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Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad

BSP-12-Guideline-104

BOLT TORQUING

This is a supporting document of activity within BSP-12 Design,


Modification, Construction and Abandonment of Facilities

Revision Owner : AED/1


5.0

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BSP-12-Guideline-104 - Bolt Torquing Rev. 5.0

Revision Record

REV REVISION DESCRIPTION AUTHOR(S) REVIEWER(S) DATE

0.1 First draft Feb 1997


1.0 First Issue Dec 1998
1.1 Second Draft Apr 2000
2.0 Second Issue May 2000
3.0 Third Issue SEN/623/62 SEN/134/62/623 Nov 2007
4.0 Fourth Issue AED/123 AED/123/12/1 Feb 2012
5.0 Fifth Issue AED/131 AED/131/13/14/1, April 2015
OME/21

PARTY REFERENCE NAME /ROLE SIGN DATE


INDICATOR
Author AED/131 Manimaran Sr. Static /Piping Engineer April 2015

Reviewer AED/14 Ruben Bholasing Lead Mech. Static April 2015

Reviewer AED/13 Hisham Abd .Wahab Head Mech. Static April 2015

Approver AED/1 Kahar Hj. Hasan Head of Mechanical April 2015


Owner

This document is not considered HSE critical and this revision shall have a maximum validity of five years
after the last revision date. Beyond this, it must be assessed for relevance and re-validated in accordance
with:
Document Control Procedure (BSP-02-P-1).

Suggestions for further improvement in this document should be addressed to the Document Owner.

Distribution
The document owner is responsible for distribution control. The original electronic version is stored in
LiveLink and accessible via BSP OnLine web site. Paper copies are not controlled documents.

Notice & Warning


Copyright 2015, Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad
This document is the property of Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad (BSP), Seria 7082,
Negara Brunei Darussalam. Circulation is restricted to BSP and its designated associates, contractors and
consultants. It must not be copied or used for any other purpose other than which it is supplied, without the
expressed written authority of BSP.
Except where provided for purposes of contractual requirements, BSP disclaims any responsibility or
liability for any use or misuse of the document by any person and makes no warranty as to the accuracy or
suitability of the information to any third party. Any misuse of the document is redressable by BSP.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

1.1 SUMMARY OF REVISIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 4


1.2 DESCRIPTION............................................................................................................................................................................ 5
1.3 PURPOSE ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.4 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.5 RESPONSIBILITIES ................................................................................................................................................................. 5
1.6 STANDARD/REFERENCE DOCUMENTS ....................................................................................................................... 6
1.7 TERMINOLOGY ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER 2 B O L T T O R Q U I N G M E T H O D S ................................................................................................. 8

2.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
2.2 CONVENTIONAL SPANNER/WRENCHES ..................................................................................................................... 8
2.3 TORQUE WRENCHES (manual or hydraulic) .............................................................................................................. 8
2.4 HYDRAULIC BOLT TENSIONING ...................................................................................................................................... 8

CHAPTER 3 B O L T S T O R Q U I N G P R O C E D U R E ...................................................................................10

3.1 BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING TORQUE VALUES ..........................................................................................................10


3.2 BOLTS TORQUING SEQUENCE ........................................................................................................................................10
3.3 BOLTS TORQUING OTHER CONSIDERATION...........................................................................................................12
3.4 QUALIFICATION OF FLANGE JOINT ASSEMBLERS ................................................................................................13

CHAPTER 4 T H R E A D L U B R I C A N T S A N D R E S E R V A T I O N F L U I D S ..................14

CHAPTER 5 H O T B O L T I N G ..........................................................................................................................................15

5.1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................................................15


5.2 HOT BOLTING DESCRIPTION ..........................................................................................................................................15
5.3 RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH HOT BOLTING .................................................................................................................15
5.4 PREPARATION OF HOT BOLTING .................................................................................................................................16
5.5 ENGINEERING AND RISK ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................17
5.6 HOT BOLTING WITH HYDRAULIC CLAMPS. .............................................................................................................19

CHAPTER 6 W A R M B O L T I N G ....................................................................................................................................20

Table 1 - Torque Values for Coated Bolts ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-276 UNS32760 Stud bolts. ....................21
Table 2- Torque Values for ASTM A-193 Gr.B8M Cl.2 Stud bolts ..............................................................................22
Table 3 - Torque Values for Coated Bolts ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-276 UNS 32760 Studbolts. ...................23
Table 4 - Torque Values for ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-276 UNS 32760 Stud bolts for Insulation Gaskets 24
Table 5 - Torque Values for ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-193 Gr.B8M Cl.2 Stud bolts in GRE Lines ................25

APPENDIXES
Appendix 1 Hot Bolting Risk Assessment Form
Appendix 2 Risk Assessment Examples

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
This document is an integral part of the BSP Management System and should be read in association with
activity BSP-12 Design, Modification, Construction and Abandonment of Facilities.
BSP-12 Design, Modification. Construction and Abandonment of Facilities (TMS-0009)

Figure 1 can be used to locate the position of this document in relation to the BSP Management System
structure.

Corporate Management BSP MS


Manual (TMS-0001) Glossary (TMS-0522)

Activity BSP-12
Design, Mod, Const
& Aband. Fac (TMS-0009)

BSP-12.x.x
Activity Description

BSP-12-S-003 BSP-12-G-104
Engineering Standards
Bolt Torquing
& Guidelines Catalogue

Figure 1. How this document (box with white text) fits into the BSP Management System structure

1.1 SUMMARY OF REVISIONS


Para 2.2 modified to delete repeated wordings
Para 2.4 added
Chapter 3 renamed and the contents are modified
Chapter 5 included to add updated Hot Bolting Procedure
Table numbers are re numbered as Tables 1 to Table 6
Torque tables in Table 1 to 3 updated values by using correct conversion factor for N-m
Description of Table 3 deleted BSP-12 piping classes reference
Torque values in Table 4 modified as per latest vendor information received. Recommended
torque values given in the installation instruction is used.
Description of Table 6 deleted class 2500# details
Appendix 1- Hot Bolting Risk Assessment Form
Appendix 2 - Examples Hot Bolting Risk Assessment

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1.2 DESCRIPTION

The BSP Management system documentation standard provides the requirements for management system
documentation.
BSP-02.3 Management System Documentation Standard (TMS-0568)
Documentation in existence prior to the introduction of the corporate management system (CMS) requires
to be reviewed and where necessary re-identified and/or re-formatted in accordance with BSP-02.3.
The following document has been subject to such review:
Document type : Guideline
Subject or Title : Bolt Torquing
Document No. : BSP-72-GU-002 (TMS-1340)
Revision : Revision 1
Date : Dec 1998
No. of pages : 20
Review Results:
The Guideline BSP-72-GU-002 has been superseded by this document, Guideline BSP-12-G-104 Revision 3.
The contents of the Guideline remain valid and it has been fully incorporated, with amendments, into
Revision 5.0 of this document.

1.3 PURPOSE
The purpose of this Guideline is to specify BSP's requirements and provide guidance for the tightening of
flange bolting using spanners, wrenches, and torque wrenches both manual and hydraulic.
It also provides guidance on the method of flange tightening to be used, the bolt stresses and torques
required and the application hot and warm bolting.

1.4 SCOPE
This Guideline is for use by BSP and its nominated contractors and shall be applied to all piping flange
bolting of connecting piping to flanged equipment, in all piping systems in BSPs offshore and onshore
facilities.
This Guideline is applicable to all piping and pipeline systems designed and constructed in accordance with
DEP 31.38.01.11-Gen and DEP 31.40.00.10-Gen respectively.
Tightening methods and the bolt loading to be applied to ASME B16.5 flanges for the normal BSP or DEP
Piping Classes combinations of flange, gasket and bolting materials are contained within this Guideline.
Equipment flange joints and piping flange bolting within package equipment units are outside the scope of
this Guideline, unless the bolt materials, flange designs and gaskets used are the same as those used in the
BSP or DEP Piping Classes.

1.5 RESPONSIBILITIES
It is the responsibility of the Maintenance/Construction Supervisor/Project Engineer to ensure bolts shall
be tightened in accordance with this Guideline.

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1.6 STANDARD/REFERENCE DOCUMENTS


When referring to the following publications, the latest issues only shall be used.
The Standard- Reference order of precedence shall be as follows:
This guideline BSP-12.G.104 Bolt Torquing
DEPs
International Codes
Vendor Documents and Data

Design and Engineering Practice (DEPs)


DEP 31.38.01.31-Gen Gen Shop & Field Fabrication of Piping
DEP 31.38.01.15-Gen DEP Piping Classes
DEP 31.38.01.11-Gen Piping General Requirement
DEP 70.08.10.11-Gen Equipment and Tools for Maintenance: Mechanical Maintenance Equipment, Tools
and Bolt Tensioning.

International Codes
ASME PCC 1 Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly
ASME PCC 2 Repair of Pressure Equipment & Piping
ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
API 6A Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment.
Appendix D - Recommended Flange Bolt Torque.

1.7 TERMINOLOGY
Within the context of this document the following words have the meaning stated:

Indicates a mandatory requirement


Shall
Indicates a preferred course of action
Should
The BSP appointed contractor for a defined piece of work.
Contractor
BSP Functional Engineering, Custodian of this Standard
Custodian

The making tight of a flanged joint by torquing or tensioning the flange bolts.
Tightening

The loading/stressing of flange bolts using conventional spanner/wrenches


Torquing
and manual or hydraulic torque wrenches

Controlled The process whereby loading/stressing of flange bolts is measured to achieve a


pre-determined value

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Hot bolting Sometimes referred to as Easy Bolting, is used to describe the removal and
replacement of bolts on live piping, pipeline or equipment, flanged or clamped
coupled joints, one at a time. Existing bolts are removed in a predetermined
diametrically opposite sequence and are either cleaned and lubricated, or
replaced by a similar, correctly specified new bolt. Each new/refurbished bolt
is correctly re-tensioned to maintain joint tightness, before the next bolt is
removed.

Warm Bolting Also referred to as odd bolting, is the practice of removing alternate bolts
from a flange, which contains 8 or more bolts, when the system is partially
or fully depressurised in preparation for dismantlement.

Contained Fluid Hazard Any system, plant or unit containing a fluid (liquid, gas or vapour), which
for one or more of the following reasons, present a hazard if released:
(1) At a pressure greater than atmospheric;
(2) Flammable or explosive in air;
(3) Corrosive or toxic;
(4) At a high temperature
(5) Has any other property hazardous to personnel, equipment or the
environment, (e.g. high temperature, asphyxiant, at vacuum,
radioactive contaminants).

Fastener Any combinations of bolt, stud-bolt, stud and nut.

Containment System Any arrangement of equipment, vessels and valves and similar equipment
together with the interconnecting pipework which can be closed or
pressurised.

`Live' System Any system, which is at operating conditions other than atmospheric
pressure and temperature e.g. LP, HP or HHP.

Category M Fluid Service A fluid service in which the potential for personnel exposure is judged to
be significant and in which a single exposure to a very small quantity of a
toxic fluid, caused by leakage, can produce serious irreversible harm to
persons on breathing or bodily contact, even when prompt restorative
measures are taken.

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CHAPTER 2 BOLT TORQUING METHODS

2.1 GENERAL

The tightening of bolts shall be performed by controlled methods. This will ensure correct torque values
that generate correct bolt stresses necessary for gasket seating, design pressure and hydrostatic test
pressures and not overstress the flange or crush the gasket.
The method of flange tightening is dependent upon bolt size, system pressure rating and system service.
Studs shall be long enough to show at least one and one-half threads after proper tightening.
The practise of tightening bolts by uncontrolled means (flogging of bolts) i.e. hammering a spanner, is not
permitted as this could damage the bolts, flange or the gasket.

The controlled method of flange tightening shall be as follows:

2.2 CONVENTIONAL SPANNER/WRENCHES


Flange bolts may be tightened by conventional spanners/wrenches on class 150 utility piping systems only.

2.3 TORQUE WRENCHES (manual or hydraulic)


Flange bolts shall be tightened by torque wrenches (except for critical services as mentioned in hydraulic
bolt tensioning) on all hydrocarbon systems in all pressure classes, utility systems class 300 and above.
Torque wrench could be manual or hydraulic torque wrenches. The method chosen is dependent upon bolt
loading, access, clearance and tooling availability, which can be determined by the site personnel.
When the bolt loading requires a torque figure of more than 678 Nm (500 ft.Ibs.) to be applied, hydraulic
torquing is recommended.

2.4 HYDRAULIC BOLT TENSIONING


Hydraulic bolt tensioning shall be used for tightening the bolts of flanged connections of equipment and
piping where operating conditions require the stress distribution in the bolts to be properly controlled to
obtain a reliable joint.
Hydraulic Tensioning shall be used in case of Highly Hazardous or Lethal or Category M fluid service as
defined in ASME B 31.3 or in case of service conditions mentioned in table 4.1 from DEM-1 DEP
31.38.01.31-Gen- Shop And Field Fabrication Of Piping.

In summary hydraulic bolt tensioning shall be carried out on the following connections:
1 Bolt sizes greater than 2 inches diameter of all service ratings up to and including class 900,
except class 150 utility services (see above).
2 Bolt sizes greater than 1 inches for all service ratings class 1500 and above.

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Detail of Service, Rating and Bolt Size required Hydraulic Bolt Tensioning.

SERVICE ASME CLASS RATING BOLT DIAMETER

All All 2

All 1500 1 1/2

Hydrogen 600 1 1/2

Critical Applications All 1


(Other than above agreed
between Contractor & Principal )

Hydraulic tensioning shall be carried out under supervision of personnel who are experience & qualified for
same. Hydraulic tool manufacturers recommendations shall be followed with respect to Bolt pre-stress &
hydraulic pressure calculations.
Contractor should prepare & maintain inspection records for all joints subjected to controlled Tightening.
Hydraulic tensioning outside of this table is to be planned in advance since special extended bolts are
required. The extended bolt length required for hydraulic tensioning is at least one nut height.

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CHAPTER 3 BOLTS TORQUING PROCEDURE

3.1 BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING TORQUE VALUES

1. Target Torque values in Table 1, is applicable for coated ASTM A-193 Grade B7 and SDSS ASTM A-
276 UNS32760 bolts for ASME class 150# to 2500# spiral wound gasket flange joints. The values
are as recommended in Table 1 of ASME PCC-1, Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange
Joint Assembly. They are specified in order to pre-stress bolts to 50 ksi.

2. Target Torque values in Table 2, is applicable for High Alloy bolts ASTM A-193 B8M Cl.2 used in
piping class 1341B & 3341B. They are derived using formulae in Appendix K of ASME PCC-1. The
Yield strength of these materials varies from 80 ksi to 50 ksi depending on size. The target torque
is specified to pre-stress the bolts to 50% of Yield strength.

3. Target Torque values in Table 3, is applicable for ASTM A-193 B7 & SDSS ASTM A-276 UNS32760
bolts for API 6A Ring type flange joints. The values are as recommended in Table D1 of API 6A,
Standard for Wellhead & Christmas Tree Equipments. are specified in order to pre-stress bolts to
52.5 ksi.

4. Target Torque values in Table 4, is applicable for ASTM A-193 B7 bolts, ASME class 150# to 2500#
& insulation gasket joints. The values are as recommended by Insulation gasket manufacturer
Pikotek. They are specified in order to pre-stress bolts to 30 ksi.

5. Target Torque values in Table 5, is applicable for GRE flange joints. The values are applicable only
for AMERON Bondstrand 2400 series GRE flanges. Users are required to consult GRE manufacturer
for any other GRE product.

3.2 BOLTS TORQUING SEQUENCE

To achieve joint tightness it is very important that the following procedure is adhered to:
1. Check and ensure that the general requirements of Section 2.1 have been satisfied.

2. To achieve uniform joint load/stress distribution the bolts shall be tightened in three stages,
representing 20-30%, 50-70% and 100% of the torque values stated in Tables 1 to 5.

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At each stage of tightening, bolts shall be tightened in a controlled sequence as follows (bolts numbered
clockwise around the flange):

4 bolt flange 1,3,2,4


8 bolt flange 1,5,3,7,2,6,4,8.
12 bolt flange 1,7,4,10,2,8,5,11,3,9,6,12.
16 bolt flange 1,9,5,13,3,11,7,15,2,10,6,14,4,12,8,16.
20 bolt flange 1,11,6,16,3,13,8,18.5,15,10,20,2,12,7,14,4,14,9,19
24 bolt flange 1,13,7,19,4,16,10,22,2,14,8,20,5,17,11,23,6,18,12,24,3,15,9,21.
28 bolt flange 1,15,8,22,4,18,11,25,6,20,13,27,2,16,9,23,5,19,12,26,3,17,10,24,7,21,14,28.

32 bolt flange 1,7,9,25,5,21,13,29,3,19,11,27,7,23,15,31,2,18,10,26,6,22,14,30,8,24,16,32,


4, 20, 12, 28.
Refer ASME PCC-1 Table 4 for bolts higher than 32.

Refer below attached example sketch attached for 12 Bolt flange.

3. Upon completion of bolt torqueing work, all Bolt Torqueing Record shall be verified BSP
Representative. The approved record shall be compiled and submitted as part of the Project
Handover Documents.

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3.3 BOLTS TORQUING OTHER CONSIDERATION

Apart from the bolt tightening procedure there are several interdependent factors which are essential to
obtain good performance from a bolted flange connection.
These are:
Gasket selection, specification, seating stress, and installation instruction,
Flanges surface finish and alignment,
Bolting material, bolting procedures and applied bolt stress.

Gaskets shall be suitable for the operating conditions and remain flexible under a varying load due to
fluctuations in pressure and temperature, and the type of gasket used shall comply with that shown in the
Piping Classes. Where spiral wound gaskets are to be applied, extra care shall be taken not to damage the
face of the gasket.
When installing the gaskets ensure the flange and gasket faces are completely clean and dry. Check also
that the correct gasket is used. The OD of the centring ring should be large enough to ensure that the gasket
is correctly centred but not so big that it fouls the bolts.
Pipe flange alignment tolerances shall comply with Shell DEP 31.38.01.31. Appendix 8 (Flange Face
alignment).
The flange surface finish shall comply with the flange MESC description as referred in the Piping Class.
Seating surfaces shall be free from damage, grease, protective coatings etc. The back of the flange at the nut
seating shall be parallel and smooth as required by ASME B16.5 para. 6.6.
To ensure consistent performance of bolts it is essential that bolts and nuts are supplied with the precise
specification for tolerances and fit required by the MESC description.
Bolts shall be free of corrosion, damage, dirt and grit before coating the threads with an approved lubricant
(see Chapter 4). Lubricant shall be applied to the threads of both studs and nuts and also to the load face of
the nuts.
The required torque values to achieve joint tightness within the Piping Class temperature range and bolting
material combinations are given in Tables 1 to 5. These torque values will generate the bolt stresses
necessary for gasket seating, design pressure and hydrostatic test pressures, differences in the coefficient of
thermal expansion and bolt relaxation, but will not overstress the flange or crush the gasket, providing the
gasket is progressively tightened in three stages.
The achieved bolt load of any flange assembly may change mostly due to site condition, bolt materials or
grade of lubrication used etc, so variation of +10% torque values in Table 1 to 5 is considered acceptable.
Any changes to type of flange, gasket, material or lubricants with those listed in Table 1 to 5 shall be
referred to the Custodian.

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3.4 QUALIFICATION OF FLANGE JOINT ASSEMBLERS

Only trained, qualified & experienced personnel shall carry out assembly of joint. Flanged joint assemblers
can be qualified as per recommended procedure in ASME PCC-1 Appendix A.
This document only specifies mandatory requirements & recommends torque values for satisfactory flange
joint assembly. The detail flange assembly procedures & precautions are recommended in ASME PCC-1
Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly.
Contractor is responsible to develop suitable training & supervision program to ensure they are followed in
order to achieve leak proof flange joints. Towards this objective Contractor has freedom to adopt any other
alternative training & qualification program which is at least equivalent or superior to one recommended in
ASME PCC-1 Appendix A.

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CHAPTER 4 THREAD LUBRICANTS AND


RESERVATION FLUIDS

All bolts shall be treated with a preservative lubricant using one of the approved grades below:

Molycote 1000 (friction coefficient = 0.12-0.13)

Copperslip (friction coefficient = 0.10)

If other Shell approved lubricants are used, the tabulated torque values shall be modified if the lubricant
coefficient of friction differs from those shown in Tables 1.1 to 1.5. This can be achieved by adjusting the
Copperslip torque by the ratio of the friction coefficients.

E.g. Actual lubricants coefficient = 0.15

Copperslip lubricant friction coefficient = 0.10

Coefficient Ratio = 0.15/0.1 = 1.5

Revised torque figure = Copperslip torque x 1.5

The use of lubricants with a lower coefficient of friction than those shown (i.e. < 0.10) can lead to excessive
bolt stress being applied by wrenches or torque wrenches, and yielding or failure of flanges or bolting may
result.
Molybdenum Disulphide based greases shall not be used, as under certain condition sulphide stress
corrosion cracking can occur.
For insulation gasket-bolting, the lubricant type of Molycote 1000 is acceptable to be used.
When the bolt tensioning procedure is completed, to prevent corrosion a liberal coating of grease should be
applied to the nuts up to the back of the flange, and to the stud ends protruding from the nuts. This is
particularly important where low alloy bolts are used on unpainted stainless steel flanges.

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CHAPTER 5 HOT BOLTING

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Bolt in flanged joints that have been in service can be difficult to remove. Such difficulties at the start of
shutdowns for plant maintenance can result in costly schedule interruptions, or extend the duration of
activities involving some hazard. The use of Hot and Warm bolting removal procedures may be
considered as a possible solution.
The Hot bolting activities shall be thorough assessed taking into consideration all aspects mentioned in
Section 5.3 and 5.4
Hot bolting shall be executed in line with BSP standard work permit system, a fully authorized, relevant
level, work permit shall be raised for each connection or system to be hot bolted.
The Asset Operation lead (SOS) shall be the lowest authority to approve Hot bolting activity.

Any technical support shall be consulted with relevant Technical Authority.

5.2 HOT BOLTING DESCRIPTION

Hot bolting is the sequential removal and replacement of corroded bolts on flanged joints on live piping
system when the operating pressure is equal to or less than 50% of maximum pressure rating for
standard flanges of ASME 16.5 ( see section 5.5.3).

It shall be carried out one bolt at a time in a in proper predetermined sequence. Each replaced bolt is fully
torqued before the next one is removed. The requirements of tightening of flange bolting including
torque values, torquing sequence and lubrication etc. shall be in accordance with this guideline. (see
section 2,3 and 4).

The activity of removing and replacing and re-tightening bolts on live piping system is potentially
hazardous and therefore utmost caution shall be exercised in their planning and execution.

5.3 RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH HOT BOLTING

When conducting Hot bolting removal activity, the risks of fluid leakage are increased due to increased
bolting stresses and relaxation of gasket compression, both potentially resulting in joint leakage or gasket
segment blowout.

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5.4 PREPARATION OF HOT BOLTING

5.4.1 PERSONNEL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT / EMERGENCY PLANNING

Appropriate protective and safety equipment shall be worn in case of leakage. The need for emergency
standby and contingency planning shall also be considered. Only trained and qualified and experienced
personnel shall carry out the Hot bolting activity.
Please refer to ASME PCC-1 Appendix A recommended flange joint assemblers qualification.

5.4.2 ACCESS CONSIDERATIONS.

Consideration shall be given to the accessibility of the area and that adequate escape routes are available
should uncontrolled flange leakage occur. Hot bolting shall not be performed in confined space.

5.4.3 LOCATION AND CONDITION OF ISOLATION VALVES.

The location and condition of the nearest upstream and downstream isolation valves shall be ascertained
prior to commencing work. Operations personnel shall have a contingency plan for the isolation of the
joint, which addresses the need to block in or depressurize the equipment rapidly should an
uncontrollable leak occur.

5.4.4 IDENTIFICATION OF EMERGENCY FACILITIES.

As necessary, emergency facilities such as safety showers and eye baths shall be identified and locations
made known to personnel involved in the work.

5.4.5 INSPECTION OF THE FLANGE ASSEMBLY.

A thorough visual inspection of the flange assembly shall be conducted to verify the integrity of the flange
and its bolting, with consideration given to the following:

1. No deterioration of the gasket such as displacement, distortion or damaged.

2. No deterioration of the bolts and nuts, as minimum corroded bolting metal loss shall be in excess of
50%. It is recommended that the removing of bolt shall be done starting with the most
deteriorated bolt.

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5.5 ENGINEERING AND RISK ANALYSIS

An engineering and risk analysis of the proposed hot bolting removal operation shall be carried out to
establish that the operation can be performed safely; e.g., establish that no unacceptably high external
loads and/or bending moments are acting on the joint that could cause leakage or gasket blowout during
the operation. The analysis shall consider, as a minimum, the following:

5.5.1 HOT BOLTING APPLICATION PIPING SYSTEM, FLANGE TYPES AND


CONTENTS.

Hot Bolting shall be only applicable for Standard Flange of ASME 16.5 and using standard spiral wound
gasket.

Hot bolting is permitted on low pressure system class 150# and class 300# where the flanges have eight
(8) or more securing bolts.

On low and medium pressure system where the flanges have less than eight (8) securing bolts for
pressure system class 150# , 300# 600#, or class 900# and 1500# Hot bolting is only permitted in
conjunction with hydraulic clamps (such as HYDRATIGHT, STORK clamps etc.) that holds together the
flanges to facilitate hot bolting activity safely and prevent gasket leakage or blowout.

Hot Bolting is NOT PERMITTED on the following application

Any piping system in a confined space.

API 6A flange which is using Ring type joint gasket.

Piping system or equipment containing highly hazardous or lethal or Category M fluid service as
defined in ASME B 31.3.

Piping system with sour service ( H2S >200 ppm)

High pressure system Class 2500#, API 5K and API 10K piping system.

Piping system which is operating below 0 Deg. C or in excess of 60 Deg. C.

Flange installed with insulation gasket.

Flange with tapped holes

Flange with excessive vibrations (compressor).

Flange that cannot be isolated in case of leakage ( riser valve, first valve to tanks/
vessel/equipment with large inventory).

Any bolting part of valve body.

5.5.2 HOT BOLTING ASSESSMENT.

Prior to hot bolting activity the following needs to be confirmed

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Hot Bolting Risk Assessment form to be completed and approved prior to start of Hot bolting
operation. (see Appendix-1).

Confirmation of the operating pressure shall be obtained from Operations Personnel and sufficient
controls are in place (see para 5.3. and 5.4) before the hot bolting removal operation is started.

No temporary repair have been completed adjacent to the flange joint (<1 meter).

The piping has proper pipe supports and located as per standard.

The existing gasket is relatively in good condition.

The existing bolts and nuts have no deterioration, such as necking or worn threads.

5.5.3 MAXIMUM PRESSURE WHEN CONDUCTING HOT BOLTING.

The maximum pressure allowed while conducting Hot bolting shall be only when the operating
pressure is equal to or less than 50% of the applicable pressure-coincident temperature rating for
standard flanges as per ASME 16.5.

Maximum Pressure (BAR) of Piping System for Hot Bolting

Size ASME Class Rating


[NPS] 150# 300# 600# 900# 1500#
Note:1 Note:1



20 30 50 90
4 Note:1 Note:1
1 Note:1
4 20 30 50 90
1 Note:1 Note:1 Note:1
2 4
Note:1
20 30 50 90
3 4 20
Note:1 30 50 90
4 4 20 30 50 90
6 4 20 30 50 90
8 10 20 30 50 90
10 10 30 50 70 90
12 10 30 50 70 100
14 10 30 50 70 110
16 10 30 50 70 110
18 10 30 50 70 110
20 10 30 50 70 110
24 10 30 50 70 110
= Small size piping Hot bolting is not applicable usually use tubing.

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Note:1 = Flange of this size/rating Hot bolting is permitted in conjunction with hydraulic
Clamps (such as HYDRATIGHT, STORK clamps etc.)

5.6 HOT BOLTING WITH HYDRAULIC CLAMPS.

On low pressure system where the flanges have less than eight (8) securing bolts for pressure system class
150# , 300# 600#, or class 900# and 1500# Hot bolting is only permitted in conjunction with
hydraulic clamps (such as HYDRATIGHT, STORK clamps etc.) that holds together the flanges to facilitate
hot bolting activity safely and prevent gasket leakage or blowout.

The Hydraulic Clamp (such as HYDRATIGHT, STORK clamps etc.) shall be applied to a flange prior to Hot
bolting operation. The clamp will provides additional mechanical forces to ensure that Hot bolting could
be safely performed.

Since Hot bolting for flanges with 4 securing bolts (Class150#, 300# and 600#) and medium pressure
(900# and 1500#) is a specialist operation, which shall only be performed by Qualified Vendors only.

Currently BSP qualified and approved Vendors are;

Stork Technical Services

Hydratight Limited.

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CHAPTER 6 WARM BOLTING

Warm bolting is a practice of removing alternate bolts from a flange which contains 8 or more bolts, when
the system is partially or fully depressurised in preparation for dismantlement. The degree of
depressurisation shall be in accordance with table below, which will be such that any leakage resulting
from warm bolting will be minimised and safely manageable.

The Warm bolting activities shall be thorough assessed and executed similarly with Hot bolting
assessment and requirements.

Maximum Allowable Pressure for Warm Bolting

150# 300# 600#


Pipe
Dia No.
No. of Pressure Pressure No. of Pressure Pressure Pressure Pressure
(ins) of
Bolts (psi) (bar) Bolts (psi) (bar) (psi) (bar)
Bolts
1 4 4 WARM BOLTING 4 WARM BOLTING
1.5 4 WARM BOLTING 4 NOT PERMITTED 4 NOT PERMITTED
2 4 NOT PERMITTED 8 63.5 4.4 8 127.0 8.8
3 4 8 63.5 4.4 8 127.0 8.8
4 8 24.4 1.7 8 63.5 4.4 8 127.0 8.8
6 8 24.4 1.7 12 53.1 3.7 12 106.3 7.3
8 8 24.4 1.7 12 53.1 3.7 12 106.3 7.3
10 12 20.5 1.4 16 50.0 3.4 16 100.0 6.9
12 12 20.5 1.4 16 50.0 3.4 20 97.2 6.7
14 12 20.5 1.4 20 48.6 3.4 20 97.2 6.7
16 16 19.2 1.3 20 48.6 3.4 20 97.2 6.7
18 16 19.2 1.3 24 47.9 3.3 20 97.2 6.7
20 20 18.7 1.3 24 47.9 3.3 24 95.7 6.6
24 20 18.4 1.3 24 47.9 3.3 24 95.7 6.6

Pipe 900# 1500#


Dia No. of Pressure Pressure No. of Pressure Pressure
(ins) Bolts (psi) (bar) Bolts (psi) (bar)
1 4 WARM BOLTING 4 WARM BOLTING
1.5 4 NOT PERMITTED 4 NOT PERMITTED
2 8 190.4 13.1 8 317.8 21.9
3 8 190.4 13.1 8 317.8 21.9
4 8 190.4 13.1 8 317.8 21.9
6 12 159.4 11.0 12 266.0 18.3
8 12 159.4 11.0 12 266.0 18.3
10 16 149.9 10.3 12 266.0 18.3
12 20 145.8 10.1 16 250.2 17.3
14 20 145.8 10.1 16 250.2 17.3
16 20 145.8 10.1 16 250.2 17.3
18 20 145.8 10.1 16 250.2 17.3
20 20 145.8 10.1 16 250.2 17.3
24 20 145.8 10.1 16 250.2 17.3

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Table 1 - Torque Values for Coated Bolts ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-276 UNS32760
Stud bolts.
(Table 1 of ASME- PCC1-2010)

For ASME B16.5 FLANGES

Gasket. Spiral Wound

Material: AISI 316/316L-Graphite CS CENTERING- SS INNER RING

f=0.12-0.13
Bolt
Torque for Target Bolt Prestress to 50 ksi
Size
(ins)
ft. Lbs N.m
61
1/2 45
122
5/8 90
217
3/4 160
339
7/8 250
542
1 400
746
1 -1/8 550
1085
1 -1/4 800
1424
1 -3/8 1050
1898
1 -1/2 1400
2440
1 - 5/8 1800
3118
1 3/4 2300
3796
1 7/8 2800
4610
2 3400

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Table 2- Torque Values for ASTM A-193 Gr.B8M Cl.2 Stud bolts

For ASME B16.5 FLANGES Cl.150# & Cl.300#

Gasket. Spiral Wound

Material: AISI 316/316L-Graphite filled with S.S. Centering ring

f=0.12-0.13
Torque for Target Bolt Prestress to 50% Yield
Bolt Up to - 40 ksi,
Size 7/8- 1 32.5 ksi,
(ins) > 1 25 ksi

ft.lbs N.m
46
1/2 34
91
5/8 67
164
3/4 121
216
7/8 159
324
1 239
481
1 -1/8 355
682
1 -1/4 503
717
1 3/8 529
953
1 1/2 703

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Table 3 - Torque Values for Coated Bolts ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-276 UNS
32760 Studbolts.

For API 6A Flanges


Gasket. Ring Joint
Material: 5 Cr, 0.5 Mo, SS316/316L. DSS UNS31803

f=0.12-0.13
Bolt
Torque for Target Bolt Prestress to 52.5 ksi
Size
(ins)
ft.lbs N.m
80
1/2 59
156
5/8 115
271
3/4 200
433
7/8 319
643
1 474
930
1 -1/8 686
1292
1 -1/4 953
1737
1 -3/8 1281
2274
1 -1/2 1677
2910
1 - 5/8 2146
3655
1 3/4 2696
4518
1 7/8 3332
5506
2 4061

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Table 4 - Torque Values for ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-276 UNS 32760 Stud bolts
for Insulation Gaskets
(Table from Pikotek Installation Guide)

For ASME B16.5 FLANGES ALL RATINGS

Gasket. Insulation Gasket

Material: GRE NEMA Li1 Grade 10 & 11 to SPE 85/201

Bolt
f=0.12-0.13
Size
Torque for Target Bolt Prestress to 30 ksi
(ins)
ft. Lbs N.m
1/2 40 54
5/8 75 102

3/4 130 176


7/8 205 278
1 305 414
1 -1/8 445 603
1 -1/4 625 847
1 -3/8 850 1152
1 -1/2 1120 1529
1 - 5/8 1445 1959
1 3/4 1825 2474
1 7/8 2265 3017
2 2775 3762

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Table 5 - Torque Values for ASTM A-193 Gr.B7 & A-193 Gr.B8M Cl.2 Stud
bolts in GRE Lines

Applicable for Piping Classes 1711B, 1712B & 17122

Gasket. Flat Face


Temperature Limits: 0C to 80C.

Material: Reinforced Chloroprene Rubber

Torques Table provided below is indicative only for AMERON 2410, 2416 & 2420 Series.
Users of this guideline are reminded to consult GRE supplier to provide Torque values
before installation & bolt tightening should be done under supervision of Certified GRE
installation inspector.

Pipe Bolt Torque Torque for Full Torque Torque for Full
Dia Size Increments Pressure Seal Increments Pressure Seal

(ins) (ins) (ft.lbs) (ft.lbs) (N.m) (N.m)

1 1/2 5 20 7 27
1.5 1/2 5 20 7 27
2 5/8 5 20 7 27
3 5/8 5 20 7 27
4 5/8 5 20 7 27
6 3/4 10 30 14 41
8 3/4 10 30 14 41
10 7/8 10 30 14 41
12 7/8 10 30 14 41
14 1 10 50 14 68
16 1 10 50 14 68
18 1 1/8 20 60 27 81
20 1 1/8 20 60 27 81
24 1 25 75 34 102
30 1 25 75 34 102
32 1 25 75 34 102
36 1 25 75 34 102

Appendix: 1

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HOT BOLTING RISK ASSESSMENT FORM

Customer: BSP Plant Name

Joint Location: Joint Identification:

Reason for Prepared by:


Hot Bolting Date:

Stage One - Primary Risk Assessment

Plant Conditions currently in place: Give as Much Detail as possible

Piping or Vessel Operating Pressure (Bar)

Piping or Vessel Operating Temperature C

Pipe Supports in good condition and no


temporary repair <1 meter.
Piping/Vessel Contents & hazards

Isolation procedure

Confined Space

Access and Escape

Other Hazards

Joint Details:
Bolts No. Diameter Material Condition

Flange Class Diameter Material Condition

Gasket Details Condition

Current Bolt Load/Stress? Applied by? Target

Joint History

STOP CHECK POINT: Stage One - Primary Risk Assessment

Operating pressure is equal or less than 50% of Flange Class Rating


Operating Temperature is above 0 Deg. C and not exceed 60 Deg. C
Joint with less than 8 Bolts or Class 900# and 1500# shall be using approved hydraulic clamp
Adequate access and escape route
Upstream and downstream isolation valves

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Stage Two Secondary Risk Assessment.

Table 1 Space/Situation

Factor Description

Confined space or potential for high-risk escalation, i.e. Risk of platform or plant
5
evacuation. Flange contains less than 8 bolts

Open or less congested areas where explosion hazard is minimal and escalation is unlikely.
4
Large fires being the maximum potential hazard.

Open area where gas is unlikely to accumulate to a hazardous level. Minor fires being the
3
highest risk.

2 Open area where few people are at risk and there is no chance of explosion or fire.

1 Depressurised system with no risk of a hazardous incident.

Table 2 - Substance

Factor Description

5 Very Toxic, Toxic and Corrosive fluids.

4 Hydrocarbons or other flammable/ explosive fluids above their flash point temperature.

3 Flammable/ explosive fluids below flash point temperature.

2 Harmful, irritant and other hazardous substances e.g. steam, asphyxiates etc.

1 Non-hazardous substances.

The effect of temperature and pressure should also be considered in this rating. eg water above 40C
introduces a hazard.

Table 3 Pressure

Factor Operating Pressure

5 31 to 50 barg and above

4 21 to 30 barg

3 10 to 20 barg

2 Less than 10 barg

1 Fully depressurised system.

Table 4 - Line Size

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Factor Description

5 Greater than 36 NB

4 >24 NB to 36 NB

3 18 NB to 24 NB

2 8 NB to 16 NB

1 Less than or equal to 6 NB

Risk Assessment Results


Table Description Factor

1 Space/Situation

2 Substance

3 Pressure
4 Line Size

Total Factor

Risk Assessment Result

Total Factor

Factor Risk Assessment Result

Above 15 Risk to personnel too high to carry out hot bolting.

12 to 15 Consult Technical Authority for a more detailed risk assessment prior to proceed.

Less than 11 Risk is acceptable, work may commence with suitable controls in place.

Stage 3 Approval

Risk Assessment Carried out and agreed by:

Project to proceed: Yes / No

Execution Party

BSP representative

Date

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Appendix: 2
Risk Assessment examples are shown below.

Example #1
16 ANSI 600#, 20 x 1 1/2 UN8 Bolts, Pressure: Atmospheric, Line Content: Glycol

Table Description Factor

1 Space/Situation 1 (Atmospheric)

2 Substance 1 (Glycol)
3 Pressure 1

4 Line Size 2

Total Factor 5

Risk Assessment Result Risk to personnel is acceptable commence work in


accordance with Work Permit.

Example #2
36 MSS SP44 150#, 36 x 1 1/2 UN8 Bolts, Pressure: 30 BAR, Line content Crude Oil export

Table Description Factor

1 Space/Situation 2 (Open area)

2 Substance 4 (Hydrocarbon)

3 Pressure 4
4 Line Size 4

Total Factor 14
Risk Assessment Result Consult Technical Authority for a more detailed risk
assessment prior to proceed.

Example # 3
Vessel: 12E205 Channel Head to Tube sheet, 36 x 1 1/4 UN8 Bolts, Pressure: 49 BAR, Congested area

Table Description Factor

1 Space/Situation 5 (Congested area)

2 Substance 4 (Hydrocarbon)

3 Pressure 5 (49 bar)


4 Line Size 5

Total Factor 19
Risk Assessment Result Risk to personnel too high to carry out hot bolting.

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