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E&LUFXLWRSDUFLDOPHQWHLPHUVRQRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR


  D iUHD dA = h dl GR FLUFXLWR HVWDUi FRQWLGD
1HVWH LQVWDQWH GD GHQWUR GR FDPSR
)LJXUD
PDJQpWLFR $ YDULDomR G
GR
R IOX[R PDJQpWLFR DWUDYpV GR FLUFXLWR QR LQWHUYDOR
LQWHUYDOR GH

WHPSR dt p


(678'248$17,7$7,92'$/(,'()$5$'$< & &
d = B n dA 0 = B n ( h dl ) 0 

9DPRV DJRUD TXDQWLILFDU DV REVHUYDo}HV GH )DUDGD\ &RQVLGHUHPRV XP 

h  H l l > h )  FRP XPD


FLUFXLWR UHWDQJXODU SDUD IDFLOLWDU R FiOFXOR  GH ODGRV HPTXH n pXPYHWRUXQLWiULRSHUSHQGLFXODUDRSODQRGRFLUFXLWR2WHUPR]HURp
2WHUPR]HURp

& SDUDQRVOHPEUDUTXHQDSDUWHH[WHUQD
SDUDQRVOHPEUDUTXHQDSDUWHH[WHUQDRQGHQmRKiFDPSRPDJQpWLFRDYDULDomR
HQmRKiFDPSRPDJQpWLFRDYDULDomR
UHVLVWrQFLD R PRYHQGRVHGDHVTXHUGDSDUDDGLUHLWDQDFRPYHORFLGDGH v  &RPR
GR IOX[R PDJQpWLFR p QXOD (VFROKHQGR R VHQWLGR SRVLWLYR GR XQLWiULR FRLQFLGHQ
FRLQFLGHQWH
SRGHVHUYLVWRQDILJXUDD &
PDJQpWLFD WHPRV TXH B n = B cos 0 = B  $ HTXDomR
FRP R GR YHWRU LQGXomR PDJQpWLFD

DFLPDILFDHQWmR

d = B h dl 


SRLV h pFRQVWDQWH'HDFRUGRFRPDOHLGH)DUDGD\DYDULDomRGR
'HDFRUGRFRPDOHLGH)DUDGD\DYDULDomRGRIOX[RPDJQpWLFR
IOX[RPDJQpWLFR

 DWUDYpVGDiUHDGRFLUFXLWR
FLUFXLWRJHUDXPDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]
)LJXUDD&LUFXLWRHOpWULFRHQWUDQGRHPXPDUHJLmRGHFDPSRPDJQpWLFR 

 
 
d PDJQpWLFR IRU FRQVWDQWH D iUHD GR FLUFXLWR DWUDYpV GD TXDO Ki IOX[R GD LQG
LQGXomR
= [B h dl ] = B h 
d dl
=
dt dt dt PDJQpWLFDQmRHVWiYDULDQGRPDLVRXVHMD
PDJQpWLFDQmRHVWiYDULDQGRPDLVRXVHMD

 

= (h l ) = 0
0DV dl / dt pDWD[DGHDXPHQWRGRFRPSULPHQWRGRFLUFXLWRjPHGLGDTXH
dA d

HOHHQWUDQD UHJLmRGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR&RPRRFLUFXLWRVHPRYHSDUDGHQWURGD
dt dt 
UHJLmRFRPYHORFLGDGH v GHYHPRVWHU 
 4XDQGRRFLUFXLWRVDLGDUHJLmRGHFDPSRPDJQpWLFRDLQGDFRPYHORFLGDGH
4XDQGRRFLUFXLWRVDLGDUHJLmRGHFDPSRPDJQpWLFR DLQGDFRPYHORFLGDGH

dl FRQVWDQWH v  )LJXUDG
G KiYDULDomRGRIOX[RPDJQpWLFRDWUDYpVGHOH1R
KiYDULDomRGRIOX[RPDJQpWLFRDWUDYpVGHOH1R
v= .
dt  LQWHUYDORGHWHPSR dt DH[WUHPLGDGH
DH[WUHPLGDGHGLUHLWDGRFLUFXLWRSHUFRUUHXPDGLVWkQFLD
RSHUFRUUHXPDGLVWkQFLD dl 

 GHL[DQGRXPDiUHD dA = h ( l dl ) GHQWURGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR

$VVLPDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]LQGX]LGDQRFLUFXLWRGHYLGDDRPRYLPHQWRGHOH 

UHODWLYDPHQWHDRFDPSRPDJQpWLFRILFDHQWmR

= B h v 

'H DFRUGR FRP D OHL GH /HQ] HVVD IRUoD HOHWURPRWUL] JHUD XPD FRUUHQWH
LQGX]LGDQRFLUFXLWR$ FRUUHQWHSRUVXDYH]LQGX]XPFDPSRPDJQpWLFRQDiUHD 
)LJXUDG
)LJXUDG&LUFXLWRVDLQGRGDUHJLmRGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR
FXLWRVDLQGRGDUHJLmRGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR
GHOLPLWDGD SHOR FLUFXLWR $ FRUUHQWH GHYH WHU XP VHQWLGR WDO TXH R IOX[R

PDJQpWLFR LQGX]LGR SRU HOD VH RSRQKD DR DXPHQWR GR IOX[R H[LVWHQWH 1D ILJXUD
$YDULDomRGRIOX[R
$YDULDomRGRIOX[RPDJQpWLFRQRLQWHUYDORGHWHPSR dt pHQWmR
pHQWmR
E R DXPHQWR GD iUHD GHQWUR GR FDPSR PDJQpWLFR DXPHQWD R IOX[R 3DUD
FRPSHQVDU R FDPSR PDJQpWLFR LQGX]LGR SHOD FRUUHQWH GHYH WHU VHQWLGR SDUD IRUD 

GDILJXUD$UHJUDGDPmRGLUHLWDQRVLQGLFDHQWmRTXHDFRUUHQWHLQGX]LGDWHPR d = B h (l dl ) B h l = B h dl . 
VHQWLGRDQWLKRUiULRQRFLUFXLWR 
 $OHLGH)DUDGD\QRVGL]TXH
$OHLGH)DUDGD\QRVGL]TXH

d dl
= =Bh
dt dt 

  RXWDOFRPRDQWHULRUPHQWH
RXWDOFRPRDQWHULRUPHQWH
)LJXUD F &LUFXLWR SDUFLDOPHQWH LPHUVR QR FDPSR PDJQpWLFR 2 VHQWLGR GD FRUUHQWH 
LQGX]LGDpPRVWUDGDQRFLUFXLWR
= B h v. 

 
1RWH TXH VRPHQWH KDYHUi YDULDomR GH IOX[R PDJQpWLFR HQTXDQWR R 1RWHTXHDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]LQGX]LGDQRFLUFXLWRTXDQGRHOHHVWiVDLQGRGR
1RWHTXHDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]LQGX]LGDQRFLUFXLWR TXDQGRHOHHVWiVDLQGRGR

FRPSULPHQWR H SRUWDQWR D iUHD  GR FLUFXLWR TXH HVWi GHQWUR GR FDPSR FDPSR
SR PDJQpWLFR WHP VLQDO RSRVWR DR GD IRUoD HOHWURPRWUL]
HOHWURPRWUL] LQGX]LGD TXDQGR R

PDJQpWLFR HVWLYHU YDULDQGR 4XDQGR R FLUFXLWR HVWLYHU WRWDOPHQWH FRQWLGR QR FLUFXLWRHVWiHQWUDQGRQRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR
FLUFXLWRHVWiHQWUDQGRQRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR

FDPSR PDJQpWLFR LVWR p TXDQGR R FRPSULPHQWR GR FLUFXLWR GHQWUR GR FDPSR 

 
 
3(16((5(6321'$ GHFUpVFLPRGDiUHDFRQWLGDGHQWURGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR)LQDOPHQWHTXDQGRWRGRR
 FLUFXLWRVDLGDUHJLmRGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR HP x = D RIOX[RYROWDDVHDQXODUHD
'rDUJXPHQWRVTXHMXVWLILTXHPDLQYHUVmRGRVHQWLGRGDFRUUHQWHLQGX]LGD YDULDomRGRIOX[RWDPEpP2EVHUYHTXHRIDWRGRIOX[RVHU]HURQmRLPSOLFDTXHD

 YDULDomRGRIOX[RWDPEpPVHMDQHFHVVDULDPHQWH]HUR

 

6H R FLUFXLWR HVWLYHU IHFKDGR D FRQFOXVmR TXH FKHJDPRV p TXH D FRUUHQWH


HOpWULFD LQGX]LGD SRU HVWD IRUoD HOHWURPRWUL] TXDQGR R FLUFXLWR HQWUD QR FDPSR
PDJQpWLFR WHP VHQWLGR RSRVWR DR GD FRUUHQWH LQGX]LGD QR FLUFXLWRTXDQGR HVWHVDL
GRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR&RPHIHLWRDRVDLUGDUHJLmRGHFDPSRPDJQpWLFRDiUHDGR
FLUFXLWR GLPLQXL H FRQVHTHQWHPHQWH R IOX[R GLPLQXL $ FRUUHQWH LQGX]LGD GHYH
JHUDU XP FDPSR PDJQpWLFR TXHWHQGH D DXPHQWDU R IOX[RHQWmR RVHQWLGR GHVWH
FDPSRpSDUDGHQWURGDSiJLQDHFRPDUHJUDGDPmRGLUHLWDSRGHPRVYHUTXHR

VHQWLGRGDFRUUHQWHDJRUDpKRUiULR
)LJXUD*UiILFRGRIOX[R
 
&RUUHVSRQGHQGR D HVVD ILJXUD WHPRV TXH D IRUoD HOHWURPRWUL] LQGX]LGD HP
FDGDWUHFKRSRGHVHUUHSUHVHQWDGDQDILJXUD


 
)LJXUDH&LUFXLWRVDLQGRGDUHJLmRGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFRFRPRVHQWLGRGDFRUUHQWH
LQGX]LGDQRFLUFXLWR

$ ILJXUD  PRVWUD R IOX[R PDJQpWLFR HP IXQomR GD SRVLomR GD
H[WUHPLGDGHGLUHLWD GR FLUFXLWR 2 HL[R 2[ FRLQFLGHFRP R ODGRPDLRU GRFLUFXLWRH
WHPRULJHPQDSRVLomRRQGHRFLUFXLWRHQWUDQRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR2FRPSULPHQWR
GDUHJLmRFRPRFDPSRp' 
2 IOX[R PDJQpWLFR DWUDYpV GR FLUFXLWR p ]HUR HQTXDQWR HOH HVWi IRUD GD  )LJXUD*UiILFRGDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]LQGX]LGDQRFLUFXLWR 

UHJLmR GR FDPSR PDJQpWLFR x < 0  2 IOX[R SDVVD D DXPHQWDU j PHGLGD TXH R 

FLUFXLWR FRPHoD D HQWUDU QHVWD UHJLmR 2 DXPHQWR p OLQHDU SRUTXH D YDULDomR GD
iUHD GR FLUFXLWR GHQWUR GR FDPSR PDJQpWLFR p OLQHDU 4XDQGR R FLUFXLWR HVWi WRGR 3(16((5(6321'$
6DEHQGR TXH D GHULYDGD p D WDQJQHWH j FXUYD H[SOLTXH SRUTXH R JUiILFR GD ILJXUD
GHQWUR GR FDPSR HP x = l  R IOX[R GD LQGXomR PDJQpWLFD DWLQJH VHX YDORU
pXPDFRQVWDQWHQHJDWLYDTXDQGRRFLUFXLWRHVWiHQWUH 0 H l HSRVLWLYDHQWUH
Pi[LPR
 D l H D 
= B A = Bhl  



HSHUPDQHFHFRQVWDQWHHQTXDQWRRFLUFXLWRHVWLYHUWRWDOPHQWHGHQWURGDUHJLmRGR
FDPSR PDJQpWLFR HP x = D l  4XDQGR HOH FRPHoD D VDLU GD UHJLmR GR FDPSR
PDJQpWLFR R IOX[R GD LQGXomR PDJQpWLFD SDVVD D GLPLQXLU OLQHDUPHQWH FRP R
 
 
(;(03/2 GXDV IRUoD PDJQpWLFDV QmR PRVWUDGDV QD )LJXUD  GH PHVPD GLUHomR H VHQWLGRV
)RUoDPDJQpWLFDVREUHXPDEDUUDGHVOL]DQWH RSRVWRV TXH SRUWDQWR VH DQXODP H QmR SURGX]HP PRYLPHQWR ODWHUDO GRV WULOKRV
8PDEDUUDGHPDVVD m HFRPSULPHQWR l GHVOL]DVREUHGRLVWULOKRVSDUDOHORVVHP 7DPEpP VREUH RWULOKR SDUDOHOR j EDUUD QmR Ki IRUoD PDJQpWLFD SRUTXH HVWHWULOKR

DWULWRQDSUHVHQoDGHXPFDPSRPDJQpWLFRXQLIRUPHGLULJLGRSHUSHQGLFXODUPHQWH QmRHVWiGHQWURGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR

H HQWUDQGR QR SODQR GD SiJLQD )LJXUD   $ EDUUD UHFHEH XPD YHORFLGDGH 

LQLFLDO v0  H GHSRLV VH GHVORFD VREUH RV WULOKRV $FKDU D YHORFLGDGH GD EDUUD HP &RPRDIRUoDPDJQpWLFDpD~QLFDIRUoDSDUDOHODDRPRYLPHQWRGDEDUUDTXHDWXD
VREUHHODSHODVHJXQGDOHLGH1HZWRQWHPRV
IXQomRGRWHPSR


dp
 = I h B
dt 

0DVVDEHPRVTXHDFRUUHQWHLQGX]LGDp

Bhv
I= = ,
R R 
 
)LJXUD%DUUDGHVOL]DQWHHPFDPSRPDJQpWLFR RQGH R pDUHVLVWrQFLDGRFLUFXLWR WULOKRVHEDUUD 6XEVWLWXLQGR I QDH[SUHVVmRGD
 VHJXQGDOHLGH1HZWRQREWHPRV
6ROXomR 

Bhv
(hB ) 
d (mv)
(VWHH[HPSORpVHPHOKDQWHDRFDVRGRFLUFXLWRTXHHQWUDHPXPDUHJLmRFRQWHQGR =
dt R
RFDPSRPDJQpWLFRTXHGLVFXWLPRVORJRDFLPD1RWHTXHjPHGLGDTXHDEDUUDVH
d ( mv ) B 2h 2
GHVORFD SDUD D GLUHLWD D iUHD GH FDPSR PDJQpWLFR GHQWUR GR FLUFXLWR DXPHQWD = v
dt R
1RWH WDPEpP TXH GH DFRUGR FRP D OHL GH /HQ] D FRUUHQWH LQGX]LGD WHP VHQWLGR
RX
DQWLKRUiULR
$IRUoDPDJQpWLFDTXHDWXDVREUHDEDUUDp d ( mv) B2h2
= dt.
v R 
 
& & & ,QWHJUDQGR
Fm = I h B 
& v dv B 2h 2 t
RQGH h  p R FRPSULPHQWR GD EDUUD R YHWRU h  WHP R PHVPR VHQWLGR GD FRUUHQWH v0 v
=
mR 0 
dt

HOpWULFD$GLUHomRHRVHQWLGRGDIRUoDPDJQpWLFDVREUHDEDUUDVmRREWLGRVFRPD
REWHPRVTXH
UHJUD GD PmR GLUHLWD GR SURGXWR YHWRULDO H VmR PRVWUDGRV QD )LJXUD  2
v B 2h2
PyGXORGDIRUoDPDJQpWLFDp 1n = t.
v0 mR 
 
| Fm |= I h B sen 90 = I h B  )D]HQGR

 B 2h 2
=
RQGHRVLQDOQHJDWLYRPRVWUDTXHHODYDLWHQGHUD   RPRYLPHQWRGDEDUUD
mR 
6REUH D SDUWH GRV WULOKRV SDUDOHORV TXH HVWmR GHQWUR GR FDPSR PDJQpWLFR DWXDP REWHPRV

 
 
v t
1n =

v0 
RX

v = v0 e t/ .



3RUWDQWR D YHORFLGDGH GD EDUUD GLPLQXL H[SRQHQFLDOPHQWH FRP R WHPSR
)LJXUD&LUFXLWRVHGVORFDQGRFRPYHORFLGDGH
)LJXUD&LUFXLWRVHGVORFDQGRFRPYHORFLGDGHFRQVWDQWHHVDLQGRGRFDPSRPDJQ
RQVWDQWHHVDLQGRGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR
&RQKHFHQGR v SRGHPRVWDPEpPGHWHUPLQDUDFRUUHQWHHOpWULFDLQGX]LGD


7DOFRPRQR([HPSOR
[HPSORRFLUFXLWRVHPRYHSDUDDGLUHLWDHKiXPDIRUoD
Bhv
 I = PDJQpWLFDDWXDQGRVREUH
VREUHHOH GHYLGRjFRUUHQWHLQGX]LGD FXMRPyGXORp
FXMRPyGXORp
R 


Fm = I h B , 
B h v0 e t/
I= . 
 R 
HTXHWHQGHD  

  FLUFXLWRVHGHVORFD
 

  3RUWDQWRVHRFLUFXLWR

SDUDDGLUHLWDDIRUoDH[WHUQD
DIRUoDH[WHUQDSDUDD  GHYHWHUPyGXOR I h B SDUDPDQWHUR
8PDRXWUDREVHUYDomRLPSRUWDQWHpTXHRFLUFXLWRWHQGHDSDUDUGHQWURGRFDPSR
FLUFXLWR VH PRYHQGR FRP YHORFLGDGH FRQVWDQWH $
$ LQMHomR GH SRWrQFLD SHOD IRUoD
PDJQpWLFR$OpPGLVVRSDUDTXHHOHVHGHVORTXHGHQWURGRFDPSRPDJQpWLFR
H[WHUQD VREUH R FLUFXLWR DSDUHFH QR DTXHFLPHQWR GRV ILRV GHYLGR j UH
UHVLVWrQFLD
FRPYHORFLGDGHFRQVWDQWHpSUHFLVRTXHXPDIRUoDH[WHUQDVHMDDSOLFDGDD
 HOpWULFDGHOHV$LQMHomRGHSRWrQFLDQRFLUFXLWRp
$LQMHomRGHSRWrQFLDQRFLUFXLWRp
HOHFRPGLUHomRLJXDOjGDIRUoDPDJQpWLFDHVHQWLGRRSRVWRDRGHOD


  P = F v = ( I h B) v. 
$WLYLGDGH 
&DOFXOHDIHPLQGX]LGDQDEDUUDGRH[HPSOR 'DFRQVHUYDomRGDHQHUJLDYHPTXH
'DFRQVHUYDomRGDHQHUJLDYHPTXH
 
  I 2 R = I h B v, 
)25d$(/(7520275,=(&255(17(,1'8=,'$


GHRQGHVHWLUDTXH
3DUD VDEHUPRV FRPR HVWD FRUUHQWH RX IRUoD HOHWURPRWUL] LQGX]LGD p

SURGX]LGD YDPRV DQDOLVDU R TXH RFRUUH VRE D OX] GDV OHLV GH 1HZWRQ H GD
I R = B h v = .
FRQVHUYDomRGDHQHUJLD$)LJXUDPRVWUDXPFLUFXLWRVDLQGRFRPYHORFLGDGH
& 
FRQVWDQWH v GHXPDUHJLmRRQGHKiXPFDPSRPDJQpWLFRXQLIRUPHGHLQGXomR B 
& YHPRVSHOREDODQoRGHHQHUJLDGRFLUFXLWRTXHDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]
(QWmRYHPRVSHOREDODQoRGH HQHUJLDGRFLUFXLWRTXHDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]
3DUDTXHDYHORFLGDGHVHMDFRQVWDQWHXPDIRUoD F H[WHUQDpDSOLFDGDDRFLUFXLWR WHPGHVHUDTXHODTXHFDOFXODPRV
WHPGHVHUDTXHODTXHFDOFXODPRVGLUHWDPHQWHSHODOHLGH)DUDGD\RXVHMD
GH)DUDGD\RXVHMD
SHUSHQGLFXODUPHQWHDRODGRGHFRPSULPHQWR h  

 = Ri = Bhv 

$RXWUDSHUJXQWDTXHVXUJHp
$RXWUDSHUJXQWDTXHVXUJHp4XHPID]HVVHWUDEDOKR"&HUWDPHQWH
&HUWDPHQWHQmR
pDIRUoDPDJQpWLFDTXH   H[WHUQD
  SURGX]WUDEDOKRUHVWDDIRUoDH[WHUQ

 
 
&RPR ILFDP DV IRUoDV H D FRQVHUYDomR GH HQHUJLD GR SRQWR GH YLVWD 
GHXPHOpWURQQRILRGRFLUFXLWR" f r = f m sin . 


6H SRU H[HPSOR D FRUUHQWH HOpWULFD QR ILR YHUWLFDO GH FRPSULPHQWR l GD $VVLP R WUDEDOKR HIHWXDGR VREUH R HOpWURQ p IHLWR SHOD IRUoD GH UHDomR GDV
HVTXHUGDHVWiGLULJLGDSDUDFLPDVLJQLILFDTXHRVHOpWURQVGHVORFDPVHSDUDEDL[R &
SDUHGHV f r 4XDQGRRHOpWURQVHGHVORFDSDUDEDL[RQRILRHVWHGHVORFDVHSDUDD

9LVWRSRUXPREVHUYDGRUHPUHSRXVRUHODWLYDPHQWHDRFDPSRPDJQpWLFRD GLUHLWD SRUWDQWR R HOpWURQ VHJXH XPD WUDMHWyULD LQFOLQDGD GH FRPSULPHQWR S  WDO
YHORFLGDGHGHXPGDGRHOpWURQGDFRUUHQWHHOpWULFDpDVRPDGHGXDVFRPSRQHQWHV TXH
&
XPDFRPSRQHQWHYHUWLFDOSDUDEDL[RGHQWURGRILRDYHORFLGDGHGHDUUDVWH v d  

H XPD FRPSRQHQWH KRUL]RQWDO v  LJXDO j YHORFLGDGH GR FLUFXLWR H GLULJLGD SDUD D


 l = S sen . 
& 
GLUHLWDQDILJXUD$YHORFLGDGH  ve  GRHOpWURQUHODWLYDDRREVHUYDGRU
2 WUDEDOKR HIHWXDGR VREUH R HOpWURQ j PHGLGD TXH HOH SHUFRUUH R
ID]HQWmRXPkQJXOR FRPDKRUL]RQWDOFRPRPRVWUDDILJXUDD
FRPSULPHQWRWRWDOGRILR l = S sen p



W = f r cos S = ( f m sen ) cos S = ( f m cos ) ( sen ) S = f m cos l 

W = ( f m cos ) ( sen ) S 

W = f m cos l 
RX


W = e ve B cos l = e B ( ve cos ) = e B v l 

  W = e B (ve cos ) 


)LJ D 9HORFLGDGHVGHHOHWURQQRFRQGXWRU E IRUoDVHQYROYLGDVQRFRQGXWRU
W = e Bvl 

W
7HPRVHQWmR = Bvl
e 

W
ve cos = v  =
e 

& & & 
$IRUoDPDJQpWLFD f m = e v e B TXHDWXDVREUHRHOpWURQ p   D
3RUWDQWRYHPRVTXHRWUDEDOKRSRUXQLGDGHGHFDUJDpDIRUoDHOHWURPRWUL]
&
ve  ILJXUDD HSRUWDQWRQmRUHDOL]DWUDEDOKRVREUHHOHHODDSHQDVGR = B v l GHDFRUGRFRPRUHVXOWDGRGDOHLGH)DUDGD\
FDPLQKRGRHOpWURQ(QWUHWDQWRRHOpWURQWHPTXHVHGHVORFDUDRORQJRGRILRSRLV 
FDVR FRQWUiULR HOH VDLULD GR ILR HP DOJXP PRPHQWR 3DUD TXH D WUDMHWyULD GR *(5$'25(6(02725(6
&
HOpWURQUHODWLYDPHQWHDRILRVHMDSDUDOHODDRILRpSUHFLVRKDYHUXPDIRUoD f r TXH 
& $/HLGH)DUDGD\WHPXPDLPSRUWkQFLDSUiWLFDPXLWRJUDQGH(ODGHVFUHYH
HTXLOLEUH D FRPSRQHQWH GH f m SHUSHQGLFXODU DR ILR FRPR PRVWUDGR QD )LJXUD

R IHQ{PHQRGDLQGXomRHOHWURPDJQpWLFD TXH HVWiQDEDVHGH XPQ~PHURHQRUPH
E (VVD IRUoD p D IRUoD GH UHDomR GDV SDUHGHVGR ILRVREUH R HOpWURQ (QWmR
GH PiTXLQDV (VVDV PiTXLQDV SRGHPVHUFODVVLILFDGDV EDVLFDPHQWHHP GRLVWLSRV
SRGHPRVHVFUHYHUTXH

 
 
RVJHUDGRUHVHRPRWRUHV d [cos ( t )]
= NBA
  dt 
(P TXDOTXHU GRV FDVRV R SULQFtSLR GH IXQFLRQDPHQWR p R VHJXLQWH GHQWUR = N B A sin ( t ).
GH XPJUDQGH tPmFRORFDPVHHVSLUDVTXHSRGHPJLUDUHPWRUQRGHVHXHL[RGH  

VLPHWULD 1DV XVLQDV GH IRUoD D HQHUJLD QHFHVViULDSDUD JLUDU D HVSLUD SRGH SURYLU
(VWH UHVXOWDGR PRVWUD TXH D IRUoD HOHWURPRWUL] YDULD VHQRLGDOPHQWH FRP R
GH YiULDV IRQWHV SRU H[HPSOR QXPD XVLQD KLGUHOpWULFD D iJXD GH XPD TXHGD
WHPSRHWHPYDORUPi[LPR
G
iJXDpGLULJLGDFRQWUDDVSDOKHWDVGHXPDWXUELQDDILPGHSURYRFDURPRYLPHQWR

URWDWyULR QXPD XVLQD WHUPHOpWULFD R FDORU GD TXHLPD GH FDUYmR RX GH yOHR
 max = NBA ,
FRQYHUWHDiJXDHPYDSRUG
iJXDHHVVHYDSRUpGLULJLGRFRQWUDDVSDOKHWDVGHXPD 

WXUELQD 

 TXHRFRUUHTXDQGR t = 90 RX 270 (PRXWUDVSDODYUDV = max TXDQGRR


4XDQGR D HVSLUD JLUD QR FDPSR PDJQpWLFR GR tPm R IOX[R PDJQpWLFR FDPSRPDJQpWLFRHVWLYHUQRSODQRGDERELQDHDWD[DGHYDULDomRGRIOX[R
DWUDYpV GD PHVPD VH DOWHUD FRP R WHPSR H QXP FLUFXLWR H[WHUQR VH LQGX] XPD IRU Pi[LPD $OpP GLVVR = 0  VH t = 0  RX 180  LVWR p TXDQGR B  IRU
FRUUHQWH SHUSHQGLFXODUDRSODQRGDERELQDHDWD[DGHYDULDomRGRIOX[RIRUQXOD
 
$IUHTXrQFLDGHVVHVJHUDGRUHVpGDRUGHPGH+](VVDpDIUHTXrQFLDTXH
DOLPHQWDQRVVDVOkPSDGDV



$7,9,'$'(


3RUTXHQmRYHPRVDVOkPSDGDVSLVFDUHPFRPIUHTXrQFLDGHYH]HVVHJXQGR"
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