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We wish to evaluate the proposed Solar-Pond Steam Power Plant shown in the

following diagram. A solar pond is a large body of water having a varying salinity

gradient (halocline) which traps the sun's energy such that the storage layer at the

bottom of the pond can reach temperatures of greater than 100C. The diagram

following shows the initial design of a low pressure solar-pond steam power plant,

using the storage layer as the boiler heat source, and the upper layer as the heat

sink. Notice the wood-fired superheater in which the steam at the outlet of the

boiler is heated from 100C to 250C.

below, indicating clearly all 5 stations on the diagram.

2) Using steam tables, and assuming that the turbine is adiabatic, determine

the power output of the turbine [976kW].

3) Assuming that the feedwater pump is adiabatic, and that the compressed

liquid experiences no change in temperature while passing through the

pump, determine the power required to drive the pump [0.23kW].

4) Using steam tables, determine the heat transferred to the boiler [6210kW]

as well as the heat transferred to the superheater [747kW].

5) Determine the overall thermal efficiency th of this power plant [14%].

(Thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done by the system (turbine

and feedwater pump) divided by the total heat supplied externally).

6) Discuss the proposed system with respect to its environmental impact and

feasibility. Is this a well designed system? What do you consider to be the

major advantages and disadvantages of this system? Your discussion should

include a comparison of the external fuel used and the turbine power, as well

as the practical aspects of maintaining a system with a low pressure of

10kPa.

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy

equation for a flow system.

What is Cogeneration? - We like the definition presented by the Midwest

Cogeneration Association as follows: Cogneration is the utilization of 2 forms

of energy from 1 source i.e.: hot water/heat and electricity from one gen-set.

plant - Thomas Edison's Pearl Street Station built in 1882 - was a cogeneration

plant as it made and distributed both electricity and thermal energy, thus the

concept has been around for many years, With the recent interest in greener energy

technologies it is currently becoming more popular.

power grid and utilize the waste heat which accompanies power generation, the

Athenai Power Consulting Corp. has proposed a Cogeneration system for

O'Bleness Hospital to provide both 500kW electric power and hot water at 60C.

The basic approach to this unique design is shown in the following schematic

diagram:

A unique aspect of the power plant is that the turbine output is at 100kPa close to

100C. This high pressure output both eliminates the need for a deaerator and the

condenser will be able to directly heat the water to the required 60C. During the

lull period when no hot water is required, water is drawn from the Hocking River

to condense and subcool the steam in the hotwell to 60C. As a young engineer at

Athenai your purpose is to evaluate the basic design and discuss its effectiveness.

1) Neatly sketch the complete cycle on the P-h (pressure-enthalpy)

diagram provided, indicating clearly stations (1), (2), (3), and (4) on the

diagram. Once this is done then use the Steam Tables to determine the

following:

2) Determine the mass flow rate of the steam through the cycle required in

order to provide the turbine output power of 500kW [0.691 kg/s]

3) Determine the power required to drive the feedwater pump [2.69 kW].

that thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done divided by the total

heat supplied externally to the boiler [23%]

steam exiting the turbine at station (2) and subcool the condensed steam to

60C at station (3) [-1628 kW]

6) Assuming that the water in the hot water distribution system is heated

from 25C to 60C, and that no river cooling is provided, determine the

mass flow rate of the hot water required to subcool the condenser water to

60C [11.1 kg/s]

7) In the lull period when no hot water is required, determine the mass flow

rate of water from the Hocking River required to subcool the condenser

water to 60C. Note that the river water temperature rise must not exceed

10C [39 kg/s]

8) Discuss the proposed system with respect to its environmental impact and

feasibility.

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy

equation for a flow system, the basic definition of thermal efficiency th, and the

enthalpy change of incompressible liquid water h.

Cogeneration Steam Power Plant

This problem is an extension of Problem 4.5 in which the Athenai Power

Consulting Group proposed a unique Cogeneration system for O'Bleness Hospital

to provide both 500kW electric power and hot water at 60C. On analysis we

determined that the thermal efficiency th of the proposed power plant was 23%,

which is extremely low. In an attempt to improve the plant thermal efficiency

Athenai proposed a new design as shown in the following schematic diagram:

The condenser hot water heating system is retained as in the previous design with

the hot water storage tank immersed in the hotwell of the condenser. The turbine

outlet pressure has been reduced from the original 100 kPa to 20 kPa, and the

steam condenses to a subcooled hotwell temperature of 60C, A condensate pump

increases the pressure to 200 kPa, allowing the air to separate and escape in the

Open Feedwater Heater/De-aerator. A mass fraction y of saturated vapor steam at

200 kPa is tapped from the turbine and mixed with the condensate as shown, and

the resulting saturated liquid mixture is then pumped to 4 MPa by the feedwater

pump before being supplied to the boiler. As a young engineer at Athenai your

purpose is to evaluate this new design and compare its performance to the

previously proposed system.

provided, indicating clearly stations (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7) on the

diagram. Once this is done then use the Steam Tables to determine the

following:

2) Determine the mass fraction y of the bled steam at station (7) in order to

provide a saturated liquid condition at station (5). [y = 0.103]

3) Determine the mass flow rate of the steam through the cycle required in

order to provide the required turbine output power of 500kW. [0.554 kg/s]

that thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done divided by the total

heat supplied externally to the boiler. You may ignore the feedwater and

condensate pump power in this evaluation. [32%]

5) Compare the performance of the above system with that of the previously

proposed system (Problem 4.5), and discuss its advantages and

disadvantages.

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy

equation for a flow system, and the basic definition of thermal efficiency th.

A small community of about 500 households have discovered an underground

geothermal brine source that can be used to boil water at 100C and would like to

use this to generate power. The following diagram shows the initial design of a low

pressure geothermal plant in which the water is boiled by the geothermal source to

100C and subsequently superheated to 200C by a wood-fired superheater. Notice

that the high pressure of the system is at 100kPa allowing a convenient de-aerator

to be placed at the pump outlet.

1) Neatly sketch the complete cycle on the pressure-enthalpy P-h diagram

below, indicating clearly all 5 stations on the diagram.

2) Using steam tables, and assuming that the turbine is adiabatic, determine

the power output of the turbine [729kW].

3) Assuming that the feedwater pump is adiabatic, and that the compressed

liquid experiences no change in temperature while passing through the

pump, determine the power required to drive the pump [0.23kW].

4) Using steam tables, determine the heat transferred to the boiler [6271kW]

as well as the heat transferred to the superheater [500kW].

(Thermal efficiency is defined as the net work done by the system (turbine

and feedwater pump) divided by the total heat supplied externally).

6) Discuss the proposed system with respect to its environmental impact and

feasibility. Is this a well designed system? What do you consider to be the

major advantages and disadvantages of this system? Your discussion should

include a comparison of the external fuel used and the turbine power.

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic energy

equation for a flow system.

We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic evaluation of a 1kW input power

home heat pump system for space heating using refrigerant R134a. Consider the

following system flow diagram

Thus the heat pump system absorbs heat from the evaporator placed outside in

order to pump heat into the air flowing through the insulated duct over the

condenser section. The fan provides an air flow of 8 m 3/minute, which is enough to

cool the refrigerant in the condenser to 30C, In this analysis we will neglect the

power provided to the fan. We also assume that the duct is adiabatic, and that all

the heat rejected by the condenser is absorbed by the air flowing in the duct.

Plot the four processes on the P-h diagram provided below and use the R134a

refrigerant property tables in order to determine the following:

Determine the mass flow rate of the air flowing in the insulated duct

[0.161kg/s].

Determine the heat rejected by the condenser [-3.7kW]. Assuming that all

this heat is absorbed by the air, determine the exit temperature of the air at

station (6) [37.9C]. Is this value reasonable? Why? (Note: This problem

involves heat being transferred from the refrigerant in the condenser to the

air flowing through the condenser, and is solved as shown below)

Determine the heat absorbed by the evaporator [2.7kW].

(defined as the heat rejected by the condenser divided by the work done on

the compressor) [3.7].

Problem 4.9 - A Home Air Conditioner & Hot Water

Heater

We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic evaluation of a 500W input power

home heat pump system as applied to summertime use for both hot water heating

to 50C, and space cooling (air conditioning), and thus maintain the inside home

temperature at a comfortable 20C..

.

This unique combined air conditioning / hot water heating system is designed to

absorb heat from the air flowing through the insulated duct in order to pump heat

into the hot water heating tank. The fan provides enough air flow over the

evaporator to cool the air by 10C as it passes through the duct, and the hot water

is heated to a maximum of 50C. In this analysis we neglect the power provided to

the fan. We also assume that both the duct and the hot water tank are externally

adiabatic.

Carefully draw the complete cycle above on the pressure-enthalpy [P-h] diagram

provided below, showing clearly all five processes (1) - (2) - (3) -(4) - (5) -(1).

Using the conditions shown on the diagram above and values obtained from the

R134a tables:

Determine the enthalpy values at all five stations [kJ/kg], and indicate these

values on the P-h diagram.

Determine the mass flow rate of the refrigerant R134a [0.0133 kg/s]

Determine the heat rejected by the condenser [-2.09 kW]. Assuming that all

this heat is absorbed by the water in the hot water tank, determine the time

taken for 150 liters of water at 30C to reach the required temperature of

50C [1 hr 40 min]. (Note: The hot water heater is not a flow system, thus

we need to first evaluate the energy required to heat the water [12540 kJ].

This section is solved as shown below)

Determine the heat power absorbed by the refrigerant in the evaporator [2.04

kW]. Assuming that all this heat is absorbed from the air in the duct and

neglecting the fan power, determine the required mass flow rate of the in

order reduce the air temperature by 10C while passing through the duct

[0.204 kg/s].

Determine the Coefficient of Performance of the hot water heater (COP HW)

(defined as the heat rejected by the condenser divided by the work done on

the compressor) [COPHW = 4.17].

(defined as the heat absorbed by the evaporator divided by the work done on

the compressor) [COPAC = 4.07].

State (3)) determine the change in Coefficient of Performance of the air

conditioner evaluated above. Indicate this change on the P-h diagram and

discuss the relevance of the outside subcooling section in this system.

[COPAC reduced to 3.17]

Problem 4.10 - A Novel Water/Steam Air Conditioner

in the figure below. Notice the de-aerator pump and accumulator, in which the

saturated liquid water at station (3) (10 kPa) is pumped to a pressure of 100 kPa at

Carefully draw the complete air conditioning cycle above on the P-h diagram

provided, showing clearly all five processes (1) - (2) - (3) - (4) - (5) - (1). Using the

conditions shown on the diagram above and values obtained from the steam tables,

evaluate the Coefficient of Performance (COP AC) of the air conditioning system. In

this case we define the COPAC as the heat transferred to the evaporator divided by

the work done on the compressor plus the work done on the de-aerator pump.

[COPAC = 5.1]

Justify all values used and derive all equations used starting from the basic steady

Problem 4.11 - A Home Geothermal Heat-Pump

Introduction and Description

With the global quest for energy efficiency, there is renewed interest in geothermal

heat pumps which have been in limited use for more than 70 years. Essentially this

technology relies on the fact that a few meters below the surface of the earth the

temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year, warmer than the air

above it during winter, and cooler during summer. According to the Spring 2009

newsletter from David White, in Southeast Ohio this temperature is around 55F

(13C). This means that we can design a heat pump which can combine hot water

and space heating in winter in which the earth is used as a heat source (rather than

the outside air) at a considerable increase in coefficient of performance COP.

Similarly, with suitable valving, we can use the same system in summer for hot

water heating and air conditioning in which the earth is used as a heat sink, rather

than the outside air. This is achieved by using a Ground Loop in order to enable

heat transfer with the earth, as described in the Popular Mechanics website: The

Guide to Home Geothermal Energy.

the following home geothermal heat pump system designed for wintertime hot

water and space heating. Notice that with suitable valving this system can be used

both in winter for space heating and in summer for air conditioning, with hot

water heating throughout the year.

Notice that the condenser section includes both the hot water and space heater and

station (3) is specified as being in the Quality region. Assume that 50C is a

reasonable maximum hot water temperature for home usage, thus at a high

pressure of 1.6 MPa, the maximum power available for hot water heating will

occur when the refrigerant at station (3) reaches the saturated liquid state. (Quick

Quiz: justify this statement). Assume also that the refrigerant at station (4) reaches

a subcooled liquid temperature of 20C while heating the air.

Using the conditions shown on the diagram and assuming that station (3) is at the

saturated liquid state

On the P-h diagram provided below carefully plot the five processes of the

heat pump together with the following constant temperature lines: 50C (hot

water), 13C (ground loop), and -10C (outside air temperature)

Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all five stations

and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram.

Determine the mass flow rate of the refrigerant R134a. [0.0127 kg/s]

Determine the power absorbed by the hot water heater [2.0 kW] and that

absorbed by the space heater [0.72 kW].

Determine the time taken for 100 liters of water at an initial temperature of

20C to reach the required hot water temperature of 50C [105 minutes].

4.0] (defined as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the work done

on the compressor)

(defined as the total heat rejected by the refrigerant in the hot water and

space heaters divided by the work done on the compressor)

water loop was used, and the evaporator was required to absorb its heat from

the outside air at -10C. Discuss the advantages of the geothermal heat

pump system over other means of space and water heating.

Problem 4.12 - Home Air Conditioner and Hot Water

System with an Internal Heat Exchanger

We wish to do a preliminary thermodynamic evaluation of the following proposed

heat pump system designed for summertime hot water heating and space cooling.

Notice that this system uses a heat exchanger to subcool the refrigerant at the outlet

of the hot water heater while heating the refrigerant at the outlet of the evaporator.

This is intended to serve the dual purpose of increasing the both the hot water

heating and air cooling capacity of the system

a) Neatly sketch the complete air conditioning cycle above on the P-h

diagram provided, showing clearly all six processes (1) - (2) - (3) - (4) - (5) -

(6) - (1).

b) Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all six

stations and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram. Note that in

order to determine the enthalpy at stations (4) and (5) you will need to

consider the heat transferred in the heat exchanger as well as the energy

equation applied to an adiabatic throttle. [h5 = h4 = 107.3 kJ/kg]

c) Determine the mass flow rate of the refrigerant R134a. [0.023 kg/s]

d) Determine the power absorbed by the hot water heater [4.41 kW] and the

Coefficient of Performance of the hot water heater [COPHW = 4.41] (defined

as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the work done on the

compressor). Determine the time taken for 120 liters of water at 30C to

reach the required temperature of 50C. [38 minutes]

e) Determine the heat transferred from the air blowing through the insulated

cooling duct to the evaporator [3.41 kW], and the Coefficient of

Performance [COPAC = 3.41] of the air conditioning system.

f) Consider the air passing through the insulated duct of the evaporator

section. Notice that the temperature of the air passing through the duct is

decreased by 10C. Neglecting the work done by the fan determine the mass

flow rate of the air through the duct [20.4 kg/min].

g) Discuss the advantages of the above heat pump system over other means

of space cooling and water heating.

(Summertime)

Introduction and Description

With the global quest for energy efficiency, there is renewed interest in geothermal

heat pumps which have been in limited use for more than 70 years. Essentially this

technology relies on the fact that a few meters below the surface of the earth the

temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year, warmer than the air

above it during winter, and cooler during summer. According to the Spring 2009

newsletter from David White, in Southeast Ohio this temperature is around 55F

(13C). This means that we can design a heat pump which can combine hot water

and space heating in winter in which the earth is used as a heat source (rather than

the outside air) at a considerable increase in coefficient of performance COP.

Similarly, with suitable valving, we can use the same system in summer for hot

water heating and air conditioning in which the earth is used as a heat sink, rather

than the outside air. This is achieved by using a Ground Loop in order to enable

heat transfer with the earth, as described in the Popular Mechanics website: The

Guide to Home Geothermal Energy, and of course the ubiquitous Wikipedia.

Another relevant website is that by Mortgage Calculator titled Geothermal

Resources for Homeowners (Thanks to Aaron March of Jericho, VT, for making

us aware of this interesting website - Nov 21, 2011.)

Problem 4.13 - On Friday Sept 24, 2010 professor John Vann from Ball

State University in Indiana came to Ohio University to speak about BSU's switch

from coal powered heat to geothermal heat. This impressive project will take 5

years to complete, and is one of the nation's largest closed geothermal energy

systems. The talk did not include many technical details, however he did describe

the overall BSU system, which includes 4100 boreholes to extract or reject heat to

the earth, and then transfer that heat through two energy stations to a network of

hot water and chilled water loops flowing through the entire campus to provide hot

water (at around 150F) and space heating or cooling as required. (Update: The

system was completed in 2012).

We were intrigued by the concept and would like to evaluate the thermodynamic

feasibility and performance of a geothermal heat pump system. The following

system diagram represents a possible system for summertime usage, in order to

provide hot water at 65C, and space cooling using chilled water at around 13C.

Note that this system was devised by us for purposes of this concept feasibility

check only, and no data about the system was obtained from BSU. We have used

the Refrigerant R134a, since this is the only refrigerant for which we have tables

available. In fact we had to add new data to our tables, since with a limit of 1.6

MPa we could not reach the required temperature of 65C. Note that the mass flow

and actual power required is not specified, thus this model will represent a system

suitable for any size. All energy results will be in units of kJ/kg.

Using the conditions shown on the diagram do the following

1) On the P-h diagram provided below carefully plot the five processes of

the heat pump together with the following constant temperature lines: 65C

(hot water), 13C (ground loop).

2) Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all five

stations and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram.

3) Determine the energy absorbed by the hot water flow [150 kJ/kg] and that

extracted from the chilled water [174.5 kJ/kg].

4) Determine the energy required to drive the compressor [43.8 kJ/kg]

(COPHW) (defined as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the work

done on the compressor) [COPHW = 3.4]

(COPR) (defined as the heat absorbed by the chilled water divided by the

work done on the compressor).[COPR = 4.0]

geothermal water loop is used, and plot the changes in the processes on the

P-h diagram. Discuss the advantages of the geothermal heat pump system

for summertime usage.

(Wintertime)

Recall Problem 4:13 in which we evaluated the summertime operation of a

geothermal heat pump system modeled after the system currently under

construction at Ball State University in Indiana. It's purpose is to provide hot

water at 65C year round together with air-conditioning during summer and space

heating during winter.

In this exercise we wish to evaluate the system for wintertime operation, in which

we wish to provide hot water at 65C as well as space heating at above 20C, while

the outdoor air temperature could be as low as -10C. In this operation we

introduce two double-port control valves as shown below, to switch between

summertime and wintertime operation, in which the geothermal heat source now

becomes the evaporating section of the heat pump, and the refrigerant subcooler

now heats the water system used for space heating.

Note again that this system was devised by us for purposes of this exercise only,

and no data about the system was obtained from BSU. We have used the

Refrigerant R134a, since this is the only refrigerant for which we have tables

available. In fact we had to add new data to our tables, since with a limit of 1.6

MPa we could not reach the required temperature of 65C. Note that the mass flow

and actual power required is not specified, thus this model will represent a system

suitable for any size. All energy results will be in units of kJ/kg.

Using the conditions shown on the diagram do the following

1) On the P-h diagram provided below carefully plot the five processes of

the heat pump together with the following constant temperature lines: 65C

(hot water), 13C (ground loop), and -10C (outside air).

2) Using the R134a property tables determine the enthalpies at all five

stations and verify and indicate their values on the P-h diagram.

3) Determine the specific work done to drive the compressor [-43.8 kJ/kg].

(COPHW) (defined as the heat absorbed by the hot water divided by the

specific work done to drive the compressor)[COPHW = 3.4]

system (COPHP) (defined as the heat absorbed by the space heating water in

subcooling the refrigerant to 20C divided by the specific work done to

drive the compressor).[COPHP = 1.56]

refrigerant then the system would need to be redesigned, reducing inlet to

the compressor (1) from 360 kPa to 140kPa, saturated vapor, and the

compressor outlet (2) to 2.0 MPa, 90C. Carefully plot this new cycle on the

P-h diagram.

7) Using the R134a property tables determine the specific work done to

drive the compressor under the new conditions presented in 6) above [-71

kJ/kg].

Coefficients of Performance of both the hot water and space heating systems

and discuss the advantages of using a geothermal ground loop for

wintertime operation.[COPHW = 2.3, COPHP = 0.96]

Chapter 4: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Control

Volumes

c) Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

Introduction and Discussion

In the early days of refrigeration the two refrigerants in common use were

ammonia and carbon dioxide. Both were problematic - ammonia is toxic and

carbon dioxide requires extremely high presures (from around 30 to 200

atmospheres!) to operate in a refrigeration cycle, and since it operates on a

transcritical cycle the compressor outlet temperature is extremely high (around

160C). When Freon 12 (dichloro-diflouro-methane) was discovered it totally

took over as the refrigerant of choice. It is an extremely stable, non toxic fluid,

which does not interact with the compressor lubricant, and operates at pressures

always somewhat higher than atmospheric, so that if any leakage occured, air

would not leak into the system, thus one could recharge without having to apply

vacuum.

Unfortunately when the refrigerant does ultimately leak and make its way up to the

ozone layer the ultraviolet radiation breaks up the molecule releasing the highly

active chlorine radicals, which help to deplete the ozone layer. Freon 12 has since

been banned from usage on a global scale, and has been essentially replaced by

chlorine free R134a (tetraflouro-ethane) - not as stable as Freon 12, however it

does not have ozone depletion characteristics.

caused by human energy related activity, and various man made substances are

defined on the basis of a Global Warming Potential (GWP) with reference to

carbon dioxide (GWP=1). R134a has been found to have a GWP of 1300 and in

Europe, within a few years, automobile air conditioning systems will be barred

from using R134a as a refrigerant.

The new hot topic is a return to carbon dioxide (R744) as a refrigerant (refer for

example to the website: R744.com). The previous two major problems of high

pressure and high compressor temperature are found in fact to be advantageous.

The very high cycle pressure results in a high fluid density throughout the cycle,

allowing miniturization of the systems for the same heat pumping power

requirements. Furthermore the high outlet temperature will allow instant defrosting

of automobile windshields (we don't have to wait until the car engine warms up)

and can be used for combined space heating and hot water heating in home usage

(refer for example: Norwegian IEA Heatpump Program Annex28.

refrigerant R134a, and will defer coverage of the carbon dioxide cycle to Chapter

9.

Unlike the situation with steam power plants it is common practice to begin the

design and analysis of refrigeration and heat pump systems by first plotting the

cycle on the P-h diagram.

The following schematic shows a basic refrigeration or heat pump system with

typical property values. Since no mass flow rate of the refrigerant has been

provided, the entire analysis is done in terms of specific energy values. Notice that

the same system can be used either for a refrigerator or air conditioner, in which

the heat absorbed in the evaporator (q evap) is the desired output, or for a heat pump,

in which the heat rejected in the condenser (q cond) is the desired output.

In this example we wish to evaluate the following:

as a heat pump.

As with the Steam Power Plant, we find that we can solve each component of this

system separately and independently of all the other components, always using the

same approach and the same basic equations. We first use the information given in

the above schematic to plot the four processes (1)-(2)-(3)-(4)-(1) on the P-h

diagram. Notice that the fluid entering and exiting the condenser (State (2) to State

(3)) is at the high pressure 1 MPa. The fluid enters the evaporator at State (4) as a

saturated mixture at -20C and exits the evaporator at State (1) as a saturated vapor.

State (2) is given by the intersection of 1 MPa and 70C in the superheated region.

State (3) is seen to be in the subcooled liquid region at 30C, since the saturation

temperature at 1 MPa is about 40C. The process (3)-(4) is a vertical line (h 3 = h4)

as is discussed below.

In the following section we develop the methods of evaluating the solution of this

example using the R134a refrigerant tables. Notice that the refrigerant tables do

not include the subcooled region, however since the constant temperature line in

this region is essentially vertical, we use the saturated liquid value of enthalpy at

that temperature.

Notice from the P-h diagram plot how we can get an instant visual appreciation of

the system performance, in particular the Coefficient of Performance of the system

by comparing the enthalpy difference of the compressor (1)-(2) to that of the

evaporator (4)-(1) in the case of a refrigerator, or to that of the condenser (2)-(3) in

the case of a heat pump.

We now consider each component as a separate control volume and apply the

energy equation, starting with the compressor. Notice that we have assumed that

the kinetic and potential energy change of the fluid is negligeable, and that the

compressor is adiabatic. The required values of enthalpy for the inlet and outlet

ports are determined from the R134a refrigerant tables.

The high pressure superheated refrigerant at port (2) is now directed to a condenser

in which heat is extracted from the refrigerant, allowing it to reach the subcooled

liquid region at port (3). This is shown on the following diagram of the condenser:

The throttle is simply an expansion valve which is adiabatic and does no work,

however enables a significant reduction in temperature of the refrigerant as shown

in the following diagram:

The final component is the evaporator, which extracts heat from the surroundings

at the low temperature allowing the refrigerant liquid and vapor mixture to reach

the saturated vapor state at station (1).

In determining the Coefficient of Performance - for a refrigerator or air-conditioner

the desired output is the evaporator heat absorbed, and for a heat pump the desired

output is the heat rejected by the condenser which is used to heat the home. The

required input in both cases is the work done on the compressor (ie the electricity

bill). Thus

Notice that for the same system we always find that COP HP = COPR + 1.

Notice also that the COP values are usually greater than 1, which is the reason why

they are never referred to as "Efficiency" values, which always have a maximum of

100%.

Thus the P-h diagram is a widely used and very useful tool for doing an

approximate evaluation of a refrigerator or heat pump system. In fact, in the

official Reference Handbook supplied by the NCEES to be used in the

Fundamentals of Engineering exam, only the P-h diagram is presented for R134a.

You are expected to answer all the questions on this subject based on plotting the

cycle on this diagram as shown above.

Volumes

b) Steam Power Plants

A basic steam power plant consists of four interconnected components, typically as

shown in the figure below. These include a steam turbine to produce mechanical

shaft power, a condenser which uses external cooling water to condense the steam

to liquid water, a feedwater pump to pump the liquid to a high pressure, and a

boiler which is externally heated to boil the water to superheated steam. Unless

otherwise specified we assume that the turbine and the pump (as well as all the

interconnecting tubing) are adiabatic, and that the condenser exchanges all of its

heat with the cooling water.

to determine the performance of this basic steam power plant under the conditions

shown in the diagram, including the power of the turbine and feedwater pump, heat

transfer rates of the boiler and condenser, and thermal efficiency of the system.

Turbine output power and the power required to drive the feedwater pump

Heat power supplied to the boiler and that rejected in the condenser to the

cooling water

The thermal efficiency of the power plant ( th), defined as the net work done

by the system divided by the heat supplied to the boiler.

The minimum mass flow rate of the cooling water in the condenser required

for a specific temperature rise

Do not be intimidated by the complexity of this system. We will find that we can

solve each component of this system separately and independently of all the other

components, always using the same approach and the same basic equations. We

first use the information given in the above schematic to plot the four processes

(1)-(2)-(3)-(4)-(1) on the P-h diagram. Notice that the fluid entering and exiting

the boiler is at the high pressure 10 MPa, and similarly that entering and exiting the

condenser is at the low pressure 20 kPa. State (1) is given by the intersection of 10

MPa and 500C, and state (2) is given as 20 kPa at 90% quality, State (3) is given

by the intersection of 20 kPa and 40C, and the feedwater pumping process (3)-(4)

follows the constant temperature line, since T4 = T3 = 40C, .

Notice from the P-h diagram plot how we can get an instant visual appreciation of

the system performance, in particular the thermal efficiency of the system by

comparing the enthalpy difference of the turbine (1)-(2) to that of the boiler (4)-(1).

We also notice that the power required by the feedwater pump (3)-(4) is negligible

compared to any other component in the system.

(Note: We find it strange that the only thermodynamics text that we know of that

even considered the use of the P-h diagram for steam power plants is Engineering

Thermodynamics - Jones and Dugan (1995). It is widely used for refrigeration

systems, however not for steam power plants.)

We now consider each component as a separate control volume and apply the

energy equation, starting with the steam turbine. The steam turbine uses the high-

pressure - high-temperature steam at the inlet port (1) to produce shaft power by

expanding the steam through the turbine blades, and the resulting low-pressure -

low-temperature steam is rejected to the condenser at port (2). Notice that we have

assumed that the kinetic and potential energy change of the fluid is negligible, and

that the turbine is adiabatic. In fact any heat loss to the surroundings or kinetic

energy increase would be at the expense of output power, thus practical systems are

designed to minimise these loss effects. The required values of enthalpy for the

inlet and outlet ports are determined from the steam tables.

Thus we see that under the conditions shown the steam turbine will produce 8MW

of power.

The very low-pressure steam at port (2) is now directed to a condenser in which

heat is extracted by cooling water from a nearby river (or a cooling tower) and the

steam is condensed into the subcooled liquid region. The analysis of the condenser

may requre determining the mass flow rate of the cooling water needed to limit the

temperature rise to a certain amount - in this example to 10C. This is shown on

the following diagram of the condenser:

Notice that our steam tables do not include the subcooled (or compressed) liquid

region that we find at the outlet of the condenser at port (3). In this region we

notice from the P-h diagram that over an extremely high pressure range the

enthalpy of the liquid is equal to the saturated liquid enthalpy at the same

temperature, thus to a close approximation h 3 = hf@40C, independent of the pressure.

Thus we see that under the conditions shown, 17.6 MW of heat is extracted from

the steam in the condenser.

I have often been queried by students as to why we have to reject such a large

amount of heat in the condenser causing such a large decrease in thermal efficiency

of the power plant. Without going into the philosophical aspects of the Second Law

(which we cover later in Chapter 5, my best reply was provided to me by Randy

Sheidler, a senior engineer at the Gavin Power Plant. He stated that the Fourth

Law of Thermodynamics states: "You can't pump steam!", so until we

condense all the steam into liquid water by extracting 17.6 MW of heat, we cannot

pump it to the high pressure to complete the cycle. (Randy could not give me a

reference to the source of this amazing observation).

In order to determine the enthalpy change h of the cooling water (or in the

feedwater pump which follows), we consider the water to be an Incompressible

Liquid, and evaluate h as follows:

From the steam tables we find that the specific heat capacity for liquid water C H2O

= 4.18 kJ/kgC. Using this analysis we found on the condenser diagram above that

the required mass flow rate of the cooling water is 421 kg/s. If this flow rate cannot

be supported by a nearby river then a cooling tower must be included in the power

plant design.

Thus as we suspected from the above P-h diagram plot, the pump power required

is extremely low compared to any other component in the system, being only 1%

that of the turbine output power produced.

Thus we see that under the conditions shown the heat power required by the boiler

is 25.7 MW. This is normally supplied by combustion (or nuclear power). We now

have all the information needed to determine the thermal efficiency of the steam

power plant as follows:

with Reheat for Athens, Ohio

In an effort to decentralize the national power distribution grid, the following

supercritical (25 MPa), coal fired steam power plant (modeled after the Gavin

Power Plant in Cheshire, Ohio) has been proposed to service about 10,000

households in Athens, Ohio. It is to be placed close to the sewage plant on the east

side of Athens and cooled by water from the Hocking river. We consider first a

simplified system as shown below. Notice that we have replaced the "Boiler" with

a "Steam Generator", since at supercritical pressures the concept of boiling water is

undefined. Furthermore we have specifically split the turbine into a High Pressure

(HP) turbine and a Low Pressure (LP) turbine since we will find that having a

single turbine to expand from 25MPa to 10kPa is totally impractical. Thus for

example the Gavin Power Plant has a turbine set consisting of 6 turbines - a High

Pressure Turbine, an Intermediate Pressure (Reheat) turbine, and 4 large Low

Pressure turbines operating in parallel.

Note that prior to doing any analysis we always first sketch the complete cycle on a

P-h diagram based on the pressure, temperature, and quality data presented. This

leads to the following diagram:

On examining the P-h diagram plot we notice that the system suffers from two

major flaws:

The outlet pressure of the LP turbine at port (3) is 10 kPa, which is well

below atmospheric pressure. The extremely low pressure in the condenser

will allow air to leak into the system and ultimately lead to a deteriorated

performance.

The quality of the steam at port (3) is 80%. This is unacceptable. The

condensed water will cause erosion of the turbine blades, and we should

always try to maintain a quality of above 90%. One example of the effects

of this erosion can be seen on the blade tips of the final stage of the Gavin

LP turbine. During 2000, all four LP turbines needed to be replaced

because of the reduced performance resulting from this erosion. (Refer:

Tour of the Gavin Power Plant - Feb. 2000)

The following revised system diagram corrects both flaws. The steam at the outlet

of the HP turbine (port (2)) is reheated to 550 C before entering the LP turbine at

port (3). Also the low pressure liquid condensate at port (5) is pumped to a pressure

of 800 kPa and passed through a de-aerator prior to being pumped by the feedwater

pump to the high pressure of 25 MPa.

This system is referred to as a Reheat cycle, and based on the data above is plotted

on the P-h diagram as follows:

Thus we see that in spite of the complexity of the system, the P-h diagram plot

enables an intuitive and qualitative initial understanding of the system. Using the

methods described in Chapter 4b for analysis of each component, as well as the

steam tables, determine the following:

1) Assuming that both turbines are adiabatic and neglecting kinetic energy

effects determine the combined output power of both turbines [10.6 MW].

2) Assuming that both the condensate pump and the feedwater pump are

adiabatic, determine the power required to drive the two pumps [-204 kW].

3) Determine the total heat transfer to the steam generator, including the

reheat system [26.1 MW].

4) Determine the overall thermal efficiency of this power plant. (Thermal

efficiency ( th) is defined as the net work done (turbines, pumps) divided by

the total heat supplied externally to the steam generator and reheat system)

[40 %].

5) Determine the heat rejected to the cooling water in the condenser [-15.7

MW].

6) Assume that all the heat rejected in the condenser is absorbed by cooling

water from the Hocking River. To prevent thermal pollution the cooling

water is not allowed to experience a temperature rise above 10C. If the

steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 40C, determine the

required minimum volumetric flow rate of the cooling water [22.6 cubic

meters/minute].

7) Discuss whether you think that the proposed system can be cooled by the

Hocking river. You will need to do some research to determine the minimal

seasonal flow in the river in order to validate your decision. (Hint- Google:

Hocking River Flow)

Heater added to the Supercritical Steam Power Plant for

Athens, Ohio

Thanks to Kris Dambrink from Imtech.nl (currently inactive), for making me

aware of this alternative approach to adapting an Open Feedwater Heater to a

steam power plant (4 Feb 2010)

we extend the deaerator by tapping steam from the outlet of the High Pressure

turbine and reduce the pressure to 800 kPa by means of a Throttling Control

Valve before feeding it into the deaerator. This allows one to conveniently convert

the deaerator into an Open Feedwater Heater without requiring a bleed tap from

the Low Pressure turbine at exactly the dearator pressure, as shown in the

following diagram:

Note that prior to doing any analysis we always first sketch the complete cycle on a

P-h diagram based on the pressure, temperature, and quality data presented on the

system diagram. This leads to the following diagram:

A mass fraction of the steam y is tapped from the outlet of the HP turbine (2)

and passed through the throttle such that its pressure is reduced to that of the

deaerator (9). It is then mixed with a mass fraction (1-y) of the liquid water

at station (6). The mass fraction y is chosen to enable the fluid to reach a

saturated liquid state at station (7).

The feedwater pump then pumps the liquid to station (8), thus saving a

significant amount of heat from the steam generator in heating the fluid

from station (8) to the turbine inlet at station (1). It is true that with a mass

fraction of (1-y) there is less power output due to a reduced mass flow rate

in the LP turbine, however the net result is normally an increase in thermal

efficiency.

Thus once more we see that in spite of the complexity of the system, the P-h

diagram plot enables an intuitive and qualitative initial understanding of the

system. Using the methods described in Chapter 4b for analysis of each

component, as well as the steam tables for evaluating the enthalpy at the various

stations (shown in red), and neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects,

determine the following:

1) Assuming that the open feedwater heater is adiabatic, determine the mass

fraction of steam y required to be bled off the outlet of the HP turbine which

will bring the fluid from station (6) to a saturated liquid state in the

deaerator. [y = 0.20]

We first need to evaluate the enthalpy of the fluid at station (9) after passing

through the throttling control valve:

Thus we find that for an ideal throttle the enthalpy h9 = h2 independent of the

pressure drop, allowing us to conveniently draw the throttling process as a vertical

line on the P-h diagram. We now determine the mass fraction y by considering the

mixing process in the open feedwater heater as follows:

Notice that we can estimate this value of y directly from the P-h diagram by simply

measuring the enthalpy differences (h7 - h6) and (h9 - h6) with a ruler.

2) Assuming that both the condensate pump and the feedwater pump are

adiabatic, determine the power required to drive the two pumps [235 kW].

On examining the system diagram above we noticed something very strange

about the feedwater pump. Until now we considered liquid water to be

incompressible, thus pumping it to a higher pressure did not result in an

increase of its temperature. However on a recent visit to the Gavin Power

Plant we discovered that at 25MPa pressure and more than 100C water is

no longer incompressible, and compression will always result in a

temperature increase. We cannot use the simple incompressible liquid

formula to determine pump work, however need to evaluate the difference in

enthalpy from the Compressed Liquid Water tables, leading to the

following results:

3) Assuming that both turbines are adiabatic, determine the new (reduced)

combined power output of both turbines. Recall from Solved Problem 4.1

that the power output of the turbines was found to be 10.6 MW if no steam

is bled from the LP turbine [8.98 MW]

Thus as expected we find that the net power output is slightly less than the

previous system without the turbine tap. However power control is normally done

by changing the feedwater pump speed, and we normally find a liquid water

storage tank associated with the de-aerator in order to accomodate the changes in

the water mass flow rate. In our case we simply need to increase the water mass

flow rate from 7 kg/s to 8.25 kg/s in order to regain our original power output.

4) Determine the total heat transfer to the steam generator, including the

reheat system [21.4 MW].

efficiency (th) is defined as the net work done (turbines, pumps) divided by

the total heat supplied externally to the steam generator and reheat system)

[41 %].

6) Determine the heat rejected to the cooling water in the condenser [-12.6

MW].

7) Assume that all the heat rejected in the condenser is absorbed by cooling

water from the Hocking River. To prevent thermal pollution the cooling

water is not allowed to experience a temperature rise above 10C. If the

steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 40C, determine the

required minimum volumetric flow rate of the cooling water [18.1 cubic

meters/minute].

Note that it is always a good idea to validate ones calculations by evaluating the

thermal efficiency using only the heat supplied to the steam generator and that

rejected by the condenser.

Discussion: Thus we find that the open feedwater heater did in fact raise the

efficiency from 40% to 41%. This may not seem like a significant amount,

however all the basic components were already in place, since without a de-aerator

the steam power plant will deteriorate and become non-functional within a very

short time due to leakage of air into the system. Furthermore, if the reduction in

power output is not acceptable, then it can be easily remedied by increasing the

mass flow rate in the system design. Note that this is a contrived example in order

to demonstrate that no matter how complex the system is, we can easily plot the

entire system on a P-h diagram and obtain an immediate intuitive understanding

and evaluation of the system performance. It is helpful to check each value of

enthalpy read or evaluated from the steam tables and compare them to the values

on the enthalpy axis of the P-h diagram.

the Supercritical Steam Power Plant for Athens, Ohio

This Solved Problem is an extension of Solved Problem 4.1 in which we extend

the deaerator by tapping steam from the Low Pressure turbine at 800 kPa and

feeding it into the deaerator at the same pressure, thus converting it into an Open

Feedwater Heater, as shown in the following diagram:

This system is referred to as a Regenerative Reheat cycle, and we will find that

this simple extension of our previous sytem will result in an increase in thermal

efficiency of the power plant.

Note that prior to doing any analysis we always first sketch the complete cycle on a

P-h diagram based on the pressure, temperature, and quality data presented on the

system diagram. This leads to the following diagram:

On examining the P-h diagram plot we notice the following:

A mass fraction of the steam y is tapped from the LP turbine at the turbine

tap (t) such that mixing it with (1-y) of the liquid water at station (6) will

result in the fluid reaching a saturated liquid state at staion (7).

The feedwater pump then pumps the liquid to station (8), thus saving a

significant amount of heat from the steam generator in heating the fluid

from station (8) to the turbine inlet at station (1). It is true that with a mass

fraction of (1-y) there is less power output due to a reduced mass flow rate

in part of the LP turbine from the tap (t) to station (4), however the

following analysis shows that the net result is an increase in thermal

efficiency.

Thus once more we see that in spite of the complexity of the system, the P-h

diagram plot enables an intuitive and qualitative initial understanding of the

system. Using the methods described in Chapter 4b for analysis of each

component, as well as the steam tables for evaluating the enthalpy at the various

stations (shown in red), and neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects,

determine the following:

1) Assuming that the open feedwater heater is adiabatic, determine the mass

fraction of steam y required to be bled off the LP turbine which will bring

the fluid from station (6) to a saturated liquid state in the de-aerator. [y =

0.18]

2) Assuming that both the condensate pump and the feedwater pump are

adiabatic, determine the power required to drive the two pumps [236 kW].

On examining the system diagram above we noticed something very strange

about the feedwater pump. Until now we considered liquid water to be

incompressible, thus pumping it to a higher pressure did not result in an

increase of its temperature. However on a recent visit to the Gavin Power

Plant we discovered that at 25MPa pressure and more than 100C water is

no longer incompressible, and compression will always result in a

temperature increase. We cannot use the simple incompressible liquid

formula to determine pump work, however need to evaluate the difference in

enthalpy from the Compressed Liquid Water tables, leading to the

following results:

3) Assuming that both turbines are adiabatic, determine the new (reduced)

combined power output of both turbines. Recall from Solved Problem 4.1

that the power output of the turbines was found to be 10.6 MW if no steam

is bled from the LP turbine [9.65 MW]

Thus as expected we find that the net power output is slightly less than the

previous system without the turbine tap. However power control is normally done

by changing the feedwater pump speed, and we normally find a liquid water

storage tank associated with the de-aerator in order to accomodate the changes in

the water mass flow rate. In our case we simply need to increase the water mass

flow rate from 7 kg/s to 8 kg/s in order to regain our original power output.

4) Determine the total heat transfer to the steam generator, including the

reheat system [22.2 MW].

5) Determine the overall thermal efficiency of this power plant. (Thermal

efficiency (th) is defined as the net work done (turbines, pumps) divided by

the total heat supplied externally to the steam generator and reheat system)

[42 %].

6) Determine the heat rejected to the cooling water in the condenser [-12.9

MW].

7) Assume that all the heat rejected in the condenser is absorbed by cooling

water from the Hocking River. To prevent thermal pollution the cooling

water is not allowed to experience a temperature rise above 10C. If the

steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 40C, determine the

required minimum volumetric flow rate of the cooling water [18.5 cubic

meters/minute].

Note that it is always a good idea to validate ones calculations by evaluating the

thermal efficiency using only the heat supplied to the steam generator and that

rejected by the condenser.

Discussion: Thus we find that the open feedwater heater did in fact raise the

efficiency from 40% to 42%. This may not seem like a significant amount,

however all the basic components were already in place, since without a de-aerator

the steam power plant will deteriorate and become non-functional within a very

short time due to leakage of air into the system. Furthermore, if the reduction in

power output is not acceptable, then it can be easily remedied by increasing the

mass flow rate in the system design. Notice that no matter how complex the system

is, we can easily plot the entire system on a P-h diagram in order to obtain an

immediate intuitive understanding and evaluation of the system performance. It is

helpful to check each value of enthalpy read or evaluated from the steam tables and

compare them to the values on the enthalpy axis of the P-h diagram.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________

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