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Problem 4.

4 - Solar Pond Hybrid Steam Power Plant


We wish to evaluate the proposed Solar-Pond Steam Power Plant shown in the
following diagram. A solar pond is a large body of water having a varying salinity
gradient (halocline) which traps the sun's energy such that the storage layer at the
bottom of the pond can reach temperatures of greater than 100C. The diagram
following shows the initial design of a low pressure solar-pond steam power plant,
using the storage layer as the boiler heat source, and the upper layer as the heat
sink. Notice the wood-fired superheater in which the steam at the outlet of the
boiler is heated from 100C to 250C.

1) Neatly sketch the complete cycle on the pressure-enthalpy P-h diagram


below, indicating clearly all 5 stations on the diagram.

2) Using steam tables, and assuming that the turbine is adiabatic, determine
the power output of the turbine [976kW].

3) Assuming that the feedwater pump is adiabatic, and that the compressed
liquid experiences no change in temperature while passing through the
pump, determine the power required to drive the pump [0.23kW].

4) Using steam tables, determine the heat transferred to the boiler [6210kW]
as well as the heat transferred to the superheater [747kW].
5) Determine the overall thermal efficiency th of this power plant [14%].
(Thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done by the system (turbine
and feedwater pump) divided by the total heat supplied externally).

6) Discuss the proposed system with respect to its environmental impact and
feasibility. Is this a well designed system? What do you consider to be the
major advantages and disadvantages of this system? Your discussion should
include a comparison of the external fuel used and the turbine power, as well
as the practical aspects of maintaining a system with a low pressure of
10kPa.

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy
equation for a flow system.

Problem 4.5 - A Cogeneration Steam Power Plant


What is Cogeneration? - We like the definition presented by the Midwest
Cogeneration Association as follows: Cogneration is the utilization of 2 forms
of energy from 1 source i.e.: hot water/heat and electricity from one gen-set.

According to Cogeneration Technologies, the world's first commercial power


plant - Thomas Edison's Pearl Street Station built in 1882 - was a cogeneration
plant as it made and distributed both electricity and thermal energy, thus the
concept has been around for many years, With the recent interest in greener energy
technologies it is currently becoming more popular.

This brings us to the current problem ststement: In an effort to decentralise the


power grid and utilize the waste heat which accompanies power generation, the
Athenai Power Consulting Corp. has proposed a Cogeneration system for
O'Bleness Hospital to provide both 500kW electric power and hot water at 60C.
The basic approach to this unique design is shown in the following schematic
diagram:

A unique aspect of the power plant is that the turbine output is at 100kPa close to
100C. This high pressure output both eliminates the need for a deaerator and the
condenser will be able to directly heat the water to the required 60C. During the
lull period when no hot water is required, water is drawn from the Hocking River
to condense and subcool the steam in the hotwell to 60C. As a young engineer at
Athenai your purpose is to evaluate the basic design and discuss its effectiveness.
1) Neatly sketch the complete cycle on the P-h (pressure-enthalpy)
diagram provided, indicating clearly stations (1), (2), (3), and (4) on the
diagram. Once this is done then use the Steam Tables to determine the
following:

2) Determine the mass flow rate of the steam through the cycle required in
order to provide the turbine output power of 500kW [0.691 kg/s]

3) Determine the power required to drive the feedwater pump [2.69 kW].

4) Determine the overall thermal efficiency th of this power plant. (Recall


that thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done divided by the total
heat supplied externally to the boiler [23%]

5) Determine the cooling power in the condenser required to condense the


steam exiting the turbine at station (2) and subcool the condensed steam to
60C at station (3) [-1628 kW]

6) Assuming that the water in the hot water distribution system is heated
from 25C to 60C, and that no river cooling is provided, determine the
mass flow rate of the hot water required to subcool the condenser water to
60C [11.1 kg/s]

7) In the lull period when no hot water is required, determine the mass flow
rate of water from the Hocking River required to subcool the condenser
water to 60C. Note that the river water temperature rise must not exceed
10C [39 kg/s]

8) Discuss the proposed system with respect to its environmental impact and
feasibility.

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy
equation for a flow system, the basic definition of thermal efficiency th, and the
enthalpy change of incompressible liquid water h.

Problem 4.6 - An Open Feedwater Heater added to the


Cogeneration Steam Power Plant
This problem is an extension of Problem 4.5 in which the Athenai Power
Consulting Group proposed a unique Cogeneration system for O'Bleness Hospital
to provide both 500kW electric power and hot water at 60C. On analysis we
determined that the thermal efficiency th of the proposed power plant was 23%,
which is extremely low. In an attempt to improve the plant thermal efficiency
Athenai proposed a new design as shown in the following schematic diagram:

The condenser hot water heating system is retained as in the previous design with
the hot water storage tank immersed in the hotwell of the condenser. The turbine
outlet pressure has been reduced from the original 100 kPa to 20 kPa, and the
steam condenses to a subcooled hotwell temperature of 60C, A condensate pump
increases the pressure to 200 kPa, allowing the air to separate and escape in the
Open Feedwater Heater/De-aerator. A mass fraction y of saturated vapor steam at
200 kPa is tapped from the turbine and mixed with the condensate as shown, and
the resulting saturated liquid mixture is then pumped to 4 MPa by the feedwater
pump before being supplied to the boiler. As a young engineer at Athenai your
purpose is to evaluate this new design and compare its performance to the
previously proposed system.

1) Neatly Plot the complete cycle on the P-h (pressure-enthalpy) diagram


provided, indicating clearly stations (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7) on the
diagram. Once this is done then use the Steam Tables to determine the
following:

2) Determine the mass fraction y of the bled steam at station (7) in order to
provide a saturated liquid condition at station (5). [y = 0.103]
3) Determine the mass flow rate of the steam through the cycle required in
order to provide the required turbine output power of 500kW. [0.554 kg/s]

4) Determine the overall thermal efficiency th of this power plant. (Recall


that thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done divided by the total
heat supplied externally to the boiler. You may ignore the feedwater and
condensate pump power in this evaluation. [32%]

5) Compare the performance of the above system with that of the previously
proposed system (Problem 4.5), and discuss its advantages and
disadvantages.

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy
equation for a flow system, and the basic definition of thermal efficiency th.

Problem 4.3 - A Geothermal Hybrid Steam Power Plant


A small community of about 500 households have discovered an underground
geothermal brine source that can be used to boil water at 100C and would like to
use this to generate power. The following diagram shows the initial design of a low
pressure geothermal plant in which the water is boiled by the geothermal source to
100C and subsequently superheated to 200C by a wood-fired superheater. Notice
that the high pressure of the system is at 100kPa allowing a convenient de-aerator
to be placed at the pump outlet.
1) Neatly sketch the complete cycle on the pressure-enthalpy P-h diagram
below, indicating clearly all 5 stations on the diagram.

2) Using steam tables, and assuming that the turbine is adiabatic, determine
the power output of the turbine [729kW].

3) Assuming that the feedwater pump is adiabatic, and that the compressed
liquid experiences no change in temperature while passing through the
pump, determine the power required to drive the pump [0.23kW].

4) Using steam tables, determine the heat transferred to the boiler [6271kW]
as well as the heat transferred to the superheater [500kW].

5) Determine the overall thermal efficiency th of this power plant [11%].


(Thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done by the system (turbine
and feedwater pump) divided by the total heat supplied externally).

6) Discuss the proposed system with respect to its environmental impact and
feasibility. Is this a well designed system? What do you consider to be the
major advantages and disadvantages of this system? Your discussion should
include a comparison of the external fuel used and the turbine power.
Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy
equation for a flow system.

Problem 4.8 - A Home Heat Pump for Space Heating


We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic evaluation of a 1kW input power
home heat pump system for space heating using refrigerant R134a. Consider the
following system flow diagram
Thus the heat pump system absorbs heat from the evaporator placed outside in
order to pump heat into the air flowing through the insulated duct over the
condenser section. The fan provides an air flow of 8 m 3/minute, which is enough to
cool the refrigerant in the condenser to 30C, In this analysis we will neglect the
power provided to the fan. We also assume that the duct is adiabatic, and that all
the heat rejected by the condenser is absorbed by the air flowing in the duct.

Plot the four processes on the P-h diagram provided below and use the R134a
refrigerant property tables in order to determine the following:

Determine the mass flow rate of the refrigerant R134a [0.0185kg/s]

Determine the mass flow rate of the air flowing in the insulated duct
[0.161kg/s].

Determine the heat rejected by the condenser [-3.7kW]. Assuming that all
this heat is absorbed by the air, determine the exit temperature of the air at
station (6) [37.9C]. Is this value reasonable? Why? (Note: This problem
involves heat being transferred from the refrigerant in the condenser to the
air flowing through the condenser, and is solved as shown below)
Determine the heat absorbed by the evaporator [2.7kW].

Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the heat pump (COP HP)


(defined as the heat rejected by the condenser divided by the work done on
the compressor) [3.7].
Problem 4.9 - A Home Air Conditioner & Hot Water
Heater
We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic evaluation of a 500W input power
home heat pump system as applied to summertime use for both hot water heating
to 50C, and space cooling (air conditioning), and thus maintain the inside home
temperature at a comfortable 20C..
.

This unique combined air conditioning / hot water heating system is designed to
absorb heat from the air flowing through the insulated duct in order to pump heat
into the hot water heating tank. The fan provides enough air flow over the
evaporator to cool the air by 10C as it passes through the duct, and the hot water
is heated to a maximum of 50C. In this analysis we neglect the power provided to
the fan. We also assume that both the duct and the hot water tank are externally
adiabatic.

Carefully draw the complete cycle above on the pressure-enthalpy [P-h] diagram
provided below, showing clearly all five processes (1) - (2) - (3) -(4) - (5) -(1).
Using the conditions shown on the diagram above and values obtained from the
R134a tables:

Determine the enthalpy values at all five stations [kJ/kg], and indicate these
values on the P-h diagram.

Determine the mass flow rate of the refrigerant R134a [0.0133 kg/s]

Determine the heat rejected by the condenser [-2.09 kW]. Assuming that all
this heat is absorbed by the water in the hot water tank, determine the time
taken for 150 liters of water at 30C to reach the required temperature of
50C [1 hr 40 min]. (Note: The hot water heater is not a flow system, thus
we need to first evaluate the energy required to heat the water [12540 kJ].
This section is solved as shown below)
Determine the heat power absorbed by the refrigerant in the evaporator [2.04
kW]. Assuming that all this heat is absorbed from the air in the duct and
neglecting the fan power, determine the required mass flow rate of the in
order reduce the air temperature by 10C while passing through the duct
[0.204 kg/s].

Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the hot water heater (COP HW)
(defined as the heat rejected by the condenser divided by the work done on
the compressor) [COPHW = 4.17].

Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the air conditioner (COP AC)


(defined as the heat absorbed by the evaporator divided by the work done on
the compressor) [COPAC = 4.07].

If we bypass the outside subcooler (State (4) becomes saturated liquid as in


State (3)) determine the change in Coefficient of Performance of the air
conditioner evaluated above. Indicate this change on the P-h diagram and
discuss the relevance of the outside subcooling section in this system.
[COPAC reduced to 3.17]
Problem 4.10 - A Novel Water/Steam Air Conditioner

We wish to do an initial evaluation of an air-conditioner proposed for an extremely

warm and humid environment, in which an evaporative (swamp) cooler would be

ineffective because of the high humidity. A novel suggestion is to use an extremely

low-pressure water/steam vapor-compression air conditioning system, as sketched

in the figure below. Notice the de-aerator pump and accumulator, in which the

saturated liquid water at station (3) (10 kPa) is pumped to a pressure of 100 kPa at

station (4) before entering the throttle.


Carefully draw the complete air conditioning cycle above on the P-h diagram

provided, showing clearly all five processes (1) - (2) - (3) - (4) - (5) - (1). Using the

conditions shown on the diagram above and values obtained from the steam tables,

evaluate the Coefficient of Performance (COP AC) of the air conditioning system. In

this case we define the COPAC as the heat transferred to the evaporator divided by

the work done on the compressor plus the work done on the de-aerator pump.

[COPAC = 5.1]

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic steady

flow energy equation.


Problem 4.11 - A Home Geothermal Heat-Pump
Introduction and Description
With the global quest for energy efficiency, there is renewed interest in geothermal
heat pumps which have been in limited use for more than 70 years. Essentially this
technology relies on the fact that a few meters below the surface of the earth the
temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year, warmer than the air
above it during winter, and cooler during summer. According to the Spring 2009
newsletter from David White, in Southeast Ohio this temperature is around 55F
(13C). This means that we can design a heat pump which can combine hot water
and space heating in winter in which the earth is used as a heat source (rather than
the outside air) at a considerable increase in coefficient of performance COP.
Similarly, with suitable valving, we can use the same system in summer for hot
water heating and air conditioning in which the earth is used as a heat sink, rather
than the outside air. This is achieved by using a Ground Loop in order to enable
heat transfer with the earth, as described in the Popular Mechanics website: The
Guide to Home Geothermal Energy.

Problem 4.11 - We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic analysis of


the following home geothermal heat pump system designed for wintertime hot
water and space heating. Notice that with suitable valving this system can be used
both in winter for space heating and in summer for air conditioning, with hot
water heating throughout the year.

Notice that the condenser section includes both the hot water and space heater and
station (3) is specified as being in the Quality region. Assume that 50C is a
reasonable maximum hot water temperature for home usage, thus at a high
pressure of 1.6 MPa, the maximum power available for hot water heating will
occur when the refrigerant at station (3) reaches the saturated liquid state. (Quick
Quiz: justify this statement). Assume also that the refrigerant at station (4) reaches
a subcooled liquid temperature of 20C while heating the air.

Using the conditions shown on the diagram and assuming that station (3) is at the
saturated liquid state

On the P-h diagram provided below carefully plot the five processes of the
heat pump together with the following constant temperature lines: 50C (hot
water), 13C (ground loop), and -10C (outside air temperature)

Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all five stations
and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram.

Determine the mass flow rate of the refrigerant R134a. [0.0127 kg/s]

Determine the power absorbed by the hot water heater [2.0 kW] and that
absorbed by the space heater [0.72 kW].

Determine the time taken for 100 liters of water at an initial temperature of
20C to reach the required hot water temperature of 50C [105 minutes].

Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the hot water heater [COPHW =


4.0] (defined as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the work done
on the compressor)

Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the heat pump [COPHP = 5.4]


(defined as the total heat rejected by the refrigerant in the hot water and
space heaters divided by the work done on the compressor)

What changes would be required of the system parameters if no geothermal


water loop was used, and the evaporator was required to absorb its heat from
the outside air at -10C. Discuss the advantages of the geothermal heat
pump system over other means of space and water heating.
Problem 4.12 - Home Air Conditioner and Hot Water
System with an Internal Heat Exchanger
We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic evaluation of the following proposed
heat pump system designed for summertime hot water heating and space cooling.
Notice that this system uses a heat exchanger to subcool the refrigerant at the outlet
of the hot water heater while heating the refrigerant at the outlet of the evaporator.
This is intended to serve the dual purpose of increasing the both the hot water
heating and air cooling capacity of the system

.Using the conditions shown on the diagram

a) Neatly sketch the complete air conditioning cycle above on the P-h
diagram provided, showing clearly all six processes (1) - (2) - (3) - (4) - (5) -
(6) - (1).

b) Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all six
stations and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram. Note that in
order to determine the enthalpy at stations (4) and (5) you will need to
consider the heat transferred in the heat exchanger as well as the energy
equation applied to an adiabatic throttle. [h5 = h4 = 107.3 kJ/kg]

c) Determine the mass flow rate of the refrigerant R134a. [0.023 kg/s]

d) Determine the power absorbed by the hot water heater [4.41 kW] and the
Coefficient of Performance of the hot water heater [COPHW = 4.41] (defined
as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the work done on the
compressor). Determine the time taken for 120 liters of water at 30C to
reach the required temperature of 50C. [38 minutes]

e) Determine the heat transferred from the air blowing through the insulated
cooling duct to the evaporator [3.41 kW], and the Coefficient of
Performance [COPAC = 3.41] of the air conditioning system.
f) Consider the air passing through the insulated duct of the evaporator
section. Notice that the temperature of the air passing through the duct is
decreased by 10C. Neglecting the work done by the fan determine the mass
flow rate of the air through the duct [20.4 kg/min].

g) Discuss the advantages of the above heat pump system over other means
of space cooling and water heating.

Problem 4.13 - The BSU Geothermal Heat Pump System


(Summertime)
Introduction and Description
With the global quest for energy efficiency, there is renewed interest in geothermal
heat pumps which have been in limited use for more than 70 years. Essentially this
technology relies on the fact that a few meters below the surface of the earth the
temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year, warmer than the air
above it during winter, and cooler during summer. According to the Spring 2009
newsletter from David White, in Southeast Ohio this temperature is around 55F
(13C). This means that we can design a heat pump which can combine hot water
and space heating in winter in which the earth is used as a heat source (rather than
the outside air) at a considerable increase in coefficient of performance COP.
Similarly, with suitable valving, we can use the same system in summer for hot
water heating and air conditioning in which the earth is used as a heat sink, rather
than the outside air. This is achieved by using a Ground Loop in order to enable
heat transfer with the earth, as described in the Popular Mechanics website: The
Guide to Home Geothermal Energy, and of course the ubiquitous Wikipedia.
Another relevant website is that by Mortgage Calculator titled Geothermal
Resources for Homeowners (Thanks to Aaron March of Jericho, VT, for making
us aware of this interesting website - Nov 21, 2011.)

Problem 4.13 - On Friday Sept 24, 2010 professor John Vann from Ball
State University in Indiana came to Ohio University to speak about BSU's switch
from coal powered heat to geothermal heat. This impressive project will take 5
years to complete, and is one of the nation's largest closed geothermal energy
systems. The talk did not include many technical details, however he did describe
the overall BSU system, which includes 4100 boreholes to extract or reject heat to
the earth, and then transfer that heat through two energy stations to a network of
hot water and chilled water loops flowing through the entire campus to provide hot
water (at around 150F) and space heating or cooling as required. (Update: The
system was completed in 2012).

We were intrigued by the concept and would like to evaluate the thermodynamic
feasibility and performance of a geothermal heat pump system. The following
system diagram represents a possible system for summertime usage, in order to
provide hot water at 65C, and space cooling using chilled water at around 13C.
Note that this system was devised by us for purposes of this concept feasibility
check only, and no data about the system was obtained from BSU. We have used
the Refrigerant R134a, since this is the only refrigerant for which we have tables
available. In fact we had to add new data to our tables, since with a limit of 1.6
MPa we could not reach the required temperature of 65C. Note that the mass flow
and actual power required is not specified, thus this model will represent a system
suitable for any size. All energy results will be in units of kJ/kg.
Using the conditions shown on the diagram do the following

1) On the P-h diagram provided below carefully plot the five processes of
the heat pump together with the following constant temperature lines: 65C
(hot water), 13C (ground loop).

2) Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all five
stations and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram.

3) Determine the energy absorbed by the hot water flow [150 kJ/kg] and that
extracted from the chilled water [174.5 kJ/kg].
4) Determine the energy required to drive the compressor [43.8 kJ/kg]

5) Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the hot water heating system


(COPHW) (defined as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the work
done on the compressor) [COPHW = 3.4]

6) Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the chilled water system


(COPR) (defined as the heat absorbed by the chilled water divided by the
work done on the compressor).[COPR = 4.0]

7) Determine the change in performance of the system assuming that no


geothermal water loop is used, and plot the changes in the processes on the
P-h diagram. Discuss the advantages of the geothermal heat pump system
for summertime usage.

Problem 4.14 - The BSU Geothermal Heat Pump System


(Wintertime)
Recall Problem 4:13 in which we evaluated the summertime operation of a
geothermal heat pump system modeled after the system currently under
construction at Ball State University in Indiana. It's purpose is to provide hot
water at 65C year round together with air-conditioning during summer and space
heating during winter.

In this exercise we wish to evaluate the system for wintertime operation, in which
we wish to provide hot water at 65C as well as space heating at above 20C, while
the outdoor air temperature could be as low as -10C. In this operation we
introduce two double-port control valves as shown below, to switch between
summertime and wintertime operation, in which the geothermal heat source now
becomes the evaporating section of the heat pump, and the refrigerant subcooler
now heats the water system used for space heating.
Note again that this system was devised by us for purposes of this exercise only,
and no data about the system was obtained from BSU. We have used the
Refrigerant R134a, since this is the only refrigerant for which we have tables
available. In fact we had to add new data to our tables, since with a limit of 1.6
MPa we could not reach the required temperature of 65C. Note that the mass flow
and actual power required is not specified, thus this model will represent a system
suitable for any size. All energy results will be in units of kJ/kg.
Using the conditions shown on the diagram do the following

1) On the P-h diagram provided below carefully plot the five processes of
the heat pump together with the following constant temperature lines: 65C
(hot water), 13C (ground loop), and -10C (outside air).

2) Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all five
stations and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram.

3) Determine the specific work done to drive the compressor [-43.8 kJ/kg].

4) Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the hot water heating system


(COPHW) (defined as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the
specific work done to drive the compressor)[COPHW = 3.4]

5) Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the space heating water


system (COPHP) (defined as the heat absorbed by the space heating water in
subcooling the refrigerant to 20C divided by the specific work done to
drive the compressor).[COPHP = 1.56]

6) In the event that no geothermal ground loop is used to evaporate the


refrigerant then the system would need to be redesigned, reducing inlet to
the compressor (1) from 360 kPa to 140kPa, saturated vapor, and the
compressor outlet (2) to 2.0 MPa, 90C. Carefully plot this new cycle on the
P-h diagram.

7) Using the R134a property tables determine the specific work done to
drive the compressor under the new conditions presented in 6) above [-71
kJ/kg].

8) Using the new conditions presented in 6) above determine the


Coefficients of Performance of both the hot water and space heating systems
and discuss the advantages of using a geothermal ground loop for
wintertime operation.[COPHW = 2.3, COPHP = 0.96]
Chapter 4: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Control
Volumes
c) Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
Introduction and Discussion
In the early days of refrigeration the two refrigerants in common use were
ammonia and carbon dioxide. Both were problematic - ammonia is toxic and
carbon dioxide requires extremely high presures (from around 30 to 200
atmospheres!) to operate in a refrigeration cycle, and since it operates on a
transcritical cycle the compressor outlet temperature is extremely high (around
160C). When Freon 12 (dichloro-diflouro-methane) was discovered it totally
took over as the refrigerant of choice. It is an extremely stable, non toxic fluid,
which does not interact with the compressor lubricant, and operates at pressures
always somewhat higher than atmospheric, so that if any leakage occured, air
would not leak into the system, thus one could recharge without having to apply
vacuum.
Unfortunately when the refrigerant does ultimately leak and make its way up to the
ozone layer the ultraviolet radiation breaks up the molecule releasing the highly
active chlorine radicals, which help to deplete the ozone layer. Freon 12 has since
been banned from usage on a global scale, and has been essentially replaced by
chlorine free R134a (tetraflouro-ethane) - not as stable as Freon 12, however it
does not have ozone depletion characteristics.

Recently, however, the international scientific consensus is that Global Warming is


caused by human energy related activity, and various man made substances are
defined on the basis of a Global Warming Potential (GWP) with reference to
carbon dioxide (GWP=1). R134a has been found to have a GWP of 1300 and in
Europe, within a few years, automobile air conditioning systems will be barred
from using R134a as a refrigerant.

The new hot topic is a return to carbon dioxide (R744) as a refrigerant (refer for
example to the website: R744.com). The previous two major problems of high
pressure and high compressor temperature are found in fact to be advantageous.
The very high cycle pressure results in a high fluid density throughout the cycle,
allowing miniturization of the systems for the same heat pumping power
requirements. Furthermore the high outlet temperature will allow instant defrosting
of automobile windshields (we don't have to wait until the car engine warms up)
and can be used for combined space heating and hot water heating in home usage
(refer for example: Norwegian IEA Heatpump Program Annex28.

In this chapter we cover the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle using


refrigerant R134a, and will defer coverage of the carbon dioxide cycle to Chapter
9.

A Basic R134a Vapor-Compression Refrigeration System


Unlike the situation with steam power plants it is common practice to begin the
design and analysis of refrigeration and heat pump systems by first plotting the
cycle on the P-h diagram.

The following schematic shows a basic refrigeration or heat pump system with
typical property values. Since no mass flow rate of the refrigerant has been
provided, the entire analysis is done in terms of specific energy values. Notice that
the same system can be used either for a refrigerator or air conditioner, in which
the heat absorbed in the evaporator (q evap) is the desired output, or for a heat pump,
in which the heat rejected in the condenser (q cond) is the desired output.
In this example we wish to evaluate the following:

Heat absorbed by the evaporator (qevap) [kJ/kg]

Heat rejected by the condenser (qcond) [kJ/kg]

Work done to drive the compressor (wcomp) [kJ/kg]

Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system, either as a refrigerator or


as a heat pump.

As with the Steam Power Plant, we find that we can solve each component of this
system separately and independently of all the other components, always using the
same approach and the same basic equations. We first use the information given in
the above schematic to plot the four processes (1)-(2)-(3)-(4)-(1) on the P-h
diagram. Notice that the fluid entering and exiting the condenser (State (2) to State
(3)) is at the high pressure 1 MPa. The fluid enters the evaporator at State (4) as a
saturated mixture at -20C and exits the evaporator at State (1) as a saturated vapor.
State (2) is given by the intersection of 1 MPa and 70C in the superheated region.
State (3) is seen to be in the subcooled liquid region at 30C, since the saturation
temperature at 1 MPa is about 40C. The process (3)-(4) is a vertical line (h 3 = h4)
as is discussed below.

In the following section we develop the methods of evaluating the solution of this
example using the R134a refrigerant tables. Notice that the refrigerant tables do
not include the subcooled region, however since the constant temperature line in
this region is essentially vertical, we use the saturated liquid value of enthalpy at
that temperature.
Notice from the P-h diagram plot how we can get an instant visual appreciation of
the system performance, in particular the Coefficient of Performance of the system
by comparing the enthalpy difference of the compressor (1)-(2) to that of the
evaporator (4)-(1) in the case of a refrigerator, or to that of the condenser (2)-(3) in
the case of a heat pump.

We now consider each component as a separate control volume and apply the
energy equation, starting with the compressor. Notice that we have assumed that
the kinetic and potential energy change of the fluid is negligeable, and that the
compressor is adiabatic. The required values of enthalpy for the inlet and outlet
ports are determined from the R134a refrigerant tables.
The high pressure superheated refrigerant at port (2) is now directed to a condenser
in which heat is extracted from the refrigerant, allowing it to reach the subcooled
liquid region at port (3). This is shown on the following diagram of the condenser:

The throttle is simply an expansion valve which is adiabatic and does no work,
however enables a significant reduction in temperature of the refrigerant as shown
in the following diagram:

The final component is the evaporator, which extracts heat from the surroundings
at the low temperature allowing the refrigerant liquid and vapor mixture to reach
the saturated vapor state at station (1).
In determining the Coefficient of Performance - for a refrigerator or air-conditioner
the desired output is the evaporator heat absorbed, and for a heat pump the desired
output is the heat rejected by the condenser which is used to heat the home. The
required input in both cases is the work done on the compressor (ie the electricity
bill). Thus

COPR = qevap / wcomp = 145 / 65.5 = 2.2

COPHP = qcond / wcomp = 210 / 65.5 = 3.2

Notice that for the same system we always find that COP HP = COPR + 1.
Notice also that the COP values are usually greater than 1, which is the reason why
they are never referred to as "Efficiency" values, which always have a maximum of
100%.

Thus the P-h diagram is a widely used and very useful tool for doing an
approximate evaluation of a refrigerator or heat pump system. In fact, in the
official Reference Handbook supplied by the NCEES to be used in the
Fundamentals of Engineering exam, only the P-h diagram is presented for R134a.
You are expected to answer all the questions on this subject based on plotting the
cycle on this diagram as shown above.

Chapter 4: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Control


Volumes
b) Steam Power Plants
A basic steam power plant consists of four interconnected components, typically as
shown in the figure below. These include a steam turbine to produce mechanical
shaft power, a condenser which uses external cooling water to condense the steam
to liquid water, a feedwater pump to pump the liquid to a high pressure, and a
boiler which is externally heated to boil the water to superheated steam. Unless
otherwise specified we assume that the turbine and the pump (as well as all the
interconnecting tubing) are adiabatic, and that the condenser exchanges all of its
heat with the cooling water.

A Simple Steam Power Plant Example - In this example we wish


to determine the performance of this basic steam power plant under the conditions
shown in the diagram, including the power of the turbine and feedwater pump, heat
transfer rates of the boiler and condenser, and thermal efficiency of the system.

In this example we wish to evaluate the following:

Turbine output power and the power required to drive the feedwater pump

Heat power supplied to the boiler and that rejected in the condenser to the
cooling water

The thermal efficiency of the power plant ( th), defined as the net work done
by the system divided by the heat supplied to the boiler.

The minimum mass flow rate of the cooling water in the condenser required
for a specific temperature rise

Do not be intimidated by the complexity of this system. We will find that we can
solve each component of this system separately and independently of all the other
components, always using the same approach and the same basic equations. We
first use the information given in the above schematic to plot the four processes
(1)-(2)-(3)-(4)-(1) on the P-h diagram. Notice that the fluid entering and exiting
the boiler is at the high pressure 10 MPa, and similarly that entering and exiting the
condenser is at the low pressure 20 kPa. State (1) is given by the intersection of 10
MPa and 500C, and state (2) is given as 20 kPa at 90% quality, State (3) is given
by the intersection of 20 kPa and 40C, and the feedwater pumping process (3)-(4)
follows the constant temperature line, since T4 = T3 = 40C, .

Notice from the P-h diagram plot how we can get an instant visual appreciation of
the system performance, in particular the thermal efficiency of the system by
comparing the enthalpy difference of the turbine (1)-(2) to that of the boiler (4)-(1).
We also notice that the power required by the feedwater pump (3)-(4) is negligible
compared to any other component in the system.

(Note: We find it strange that the only thermodynamics text that we know of that
even considered the use of the P-h diagram for steam power plants is Engineering
Thermodynamics - Jones and Dugan (1995). It is widely used for refrigeration
systems, however not for steam power plants.)

We now consider each component as a separate control volume and apply the
energy equation, starting with the steam turbine. The steam turbine uses the high-
pressure - high-temperature steam at the inlet port (1) to produce shaft power by
expanding the steam through the turbine blades, and the resulting low-pressure -
low-temperature steam is rejected to the condenser at port (2). Notice that we have
assumed that the kinetic and potential energy change of the fluid is negligible, and
that the turbine is adiabatic. In fact any heat loss to the surroundings or kinetic
energy increase would be at the expense of output power, thus practical systems are
designed to minimise these loss effects. The required values of enthalpy for the
inlet and outlet ports are determined from the steam tables.

Thus we see that under the conditions shown the steam turbine will produce 8MW
of power.

The very low-pressure steam at port (2) is now directed to a condenser in which
heat is extracted by cooling water from a nearby river (or a cooling tower) and the
steam is condensed into the subcooled liquid region. The analysis of the condenser
may requre determining the mass flow rate of the cooling water needed to limit the
temperature rise to a certain amount - in this example to 10C. This is shown on
the following diagram of the condenser:

Notice that our steam tables do not include the subcooled (or compressed) liquid
region that we find at the outlet of the condenser at port (3). In this region we
notice from the P-h diagram that over an extremely high pressure range the
enthalpy of the liquid is equal to the saturated liquid enthalpy at the same
temperature, thus to a close approximation h 3 = hf@40C, independent of the pressure.

Thus we see that under the conditions shown, 17.6 MW of heat is extracted from
the steam in the condenser.

I have often been queried by students as to why we have to reject such a large
amount of heat in the condenser causing such a large decrease in thermal efficiency
of the power plant. Without going into the philosophical aspects of the Second Law
(which we cover later in Chapter 5, my best reply was provided to me by Randy
Sheidler, a senior engineer at the Gavin Power Plant. He stated that the Fourth
Law of Thermodynamics states: "You can't pump steam!", so until we
condense all the steam into liquid water by extracting 17.6 MW of heat, we cannot
pump it to the high pressure to complete the cycle. (Randy could not give me a
reference to the source of this amazing observation).

In order to determine the enthalpy change h of the cooling water (or in the
feedwater pump which follows), we consider the water to be an Incompressible
Liquid, and evaluate h as follows:

From the steam tables we find that the specific heat capacity for liquid water C H2O
= 4.18 kJ/kgC. Using this analysis we found on the condenser diagram above that
the required mass flow rate of the cooling water is 421 kg/s. If this flow rate cannot
be supported by a nearby river then a cooling tower must be included in the power
plant design.

We now consider the feedwater pump as follows:


Thus as we suspected from the above P-h diagram plot, the pump power required
is extremely low compared to any other component in the system, being only 1%
that of the turbine output power produced.

The final component that we consider is the boiler, as follows:

Thus we see that under the conditions shown the heat power required by the boiler
is 25.7 MW. This is normally supplied by combustion (or nuclear power). We now
have all the information needed to determine the thermal efficiency of the steam
power plant as follows:

Note that the feedwater pump work can normally be neglected.

Solved Problem 4.1 - Supercritical Steam Power Plant


with Reheat for Athens, Ohio
In an effort to decentralize the national power distribution grid, the following
supercritical (25 MPa), coal fired steam power plant (modeled after the Gavin
Power Plant in Cheshire, Ohio) has been proposed to service about 10,000
households in Athens, Ohio. It is to be placed close to the sewage plant on the east
side of Athens and cooled by water from the Hocking river. We consider first a
simplified system as shown below. Notice that we have replaced the "Boiler" with
a "Steam Generator", since at supercritical pressures the concept of boiling water is
undefined. Furthermore we have specifically split the turbine into a High Pressure
(HP) turbine and a Low Pressure (LP) turbine since we will find that having a
single turbine to expand from 25MPa to 10kPa is totally impractical. Thus for
example the Gavin Power Plant has a turbine set consisting of 6 turbines - a High
Pressure Turbine, an Intermediate Pressure (Reheat) turbine, and 4 large Low
Pressure turbines operating in parallel.

Note that prior to doing any analysis we always first sketch the complete cycle on a
P-h diagram based on the pressure, temperature, and quality data presented. This
leads to the following diagram:
On examining the P-h diagram plot we notice that the system suffers from two
major flaws:

The outlet pressure of the LP turbine at port (3) is 10 kPa, which is well
below atmospheric pressure. The extremely low pressure in the condenser
will allow air to leak into the system and ultimately lead to a deteriorated
performance.

The quality of the steam at port (3) is 80%. This is unacceptable. The
condensed water will cause erosion of the turbine blades, and we should
always try to maintain a quality of above 90%. One example of the effects
of this erosion can be seen on the blade tips of the final stage of the Gavin
LP turbine. During 2000, all four LP turbines needed to be replaced
because of the reduced performance resulting from this erosion. (Refer:
Tour of the Gavin Power Plant - Feb. 2000)

The following revised system diagram corrects both flaws. The steam at the outlet
of the HP turbine (port (2)) is reheated to 550 C before entering the LP turbine at
port (3). Also the low pressure liquid condensate at port (5) is pumped to a pressure
of 800 kPa and passed through a de-aerator prior to being pumped by the feedwater
pump to the high pressure of 25 MPa.
This system is referred to as a Reheat cycle, and based on the data above is plotted
on the P-h diagram as follows:

Thus we see that in spite of the complexity of the system, the P-h diagram plot
enables an intuitive and qualitative initial understanding of the system. Using the
methods described in Chapter 4b for analysis of each component, as well as the
steam tables, determine the following:

1) Assuming that both turbines are adiabatic and neglecting kinetic energy
effects determine the combined output power of both turbines [10.6 MW].

2) Assuming that both the condensate pump and the feedwater pump are
adiabatic, determine the power required to drive the two pumps [-204 kW].

3) Determine the total heat transfer to the steam generator, including the
reheat system [26.1 MW].
4) Determine the overall thermal efficiency of this power plant. (Thermal
efficiency ( th) is defined as the net work done (turbines, pumps) divided by
the total heat supplied externally to the steam generator and reheat system)
[40 %].

5) Determine the heat rejected to the cooling water in the condenser [-15.7
MW].

6) Assume that all the heat rejected in the condenser is absorbed by cooling
water from the Hocking River. To prevent thermal pollution the cooling
water is not allowed to experience a temperature rise above 10C. If the
steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 40C, determine the
required minimum volumetric flow rate of the cooling water [22.6 cubic
meters/minute].
7) Discuss whether you think that the proposed system can be cooled by the
Hocking river. You will need to do some research to determine the minimal
seasonal flow in the river in order to validate your decision. (Hint- Google:
Hocking River Flow)

Solved Problem 4.2 (Alternate) - An Open Feedwater


Heater added to the Supercritical Steam Power Plant for
Athens, Ohio
Thanks to Kris Dambrink from Imtech.nl (currently inactive), for making me
aware of this alternative approach to adapting an Open Feedwater Heater to a
steam power plant (4 Feb 2010)

This Solved Problem is an alternative extension of Solved Problem 4.1 in which


we extend the deaerator by tapping steam from the outlet of the High Pressure
turbine and reduce the pressure to 800 kPa by means of a Throttling Control
Valve before feeding it into the deaerator. This allows one to conveniently convert
the deaerator into an Open Feedwater Heater without requiring a bleed tap from
the Low Pressure turbine at exactly the dearator pressure, as shown in the
following diagram:
Note that prior to doing any analysis we always first sketch the complete cycle on a
P-h diagram based on the pressure, temperature, and quality data presented on the
system diagram. This leads to the following diagram:

On examining the P-h diagram plot we notice the following:


A mass fraction of the steam y is tapped from the outlet of the HP turbine (2)
and passed through the throttle such that its pressure is reduced to that of the
deaerator (9). It is then mixed with a mass fraction (1-y) of the liquid water
at station (6). The mass fraction y is chosen to enable the fluid to reach a
saturated liquid state at station (7).

The feedwater pump then pumps the liquid to station (8), thus saving a
significant amount of heat from the steam generator in heating the fluid
from station (8) to the turbine inlet at station (1). It is true that with a mass
fraction of (1-y) there is less power output due to a reduced mass flow rate
in the LP turbine, however the net result is normally an increase in thermal
efficiency.

Thus once more we see that in spite of the complexity of the system, the P-h
diagram plot enables an intuitive and qualitative initial understanding of the
system. Using the methods described in Chapter 4b for analysis of each
component, as well as the steam tables for evaluating the enthalpy at the various
stations (shown in red), and neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects,
determine the following:

1) Assuming that the open feedwater heater is adiabatic, determine the mass
fraction of steam y required to be bled off the outlet of the HP turbine which
will bring the fluid from station (6) to a saturated liquid state in the
deaerator. [y = 0.20]
We first need to evaluate the enthalpy of the fluid at station (9) after passing
through the throttling control valve:

Thus we find that for an ideal throttle the enthalpy h9 = h2 independent of the
pressure drop, allowing us to conveniently draw the throttling process as a vertical
line on the P-h diagram. We now determine the mass fraction y by considering the
mixing process in the open feedwater heater as follows:
Notice that we can estimate this value of y directly from the P-h diagram by simply
measuring the enthalpy differences (h7 - h6) and (h9 - h6) with a ruler.

2) Assuming that both the condensate pump and the feedwater pump are
adiabatic, determine the power required to drive the two pumps [235 kW].
On examining the system diagram above we noticed something very strange
about the feedwater pump. Until now we considered liquid water to be
incompressible, thus pumping it to a higher pressure did not result in an
increase of its temperature. However on a recent visit to the Gavin Power
Plant we discovered that at 25MPa pressure and more than 100C water is
no longer incompressible, and compression will always result in a
temperature increase. We cannot use the simple incompressible liquid
formula to determine pump work, however need to evaluate the difference in
enthalpy from the Compressed Liquid Water tables, leading to the
following results:

3) Assuming that both turbines are adiabatic, determine the new (reduced)
combined power output of both turbines. Recall from Solved Problem 4.1
that the power output of the turbines was found to be 10.6 MW if no steam
is bled from the LP turbine [8.98 MW]

Thus as expected we find that the net power output is slightly less than the
previous system without the turbine tap. However power control is normally done
by changing the feedwater pump speed, and we normally find a liquid water
storage tank associated with the de-aerator in order to accomodate the changes in
the water mass flow rate. In our case we simply need to increase the water mass
flow rate from 7 kg/s to 8.25 kg/s in order to regain our original power output.

4) Determine the total heat transfer to the steam generator, including the
reheat system [21.4 MW].

5) Determine the overall thermal efficiency of this power plant. (Thermal


efficiency (th) is defined as the net work done (turbines, pumps) divided by
the total heat supplied externally to the steam generator and reheat system)
[41 %].
6) Determine the heat rejected to the cooling water in the condenser [-12.6
MW].

7) Assume that all the heat rejected in the condenser is absorbed by cooling
water from the Hocking River. To prevent thermal pollution the cooling
water is not allowed to experience a temperature rise above 10C. If the
steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 40C, determine the
required minimum volumetric flow rate of the cooling water [18.1 cubic
meters/minute].

Note that it is always a good idea to validate ones calculations by evaluating the
thermal efficiency using only the heat supplied to the steam generator and that
rejected by the condenser.

Discussion: Thus we find that the open feedwater heater did in fact raise the
efficiency from 40% to 41%. This may not seem like a significant amount,
however all the basic components were already in place, since without a de-aerator
the steam power plant will deteriorate and become non-functional within a very
short time due to leakage of air into the system. Furthermore, if the reduction in
power output is not acceptable, then it can be easily remedied by increasing the
mass flow rate in the system design. Note that this is a contrived example in order
to demonstrate that no matter how complex the system is, we can easily plot the
entire system on a P-h diagram and obtain an immediate intuitive understanding
and evaluation of the system performance. It is helpful to check each value of
enthalpy read or evaluated from the steam tables and compare them to the values
on the enthalpy axis of the P-h diagram.

Solved Problem 4.2 - An Open Feedwater Heater added to


the Supercritical Steam Power Plant for Athens, Ohio
This Solved Problem is an extension of Solved Problem 4.1 in which we extend
the deaerator by tapping steam from the Low Pressure turbine at 800 kPa and
feeding it into the deaerator at the same pressure, thus converting it into an Open
Feedwater Heater, as shown in the following diagram:

This system is referred to as a Regenerative Reheat cycle, and we will find that
this simple extension of our previous sytem will result in an increase in thermal
efficiency of the power plant.

Note that prior to doing any analysis we always first sketch the complete cycle on a
P-h diagram based on the pressure, temperature, and quality data presented on the
system diagram. This leads to the following diagram:
On examining the P-h diagram plot we notice the following:

A mass fraction of the steam y is tapped from the LP turbine at the turbine
tap (t) such that mixing it with (1-y) of the liquid water at station (6) will
result in the fluid reaching a saturated liquid state at staion (7).

The feedwater pump then pumps the liquid to station (8), thus saving a
significant amount of heat from the steam generator in heating the fluid
from station (8) to the turbine inlet at station (1). It is true that with a mass
fraction of (1-y) there is less power output due to a reduced mass flow rate
in part of the LP turbine from the tap (t) to station (4), however the
following analysis shows that the net result is an increase in thermal
efficiency.

Thus once more we see that in spite of the complexity of the system, the P-h
diagram plot enables an intuitive and qualitative initial understanding of the
system. Using the methods described in Chapter 4b for analysis of each
component, as well as the steam tables for evaluating the enthalpy at the various
stations (shown in red), and neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects,
determine the following:
1) Assuming that the open feedwater heater is adiabatic, determine the mass
fraction of steam y required to be bled off the LP turbine which will bring
the fluid from station (6) to a saturated liquid state in the de-aerator. [y =
0.18]

2) Assuming that both the condensate pump and the feedwater pump are
adiabatic, determine the power required to drive the two pumps [236 kW].
On examining the system diagram above we noticed something very strange
about the feedwater pump. Until now we considered liquid water to be
incompressible, thus pumping it to a higher pressure did not result in an
increase of its temperature. However on a recent visit to the Gavin Power
Plant we discovered that at 25MPa pressure and more than 100C water is
no longer incompressible, and compression will always result in a
temperature increase. We cannot use the simple incompressible liquid
formula to determine pump work, however need to evaluate the difference in
enthalpy from the Compressed Liquid Water tables, leading to the
following results:
3) Assuming that both turbines are adiabatic, determine the new (reduced)
combined power output of both turbines. Recall from Solved Problem 4.1
that the power output of the turbines was found to be 10.6 MW if no steam
is bled from the LP turbine [9.65 MW]

Thus as expected we find that the net power output is slightly less than the
previous system without the turbine tap. However power control is normally done
by changing the feedwater pump speed, and we normally find a liquid water
storage tank associated with the de-aerator in order to accomodate the changes in
the water mass flow rate. In our case we simply need to increase the water mass
flow rate from 7 kg/s to 8 kg/s in order to regain our original power output.

4) Determine the total heat transfer to the steam generator, including the
reheat system [22.2 MW].
5) Determine the overall thermal efficiency of this power plant. (Thermal
efficiency (th) is defined as the net work done (turbines, pumps) divided by
the total heat supplied externally to the steam generator and reheat system)
[42 %].

6) Determine the heat rejected to the cooling water in the condenser [-12.9
MW].

7) Assume that all the heat rejected in the condenser is absorbed by cooling
water from the Hocking River. To prevent thermal pollution the cooling
water is not allowed to experience a temperature rise above 10C. If the
steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 40C, determine the
required minimum volumetric flow rate of the cooling water [18.5 cubic
meters/minute].

Note that it is always a good idea to validate ones calculations by evaluating the
thermal efficiency using only the heat supplied to the steam generator and that
rejected by the condenser.

Discussion: Thus we find that the open feedwater heater did in fact raise the
efficiency from 40% to 42%. This may not seem like a significant amount,
however all the basic components were already in place, since without a de-aerator
the steam power plant will deteriorate and become non-functional within a very
short time due to leakage of air into the system. Furthermore, if the reduction in
power output is not acceptable, then it can be easily remedied by increasing the
mass flow rate in the system design. Notice that no matter how complex the system
is, we can easily plot the entire system on a P-h diagram in order to obtain an
immediate intuitive understanding and evaluation of the system performance. It is
helpful to check each value of enthalpy read or evaluated from the steam tables and
compare them to the values on the enthalpy axis of the P-h diagram.

___________________________________________________________________________
___________

Engineering Thermodynamics by Israel Urieli is licensed under a Creative


Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License