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PROJECT REPORT 2016

DOUBLE ACTING HACKSAW USING SCOTCH YOKE


MECHANISM
A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENT
FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
From
M.M.M.UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,GORAKHPUR
By
Shubham Pandey 1204240049
Devendra Singh 1204231029
Nirbhay Singh 1204240036
Neelesh Kumar 1204240034

Under the Supervision


Of
Shri DEVESH KUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


MADAN MOHAN MALVIYA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Gorakhpur (UP), India

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Shubham Pandey, Devendra Singh, Neelesh Kumar,

Nirbhay Singh, have carried out B.TECH Project and submitted entitled

"DOUBLE ACTING HACKSAW USING SCOTCH YOKE MECHANISM "

in the partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in

Mechanical Engineering from Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology,

Gorakhpur under my supervision during the academic session 2015-2016. The

project embodies result of original work and studies carried out of the students and

contents of the project do not form the award of any other degree to the candidate or

to anybody else.

Signature of the supervisor

DATED: 9/11/2015 Shri Devesh Kumar


Mechanical Department

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives us immense pleasure to present this report of our work on the project entitled as

"DOUBLE ACTING HACKSAW USING SCOTCH YOKE MECHANISM". We are highly

grateful to our guide Shri Devesh Kumar, Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical

Engineering for her keen interest, invaluable guidance and constant encouragement and perpetual

support which were instrumental in making this project successful.

We are highly obliged to Dr. S.K.Srivastava, Chairman Project and Head of the Department

of Mechanical Engineering. He has been constant source of inspiration to us and was extremely

patient in solving our numerous problems. Without his help and guidance this project could not

have been successful.

DATED: 9/11/2015

Shubham Pandey 1204240049


Devendra Singh 12042431029
Neelesh Kumar 1204240034

Nirbhay Singh 1204240036

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ABSTRACT

Increasing the productivity is one of the main requirements of production


engineering in any kind of manufacturing industry. Either by reducing the operation
time or by improving the capability of the machine to produce the components in
an increased number at the same time is very essential for an industry to achieve
the same. This project employs the Scotch yoke mechanism in power hacksaw
machine which enables it to cut two components at a time thereby improving the
productivity. In todays world time a machine should be less time consuming.
Power hacksaw cut one piece at one time so there was a loss in production rate.
Double acting power hacksaw overcome this time consuming problem. Power
hacksaw is a fine tooth power saw with blade held under tension in the frame.
Double acting power hacksaw cuts two material simultaneously by its scotch yoke
mechanism, so the production rate increase twice then that of power hacksaw.
Double acting power hacksaw works under by the scotch yoke mechanism. The
scotch yoke mechanism convert the rotary motion into the reciprocating motion.

******

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CONTENTS

PAGE NO.
CHAPTER 1. Introduction about the Project
1.1 Scotch yoke mechanism 8
1.2 History 9

CHAPTER 2. Mechanism
2.1 Principle 9
2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 10
2.3 Mathematical explanation 10
2.4 Advantage of Simple Harmonic Motion 12
2.5 Force analysis for scotch yoke mechanism 13
Using the principle of virtual work

CHAPTER 3. Construction

3.1 Construction 16
3.2 DC Motor 18
3.2.1 Principle of DC motor 19
3.3 Pulley 21
3.4 Bearing 22
3.5 Shaft 22
3.6 Hacksaw 23
3.7 V-belt 23

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CHAPTER 4. Parts Required

4.1 List of Parts using in the machine 26

CHAPTER 5. Prototype Building

5.1 Framework 27
5.2 Scotch yoke Mechanism 27
5.3 Work table 28

CHAPTER 6. Cost Estimation

6.1 Introduction 29
6.2 What is project cost estimation? 29
6.3 Purpose of cost estimating 30
6.4 Cost element 31
6.5 Type of Cost estimation 32
6.5.1 Material cost estimation 32
6.5.2 Machining cost estimation 33
6.6 Calculation of material cost 34
6.7 Cost table Estimation 35
6.8 Total cost estimation 36

REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES

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FIG. NO DESCRIPTIO OF FIGURE PAGE NO


1. Crank- slider mechanism 10

2. Simple harmonic motion 11


3. Displacement vs Rotation 12
4. Acceleration vs Rotation 12
5. Force analysis 13
6. Double Acting Hacksaw 16
7. Machine component 17

8. Sectional view of DC motor 20


9. Pulley and V-belt 21

10. Scotch yoke mechanism 25

INTRODUCTION

In this project, we have designed a double acting hacksaw machine. In industries


saving the time and saving the manpower is an important thing all over the world.

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To satisfy the needs of the industries, we have designed a machine. The machine is
exclusively intended for the mass production and they represent fast and more
effective way to cut the materials. There are numerous types of cutting machines
in engineering field, which are useful in fulfilling the requirements. This new
machine is used to avoid the energy loss and save time. Scotch yoke mechanism is
used for this purpose.

2: SCOTCH YOKE MECHANISM-

The Scotch yoke mechanism is a reciprocating motion mechanism, converting the


linear motion of a slider into rotational motion, or vice versa. The piston or other
reciprocating part is directly coupled to a sliding yoke with a slot that engages a pin
on the rotating part. In many internal combustion engines, linear motion is
converted into rotational motion by means of a crankshaft, a piston and a rod that
connects them. The Scotch yoke is considered to be a more efficient means of
producing the rotational motion as it spends more time at the high point of its
rotation than a piston and it has fewer parts.

HISTORY-

This linkage was called by Scotsman in 1869 a crank and a lot headed rod but now

it is known as Scotch yoke mechanism because, in America at least, a scotch was a

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slotted bar that was slipped under a collar on a string of well drilling tools to support

them while a section was being added.

In 1940, Russell Bourke applied this mechanism to internal combustion engine


called Bourke 30 Engine.

MECHANISM-

This Mechanism is an inversion of Double Slider Crank Mechanism.The inversion is

obtained by fixing either the link 1 or link 3.In figure, link 1 is fixed.In this

mechanism when the link 2 (which corresponds to crank) rotates about B as

centre,the link 4(which corresponds to the frame) reciproctes. The fixed link 1

guides the frame.

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Credit: google images

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION-

This mechanism converts the rotary motion into the translatory motion which is

simple harmonic in nature.

Mathematical Explanation-

Suppose crankshaft is rotating at an angular velocity w.

If r is the radius of crank then,

Tangential velocity, V=rw

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Credit- Google images

From the mechanism, we have the following relations-

Component of tangential velocity in Y-direction is given by,

U=Reciprocating velocity of U-slot.

If a is the angle made by the tangential velocity with X-axis at any point of time,

Component of tangential velocity in Y-direction is

U=rw sin (a)

U=v sin (a)

So, Velocity of U-slot=V sin a

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As a result, Velocity of U-slot is a function of sine function of a.

Now, as we know that a is directly proportional to the time. This implies that the
velocity of u-slot is a sine function of a so the motion of U-slot is a simple
harmonic motion.

ADVANTAGE OF SHM-
The sinusoidal motion, the sinusoidal velocity, the sinusoidal acceleration
(assuming constant angular velocity) results in smoother operation of the
mechanism.

credit: Google images

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Force Analysis for Scotch Yoke Mechanism using the Principle of Virtual Work

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CONSTRUCTION
Machine has the prime mover at the bottom of the machine. The
pulley is attached to the body at the top and end of the side
portion. Pulley is connected with disc type plate. The pulley and
disc has separate connection with one small metal rod through
the bearings.

Figure 1. Double acting hacksaw using


Scotch Yoke mechanism

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Motor and pulley is connected with one V type belt. The clamp
is fixed with the disc and at the end of two shafts. Hack saw
connected to the each shaft at the end.
Construction of double acting hacksaw using scotch yoke
mechanism consist the following components.
1. DC Motor
2. Pulleys
3. Bearings
4. Shaft
5. Hack saw
6. V belt

Figure 2. Front view of double acting hacksaw using scotch


yoke mechanism

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1. DC motors

At the most basic level, electric motors exist to convert electrical


energy into mechanical energy. This is done by way of two
interacting magnetic fields - one stationary, and another attached
to a part that can move. A number of types of electric motors
exist, but most BEAM bots use DC motors in some form or
another. DC motors have the potential for very high torque
capabilities (although this is generally a function of the physical
size of the motor), are easy to miniaturize, and can be "throttled"
via adjusting their supply voltage.

DC motors are also not only the simplest, but the oldest electric
motors. The basic principles of electromagnetic induction were
discovered in the early 1800's by Oersted, Gauss, and Faraday.
By 1820, Hans Christian Oersted and Andre Marie Amperehad
discovered that an electric current produces a magnetic field.
The next 15 years saw a flurry of cross-Atlantic experimentation
and innovation, leading finally to a simple DC rotary motor. A
number of men were involved in the work, so proper credit for
the first DC motor is really a function of just how broadly you
choose to define the word "motor.

A DC motor is a mechanically commutated electric motor


powered from direct current (DC). The stator is stationary in
space by definition and therefore so is its current. The current in
the rotor is switched by the commutator to also be stationary in
space. This is how the relative angle between the stator and rotor
magnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees, which generates

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the maximum torque. DC motors have a rotating armature


winding but non-rotating armature magnetic field and a static
field winding or permanent magnet. Different connections of the
field and armature winding provide different inherent
speed/torque regulation characteristics. The speed of a DC
motor can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the
armature or by changing the field current. The introduction of
variable resistance in the armature circuit or field circuit allowed
speed control. Modern DC motors are often controlled by
power electronics systems called DC drives

1.1. Principles of Operation of DC Motor


In any electric motor, operation is based on simple
electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a
magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic
field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the
conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As
you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid,
opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like
polarities (North and North, South and South) repel.

The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness


the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor
and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion.
Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here
red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization,
while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South"
polarization).

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Figure: 2 Sectional view of DC Motor

Every DC motor has six basic parts: axle, rotor (a.k.a.,


armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In
most common DC motors (and all that Beamers will see), the
external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent
magnets. The stator is the stationary part of the motor, this
includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent
magnet pole pieces.

The rotors (together with the axle and attached commutator)


rotate with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings
(generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected
to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor
layout with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.

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2. PULLEY
A pulley is a basic device or machine made of a wheel with a
rim that a cord or rope fits around. The wheel and axle of a
pulley make it easier to lift heavy objects with the rope.
V belts solved the slippage and alignment problem. It is now
the basic belt for power transmission. They provide the best
combination of traction, speed of movement, load of the
bearings, and long service life. They are generally endless,
and their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal (hence
the name "V"). The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating
groove in the pulley (or sheave), with the result that the belt
cannot slip off. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove
as the load increasesthe greater the load, the greater
solution, needing less width and tension than flat belts.

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3. BEARING
A Bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion
to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving
parts. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for
free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation
around a fixed axis; or it may prevent a motion by controlling
the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts.

4. SHAFT
The term shaft usually refers to a rotating element, circular in
cross-section, which supports transmission element like gears,
pulleys and sprockets and transmits power. The shaft is always
stepped with maximum diameter in the middle portion and
minimum diameter at two ends, where bearings are mounted.

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5. HACKSAW
A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally for
cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as
plastic and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often
cut plastic pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand
saw versions and powered versions (power hacksaws). Most
hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a
blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a
pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade.
The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of
different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the
thin blade under tension.

6. V BELT
V belts (also style V-belts, vee belts, or, less commonly, wedge
rope) solved the slippage and alignment problem. It is now the
basic belt for power transmission. They provide the best
combination of traction, speed of movement, load of the
bearings, and long service life. They are generally endless, and
their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal (hence the name
"V"). The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating groove in the
pulley (or sheave), with the result that the belt cannot slip off.

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The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as the load
increasesthe greater the load, the greater the wedging action
improving torque transmission and making the V-belt an
effective solution, needing less width and tension than flat belts.
. V-belts trump flat belts with their small center distances and
high reduction ratios. The preferred center distance is larger than
the largest pulley diameter, but less than three times the sum of
both pulleys. Optimal speed range is 1,0007,000 ft/min (300
2,130 m/min). V-belts need larger pulleys for their thicker cross-
section than flat belts.

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CONSTRUCTION OF SCOTCH YOKE MECHANISM


The scotch yoke mechanism is constructed with iron bars. Here
the crank is made in some length and the yoke is also made
using the same material. It is noted that the minimum length of
the yoke should be double the length of the crank. The crank and
yoke is connected with a pin.

Figure: Scotch yoke mechanism

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Iron bars are welded to both sides of the yoke to get the
reciprocating motion. The yoke with the iron bars is fixed on the
display board with the help of c clamp. Now the crank is welded
to the end of the shaft of the motor. Now the pin on the crank is
connected to the yoke. The pin used to connect yoke and crank
is a bolt.

PARTS REQUIRED
Following parts are needed for construction of the construction
of Double acting hacksaw using scotch yoke mechanism.
1. D.C. Motor
2. Aluminum strips with holes
3. Power supply
4. Square tubes
5. Hacksaw
6. Nut-bolts
7. Switches
8. Plywood
9. Slots and guides
10. Pulley and belts
11. Miscellaneous

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PROTOTYPE BUILDING:

A sample prototype was constructed with the following specification and


governing parameter were calculated.

Known Parameters:
1. Frame Work
Length: 68.5 cm
Breadth: 18.5 cm
Height: 71 cm
2. Scotch Yoke Mechanism

Tube length: 85.5cm


Tube diameter: 2.5cm
Disc: 14cm
Slider height: 13cm
Slider width: 5cm
Rectangular frame length: 68.5cm
Rectangular frame height: 36cm

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3. Work Table

Table diameter: 7.5cm


Supporting link length: 18cm
Supporting link height: 13cm

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COST ESTIMATION:

INTRODUCTION: -

Cost estimation may be defined as the process of forecasting the

expenses that must be incurred to manufacture a product. These

expenses take into a consideration all expenditure involved in a design

and manufacturing with all related services facilities such as pattern

making, tool, making as well as a portion of the general administrative

and selling costs.

What is a Project Cost Estimate?

A project cost estimate is a prediction of the most likely total cost of

the identified scope of work for a project. Cost estimates should reflect

an overall accuracy indicative of the level of information available at the

time the estimate is prepared.

Project cost estimates are based on identifying, quantifying and

estimating the cost of consuming all the resources (e.g. people,


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machines, materials, services, property) required to complete all

activities (e.g. planning, engineering, property acquisition, construction,

etc.) including appropriate allowances for associated risks and

uncertainty (contingency), using prices prevailing at the time the

estimate is prepared.

Each project is unique. To accurately develop an estimate of costs for a

project an estimator must be capable of mentally constructing the

project, accounting for all the activities necessary to complete it, and

then estimating the costs using prices prevailing at the time the estimate

is prepared. Many of the best cost estimators are knowledgeable in both

transportation design and construction.

PURPOSE OF COST ESTIMATING:

The primary purpose of a project cost estimate is to provide a basis for

developing, amending, or reviewing a project budget.

A cost estimate is a key component of the project business cases, as it is

the foremost document to justify/support the funding allocation. Cost

estimates are also used in value analysis/value engineering, and program

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planning in the Ministrys capital investment plans.

1. To determine the selling price of a product for a quotation or contract

so as to ensure a reasonable profit to the company.

2. Check the quotation supplied by vendors.

3. Determine the most economical process or material to manufacture

the product.

4. To determine standards of production performance that may be used

to control the cost

...a project manager is only as good as the cost estimate...

COST ELEMENTS:

The Cost Elements are the major categories of work that make up the

project. The vast majority of MOTI capital and rehabilitation projects

generally entail the same fundamental cost elements regardless of

delivery method.

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Cost Elements:

1. Project Management

2. Planning

3. Engineering

4. Environment

5. Property Acquisition

6. Construction (including site supervision)

7. Contingency

TYPES OF COST ESTIMATION:-

1. Material cost

2. Machining cost

MATERIAL COST ESTIMATION:

Material cost estimation gives the total amount required to collect the

raw material which has to be processed or fabricated to desired size and

functioning of the components.

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These materials are divided into two categories-

1. Material for fabrication:

In this the material in obtained in raw condition and is manufactured or

processed to finished size for proper functioning of the component.

Standard purchased parts:

This includes the parts which was readily available in the market

like Allen screws etc. A list in orchard by the estimation stating the

quality, size and standard parts, the weight of raw material and cost

per kg. For the fabricated parts.

MACHINING COST ESTIMATION:

This cost estimation is an attempt to forecast the total expenses that may

include to manufacture apart from material cost. Cost estimation of

manufactured parts can be considered as judgment on and after careful

consideration which includes lab our, material and factory services

required to produce the required.

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CALCULATION OF MATERIAL COST:


The general procedure for calculation of material cost estimation is
1. After designing a project a bill of material is prepared which is
divided into two categories.
a. Fabricated components
b. Standard purchased components
2. The rates of all standard items are taken and added up.
3. Cost of raw material purchased taken and added up.

Cost estimation is done as under:

Cost of project = (A) material cost + (B) Machining cost + (C) labour
cost

(A) Material cost is calculated as under:-

i) Raw material cost

ii) Finished product cost

i) Raw material cost:-

It includes the material in the form of the Material supplied by the Steel

authority of India limited as the round bars Channels, angles, square

rods, plates along with the strip material form. We have to search for the

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suitable available material as per the requirement of designed safe

values.

ii) Finished product cost:-

Following the components which we have directly purchased from the

Market, being easily available and cheaply availably available as

compared to their manufacturing cost.

COST TABLE ESTIMATE

S.NO COMPONENTS COST IN RUPEES


1 DC Motor 2000.00
2 Aluminum strips and iron rods 800
3 Square table (base) 500.00
4 Hack-Saw (2) 200.00
5 Nut Bolt 100.00
5 Switches 50.00
6 Plywood 500.00
7 Pulley & Disc plate 400.00
8 Other stuffs 300
9 Power supply Block As per required
Total 4850.00

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TOTAL COST ESTIMATION:


1. Labour Cost:
Lathe, drilling, welding and power hacksaw cost

Labour cost Rs.800


2. Overhead charges:
The overhead charges are arrived by manufacturing
cost

Manufacturing cost = Material cost + Labour cost


= Rs.4850 + Rs.800
= Rs.5050

Overhead charges = 20% of the manufacturing cost


= Rs.1010

2. Total Cost:
Total cost = Material cost + Labour Cost + Overhead
charges
=Rs.4850 + Rs.800 + Rs.1010
=Rs.6660
Total cost of the project = Rs.6660

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ADVANTAGE:
High torque output with a small cylinder size.
Fewer moving parts.
Smoother operation
Higher percentage of the time spent at top dead centre (dwell)
improving theoretical engine efficiency of constant volume
combustion cycle though actual gains have not been demonstrated.
In an engine application, elimination of joints typically served by a
wrist pin, and near elimination of piston skirt and cylinder
scuffing, as side loading of piston due to sine of connecting rod
angle is eliminated.

DISADVANTAGE:

Rapid wear of the slot in the yoke caused by sliding friction and
high contact pressure.
Increased heat loss during combustion due to extended dwell at top
dead center offsets any constant volume combustion improvements
in real engines.

APPLICATION:

This setup is most commonly used in control valve actuators in


high pressure oil and gas pipelines.
It has been used in various internal combustion engines, such as
the Bourke engine, Sytech engine and many hot air engines and
steam engines.
It is also used in multipurpose machine and I.C. engines.

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References

"The SyTech Scotch Yoke Engine". Auto Speed. Retrieved 2008-07-08.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotch_yoke
http://link.springer.com/article
https://www.scribd.com/Scotch-Yoke-Mechanism
http://gogogadgetscott.info/engineering/alfredstate/EMET3424/Lab7_SCOT
CH_YOKE_MEASUREMENTS.pdf
http://www.mechengg.net/2015/08/double-acting-hack-saw-machine-
operated.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsaoTo1vuY4
https://www.scribd.com/doc/91644590/Project-Report
http://topicideas.org/ppt/scotch-yoke-mechanism-report-in-mini-project-in-
pdf
https://www.nmri.go.jp/eng/khirata/stirling/scotch/scotch00_e.html
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms-Ghosh & Mallik
Theory of Machines Khurmi & Gupta
Theory of Machines-S.S. Rattan

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