. . . , t,), i = 1,2,. . . ,m. (3)

Substituting the found ti into (2), we obtain f(t).

The function z may be obtained by a trigonometric representation of the rec-

tangular wave sign (f) on which the operator L acts : i.e.

I I

Here Q depends on t, but not on t. The value of Q is not important here since

among the requirements to L (see Appendix IA), LQ = 0 for any constant Q,

which is ensured in practice by a series capacitor. (If Q = 0, the capacitor need not

be present.) The value t, is chosen so that change -/+ in the polarity of f occurs

at t,. Thus z appears to be a direct function of the m differences t-t,,

t - tz, . . . , t-t,, :

z=Lsign(f) =y(t-t ,,..., t-t,),

having zero time average. Substitution t = ti turns one of the arguments of y to

zero while the others are equal to some of the mutual distances between the

zerocrossings.

It follows from (3) that ti are functions of p, ti = ti(p), and that ti(0) = t, where

t: are zerocrossings of u(t).

For a small p we can linearize (3) setting ti = t! + O(p) which is possible because

of the zerocrossing character of zi ((dv/dt) (t:) # 0) :

t; = tP+pz(tj); ty, ty, . . . . t,f,)[(dv/dt)(t,0)]-, i= 1,2 ,..., m.

A practical and very important (e.g. for electrical power systems) case is that of

m = 2 and t2 = t, + T/2. For the above introduced function y we obtain in this

case, obviously, y = w(t - t ,) with some known function IV.Thus (1) is turned into

.f(t) = a(t)-M--t,)

with the equation for t, as

o(t,) = W(O),

with the linearized solution t, = t:+pw(O) [(dzl/dt) (ty)lP . If w(0) = 0, t, is inde-

pendent of p. In such a case we shall say that t, is constant. Since the very condition

for ,f to be a zerocrossing function requires a limitation on p, it will be appropriate

to write the conditions for the constancy oft, (more generally t,) using an expression

which includes t:. See Eq. (5) in the next section.

The following list of statements (a)-(g), describes the most interesting properties

of (1) and of a similar equation with a time shift. Introduction of the latter equation

Vol.327.No.4.p~.663~675,1990

Pnntcd I" Greet Bnta1n 665

E. Gluskin

f(t) to be the zerocrossing function. Proofs of the statements are discussed in

Section IV.

(a) For p small enough (1) has a unique T-periodic zerocrossing solution ,f(t)

having the same number of zerocrossings per period as o(t).

(b) For /i and 6 small enough, the following equation with the time shift :

also has a unique zerocrossing T-periodic solution with the same density of zeros.

(c) It is impossible to represent a periodic zerocrossing function f(t) by means

of the equations (we do not write the sign - which may be included in the

slightly redefined L) :

for small (compared with the period) 161.

(d) Set of zeros of the function L sign (1) does not coincide with the set of zeros

of .f(r).

(e) The representation (4) is possible for a certain not small 6, which may be

demonstrated by an example.

(f) If (this is a generalization of the condition w(0) = 0 from Section III)

(Lsign(zl(t-6)))(t,O) = 0, Vi (5a)

where t: are zerocrossings of z,(t) (or I(-&), then the zerocrossings t, of ,f are

those of l:, and since t/ = t,(O) (Section II), t,(p) = t,(O) for all relevant ,u (the

constancy of t,). In this case .f(t) = [l(t) -pL sign (v(t)) (or .f(t) = z)(t) -pL sign

(I([--fi)), correspondingly).

(g) If (5) is satisfied, which is a requirement of L, i.e. of the structure of the

system, then the important for praclice parameter, the paver smsitiz~it~ (1, 2) :

k=

is as small as possible in the theory and does not depend on p and CJ. Here P is

the average power consumed by the hardlimiter :

s

and U is the amplitude or sca/iny,fuctor of z>(f)in the representation of z.(t) = Us(t)

with some given function s(t) which is defined by the waveform of the input voltage

function passing in an experiment via an input autotransformer which defines U.

(2by itself is not the input voltage function of a real system as is already clear from

Zerocrossings of Periodic Time Functions

the requirement of its physical dimension to be that off; in fact, v(t) is obtained

(2) by the action on the input voltage function of a linear integral operator which

is of the same type as L.) The above somewhat abstract requirement of the smallness

of p is turned now into the requirement of the smallness of ratio p/U which may

be obtained, in principle, by both decrease of p or increase of U. In an experiment

the change in U is obtained by means of the input variable transformer, while the

change in /J means connections or disconnection (or shortage) of the similar

nonlinear elements.

The properties (a)-(e) are proved for the case of some power losses in the linear

circuit described by the operator L, as well as in the lossless case (note that P is

not losses, it is a useful power consumption). As for (f)-(g), the conditions (5) or

(5a) may also be satisfied in both of the cases. However, in the case with losses

(5)-(5a) by themselves do not provide the minimal k, giving nevertheless a valuable

estimation for the conditions of the minimum.

The property (e) is of a specific interest. If a close-loop system realizes (4) for a

given 6, then this time shift defines the period of possible periodic oscillations (in

the example mentioned in (e), T = 46, see Section IV) and there is, for instance,

an interesting problem of stability of the oscillations in such a practical system.

Another interesting point, associated with the problem of the realization, is that in

(4) L corresponds to an active circuit, while in (1) it may (and actually does in the

original application) correspond to a passive circuit.

Application of the conditions of the possibility and impossibility of the zero-

crossing representation of time functions to problems of automatic control should

be considered, since the function sign (f) may be easily generated by active circuits.

Other directions of research for the application of the zerocrossing which are no

less interesting are presented in (34).

The condition (5) which is of a particular interest in the theory may be rewritten,

using the integral representation (Section I) of L as

r

K(r) sign (v(tg -z)) dz = 0,

s0

None of the following conditions related to the linear operator requires resonance

to occur in the linear circuit (see (3) for the point) and the resonant situation is

assumed to be excluded in the following expressions.

(a) The properties of the operator L ensure (Appendix) that for the bounded

function c,(t) (not necessarily writren as sign f) on which L acts, the derivative of

the function obtained and the function itself are bounded which provides that as

/J + 0, ti + t,? and that for p small the function r;-,uLu, is similar to u, i.e. is a

zerocrossing function which has the same number of zerocrossings per period as

z(t) has. The addition of --Lz;, may move the zeros of u(t), but they remain as

zerocrossings. Thus considering the iterative relation with

Prmted in Chat Briteln 667

E. Gluskin

fern= 1,2,..., ccj, we find one p, such that all of the fn have the same number of

zerocrossings per period as u has. As any infinite set belonging to a finite interval,

the set S, of thefirst zerocrossings of all the functions fn, related to a certain T-

interual, has points of condensations. The same is true for the sets Sz, S3,. . . , S,,, of

the second, third, . . , mth zerocrossings of fn related to the interval. By sequencing

deletion (first for S,, then for SZ, etc.) of the irrelevant numbers n we obtain a

subsequence PZof the numbers, such that the remaining elements of the sets S,,,

p-l,2 , . , m, have one point of condensation for each of the sets. This leads to

a certain limit function for the sequence ,f;,, (and for L sign(&). see Appendix),

from which the existence of a solution of (1) follows.

To prove the uniqueness, we essentially use the fact that because L corresponds

to an oscillatory circuit with low power losses, the function cpLq, where cp is any

nonconstant real periodic oscillating function, is an oscillatory,function alternating

its polarity. This directly follows from the fact that for cp and Lq not small, the

following integral representing the ener.q:qylosses per period (in the linear circuit

influenced only by q(t)) :

I

cpb dt,

s0

must be small.

Assuming that there are two different solutions f, and f2 of (1) we subtract (1)

written for fi from (1) written for ,f,, multiply the obtained equation by sign (J;) -

sign (J2) and get

(I.fl I+l.f8 (1 -sign (.fl) *sign (.f2) = -(sign (fJ-sign(f2))Wgn(fJ-sign(f2))

where the right-hand side changes its polarity while the left-hand side does not.

This contradiction proves that J, = fi.

(b) The proof of the existence is quite similar to that of (a). The proof of

uniqueness requires somewhat more lengthy expressions to be introduced, but is

basically similar to that of (a), since the changes in the expressions appearing in

the proof of (a) and the additionally appearing terms are relatively small (because

of the smallness of ISI) which cannot change the inequalities which led to the proof

in (a).

(c) The result may be formally obtained as a consequence of the uniqueness of

the solution of (1) if we complete the general set of the zerocrossing functions by

an identically zero function (the trivial solution of the equations in (c)) which may

be considered as a limit of a zerocrossing function having amplitude tending to

zero. The result may be, rather, directly proved by multiplying the equations by

sign (z(t)) or (correspondingly) sign (u(t - 6)) and using the arguments related to

the polarities.

(d) From the smallness of the following integral (compare with that of (a)) :

7 sign (,f(t))Lsb

(f(t))

dt

s0

it follows that the set of zeros of function L sign (.f

(t))

does not coincide with the

668

Zerocrossings of Periodic Time Functions

set of the jump points of sign (f(t)), i.e. with the set of the zeros off(t). However

from (1), as ,D tends to infinity, zeros off(t) tend to those of L sign (f(t)). This

contradiction shows that for p large enough, f(t) stops to be a zerocrossing

function (i.e. (1) is incorrect) and time intervals where f(t) is identically zero

appear (which is actually observed in a system like that of (1)). By the way, the

proof of (c) is obtained. Additionally, this statement makes it clear that p in (1)

should be limited for f(t) to be the zerocrossing function.

(e) For a series lossless linear L-C circuit having resonance frequency o,, = 2w

(see (3))

T T

1sin2wt1,

-4< t< 4

--~

L sign (sin cot) - (sin 20t) * (sign (sin ot)) =

T 3

-1sin2wt1, - - < t < -T.

4 4

f=Lsign(f(t-g))

where

f = L sign (sin ot).

Note that for this f, (L sign f) (0) = 0, but o0 < 20 would also be relevant for

(4) with 6 = T/4.

(f) This is suggested by the approximate equation for ti, obtained in Section II.

A rigorous proof is given by the direct substitution of the function u(t)--L

sign (z)(t)) or (correspondingly) v(t) -PL sign (v(t-8)) as f into (1) (or (la))

taking into account uniqueness of the solution of the equations and that (5) (or

(5a)) is satisfied.

Remark 1. For v(t) such that m = 2 and v(t+ T/2) = -u(t), conditions (5) are

turned into one condition which in the case of a lossless linear subcircuit may be

written (1) as

where 6, are susceptancies (5) of the linear circuit. Terms of the sum relate to

different frequencies nw generated by the whole system (which in the case discussed

may be driven by a pure sinusoidal voltage). Clearly, this equation requires that

at least two of the 6, are of different polarities which agrees with the oscillatory

(LC) character of the linear circuit. For a series L-C circuit with the resonant

frequency wO the latter equation gives w,, = 20, 40, 60,. . . , while 2w which was

used in (e) is the most suitable for practice. The frequency relations indeed appeared

not close to those resonant (spectrum of the system is here o, 30, 50,. . .) and the

resonant frequency of the L-C circuit is frequency of the transient oscillations of

function L sign (f) between the sequencing zerocrossings off (see the examples in

(3)).

Prmted m Great Britam 669

E. Gluskin

(g) Using the definition of P, Eq. (1) and the notation of Section III (g) we

present P as

p2

T s

T

n

sign (,f) -f(t) dr =

PU

T

s0

7-

sign (f)* s(t) dt

s I,

Then we note that after the introduction of the parameter U > 0 the equations for

r, (Section II) are turned into

concerning p, the condition (5) ensures now that t, do not depend on v]. Since in

the calculation of k, ,u is constant, this means that t, do not depend on U. (Even

though for a linear system, k = 2 always, and thus also independent of p, this is a

quite different situation comparative with the case of t,(p) = t;(O) for the nonlinear

system, since in the linear case the changing in the resistance, which characterizes

a linear power consuming element, actually changes phase shifts while here t, are

strictly unchanged.)

Using the above expression for P, the following expression for k may be easily

derived :

This expression shows that in the lossless case k > 1 and k = I if and onl_y ijall the

t, ure constant, which was mentioned in Section III (g).

Remurk 2. In the case of k constant, P is directly proportional to ,LL,and since

the increase in p may be obtained in practice by series comlection of similar small

size hardlimiters, this case has the remarkable physical meaning that the power

consumption qf euch element qf the chain qf the hardlimiters is not changed lvith the

increase in the number of the connected elements (until the total p is in the permitted

limits). A relevant experiment is discussed in Section 9 of (1).

which suggests seeking of applications, and because of the fact that the voltage-

current characteristics of some (2,6) fluorescent lamps need a more precise approxi-

mation than that given by the function Signum, we turn now to the following

generalization of (1) :

As before, U > 0 and the requirements of s(t) are as before. The function W(T)

depends, generally. on three different types of parameters: A, B.. ; t and t,,

Zerocrossings of Periodic Time Functions

l number m of the parameters t,, t2,. . . , t, is the number of the

zerocrossings of s(t) per period (we first consider the function w itself, not assuming

that t,, t2,. . . , t,, are zerocrossings of,f(t)). These parameters are required to be

different and all placed in an interval of T-length. For any such set oft,, we require

that both w and dwldt tend to zero as all the parameters A, B, . . . tend to zero. This

ensures that for some small values of A, B,. , the right-hand side of (6) is a

zerocrossing function having the same number of the zeros as s(t). Under such

conditions we can then consider t,, t2,. . , t,,, as the zerocrossings of ,f(t), and (6)

as a nonlinear equation giving the zerocrossing representation off. The equations

for the determination of the values t ,, t2, . . . , t,, are then :

Generally, t, are functions of U and A, B, . . . .

Existence of the solution of (6) may be proved similar to that of (1) while the

role of y is here, actually, the set of the values A/U, B/U, . . . . As for the uniqueness

of the solution, the argument mentioned in Section IV (b) may be applied here also

if the wave form of w is slightly different from that of L sign (f). Otherwise, the

uniqueness should be specifically considered in particular cases.

The properties of the function w ensure that zeros t? of s(t) are the limit values

of tj:

+

constant and A, B, . . . tending to zero, while the simultaneous tending of A, B, .

to zero should be specifically defined in each particular case in order to keep the

physical meaning of the parameters. The conditions for the constancy of the

zerocrossings here are

with the corresponding solution of (6) : ,f(t) = Us(t) - w(A, B, . . . ; t ; ty, tt, . . . ,

ta.

An example of the equation of the type (6) related to the case of the m = 2 and

t2 = t, + T/2 is as follows :

with the operator defined in Section I. This equation is relevant to the theory of

fluorescent lamp circuits (2). As before, the form of the lamp voltage wave (here

A sign (,f(t)) + B cos w(t - t ,)) is directly approximated using the zerocrossings

of the lamp current function. This permits one to apply the zerocrossing

analysis to the system. The analysis is now more difficult, but still simple rela-

tive to the circuit with the strongly nonlinear element whose characteristics

possess a hysteresis. In (6), the practical details associated with the circuit and this

analysis are presented. Experiment shows that A and B are somewhat dependent

on U for the circuit. However, the ratio B/A as a function of U has a smooth

E. Gluskin

maximum at the region of the most relevant for the circuit operation valuesof U

and thus the ratio is weakly dependent on U at the region. Since for the lossless

linear circuit L cos w(t- t,) -sin w(t- t,) = 0 at t = t,, the condition of the

constancy oft ,, remains quite similar to that related to the pure hardlimiter model :

i.e.

*

K(r) sign (,f(t: -r)) dr = 0

s0

and the values (u(, = 20,4w, 60, . . . (see Remark 1 in Section IV) are relevant here.

The same result would be obtained also after the replacement of B cos w(t - t ,) by

a sum of the type

c B, cos qw(t-t,).

Acknowledgements

The author is grateful to Professor M. S. Lifsic for mathematical consultations. A recent

discussion with Professor S. G. Mikhlin (Leningrad) was also very interesting. Professor

L. 0. Chua (Berkeley) is also thanked for an encouragement.

Rejbvences

(1) E. Gluskin, The nonlinear theory of fluorescent lamp circuits, ht. J. Electron.. Vol.

63, no. 5, pp. 687-705, 1987.

(2) E. Gluskin, A contribution to the theory of fluorescent lamp circuits, Proc. IEEE

CAS Cm/: (Espoo, June 1988), pp. 1385-1388.

(3) E. Gluskin. Symmetry. local symmetry and asymptotic pauses of steady-state current

responses of some oscillatory circuits to periodic rectangular voltage waves, Int. J.

Ektron. Vol. 64, No. 4, pp. 563-586, 1988.

(4) E. Gluskin. Nonlinearity and structural stability of some zerocrossing equations and

systems, Proc. ISSSE8Y (URSI Int. Symp. on Signals. Systems and Electronics,

Erlangen, IS-20 Sept. 1989). pp. 738-741.

(5) M. E. Van Valkenburg, Modern Network Synthesis, Chap. 5, Wiley, New York,

1960.

(6) E. Gluskin, On the theory of the fluorescent lamp circuits. Manuscript.

In Part A of this appendix, as mentioned in Section I, definition of the operator L which

is relevant to the description of the linear circuit (subsystem) is presented. In Parts B and

C, the properties of the operator are derived which are used in Section IV (a). The appendix

has an independent numeration of equations.

Section A. The properties of the linear operator L, which are those of an integral, first-

order smoothing operator, may be defined by the action of the operator on periodic

functions which are represented by their Fourier series. Consider a T-periodic function

672

Zerocrossings of Periodic Time Functions

y, 2

%

exist. We also require :

(AlI

This results, in particular, in that no resonant conditions between r(t) and L are permitted

and (see below) that Lr is bounded for the bounded r.

For simplicity, y, is assumed below to be pure imaginary; this brings the theoretical

results close to those which are obtained for real circuits with small losses. In (3) a detailed

consideration relevant to that point and supported by experimental results is given. It

can be also easily seen mathematically, that some small power losses do not change the

as_vmptotical properties of L which are important in the zerocrossing analysis.

For the lossless case relation (A2) may be written as :

1

liny,-K,l --, n-tc~.

n

Le*incor =

Y+~ ekino

As n + co (i.e. nw -+ co) the action of L on the exponent (see (Al)) is

e *nut

I, e+lnwrN ~

fi

e+lnw

L e+nr- ~

+inw

i.e. becomes simple integration. It also follows from the above thatfor any n

The latter relations have a natural, but mathematically important consequence. They show

that if r is a real function, which may be represented by a Fourier series including sine and

cosine functions, then

Prmted m Great Britam 673

E. Gluskin

s

.

T

rLrdt = 0

0

which means physically that no average power is consumed per period by a linear circuit

which is connected to a source of the voltage r(t). If _r,,were not pure imaginary, but had a

relatively small real part, then the integral would be nonzero but small.

Examples of such operators are operators for which $:Zis directly proportional to

nw((nw)l-tui)((nw)2-o,)...((lzcu)-w,~~,)

i*((nw)-oi)((nw)-oj:)...((nw)-wi)

Using the above results we now prove that the function Lr and its derivatives are bounded,

which was referred in Section IV (a).

I2%

Since IrI < 1 and 1~ < max Irj d 1, K,(la,I + lrl) < 2K,.

For the above sum we obtain (taking into account that (I,, - I/n, q 3 I, for the relevant

r, and again using (A2)) that for

4, = (inw_r,, - k ,)(I,,,

Thus the series of the d,, values converge absolutely and thus K, may be found such that

I1

I

d,, e <~ldlK+!!

,, , 1

,I

n

with

Here we used the Schwartz inequality and the Parseval equality. Now because of

674 Pergamon Press plc

Zerocrossings of Periodic Time Functions

which represents the universal limiting estimation related to a certain L, and any such r(t).

Noting that the Fourier coefficients of the function Lr are at least of the order l/n2 as

n + m, and thus Lr is continuous, and that (because h, = 0) its average is zero, one finds

that from the boundedness of the derivative it follows that Lr by itself is bounded.

waves functions written as sign (f;,) where ,fir are the zerocrossing functions (see Section

IV(a)) results convergence of the sequence of the functions L sign (f;,),

n-ri

0, = Lsignf,, , -L sign,/;, = L (sign ,f;,+ , -sign ./J,

which asymptotically (as r + co) is proportional to :

1 T

~* (sign &+ , -sign ./J edt.

r s0

Noting that the distinction between ,J,+ , andf;, is only in the shifts of the corresponding

zerocrossings :

&(Nf 1.0)= f(+ 1)_ p)

p , p= 1,2,...,m,

I P

and, thus, the integrand is non-zero only in the time intervals of the lengths (Tt(+J), one

easily finds an upper limit for the absolute value of the Fourier coefficient as

with some constants A,,. The order I/r2 of the expression means that the Fourier series for

0, converges absolutely. With the help of the Parse4 equality, one obtains :

Here the right-hand side tends to zero as n tends to infinity because of the convergence of

the sequence t:, for any p.

Printed in Great Britain 675

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