Anda di halaman 1dari 6

3/15/2017 AdvancedNDTMethods1ShortNotesonPAUTandTOFD|DharmveerSingh|Pulse|LinkedIn

Advanced NDT Methods - 1 Short Notes


on PAUT and TOFD
Published on February 25, 2017

Dharmveer Singh 43 8 6
Production Quality Control Manager at GE Power

INTRODUCTION:

Radiographictechniquesforindustrialinspectionhavebeeninuseforover100years.A
keyfactorintheirdurabilityhasbeentheeaseandeffectivenessoftheinspection
procedure,includingtheavailabilityofopticalqualityimagesthatfacilitate
interpretation.Duetoconcernssuchastheradiationhazardposedbyradiographic
imagingsystems,nuclearpowerplantindustryhasexpressedinterestinreplacement
methodsforradiographictesting(RT).

PracticalProblemsinRT

Radiationsafety,Licensing,Chemicalwastes.

Disruptiontoworkarea,Subjectiveinterpretation.

Largevolumesoffilm,Filmstorageanddeterioration.

Relativelyslowinspection,Increasedresourcecosts.

RTcannotsizeinverticalplane,RTpooratdetectingplanardefects.

EarlyProposalforReplacementofRTbyConventionalUT

ConventionalUltrasonictesting(UT)hadbeenproposedasapotentialreplacement
method.BothRTandUTarebothvolumetricnondestructiveevaluation(NDE)
methods.Bykeepingvariousexperiment,itwasseenthatultrasonictesting(UT)inlieu
ofRTfornewconstructionisfeasible.UTistypicallyperformedineitherthrough
transmissionmode(twotransducerslocatedonoppositesidesofthecomponent)or
pulseechomode(onetransducerlocatedononesideofthecomponent).

AdvantageofUToverRT

Betterdetectionofplanarflawsgenerally,Betterdetectionofdisorientedflaws,No
environmentalsideeffects.Tailoredinspections

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advancedndtmethods1shortnotespauttofddharmveersingh?trk=vfeed&lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_feed%3B 1/6
3/15/2017 AdvancedNDTMethods1ShortNotesonPAUTandTOFD|DharmveerSingh|Pulse|LinkedIn

DisadvantageofUToverRT

Nopermanentrecord,Operatordependent,Slow,Forinspectors,witnessisonlywayto
ensurethecompliancewhichisverymuchtimetaking.

ConventionalUTconsistsofapulseechomodeofinspection,withmanualscanningof
theweld.Inthe1970sautomatedtechniquesforscanningtheweldanddisplayingthe
datawereintroduced,withadvancesinthelate1970sincludingtimeofflight
diffractiontechniquesforflawdetectionandsizing.Multiprobeautomatedultrasonic
testingsystemswereintroducedinthe1980s,withphasedarraysystemsintroducedin
thelate1990s.

PHASEDARRAYULTRASONICTESTING(PAUT)

PAusesamultipleelementprobeunlikethemanualorautomaticUTsystems,where
theoutputpulsefromeachelementhasitsowntimedelaytoproduceaconstructive
interferenceataspecificangleandaspecificdepth.Thesetimedelayscanbe
incrementedtosweepthebeamoverthedesiredrangeofangles(e.g.,30degreesto70
degrees)(Andersonetal.2007aCrawfordetal.2009).PAdisplaysimagesinrealtime
showingthedepthandlocationoftheindicationsrelativetotheprobeandwiththe
computersoftwareisabletodisplaytheultrasoundsignalresponseoverlaidonthetest
piece.

TheProbesofthePhasedArrayisthecombinationofmultipleconventionalprobes.At
onephasedarrayprobesvariouselements(oneconventionalprobeconsistsofone
elementusually)canbefixedinanarray.Mostofthephasedarrayprobeshave64,128
and256elements.Atonetimedesirednumberofelementscanbeactivated.E.g.only5
elementscanworkwhileothersmaynotworkoutof64or128.Thisarrangementhelps
tofocusandsteertheangles.

TIMEOFFLIGHTDIFFRACTION(TOFD)

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advancedndtmethods1shortnotespauttofddharmveersingh?trk=vfeed&lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_feed%3B 2/6
3/15/2017 AdvancedNDTMethods1ShortNotesonPAUTandTOFD|DharmveerSingh|Pulse|LinkedIn

TOFDtechniqueusestwoprobes,onefortransmittingandtheotherforreceivingThe
UTbeamproducesadiffractedsignalfromtheflawextremities,whichactaspoint
sources,aswellasareflectedsignal.Thediffractedsignalsappearassignalsarrivingat
differenttimesatthereceiver.Thistechniqueisusedtoimprovethedepthsizing
estimatesofaflawbasedongeometricalcalculationsofthesignalarrivaltimes.The
disadvantagesarewherethedifferentsignalscannotberesolvedintime(smallflaws,
flawsclosetotheinspectionsurface)andtheamplitudeofthediffractedsignalscanbe
low.

PhasedArrayUTvsConventionalUT

1.CommonbetweenPhasedArrayUTandConventionalUT

a.Bothtechniquesareultrasonictesting

b.PAUTcanbedeployedanywherewhereconventionalUTcanbutused.

2.AdvantageofPhasedArrayUToverConventionalUT

a.Faster

b.MoreAccurate

c.Capabilityofdoingmorewithultrasonicwaveswithsingleprobe

i.BeamSteering(ChangeofAngles)
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advancedndtmethods1shortnotespauttofddharmveersingh?trk=vfeed&lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_feed%3B 3/6
3/15/2017 AdvancedNDTMethods1ShortNotesonPAUTandTOFD|DharmveerSingh|Pulse|LinkedIn

ii.BeamFocusing

iii.ElectronicScan

d.PermanentDigitalRecord

e.Varioussoftwareanalysisoptions

3.LimitationofPhasedArrayUToverConventionalUT

a.HighSensitivitywhencombinedwithTOFD

b.Higherequipmentcostresultinghigherinitialinvestment

AdvantageofTOFD

1.Itismoresensitive

2.BestAvailableNDTtechniqueforflawsizingandheight

3.HigherPOD

4.Exactheightmeasurement

5.Detectionisnotdependentoftheorientationofthediscontinuity.

6.Fasterandmostaccuratetechnique.

LimitationofTOFD

1.HigherSensitivityforourapplication

2.BothSideaccess

3.AnysupplementarytechniqueistobeusedwiththecombinationofTOFDfor
accuratecharacterization(inourcasewearehavingPAUTassupplementarytechnique
withTOFD).

ADOPTIONOFPAUTANDTOFDBYCODES

InearlydaysofdevelopmentofUT,UTwasseenasareplacementofUT.Itwas
firstadoptedbyB31.1.Thebriefofacceptanceismentionedhere.

ASMEPressurePipingCodeCase168(CC168)UseofUltrasonicExamination
inLieuofRadiographyforB31.1ApplicationApprovedJune1997

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advancedndtmethods1shortnotespauttofddharmveersingh?trk=vfeed&lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_feed%3B 4/6
3/15/2017 AdvancedNDTMethods1ShortNotesonPAUTandTOFD|DharmveerSingh|Pulse|LinkedIn

ASMEBoilerandPressureVesselCodeCase22359(CC2235)Useof
UltrasonicExaminationinLieuofRadiographySectionISectionVIII,Division
1and2andSectionXIIApprovedOctober11,2005

ASMEPressurePipingCodeCase179(CC179)UseofUltrasonicExamination
inLieuofRadiographyforB31.1ApplicationsinMaterialsin.andLessin
WallThicknessApprovedJune28,2006

ASMEBoilerandPressureVesselCodeCaseN6592(CCN659)Useof
UltrasonicExaminationinLieuofRadiographyforWeldExamination:Section
III,Division1and3Revision2approvedJune9,2008

ASMEBoilerandPressureVesselCodeCaseN713(CCN713)Ultrasonic
ExaminationinLieuofRadiographyApprovedNovember10,2008

In2010,ASMEacceptedPAUTandTOFDasUTtechniquesandincludedinto
appendicesofArticle4ofASMESectionV(NondestructiveEvaluation)

DharmveerSingh

ASNTNDTLIIIET,IR,LT,MT,PT,RT,UT,VT

PCNNDTLIIIUT,PAUT,TOFD

API570

Report this

Dharmveer Singh
Production Quality Control Manager at GE Power
3 articles

8 comments Newest

Leave your thoughts here

RAJEEV J 3h

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advancedndtmethods1shortnotespauttofddharmveersingh?trk=vfeed&lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_feed%3B 5/6
3/15/2017 AdvancedNDTMethods1ShortNotesonPAUTandTOFD|DharmveerSingh|Pulse|LinkedIn
M.Tech NDT, Advanced NDT Engineer
Nice work sir...
CC 2235 is replaced by
1. ASME sec VIII div 2 para 7.5.5 (UT in lieu of RT) and the same fracture mechanics based acceptance
criteria is mentioned in tables 7.8, 7.9...etc.

2. Cal block reflector requirements and scanning coverage are mentiond in MA VIII & IX...
Like Reply

MOHD FARHAN 4d
Student M.Tech-NDT
very useful article sir..
Like Reply 1

There are 6 other comments.Show more.

Top stories from Editors Picks

The Mission Continues: Joining the Beating Nature at Its Own Game Maintaining the Positive Momentum of
Microso Board Bill Gates on LinkedIn the Global Economy
Reid Homan on LinkedIn Christine Lagarde on LinkedIn

Looking for more of the latest headlines on LinkedIn?

Discover more stories

HelpCenter About Careers Advertising TalentSolutions SalesSolutions SmallBusiness Mobile Language UpgradeYourAccount
LinkedInCorporation2017 UserAgreement PrivacyPolicy AdChoices CommunityGuidelines CookiePolicy CopyrightPolicy SendFeedback

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advancedndtmethods1shortnotespauttofddharmveersingh?trk=vfeed&lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_feed%3B 6/6