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A STUDY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM TO A PROJECT SUCCESS IN MEGA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION IN


MALAYSIA: A CASE STUDY OF KUALA LUMPUR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
2(KLIA2)

NOOR HANIRA BINTI MAHIDIN

Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree in Bachelor
of Project Management with Honours

Faculty of Industrial Management

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG

DEC 2014
vi

ABSTRACT

Procurement management system is very important in any industries area especially in


construction area. Procurement is a highly skilled profession. It is focuses on people the
knowledge, skills and capabilities either both of the public and private sector. It is because to
implement procurement to innovation and ensure that these are required level of achievement.
By managing a success project, it can help to minimize the risk of a project. The purpose of this
study is to the implementation of procurement management system to a project success in mega
project construction in Malaysia. Procurement management systems were examined to see the
related between Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) and procurement
management system in KLIA2. This study also identified the failure factors in procurement
management in KLIA2. In conducting the research, questionnaires were collected in interview
with forth respondents in Malaysian Airport Holdings Berhad (MAHB), UEM Construction
Berhad and LKHDM Sdn. Bhd. The data already recorded, then analyzed through breaking down
the point. The data also collected from secondary data which adhered from website journal and
Jabatan Arkib Negara and is essential in narrow down the process. The result shown the process
of procurement management system in KLIA2 fail based on three aspects that is human
management factor, process factor and contract and technical factor. In conclusion, procurement
management system is important to project successes. Once procurement management system in
KLIA2 have a problem and make the project are delays. Then it will improve the procurement
process in mega project construction. The information of this study will be useful in managing
procurement management system.
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ABSTRAK

Pelaksanaan sistem pengurusan perolehan adalah sangat penting di mana-mana kawasan


industri terutama kawasan pembinaan. Perolehan memerlukan kemahiran yang tinggi. Ia adalah
tertumpu kepada sikap manusia yang berpengetahuan, berketrampilan dan berkemampuan
samada dalam sektor awam dan sektor swasta. Ini adalah kerana bagi melaksanakan perolehan
yang berinovasi dan memastikan bahawa ia mencapai tahap prestasi. Dengan pengurusan projek
yang berjaya, ia dapat membantu mengurangkan risiko bagi sesuatu projek. Tujuan kajian ini
adalah untuk melaksanakan sistem pengurusan perolehan kepada kejayaan sesebuah projek
dalam pembinaan mega projek di Malaysia. Sistem pengurusan perolehan telah diperiksa untuk
melihat kaitannya diantara Pengurusan Projek Badan Pengetahuan (PMBOK) dan sistem
pengurusan perolehan di KLIA2. Kajian ini mengenalpasti faktor-faktor kegagalan dalam
pengurusan perolehan di KLIA2. Dalam menjalankan kajian ini, soal selidik telah dikumpul
dalam proses temubual dengan empat orang responden di Malaysia Airport Holdings Berhad
(MAHB), UEM Construction Berhad dan LKHDM Sdn. Bhd. Data telah direkodkan, dianalisis
memalui penulisan semula isi penting. Data juga dikumpul melalui data sekunder yang didapati
dari laman web, jurnal dan juga dari Jabatan Arkib Negara dan dianalisa melalui isi penting.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor kegagalan proses sistem pengurusan perolehan di KLIA2
dikaji berdasarkan tiga aspek iaitu faktor pengurusan manusia, faktor proses dan faktor kontrak
dan teknikalnya. Kesimpulannya, pengurusan sistem perolehan adalah sangat penting bagi
memastikan keberjayaan sesuatu projek. Setelah dikaji sistem pengurusan perolehan yang
dilaksanakan di KLIA2 adalah bermasalah dan membuatkan projek tersebut kelewatan.
Kemudian, ia akan meningkatkan proses perolehan dalam pembinaan projek mega. Maklumat
kajian ini diguna dalam menguruskan sistem pengurusan perolehan.
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LIST OF FIGURE

Figure Title Page

1.1 Research Methodology Framework 7

2.1 Flow of Procurement Process 12

2.2 Project Procurement Phases cycle 14

2.3 Contract and Procurement Management Activity 15

2.4 Category of Building Procurement System 16

2.5 Flow Process of Separated Procurement System 17

2.6 Flow Process of Integrated Procurement System 19

2.7 Flow Process of Management Contract 20

4.1 Structure of Contract and Functional Relationship 37

4.2 Planning Procurement Flow in KLIA2 38

4.3 Project Life Cycle 42


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LIST OF TABLES

Table No. Title Page

2.1 The Most Common Root Causes of Capital Project Issues 16

4.1 The Comparison between LCCT, KLIA & KLIA2 34

4.2 KLIA2 Development Cost Details 39

4.3 The Major Upgrades in Specifications 44


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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix Title Page

A Gantt Chart for Final Year Project 1 60

Gantt Chart for Final Year Project 2 61

B Semi Structured Interview Questionnaire 63-64

C Interview Evidence 65-70


xi

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

PMBOK Project Management Body of Knowledge

ILO Internal Labour Organization

MAHB Malaysian Airport Holdings Berhad

D&B Design & Build

BOT Build,

PMC Project Management Contractor

ETP Economic Transformation Programme

MRT Mass Rapid Transit

CCC Certificate of Completion and Compliance

ORAT Operational Readliness and Airport Transfer

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

FAA Federal Aviation Administration

LCCT Low Cost Carrier Terminal

PBES Performances Based Evaluation System

M&E Mechanical & Electrical

JV Joint Venture

MTB Main Terminal Building

BHS Baggage Handling System


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TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENTS PAGES

SUPERVISOR DECLARATION ii

STUDENT DECLARATION iii

DEDICATION iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v

ABSTRACT vi

ABSTRAK vii

LIST OF FIGURES viii

LIST OF APPENDICES ix

LIST OF TABLES x

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS xi

TABLE OF CONTENT xii

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Problem Background 2

1.3 Problem Statement 3-4

1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study 5


1.4.1 Aim 5
1.4.2 Objectives 5
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1.5 Research Question 5


1.6 Research Methodology Framework 6-7
1.7 Scope of Study 8
1.8 Significant of The Study 8
1.9 Operational Definition 9

1.9.1 Project Procurement Management Process 9

1.9.2 Mega Project Construction 9

1.10 Expected Results 10

CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Project Management Body of Knowledge 12

2.3 Contracting Strategy in Mega Project 13

2.3.1 Types of Contract 13

2.4 Procurement Management Overview 14

2.4.1 Introduction and Definition Procurement Management 14

2.4.2 Procurement Process 14

2.4.3 Contract and Procurement Activity 15

2.4.4 Procurement Method 15

2.4.5 Procurement System 16-20

2.5 Mega Project Construction Issues 20


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2.6 International Airport 21-22

2.6.1 Berlin Brandenburg Airport 22

2.7 Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 Issues: Case Briefing 23

2.8 Challengers and Problems Arise in Managing Procurement 24

2.8.1 Conflict Owner and Contractor 24

2.8.2 Lack of Accountability and Transparency Mechanisms 24

2.8.3 Close Relationship with Supplier 24

2.9 Summary 25

CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction 26

3.2 Theoretical Framework / Research Objective 27

3.3 Research Design 27

3.3.1 Qualitative Research 27

3.4 Data Collection 28

3.4.1 Primary Data 28

3.4.2 Secondary Data 28

3.5 Instrument Development 29

3.6 Data Analysis 30

3.6.1 Recording the Information 30


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3.6.2 Analyzing the Data 30

3.7 Summary 31

CHAPTER 4 : CASE STUDY, DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction 32

4.2 Case Study 33

4.3 Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 34

4.3.1 Key Players 35

4.3.2 Project Details 35-36

4.3.3 Procurement Management Process 37

4.3.3.1 Planning Procurement 38

4.3.3.2 Conduct Procurement 38

4.3.3.3 Administer Procurement 39

4,3,3,4 Close Procurement 39

4.4 Failure Factors of Procurement 40

4.4.1 Human Management Factor 40

4.4.2 Process Factor 41-42

4.4.3 Contract and Technical Factor 42-44

4.5 Conclusion 45
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CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction 46

5.2 Limitation of the Study 47

5.3 Recommendation for Future Research 47

5.4 Recommendation of the Study 48

5.5 Discussion / Conclusion 49-51

REFERENCES 52-57

APPENDICES 58-62

A Gantt Chart for Final Year Project 1 & 2 63-64

B Semi Structure Interview Questionnaire 65-66

C Research Results 67-72


1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter is given that an overall introduction on this dissertation consisting


research background, statement of the research problem, the objectives of the research, the
scope of the study, the research question and research methodology framework this
dissertation. The last part of chapter 1 will explain the expected result of the research. All
information in this chapter will help reader understand on what this research is all about.
2

1.2 PROBLEM BACKGROUND

This research intended to carry out because the intention and curiosity of the
significant relates the procurement activity in Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 (KLIA
2) within the procurement process in Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)
and also the failure factor of procurement management in Kuala Lumpur International
Airport 2. (KLIA2) Procurement management is a purchase process the products, services
or results needed from outside the organization to perform the work. Procurement
management also includes administering any contract issued by the buyer that is acquiring
the organization from the seller performing and administering contractual obligations
placed on the organization by the contract. (George Belev, et al., 2004).

Procurement management processes from Project Management Body of Knowledge


(PMBOK) involve plan procurements, conduct procurements, administer procurements and
close procurements. Procurement means acquiring a goods and service from outside
sources include purchasing and outsourcing. The three items include from procurement that
is procurement service, project procurement and contract management.

However in this recent arena, the Government procurement process is to minimize


delays and to obtain financially the most advantageous and qualitatively the best services,
(Daya Liyanage, 2006). The registration of suppliers will be mitigating interruption and
unnecessary delay in procurement. The bidding process is encounter the delivery delays
and failure to provide the supplies where and when they are needed, (International Labour
Organization (ILO) and World Bank).

A research is needed in Procurement Management because of several deficiencies


observe in the Procurement Management system existing in the Public Sector
Organizations. Wherever the construction work or purchasing is done, it was not
completely accepted by the client or requirement is not satisfactorily competed. Hence the
beneficiaries make repeated requests. The fund used also does not being in best product or
service due to lack of knowledge, lack of present technology development and inadequate
capacity of the public sector staff etc.
3

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Procurement is a highly skilled profession. Hence, both of the sectors public and
private managers to be focuses on people the knowledge, skills and capabilities. They need
to implement procurement to innovation and ensure that these are required level of
achievement. The successful of procurement activities depend on both supply and demand
side capabilities.

Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 (KLIA2) is one of others Malaysians largest


constructions and low cost air terminal. The planned for completion date in September
2010 but the KLIA2 launch in Mei 2014. Since, the process is delays more than one year
make many departments are involved in this project have responsible to manage it. The
delay has been mainly to changes the design and the size of the airport. Malaysia Aiport
Holdings Berhad (MAHB) as a government agencies start to point the finger at AirAsia
Bhd as a main contractor. (The edge Malaysia, July 2013) The airport size has been change
from the volume of 30 million up to 45 million. The project is delay and higher the cost of
completing KLIA2, a terminal dedicate to low cost carriers.

The process of procurement management system has fourth stage in PMBoK 4th
Edition which is plan procurement, conduct procurement, administer procurement and
close procurement. Malaysia Holdings Airport Berhad (MAHB) is responsible for the
construction as instructed by the Government of Malaysia in order to suffice to the
overwhelming demands on low cost carrier airlines. MAHB point out the claiming that it is
not on fault to finding the mission but that is clarifying things because the company has
been slammed for supposedly not managing the project well. The contractor
underestimated the difficulties to solve the problems earlier in making the building
especially watertight. (Business News, May 2013) Based on this situation, the process of
planning procurement is it not clears from the two parties.
4

In the earlier days, traditional procurement system was practiced by both the public
and private sectors to develop their projects. Beginning from 1990s, Malaysia adopted a
new procurement system to cope with the increasing number of project implementation,
complexity of building requirement and mega infrastructure projects to support the
countrys growth (Rashid, et. al., 2006). He added that the introduction of different fast-
tracking project procurement systems is an effort by the industry to offer better deals to its
clients or customers, as they start realizing the importance of value for money for their
projects in terms of cost, time, and quality. The new procurement practices which were said
to be fast tracking are D&B, BOT and PMC. However, the PMCs, which supervised and
managed a majority of government projects, failed to control costs, design and scope of
those projects, resulting in higher costs (Ibrahim, et.al. (2010).

According to the idea mentioned above, this research aims to identify the significant
relates of the procurement activity in KLIA 2 with the process in PMBOK and the failure
factors procurement management of KLIA 2. This research can help of some other case
study of construction project in the Malaysia and can be improve the project performance
for the next mega project construction.
5

1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

1.4.1 Aim

The aim of this research to identify the significant relate the procurement activity
within procurement process in PMBOK and failure factor procurement management of
Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 (KLIA 2) to achieve the project success in mega
project construction in Malaysia.

1.4.2 Objectives

i. To relate between the procurement activity in Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2


and procurement process in PMBOK.
ii. To identify the failure factors in procurement management in Kuala Lumpur
International Airport 2.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION

i. What are the relations between the procurement activity in KLIA 2 and procurement
process in PMBOK
ii. What are the failure factors in procurement management in Kuala Lumpur
International Airport 2.(KLIA 2)
6

1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FRAMEWORK

This part reviews the methods to apply in collecting the data to identify the relations
between the procurement activities in KLIA 2. Research start by having preliminary study,
secondary study, data collection and followed by analysis findings, conclusion and
recommendation. Overall, there are included 5 stages:

i. Preliminary study

The preliminary study is a stage to develop idea on decided topic. The data can be
collected from books, journals, articles for the purpose of deciding the title of research
objectives and problem statements.

ii. Theoretical study

The theoretical study is more focus on the literature review and deeply
understanding about the research. The reviews come from various sources such as journals,
books reports, newspapers, student thesis and websites. The ideas will be defined to write
the aim and objectives of the research.

iii. Data collection

Collection of data is important stage to towards accomplishing the aim and


objectives of the dissertation paper. The primary data is compiled from the semi-structured
interview on the manager and procurement department and secondary data is obtained from
books, journals, newspapers in Jabatan Arkib Negara and student thesis etc.

iv. Analysis findings

All the data collection from the first and second stage will be analyze in order to
conclude with the finding that can achieve the objectives of the research. The failure factors
on KLIA 2 will be found out and proper plan and recommendation as a final outcome of the
research paper.
7

v. Conclusion and recommendation

In the last stage of the research is findings would be able to show the result of the
research. Conclusions need to be writes based on the objective of the study. At the same
time, some appropriate recommendation related to the problems and as a better solution or
further research purposes.

Figure 1.1: Research Methodology Framework

PRELIMINARY STUDY
Development of idea

THEORETICAL STUDY
Literature Review
Define aim and objective of research

DATA COLLECTION

Primary Data
Semi-structured interview

Secondary Data
Books, journal/articles and magazines,
websites, report
Jabatan Arkib Negara

DATA FINDINGS & ANALYSIS


Analyze data collected
Define limitation of data

CONCLUSION &
RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclude the research relating to the aim
and objectives

Come up with recommendations based on


the research
8

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

Due to this research is carrying the procurement management systems in mega


project construction, so, this study will focus on Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2
(KLIA 2). This study will focused on procurement activity and failure factor in
procurement management in achieving a project success by relate with PMBOK. The
research confined limited to Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 (KLIA 2) only. Semi
structured interview were conducted with targeted respondents of from Contract Manager
and Assistant Manager from UEM Construction Sdn. Bhd.(UEMC), senior manager from
Malaysian Airport Holdings Berhad (MAHB) as a client and also the project director as a
consultant for client, Ar. Hisham Ali.

1.8 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The important of the study for this research is to identify the failure factors of
procurement management and related procurement activity within the procurement process
in PMBOK. Since Malaysia is still new in constructing mega project construction, therefore
the understanding on procurement management and procurement process is essential for
future development. Therefore, the awareness regarding the process of procurement
systems can be organized with clearly with both side whether supplier or buyer.

Meanwhile, the result of study can be applied into variety of industry as guideline
and assist project manager and team member to managed procurement management
systems effectively because the result is explain the failure factors of procurement process
in mega project construction, Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 (KLIA 2) able to
improve the project performance for the next mega project construction.
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1.9.1 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

1.9.2 Project Procurement Management Process

According to PMBOK 4TH Edition, project procurement management process is


defined the interaction with each other and the process can involve effort from a group of
person, based on the requirement of the project. Each project occurs at least once in every
project and occurs in one or more of the project phases. The process is included that is plan
procurements, conduct procurements, administer procurements and close procurements.

1.9.3 Mega Project Construction

Mega project constructions are defined as the cost of the project having multi
million or even billion dollars and the time frame measured in years. The term procurement
are related with the mega project construction, the procurement concept are used to cover
the process ranging from establish the requirements, global sourcing, placing contract,
overseeing execution and in some cases dealing with through-life support (Hall & Khan,
2006).
10

1.10 EXPECTED RESULTS

Expected result will focus on get the much and the best information as possible on
the research questions. Another expectation is can get the information about the key failure
factors of the procurement management in Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2.
Furthermore, expectation to receive back sufficient responds to help in collects data and
analyses and then determine the relations procurement activity in KLIA 2 and the
procurement process in Project Management Body of Knowledge. (PMBOK) The
processes of procurement management in KLIA 2 have positive relates within the
procurement process in PMBOK. That is plan procurement, conduct procurement,
administer procurement and close procurement.

The failure factors of procurement management in KLIA 2 can be expect the


problems arise from lack of communicating and managing expectation with clients, team
members and stakeholder. The flow of information was not structured to ensure the process
of managing change was clear.

The second factors that will be happened in KLIA 2 poor of strategic project
planning. This process to ensure the plans that are put in place effectively streamline and
offer quick responses to any conflict and issues arising out of the competing demand from
external and internal parties.

I also hope that this study provides positive result to improve the contract and
procurement systems for another mega project in Malaysia. This study also can identify and
see the causes of project construction in Malaysia will be delay. In this study also be able to
add a little bit of improvement that should be added to achieve a quality of buildings in
Malaysia.
11

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a more detail information and news about
research. This chapter explains construction projects issues, construction mega project,
procurement management overview, definition of procurements and procurement in the
construction area. Last but not least, challengers arise in managing procurement will be
fully explained in this chapter.
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2.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

Project Management Institute was published the Project Management Body of


Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) in 1996. PMBOK is a collection of process and knowledge
area about the project management profession acceptance as a best practice. PMBOK that is
the knowledge and practice describe the most of project and there is consensus their value
as a good practice. Project Procurement Management includes for ten knowledge areas
contains. The procurement process are interact each other and this process include the other
ten knowledge areas.

Based on the PMBOK Guide 4th Edition Project Procurement Management processes which
include the following:

i. Plan Procurement - the process of documenting project purchasing decision,


specify the approach and identify potential sellers. This process its about what to
require, how to require, how much is needed and when to require it. In this stage,
planning process included some of other committer in the project for example,
project manager and quantity surveyor.
ii. Conduct Procurement - the process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller
and awarding a contract. The process to selecting the best of vendor, the project
team should make the decision.
iii. Administer Procurement - the process managing procurement relationships,
monitoring contract performance and making changes and correction as needed. In
this stage, the project will be started like a schedule planning. Quantity surveyor can
monitor the process order.
iv. Close Procurement - the process of completing every each project procurement.
The last stage also important to make sure the buildings is saving to entrance. The
organization can get the certificate.

Figure 4.2, Flow Procurement Process

Planning Conduct Administer Close


Procurement Procurement Procurement Procurement