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For continuous news & analysis
March 2017

World Trends and Technology for Offshore Oil and Gas Operations

Seismic market update

Shipyard standardization
Redeploying FPSOs
Riser design
Offshore Vietnam

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E g r
S ID stin ste
IN boo g p
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Su proc

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International Edition
Volume 77, Number 3
March 2017

Celebrating 60 Years of Trends, Tools, and Technology


Geophysical companies cope with further uncertainty ......... 24 & INSTALLATION
Years have now passed under the dark cloud of one of the industrys worst- New CFD simulation solution proves
ever downturns, which began in 2014. Companies have begun looking cost-effective for predicting wind loads ................................ 42
toward a recovery that is now seeming to take shape, but what will this Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of offshore oil and gas
year bring for those in the marine seismic sector? platforms are used to predict the maximum wind loads acting on the
structure of the platform topsides. This includes the upper half of the
ASIA/PACIFIC platform, above sea level and outside the splash zone, as well as the oil
production plant, the accommodation block, and any drilling equip-
Standardization JIP aims to improve
ment. Wind loads can be significant in specific ocean areas; and these
design and construction efficiencies ..................................... 28
metrics must be taken into account when designing the mooring of the
South Koreas three major shipyards have suffered in the past few years
structure, just as wave and current loads are.
from a lack of new orders, order cancellations, and delivery delays due to
low oil prices. In addition, to restructuring, workforce reductions and other
cost-cutting measures, Hyundai Heavy Industries, Daewoo Shipbuilding & PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
Marine Engineering Co., and Samsung Heavy Industries have focused on Field developers assess viability of FPSO redeployment ....... 44
collaboration and cross-industry efforts to help lower cost and complexity. Redeploying an FPSO, while possible, is not as easy as it may appear.
Unlike a drilling rig, floating production systems are bespoke assets
SOCO helps Vietnam sustain designed for a specific regulatory regime and field requirements, in-
oil production from deep-lying reservoirs.............................. 31 cluding the weather conditions, water depth, oil and gas characteristics,
Vietnam has widespread gas resources, but the countrys main oil discov- as well as gas, water, and/or chemical injection for reservoir manage-
eries, and three quarters of its oil production to date, have come from the ment. Depending on the differences between the fields, redeployment
Cuu Long and South Con Son basins offshore the southeast coast. Bach can require modifications ranging from relatively minor refurbishment
Ho, the countrys longest-producing and largest oilfield, is one of various to extensive modification or replacement of the topsides and mooring.
fields located in fractured granite basement in Cuu Long, a Tertiary rift
basin formed during rifting in the Early Oligocene. Although volumes in- Vessel-deployed coil tubing system
place are in cases substantial, the subsurface challenges of development offers benefits for downhole maintenance ............................ 46
have largely deterred western upstream investors. A riserless coil tubing technique applied in open water could lower
the cost of subsea well interventions. Developer Island Offshore has
DRILLING & COMPLETION proven the system during two campaigns offshore Norway, one involv-
ing a test for shallow gas. The company is currently working to extend
Cuttings transport model shown
applications to various types of intervention, including P&A operations,
to decrease certain drilling risks ............................................ 34
following interest from various North Sea operators.
Transient cuttings transport models can be used to assist the planning
and the execution of drilling operations, especially for long and complex
wells. Drilling problems such as pack-offs, excessive torques, overpulls, SUBSEA
or setdown-weights can result from poor hole cleaning. The movements Intermediate connections optimize flexible riser design....... 49
of cutting particles along the annulus depends on several factors such In most offshore settings, a flexible riser typically comprises one
as the wellbore trajectory, the borehole and drillstem diameters, the continuously manufactured riser section terminated with end fittings.
drilling fluid properties, and drilling parameters such as the flow rate, However, a dynamic riser can consist of two or more sections with an
drillstring rotational speed, and the rate of penetration. intermediate flanged connection joining the end fittings of each section
together, to suit transportation or installation purposes or even design
Certified agent inspections prove useful
Research finds rigless abandonment in safely maintaining aging risers .......................................... 51
procedures to be robust .......................................................... 37 Considering the vast number of deepwater production risers and their
As more offshore production platforms grow older and are taken out of accompanying pipeline systems installed in the last 20 years, the gener-
service, operators are looking for the most cost-effective means of decom- al service record has been exceptional. For the most part, these risers
missioning. Rigless well abandonment procedures are gaining interest as a and pipeline systems are not working in high-pressure/high-temper-
decommissioning option, but to date no empirical studies have attempted ature conditions or in ultra-deepwater, but many of them are reaching
to quantify the reliability of this well abandonment method. The purpose the end of their design lives. In the Gulf of Mexico alone, there are at
of this three-part series has been to estimate the probability that a dry tree least six production platforms that are at more than 15 years of service
well abandoned using rigless technologies requires remediation. life, with 11 having service lives that fall between 11 and 15 years.

Offshore (ISSN 0030-0608). Offshore is published 12 times a year, monthly, by PennWell Corporation, 1421 S. Sheridan, Tulsa, OK 74112. Periodicals postage paid at Tulsa, OK 74112 and at
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International Edition
Volume 77, Number 3
March 2017

COVER: As the oil and gas industry anticipates a possible recovery from
the cyclical downturn it has suffered through for the last few years, many
still expect 2017 to be a transitional year for marine geophysical compa-
nies. Although some believe that the sectors imminent recovery will begin
this year, others conclude that diminished exploration programs will likely
place recovery in 2018. Nonetheless, there are still opportunities to be
had. GC Rieber Shipping and Rasmussengruppen felt like the downturn
was an advantageous time to establish the Shearwater GeoServices joint
venture, so that the company could be ahead of the curve once the market
rebounded. Shown here is Shearwaters 3D seismic vessel Polar Marquis
operating for a pre-bankruptcy Dolphin Geophysical on charter from GC
Reiber. The vessels first survey was in the Black Sea in 2014. See story,
page 24. (Image courtesy Shearwater GeoServices)

Active heating technologies enhance D E P A R T M E N T S
benefits of subsea processing systems ..................................................... 53
The offshore industry is facing an era of increasing challenges not only from reduced
oil prices but also the need to develop new methods to reach previously inaccessible
reserves. In this context, there currently exists one shared goal among operators:
reducing costs. Technological advances are being made today with reduced capex/
opex as the driving factor. On the forefront of innovation, operators are investing in
the future of subsea processing and active flowline heating.


Flexible ILI tool key to successful
inspection campaign offshore Angola ........................................................ 55
Recently, BP Angola needed a highly accurate baseline inline inspection (ILI) of the
36-km (22-mi) Plutao deepwater flowline and riser systems, which operate in waters
down to 2,000 m (6,500 ft) offshore Angola. The baseline inspection was part of BPs
standard practice, and was designed to provide a blueprint of the pipeline, giving
exact internal inspected status following commissioning.
Online ................................................................ 6
Concept studies enhance inline inspection results ................................... 56
Todays most common inspection technologies are magnetic flux leakage and ultra- Comment ........................................................... 8
sonic technology. Approximately two-thirds of the worlds oil, gas and product pipe- Data ................................................................. 10
lines can be inspected with off-the-shelf inspection tools. The other third is deemed
unpiggable or challenging at the very least. This is a result from the fact that with Global E&P ...................................................... 12
few exceptions it was common industry practice to involve any ILI provider only at a Offshore Europe .............................................. 16
project stage when an ILI inspection is imminent.
Gulf of Mexico ................................................. 18
EQUIPMENT & ENGINEERING Subsea Systems ............................................. 20
ZADCO uses SACS to reinstate ship-impacted wellhead platform ............ 60 Vessels, Rigs, & Surface Systems .................. 21
Kaombo valve choices governed by capex, corrosion criteria .................. 61 Drilling & Production ...................................... 22
Dual-string section mill facilitates P&A ..................................................... 61 Geosciences .................................................... 23
Archer expands well plug range ................................................................. 62
Business Briefs ............................................... 64
Halliburton introduces large bore subsea safety system .......................... 62
ExxonMobil awards drilling technology license......................................... 62 Advertisers Index........................................... 67
Baker Hughes, Aramco debut rigless ESP system ..................................... 63 Beyond the Horizon ........................................ 68
Phoenix Hardsuit ADS can minimize downtime, cost ................................ 63

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David Paganie
Bruce A. Beaubouef Latest news
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Sarah Parker Musarra Jessica Tippee technology, companies, personnel moves, and products.


Jeremy Beckman
E. Kurt Albaugh, P.E.
New tools and resources
Offshore Learning Center
ART DIRECTOR Offshore magazine has partnered with the University of Houston to research
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Center currently contains six major collections, with 314 videos totaling 30
MARKETING MANAGER hours and 38 minutes; 63 posters; 20 featured articles.
Myla Lowrance
Jesse Fyler

New maps, posters, and surveys

OFFSHORE EVENTS 2017 Worldwide Survey of Subsea Processing: Separation, Compression,
David Paganie (Houston)
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2017 Top 10 Drilling Contractors Survey
2017 Status of US Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Discoveries
2017 Gulf of Mexico Map

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COMMENT David Paganie Houston

ARTICLES FOR Assessing the viability

DISTRIBUTION of FPSO redeployment
At the time of this writing, there were 51 idle floating production systems in the global
Use published editorial content to
offshore market 25 FPSOs, 10 production semis, eight FSOs, six MOPUs, one spar, and
validate your marketing initiatives.
1 FLNG, according to Energy Maritime Associates (EMA). In addition to the 25 FPSOs
that are currently available, another 38 are likely to come off contract in the next two
to three years. Meanwhile, project teams continue to seek new solutions to reduce the
TRONIC REPRINTS cost of field developments. This conundrum is spurring considerable debate about the
O TS viability of FPSO redeployment. It was a leading topic of discussion within the inaugural
FPSO track at the Topsides, Platforms & Hulls Conference & Exhibition this past Febru-
RK ary in New Orleans.
ODUCTS An FPSO is typically fit-for-purpose designed for a specific production profile, water
depth, and metocean conditions. Another challenge is aligning the availability of an FPSO
R NTS coming off contract with the schedule of a new project. As a result, only 36 FPSOs have
been redeployed to at least one other field after completing the initial contract. Inside this
Articles are available in issue, David Boggs, managing director, EMA, assesses the characteristics and results of
past FPSO redeployments. He also discusses a new approach and future opportunities,
electronic (pdf) format
beginning on page 44.
and professional, high- Meanwhile, a new study, on behalf of Oil & Gas UK, assesses the reliability of rigless
quality prints. well abandonment a common decommissioning method in the Gulf of Mexico. The new
assessment was prompted by the changing operational landscape, coupled with an appar-
ent lack of empirical studies to quantify the reliability of well abandonment procedures.
Engage visitors on website Inside this issue, Mark Kaiser, Center for Energy Studies at Louisiana State University,
Educate target audience concludes a three-part report on the findings and recommendations of the study. The
purpose of his report is to estimate the probability that a dry-tree well abandoned using
Enhance email campaigns rigless technologies will require remediation. A random sample of 502 platform wells
abandoned in 2010 in water depths less than 400 ft (122 m) were tracked from 2010-2015
Instantly credible to identify leaking/bubbling events. Nine wells were identified that required remediation
conference materials leading to a probability of 1.8%. Wells using gas-lift mandrels exhibited a 3.1% remediation
probability compared to 1.0% for non-gas-lift wells. The results of this analysis demonstrate
Trusted sales presentations that rigless abandonment procedures are robust and have a low probability of failure.
content Kaisers full conclusion begins on page 37.
Add 3rd party
Subsea technology
endorsement to social Another emerging trend offshore is subsea well intervention. Developer Island Offshore
media has proven a technique riserless coil tubing that could lower the cost of well interven-
tion, writes Jeremy Beckman, Offshore Editor-Europe. The system was qualified during
Professional recruiting and
two campaigns offshore Norway, one involving a test for shallow gas. The company is
training materials currently working to extend applications to various types of intervention, including P&A
Branded content marketing operations, following interest from various North Sea operators. Beckmans full report
begins on page 46.
Also inside this issue is the 10th installment of Offshores annual subsea processing
poster. A new feature of this years poster is a technology assessment of active heating
systems. The authors of the accompanying article to the poster, on page 53, describe the
For additional information, technology as combining the function of maintaining an equal or positive radial temperature
please contact gradient across the pipeline contents by manner of electrical current, together with the
high thermal efficiency of pipeline insulation, to limit temperature loss in a cold, offshore
Foster Printing Service, environment. Benefits of active heating systems include avoiding the need for chemical

injection, fluid circulation, storage, and heating facilities. The 2017 Worldwide Survey of
provider for Offshore. Subsea Processing and Active Heating Systems poster lists the projects that have active
heating systems, including those that integrate subsea processing.

Call 866.879.9144 or
To respond to articles in Offshore, or to offer articles for publication, contact the editor by email (

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If you want to know how

1703off_9 9 2/28/17 4:32 PM


Analyst lowers Global deepwater capex by component 2012-2021

deepwater expenditure
spending forecast 30 Drilling and completion
In its new World Deepwater Market Fore-
cast 2017-2021, Douglas-Westwood (DW) 25 Subsea production
forecasts global deepwater expenditure to SURF

Expenditure (%bn)
total $120 billion over the period. Floating production
Spend is expected to decline at a -6%
compound annual growth rate (CAGR).
However, if forecast floating production 15
system (FPS) spend is isolated, expen-
diture is estimated to increase by 3% 10
compared to the 2012-2016 period.
Despite rig day rates hitting record 5
lows in recent years, drilling and comple-
tion expenditure is expected to total $41.6
billion, accounting for 35% of capex, the 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
analyst continued. Subsea production
equipment, subsea umbilicals, risers, and Source: Douglas-Westwood
flowlines and pipelines will represent a
combined 38% of total expenditure, while Worldwide offshore rig count & utilization rate (Feb. 2015 Jan. 2017)
floating production units will account for
27% of spend over the forecast period. 1,000 100
Sustained low oil prices will hinder fore- Total util % Total supply Total contracted Working
cast expenditure, with no deepwater FPS 900 90
units having been ordered between July

Fleet utilization rate %

2015 and December 2016. This highlights 800 80
several operators decisions to consider
No. of rigs

alternative development options, with the 700 70

motive of reducing development costs.
In the near term, capex will be driven by 600 60
traditional deepwater countries in Africa
and the Americas. However, offshore in- 500 50
stallation activities on the Liza field (Guy-
ana), SNE (Senegal), and the commence- 400 40
ment of activities offshore East Africa, as
well as the development of the Zohr field 300 30
off Egypt, will support expenditure during 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16
b il ne g ct ec b il ne g ct ec
the latter years of the forecast period. Fe pr Au O Fe pr Au O
A Ju D A Ju D

Source: IHS RigPoint Notes: Rig types included are jackups, semis, and drillships.
Rystad Energy estimates the January
2017 run rate of contracted jackups at 277
December fixture activity led to increased backlog
At this time, the analyst has recorded Measure Averages Monthly 2016 to date Future contracted rig count
49 rig months worth of contracts being 423
entered into during January 2017. The sig- 389
nificant delta between rigs consumed on 363
Comparing New contracts*
contract and new contracts entered into contract Active rigs on contract
has been a pronounced trend since 2014. 281 277
The lower chart calculates the impact of with number 232 225
the top chart on the overall contract back- of rigs on
contract 175 184
log. When more contracts are entered than 147
consumed (columns higher than the line in 132 Avg: 135
Rig-months * Total months contracted.
105 97
the upper chart), the total contract backlog 91 Contract volumes includes all
65 new mutualagreements, extensions,
increases. With the exception of December 43 49 and options exercised.
2016, the jackup market has seen a consis-
tent backlog erosion since 2014. 6
Rystad Energy regards this as a leading
indicator of market recovery. Currently, more Implications
than 277 rig months (~23 rig years) must be for -10 Increasing backlog
contracted -14 -13
-16 -16 -17 -17
contracted on a monthly basis in order to -19 -19 Decreasing backlog
backlog -25 -22-22 -23
increase the backlog in the jackup market.


Oddmund Fre, Rig-years

Senior Analyst, Rystad Energy
Source: Rystad Energy RigCube

10 Offshore March 2017

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1703off_11 11 2/28/17 4:32 PM

GLOBAL E&P Jeremy Beckman London

Deepwater veering toward frontier regions

Deepwater expenditure globally will total $120 billion over the next five
years, according to Douglas-Westwoods latest World Deepwater Market
Forecast. Much of the focus in the initial period will be offshore West
Africa and the Americas, with frontier regions becoming more prominent
later on via projects such as Liza (Guyana), SNE (Senegal), and Zohr
(Egypt). Various other mega-projects could go forward over the next 18
months, the analyst adds, as operators look to take advantage of lower
service costs, with more than 118 deepwater fields set for drilling activity.

South America
BP expects to produce first gas later this year from its $2-billion Juniper
project, 50 mi (80 km) offshore Trinidad & Tobago in 360 ft (110 m) water
depth. Heerema Marine Contractors Thialf was preparing to install the
platform, built by TOFCO in Trinidad and Gulf Marine Fabricators in
Texas. It will produce 590 MMcf/d from the Corallita and Lantana fields,
The John Ayekum Kufuor FPSO at Keppel Shipyard.
exported through a 10-km (6.2-mi) flowline to the Mahogany B hub.
(Photo courtesy Keppel Offshore & Marine)
Perenco has acquired Repsols 70% operated stake in the offshore
Teak, Samaan and Poui block, southeast of Trinidad. The associated oil and gas, and injection of gas and water. It will be connected to 18
facilities have been producing 14,000 boe/d of late; Perenco is a special- subsea wells, with the gas sent to the shore through a 63-km (39-mi)
ist in extending the lives of mature fields. pipeline for use in Ghanaian thermal power plants.

Anadarko is drilling back-to-back exploration wells offshore western Production has started from the Eni-operated East Hub develop-
Colombia, in an attempt to prove further reserves close to its play- ment project in block 15/06 offshore Angola. The newly onstream
opening deepwater Kronos gas discovery. The Purple Angel and Gorgon Cabaca South East field, 350 km (217 mi) northwest of Luanda, is
wells are both testing structures in the Purple Angel block: Anadarko is connected to the FPSO Armada Olombendo via nine wells and four
considering further wells on its Colombian Pacific acreage during 2018. subsea manifolds. The floater has capacity to handle up to 80,000
b/d of oil which will supplement existing production from the West
Petrobras latest FPSO the P-66 departed the BrasFELS shipyard Hubs Cinguvu, Mpungi and Santos fields. Eni expects to bring two
last month for installation at the Lula Sul field in the deepwater Santos more fields into production via these facilities by the end of next year.
basin offshore Brazil. The yard was responsible for fabrication, inte-
gration, and commissioning of the topsides modules that will receive BW Offshore has agreed to take a 56% operated interest in the Kudu
production of 150,000 b/d of oil and 6 MMcf/d of gas. license offshore Namibia, and will pay for past costs on completion of
Brazil is reportedly considering staging two sub-salt licensing the deal. The company and partner state utility NAMCO plan a final
rounds this year, the first of which could take place by the end of investment decision later this year on the 755 bcf-2.3 tcf Kudu gas field,
June. Areas to be offered are thought to include four blocks close to 170 km (105.6 mi) offshore, which original operator Chevron discovered
large oil discoveries offshore Rio de Janeiro. in 1974. This will likely be developed via a floating production system
with the gas sent through a pipeline to a new 885-MW gas-to-power
West Africa plant in Namibia, reducing the countrys reliance on imported energy.
Red Rio Petroleum has acquired for a nominal fee Comet Petroleum,
which has exploration interests in the Sawahari Arab Democratic Re- Mediterranean Sea
public. One is the offshore Guelta block, south of Morocco. Previous Greece has reportedly held talks with Total on deepwater gas
owner Tower Resources identified prospectivity in lower Cretaceous exploration in a block offshore western Greece. Last December, the
deltaic sequences in mid to shallow water depths, and in Triassic salt Ministry of Environment & Energy named Hellenic Petroleum as
fault blocks to the west. Selected Applicant for western offshore block 10 in the Kyparissiakos
Gulf (thought to be prospective for oil), and for offshore block 2, west
The Stena DrillMAX has been drilling the deepwater SNE-5 ap- of Corfu, in a joint venture with operator Total and Italys Edison.
praisal well for the Cairn Energy-led partnership on the southern
lap of the SNE oil field. The drillship will then spud SNE-6 to assess Greek E&P company Energean Oil & Gas has appointed Technip-
connectivity and deliverability of the upper SNE reservoirs, with op- FMC as its concept and front-end engineering design contractor for
tions thereafter for further exploration drilling. the Karish and Tanin gas fields offshore Israel. Earlier, Energean an-
nounced it would develop the fields, discovered by a Noble Energy-led
Pura Vida Energy has agreed to conditional terms with a rig contrac- consortium, via an FPSO. It estimates the combined gas resources at
tor to co-fund drilling of three back-to-back wells in shallow water on 2.4 tcf and anticipates development costs of $1.3-1.5 billion.
the Nkembe block offshore Gabon. The $20-million program, which
will include a production test on the 1976 oil discovery Loba, will Lebanon has approved two decrees to complete the countrys stalled
target around 100 MMbbl of reserves. A commercial flow rate from first offshore licensing round. Following a study by the Lebanese
Loba could lead to a subsequent development. Petroleum Administration, the government will invite bids by Sept.
15, 2017, for blocks 1, 4, 8, 9, and 10. For successful applicants, a com-
Enis FPSO for its Offshore Cape Three Points (OCTP) project mercial discovery could be followed by a 25-year production phase.
offshore Ghana was recently named John Agyekum Kufuor, after the
countrys former president, during a ceremony at Keppel Shipyard Russia
in Singapore. The vessel is due to reach Ghana in April and will oper- Lukoil plans geological surveys this year offshore the Russian
ate on the Sankofa-Gye Nyame field, with facilities for production of Enclave in the Baltic Sea over three oilfields that the company discov-

12 Offshore March 2017

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sian-produced electronic submersible pump, to 17 platforms serving various Aramco fields

Prirazlomonya platform. the first deployed on a well on the Russian in the Arabian Sea.
(Photo courtesy Gazprom Neft) Arctic Shelf. Eventually the operator aims to
commission 32 wells from the platform. INPEX and ADNOC have agreed in prin-
ciple to extend the duration of their joint de-
Caspian Sea velopment of the Satah and Umm Al Dalkh
The North Caspian Operating Co. (NCOC) oilfields offshore Abu Dhabi until end-2042.
has awarded Fluor Corp. a two-year engineer- In addition, INPEXs interest in Um Al Dalkh
ing service contract to perform conceptual will be raised to 40%.
studies and front-end engineering for projects
in the Caspian region. NCOC operates the Qatar Petroleum (QP) plans to integrate the
giant shallow-water Kashagan field and the Qatargas and RasGas ventures into a single
Aktoty, Kairan, and Kalamkas structures in entity, named Qatargas, which will operate the
the Kazakh sector. collective offshore and onshore LNG facilities.
QP said the merger would enhance Qatars
Middle East competitive position: shareholders in the two
Saudi Aramco has awarded wide-ranging companies are ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil,
brownfield work to three offshore contractors. Shell, and Total.
McDermotts contract is an EPCI program
that covers nine slipover jackets and decks, Malaysian company Bukhar y Interna-
ered in 2015. The government of the Russian subsea pipelines and cables, and demolition tional Ventures has signed a memorandum
Federation issued a decree last year authoriz- of certain facilities at the offshore Safaniya of understanding with National Iranian Oil
ing Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft to exploit the field, 125 mi (201 km) north of Dhahran; and Co. on recovery of gas from the Ferdowsi
subsoil areas. provision of a single-well observation platform and Golshan discoveries in the Persian Gulf.
In the Pechora Sea off northern Russia, at the Zuluf field. The two fields are respectively 85 km (53 mi)
Gazpromneft-Shelf has commissioned two The L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering/EMAS and 65 km (40 mi) offshore, and southeast of
new production wells at the Prirazlomonoye Chiyoda Subsea consortium will build and Bushehr. Both also contain oil, but BIVs focus
field. Both were drilled from the ice-resistant install four wellhead decks and associated over the next seven months will be on the gas
fixed platform, and one is equipped with a Rus- facilities at Safaniya, and perform upgrades and the export options to onshore facilities.

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1703off_14 14 2/28/17 4:32 PM


India conditions at Chevrons Benchamas field in first barge-based floating storage and regasifi-
ONGC will spend $66 million developing the Gulf of Thailand. Following conversion the cation unit (FSRU) has undocked from the
the North West B-173A field off western India vessel should sail to the field early next year. drydock at the companys yard in Nantong,
via a wellhead platform, three wells, and as- China. Following installation of the topsides,
sociated pipelines connected to the companys Vietsovpetro has produced first gas and the vessel was ready for delivery to contractor
Western Offshore facilities. The location is 5 condensate from the TU-6 well of the BK- Exmar. This was also the first FSRU built in
km (3.1 mi) northwest of the B-173A field. TNG platform on the Thien Ung field offshore China, Wison said, and the first with a small-
Produced oil and gas will both be evacuated Vietnam. Production heads to the mainland scale storage capacity. Regasification capacity
through the Neelam process center. via the Bach Ho field pipeline system. is 600 MMcf/d.
Malaysian contractor Yinson Holdings has
Asia/Pacific held talks with Repsol on a potential FPSO Premier Oil has ordered subsea tress and
Woodside Energy plans to start drilling two ap- for the Ca Rong Do field in the Nam Con wellheads from GE Oil & Gas for the Bison,
praisal wells by mid-year on its deepwater Thalin Son basin in block 07/03 offshore southern Gajah Puteri, and Iguana field developments in
gas discovery offshore Myanmar. The program Vietnam. The partners are set to decide on the Natuna Sea off Indonesia. Initially Premier
will incorporate coring and drillstem testing. a field development plan by mid-year, with requested three sets of trees and wellheads,
start-up targeted for the second half of 2019. due to be delivered by early 2018. The Tree
Shell has agreed to sell various interests on Mudline series trees, to be manufactured
offshore Thailand, including 22.222% of the CNOOC has started production from the at GEs plant in Batam, Indonesia, are suited
giant Bongkot field and adjoining acreage, Enping 23-1 oil fields in the Pearl River Mouth to shallow-water operations using jackup rigs.
to KUFPEC Thailand for $900 million. This is basin of the South China Sea, in water depths In Indonesias offshore Kutei basin, Eni
part of Shells ongoing program to raise $30 of around 90 m (295 ft). The main facilities has completed drilling and testing of its first
billion in divestments, following its takeover include one platform and 13 production wells, appraisal well on its Merakes gas discovery
of BG Group last year. connected to existing infrastructure serving in the East Sepinggan block.
MISC Berhad has started converting the Enping 24-2. Three wells were online at start- The structure is 35 km (21.7 mi) from the
Aframax tanker Bunga Kelena 5 into a float- up, and CNOOC anticipates attaining peak Jangkrik field, which Eni is developing via an
ing storage and offloading vessel, Benchamas output of 24,800 b/d in 2018. Later this year, FPSO and which should come onstream by
2. The vessel was chosen due to features the company also aims to start up its offshore mid-year. The company assesses Merakes
that should allow for technical upgrades and Weizhou 12-2 oil field project. in-place reserves at 2 tcf, and anticipates a
integration work compatible with weather Wison Offshore & Marine says the worlds subsea tieback to Jangkrik.

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1703off_15 15 2/28/17 4:32 PM

OFFSHORE EUROPE Jeremy Beckman London

Statoil, Lundin prove plans too for some of its operated fields, notably Finally, Tel Aviv-based Delek Group has
new frontier plays the Valhall Flank West project in the southern agreed to a $1.24-billion takeover of Ithaca En-
Norways Petroleum and Energy Minis- Norwegian sector, where it plans to add a nor- ergys North Sea E&P operations. The main
try has offered 56 new production licenses mally unmanned platform with 12 well slots asset is the Greater Stella Area project in the
to 29 companies under the countrys latest to further develop the fields Tor formation. UK central North Sea, which started up last
Awards in Predefined Areas (APA) round, Another project on the drawing board for month following a series of delays related to
of which three are in the Barents Sea, 17 is a new hub north of the Alvheim complex, overhauls of the FPF1 semisubmersible pro-
in the Norwegian Sea, and 36 in the North an area currently short of offshore infrastruc- duction platform.
Sea. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate ture. This would receive production from
pointed out that 16 of last years 18 discoveries the undeveloped Frigg Gamma Delta and Brent removal plan
Langjfjellet discoveries and the reacti- out for review
vated Froy field. Aker BP plans a floating Consultations have started on Shells plans
or fixed production facility to serve as for decommissioning the Brent oil and gas
the hub, connected to subsea structures complex in the UK northern North Sea. The
or unmanned wellhead platforms on in- Brent field, 115 mi (185 km) northeast of
dividual reservoirs based on their size the Shetland Islands, has been a lynchpin of
or complexity. It could decide on the UK offshore production, generating around
concept later this year. 3 Bboe since start-up in 1976. However, only
Elsewhere in the North Sea, Winter- one of the four platforms, Brent Charlie, is still
shall and its partners have chosen a sub- active, the other three having ceased opera-
sea tieback to the ENGIE-operated Gja tions progressively between 2011 and 2014.
platform as their preferred development Brent C will continue producing for several
concept for the Skarfjell field. years to come, but Shell has included the
structure in its decommissioning plan. The
Statoil has proven further reserves at the
Valemon field. (Map courtesy Statoil)
Shell, BP cut back company recommends removal of the topsides
UK operations and upper steel jacket on Brent A, the topsides
offshore Norway were on APA acreage, and Analyst Wood Mackenzie has forecast a of the other three platforms, debris on the
Statoil continued the trend earlier this year record year for merger and acquisition (M&A) seafloor, and oil contained within the concrete
with a 20-80 MMboe find on the Cape Vulture activity on the UK continental shelf. This is in storage cells of the gravity base structures
prospect. In the process, the well proved a part due to divestments by the majors and utili- (GBS) supporting Brent B-D. It proposes
new play just 5 km (3.1 mi) northwest of the ties looking to exit the play, while private eq- leaving in situ the GBSs, the sediment in their
companys Norne field production complex. uity groups look to take their place, attracted storage cells, the Brent A footings, and drill
Statoil followed up with a gas/condensate by the sectors recent success in cutting North cuttings piles. Shell has also detailed the op-
discovery with a similar resource range on Sea operating costs and increasing cash flow. tions for the 28 associated subsea pipelines.
the west flank of its high-pressure/high-tem- Three major deals have already been agreed
perature Valemon field in the North Sea. The to in principle, with Shell planning to sell the Compression boost
company and partner Wintershall plan to drill operated stakes in UK gas fields that came for Ormen Lange
a deeper-water prospect on one of their new with the acquisition of BG Group last year to The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate
APA licenses in the Norwegian Sea, PL894, Chrysaor. The package, valued at up to $3.8 (NPD) has formally sanctioned expansion of
in attempt to prove further gas/condensate billion, would include 10% of Shells 55% stake the gas plant at Nyhamna in western Norway,
for development through the new facilities in BPs Schiehallion re-development west of which has received production from Norske
serving the Aasta Hansteen field. Shetland, and a share of the undeveloped Shells deepwater subsea-beach Ormen Lange
In the southern Barents Sea, Lundin claims heavy-oil Bressay field in the East Shetland development in the Norwegian Sea since 2007.
to have proven 30-100 MMbbl of oil via back- basin. Chrysaor, which hitherto has been a One component of the new program is the
to-back wells on the Filicudi prospect, 30 km minor player in the UK offshore, would sud- installation of a new land-based compressor to
(18.6 mi) northwest of the companys Alta and denly become the leading UK independent, maintain gas pressure at Nyhamna as pressure
Gohta discoveries on the Loppa High in the netting production of around 115,000 boe/d. in Ormen Langes reservoir falls. During the
southern Barents Sea. Lundin planned follow- Investment group EIG has provided funds for mid-2020s, Shell also expects to add compres-
up appraisal drilling to test upside potential, and the deal, with various ex-Shell and Apache sion closer to the field, possibly subsea, to
has identified up to 700 MMboe from other directors joining Chrysaors board to oversee sustain or step up gas production.
prospects on the Filicudi trend. It could drill the companys transformation. NPDs approval extends to use of additional
two of these, Hufsi and Hurri, later this year. EnQuest has agreed to take on operatorship export and process facilities from the new
from BP of the Magnus oil field, associated Polarled pipeline, which Allseas recently laid
Expansion planned pipelines, and the Sullom Voe terminal on from the site of Aasta Hansteen, Norways
at Valhall, Sverdrup Shetland under a transfer valued at $85 mil- deepest-water project to date, to Nyhamna.
Aker BP expects the Statoil-led partners lion. EnQuest also has the option to purchase Hansteen is due to start service next year,
in the North Sea Johan Sverdrup project to BPs remaining 75% interest in Magnus and with Polarled compression and gas export
approve a fifth platform later this year under the pipelines for $300 million, with BP retain- set to become operational in fall 2018. Gas
the Phase 2 development. This would increase ing 50% of net cash flows from the assets up to from DEAs Dvalin field will likely be the next
oil production capacity (the full-field target is a maximum of $1 billion. The London-based to transit through Polarled from 2020. These
600,000 b/d), and would be accompanied by independent, which had reportedly been measures should raise Nyhamnas export
a power-from-shore scheme encompassing struggling with financial difficulties, plans to capacity from 70-84 MMcm/d all the gas is
Sverdrup and other producing fields in the cover the cost of the transaction via a mixture directed to the UK via a pipeline that connects
Utsira High region. Aker BP has incremental of cash and future cash flows from the assets. to the Sleipner A platform in the North Sea.

16 Offshore March 2017

1703off_16 16 2/28/17 4:32 PM

The New Paradigm
Offshore Integrated Power & Communications
Oil & Gas Defense and Security Ocean Observing








1703off_17 17 2/28/17 4:32 PM

GULF OF MEXICO Bruce Beaubouef Houston

BP says that the start-up of its

Thunder Horse South Expansion
project is expected to boost produc-
tion at the facility by an estimated
50,000 boe (gross). (Courtesy BP)

BP starts up Thunder Horse Richard Morrison, regional president of positive streak from previous months. How-
expansion early, under budget BPs Gulf of Mexico business, said: The ever, not all data was positive, with some in-
BP reports that it recently started up the Thunder Horse South Expansion project, dicators pointing to more uncertainty in the
Thunder Horse South Expansion project in the brought online ahead of schedule and under offshore drilling market.
deepwater Gulf of Mexico 11 months ahead budget, proves that deepwater can be done in Januarys total of 15 new permits grew 36%
of schedule and $150 million under budget. a cost-effective way, while keeping a relentless from 11 in December, and was down just 17%
The operator said that the project is ex- focus on safety. It also shows the effectiveness from permitting in January 2016. Shallow-
pected to boost production at the facility by an of our strategy in the Gulf, which is all about water permitting doubled to four permits in
estimated 50,000 boe (gross), further increas- increasing production from within our existing January, with one new well, two side tracks,
ing output at what it claims is one of the largest asset base and large portfolio of undeveloped and one bypass approved.
oil fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Planned for resources. Seven new midwater permits were filed
2017, it was brought online on Dec. 8, 2016. Developed with partner ExxonMobil, the in January, up from three filed in the previ-
BP CEO Bob Dudley said: Thunder Horse Thunder Horse platform sits in more than ous month. Deepwater permitting showed a
South Expansion along with our recent ap- 6,000 ft (1,829 m) of water and began produc- modicum of resilience, the analyst firm noted,
proval of the $9-billion Mad Dog Phase 2 tion in June 2008. It has the capacity to handle falling just one permit month-over-month to
platform demonstrates that the US Gulf 250,000 b/d of oil and 200 MMcf/d (gross) of a total of four for the month.
of Mexico remains a key part of our global natural gas. The facility continued to operate Ultra-deepwater permitting fell back to zero
portfolio today and for many years to come. during construction and installation of the after a new well was filed in December.
This project also marks the first of several new subsea production and pipeline system. Overall, new well permits grew from six
major upstream start-ups expected before Discovered in 1999, Thunder Horse is one in December to eight in January, while side
the end of this year, and a major step toward of the operators largest discoveries in the track permits grew 150% to five and bypass
our goal of adding 800,000 bbl of new produc- Gulf of Mexico to date. BP holds 75% working permits decreased 33% to two. With the excep-
tion by 2020. interest and the operatorship in the project, tion of ultra-deepwater, the sharpest decline
The Thunder Horse South Expansion proj- with ExxonMobil holding the remaining 25%. year-over-year has come from shallow-water
ect adds a new subsea production system Between 2013 and 2016, BP said its average permitting, down 75% in 2017 from full-year
roughly 2 mi (3 km) to the south of the ex- daily production in the US Gulf of Mexico 2016. Evercore ISI continued to point to these
isting Thunder Horse platform. The system increased from 189,000 boe to 264,000 boe. figure as one of particular concern.
is a collection point for wells connected to Last year it started up a major water injec- We believe that offshore drilling (and
the Thunder Horse platform by two 11,000-ft tion project at Thunder Horse that will allow jackup utilization) will continue to languish
(3,353-m) flowlines installed on the seabed for the recovery of an additional 65 MMboe as long as shallow-water permits remain at
in late 2016. and approved the $9-billion Mad Dog Phase 2 historically low levels, the report noted.
The project was completed more than 15% project, expected to come online in late 2021. Offshore planning from last month sug-
below budget by relying on proven standard- gests more GoM weakness moving forward,
ized equipment and technology rather than Drilling permit with just one deepwater plan filed in the month
building customized components. numbers still weak of January.
The first new well for the project tapped into Evercore ISIs Oilfield Services, Equipment Overall, Evercore said that it remains cau-
the highest amount of hydrocarbon-bearing & Drilling group has released Februarys US tious in allocating optimism to the offshore
sand seen to date at the Thunder Horse field, Drilling Permit Monthly report. market, but permitting trends have certain-
with drilling results confirming more than 500 During January, the Gulf of Mexicos num- ly shown upward momentum over the two
ft (152 m) of net pay. bers showed a notable gain and continued its months, the firm said.

18 Offshore March 2017

1703off_18 18 2/28/17 4:32 PM

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1703off_19 19 2/28/17 4:32 PM

SUBSEA SYSTEMS Sarah Parker Musarra Houston

gas/condensate field in block KG-DWN-98/3 in the Bay of Bengal.

Reliance plans seven wells from two subsea drill centers tied back to
an FPSO. Genesis will manage the work from its head office in London.
A 2015 resource evaluation from Deloitte put the best case estimate
of gross unrisked contingent resources of 1.4 tcf, related to the Central
(North), Northern, and Central (South) fault blocks.

Oceaneering develops ROV for Statoil

An Oceaneering International, Inc. subsidiary has been awarded
a technology development contract by Statoil Petroleum AS for the
development, manufacturing, testing, and mobilization of a self-
contained, battery-powered work-class remotely operated vehicle
(E-ROV) system deployed on the seabed.
The system will interface with Oceaneerings onshore Mission
Seatools recently completed an R&D program for subsea liquid storage Support Center in Stavanger via a 4G mobile broadband signal trans-
technology. The company said that move toward seabed installations of
mitted from a buoy on the waters surface, without a surface vessel
equipment such as pumps, compressors, and related power grids brings a
need for long-term subsea storage. (Image courtesy Seatools)
required onsite.
The company said it will use its eNovus work class ROV and new
Seatools reports subsea technology to supply the required battery power and communication
liquid storage results links needed to support the project. Development, manufacturing,
Seatools has completed an R&D program for a subsea liquid stor- and pool testing will commence immediately at its workshop in
age technology, including a full-product qualification test program. Stavanger, Norway.
This was a continuation of an earlier engineering study performed on An offshore mobilization test of the system is scheduled for May
behalf of Statoil Petroleum. The technology will now be applied at a 2017. During the test, the E-ROV system will be deployed and re-
pile installation frame operated by Seaway Heavy Lifting. covered from a Statoil-operated inspection, maintenance, and repair
According to Seatools, the move toward seabed installations of vessel at the Troll field in the North Sea. The system will perform
(pressure-balanced) equipment such as pumps, compressors, and specified subsea operations while Oceaneering maintains continuous
related power grids that can compromise switch gear and power control from the Mission Support Center.
transformers brings a need for reliable,
long-term subsea storage of large vol- BOURBON tapped
umes of liquids. The storage capabil- for Gabon pipeline
ity, in addition to compensating for Total Gabon has BOURBON con-
hydrostatic pressure, must take into tracted for offshore pipelay as part of
account oil volume fluctuations caused the Hylia water injection project.
by temperature changes, or may have The scope covers engineering, pro-
to accommodate control fluids. curement, construction, and installa-
Subsea storage of liquids is also rel- tion of 25 km (15.5 mi) of 6-in. rigid
evant to large-volume subsea hydraulic pipeline using Zap-Lok technology.
systems with significant differential BOURBON is subcontracting Cortez
(oil) volumes caused by a large number Subsea for pipelay equipment and
of actuators, as is the case with the pile Wood Group for the pipeline design
installation frame. and pipelay engineering.
One of the critical design concerns Shown here is a 3D rendering from Cortez Subsea of a Operations are due to start in 2Q
for a long-term storage reservoir is the BOURBON Evolution 800 series vessel with a pipelay spread. using a multi-purpose platform sup-
reliability of the barrier between fluid (Image courtesy BOURBON) ply vessel from the Bourbon Evolution
and seawater. During Seatools recent 800 series. In addition, BOURBON will
R&D program, the company conducted aging tests to provide a provide ROV services to support the survey and an air diving team
quantified prediction of the lifetime of the fluid barrier. for spool and riser installation.
Other achievements were a comprehensive product qualification
program on a full-scale version of the reservoir, an extensive analysis JDR umbilicals for Western Offshore
of the dynamic behavior of the compensator, and a study of the pres- Cameron has awarded JDR a steel tube umbilical contract on behalf
sure compensation performance under varying conditions. of ONGC for the Western Offshore project in Indias Mumbai High
The earlier conceptual and feasibility study into local storage of region. The development involves subsea completion of 11 oil and
control fluids in a subsea production control system for Statoil was gas wells at the Mumbai High, Bassein and Satellite, and Neelam/
designed to develop a storage system capable of providing continu- Heera facilities.
ous and reliable supply of control fluids over a lifetime of 20 years. These wells are either at an infield location or on an extension of
In addition, the team analyzed required controls and instrumenta- existing fields, including marginal pools that will be connected to the
tion, refilling strategies, and related economics. Further research is nearest host facility, all in water depths up to 100 m (328 ft).
planned on the chemical compatibility of various fluids with the bar- The companys scope of supply includes project management, en-
rier material. Potential findings could widen the scope of application. gineering, and manufacture of 11 umbilicals, with a combined length
of more than 53 km (35 mi) subsea terminations and accessories.
Genesis commissioned for India FEED The umbilicals will be manufactured using a helical assembly
Reliance Industries has contracted TechnipFMC subsidiary Genesis machine at the companys plant in Hartlepool, northeast England
for a deepwater front-end engineering and design study for the MJ and are expected to be delivered this fall.

20 Offshore March 2017

1703off_20 20 2/28/17 4:32 PM


Giant semisubmersible surveyed

ahead of voyage to Upper Zakum
Global Maritime Consultancy & Engineering recently completed
a suitability survey for the Xin Guang Hua, claimed to be the worlds
second largest semisubmersible, ahead of its first voyage. The con-
sultancy performed an independent assessment of all aspects of the
vessels condition.
The Xin Guang Hua, built by Guangzhou Shipyard International
Co. and owned by Cosco Shipping, is 255 m (821 ft) long, 68 m (223
ft) wide and has a lift/transportation capacity of 98,000 tons.
It will serve the Upper Zakum 750 project offshore Abu Dhabi,
where Global Maritime is also the fields marine warranty surveyor.
In addition to the suitability survey, Global Maritime oversaw the
vessels first float-on operation in Tianjin, China. The worlds first barge FSRU undocked from Wison Offshore & Marines
The Xin Guang Hua has a length between perpendiculars of 250.2 m drydock in Nantong, China. (Courtesy Wison Offshore & Marine)
(821 ft), a loaded draft of 10 m (33 ft), and a hull depth of 14.5 m (47.6
ft). Its large open deck is 208.4 m (684 ft) long and 68 m (223 ft) broad. Topsides in place at Chinese-built FSRU
The vessel, said to be designed with enhanced internal strength, can The worlds first barge-based floating storage and re-
handle both stern and side loading and will have a deck submerging gasification unit (FSRU) has undocked from Wison Offshore
capacity of 16 m (52 ft), allowing it to carry large floating structures. Its & Marines drydock in Nantong. Topsides installation has
since been completed, allowing the vessel to be delivered to
diesel-electric propulsion system provides a power output of 10.5 MW.
contractor Exmar. Both parties previously cooperated on the
Upper Zakum is the second largest offshore oil field and fourth
Caribbean FLNG vessel.
largest oil field in the world. Owner Zakum Development Co. is a joint
This was the first FSRU built in China and according to
venture between ADNOC, ExxonMobil, and Japan Oil Development Co. Wison, the worlds first with small-scale storage capacity.
Later this year the vessel will transport Shells Appomattox hull from The non-propelled barge has a regasification capacity of 600
South Korea to Ingleside, Texas. MMcf/d. Two LNG storage tanks are inside the hull, each with a
capacity of 12,500 cu m (441,433 cu ft).
Sovcomflot christens Sakhalin icebreaker A modularization strategy allowed the hull and topsides
PAO Sovcomflot (SCF Group) has held a naming ceremony for a modules of the FSRU to be fabricated simultaneously, which
new icebreaking platform supply vessel (IBSV) at Arctech Helsinki according to Wison reduced the safety risks, improved con-
Shipyard. The Gennadiy Nevelskoy was named after a famous explorer struction quality, and helped to shorten the delivery schedule.
of the Russian Far East. In addition, Wison developed its own cargo containment
The new 3,000-dwt IBSV will have Saint Petersburg as her home system and cargo handling system for the storage tanks.
port and will be registered under the Russian flag.
She is the first of four vessels commissioned by SCF Group. The other (524.3 ft) long and 30 m (98 ft) wide. It features a 400-metric ton crane
three are icebreaking standby vessels (IBSBVs) that have a smaller for operations at 4,000-m (13,123-ft) depth as well as a 140-metric ton
deadweight (2,000 metric tons), but offer enhanced functionality and a crane with 3,000-m (9,842-ft) wire. The vessel has three moonpools -
higher accommodation capacity. All four vessels are being built at Arctech two for work ROVs and one construction moonpool of 12 x 11.2 m (39
Helsinki Shipyard. Arctech has overall responsibility of the design, hull x 36.7 ft). It has accommodation for 239 people, a deck area of 2,250
assembly, outfitting, testing, and commissioning of the ships. Building of sq m (24,219 sq ft), and three separate engine rooms.
the vessels brings about 3,500 man-years of work to Helsinki Shipyard. The SX165 design offshore construction vessel will be used for
The agreement between Sovcomflot and Sakhalin Energy, signed operations such as IMR, ROV services, well intervention, and drilling.
in 2014, involves the operation of these vessels for 20 years under the
Sakhalin-2 project. These will be used for the year-round delivery of Subsea 7 increases fleet
supplies and consumables to Sakhalin Energys three offshore plat- Subsea 7 has taken delivery of the Seven Arctic and Seven Kestrel,
forms in the Sea of Okhotsk, and for performing standby duty near the successfully completing a substantial and targeted fleet investment
platforms. The vessels will also be used for integrated environmental program that has added six newbuild vessels to its fleet since 2014.
protection and rescue operations. The Seven Arctic is a DP-3 heavy construction flex-lay vessel designed
The Russian Maritime Register of Shipping, which is providing technical to meet the demands of deepwater and harsh environments. Capable of
supervision during the construction of all the four working at depths of 3,000 m (9,842 ft), it features
vessels, has assigned the ice class of Icebreaker 6 a 1,000-ton offshore crane and a 600-ton top ten-
to the new IBSV. sion (tiltable) lay system.
The Seven Kestrel is a modern dive support
Ulstein delivers offshore vessel, certified by DNV GL, encompassing an
construction vessel 18-man twin-bell saturation diving system rated
Ulstein Verft has delivered the offshore con- to 300 m (984 ft) water depth.
struction vessel Island Venture to Island Ventures These vessels were built to a high specifica-
5 LLC, a joint venture between Edison Chouest tion, designed by Subsea 7 engineers in collabo-
Offshore and Island Offshore. Designed by Ul- ration with Hyundai Heavy Industries Shipyard
stein Design & Solutions AS, the vessel is 159.8 m in Ulsan, South Korea, and Wrtsil Ship Design,
Norway, to maximize their efficiency, capacity,
The Island Venture will be used for operations and economy. Both vessels will transit to the
such as IMR, ROV services, well intervention, North Sea for further crew familiarization before
and drilling. (Courtesy Ulstein)
commencing operations in the spring. March 2017 Offshore 21

1703off_21 21 2/28/17 4:32 PM

DRILLING & PRODUCTION Bruce Beaubouef Houston

New report sees rig contract the new Atwood Orca contract. In addition, say that quality was not sacrificed and global
market reviving in 2017 Ocean Rigs 2017 floater contract increased by benchmarks were exceeded by working more
A new report from Evercore ISIs Oilfield 330 bps to 38% due to an extension on the Leiv than 2 million man hours on Juniper without
Services, Equipment & Drilling group indi- Eiriksson until early May. Meanwhile, North a lost-time incident.
cates that the offshore rig contracting market Atlantic Drillings West Alpha and Seadrills Over the past decade, TOFCO says it has
has (or will) hit bottom and begin to revive this West Hercules are newly cold-stacked. installed management systems and processes to
year. Modest growth in the sector is expected, We continue to expect the offshore cyclical maximize efficiency and ensure quality control
depending on oil price movement. downturn to break in 2017, with deepwater for all projects. As a result, the company says it
The report focuses on trends in contracting and shallow-water rig counts, day rates, and has successfully fabricated 10 major offshore
activity and day rates, fleet operations, and utilization bottoming and operators acceler- structures, essentially establishing the offshore
near-term contract coverage. Evercore says ating the pace of offshore development and fabrication industry in Trinidad and Tobago and
that the reports findings likely represent a key equipment and services contracting, the developing a base of skilled workers.
inflection point for offshore drilling. report concluded. Our expectations for the The company says it relied on extensive
According to the firms February Offshore offshore subsector remains relatively modest; communication and planning as well as a team
Rig Market Snapshot, a total of 11 new con- however, as the duration of the bottoming of skilled workers and craftsmen, 98% of whom
tracts have been announced by mid-February. process will depend greatly on the oil price were native Trinidadians most from La Brea
This number is in line with that reported a through the first half of the year. and surrounding areas. More than 750 work-
month ago, as the pace of offshore contract
awards has been relatively stable since the
start of the year. A total of 21 contracts were
confirmed in January, similar to the total in
January 2016 and above the 16 logged in Janu-
ary 2015. However, contracting still has a way
to go before catching up to January 2014s 35
and January 2013s total of 42.
Of the 14 jackups contracted this January,
five were for more than one-year terms in
Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the UK. So far in
February, only one jackup and one floater has
been secured for at least a year, in Thailand
and Australia, respectively. Contracting activ-
ity will need to accelerate in the back half of
February to keep pace with the 30 contracts
announced last February.
The report also provided an update on drill-
ing rig contractor fleet operations. It noted
that rig contractors retired five floaters and TOFCO produced the topsides deck for Juniper, which will be the largest offshore platform in
three jackups over the past month, bringing Trinidad and Tobagos history. (Courtesy TOFCO)
the total to 74 floaters and 37 jackups since
2014. Evercore says that it believes that the TOCFO completes fabrication ers were engaged on the project at its peak.
figures are actually a bit higher, as at least of Juniper topsides TOFCO says that its employee mentoring
eight jackups are classified as held for sale Trinidad Offshore Fabricators Unlimited model has empowered its workers by provid-
and six floaters have been cold-stacked for (TOFCO) says it recently completed work for ing internationally accepted skill set training,
more than two years, the report said. the Juniper offshore gas platform topsides at education and career development.
Meanwhile, 38 jackups and seven floaters its facility in La Brea, Trinidad. The project The construction of the Juniper topside by
(including the ENSCO DS-10), previously marks a milestone for Trinidad and Tobago TOFCO is as much a victory for Trinidad and
scheduled to be delivered in 2017, have been as it is the largest offshore structure ever Tobago and the community of LaBrea as it is
deferred to 2018 and 2019 over the past month. fabricated in the country. for the companies involved in the project, said
One contracted floater, CIMC Bluewhale I, Juniper is a normally unmanned installation TOFCO General Manager Javed Mohammed.
was accepted. However, the firm says that it measuring 145 ft to the top of the helideck We look forward to taking this success into
expects the number of newbuild deferrals to and weighing approximately 5,200 tons. It securing future projects.
grow in the coming months, with only three was recently installed 50 mi off the south- Fabrication of the Juniper topsides was
newbuild floaters (excluding Petrobras) and east coast of Trinidad at a water depth of 360 significant for the Trinidad and Tobago
five newbuild jackups currently contracted. ft. An anticipated production capacity of 590 economy because it provided local contract-
Contract coverage for 2017 improved by 40 MMcf/d will flow through the Mahogany B ing and employment opportunities in a wide
basis points (bps) to 38% for the global floater offshore hub. range of crafts and disciplines, helping to
fleet and by 290 bps to 38% for the global The company noted that projects of this size strengthen and stimulate the domestic oil
jackup fleet. While some of the improvement and complexity often pose unique challenges. and gas services supply chain. When Juniper
from last month was due to rig retirement, However, in the end these challenges were begins production, it is expected to help close
within Evercores coverage, Diamond Off- overcome and TOFCO not only delivered the shortfalls experienced by the downstream and
shore led with a 410 bps improvement to its project safely and within budget, it was also LNG processing plants.
2017 floater coverage to 47% from the Ocean fully completed and pre-commissioned prior TOFCO was established in 2004 as a joint
Valor extension, while Atwood Oceanics 2017 to the scheduled sail-away date. Even with venture between Chet Morrison Contractors
jackup coverage increased to 19% from 0% with the aggressive schedule, company officials and Trinidads Weldfab, Ltd.

22 Offshore March 2017

1703off_22 22 2/28/17 4:32 PM

Sarah Parker Musarra Houston GEOSCIENCES

(NCSA), said it has achieved a geological development of the area opens up

breakthrough with proprietary a variety of play models from rotated Jurassic
software using more than four and Cretaceous fault blocks, to stratigraphic
times the previous number of and structural traps in Paleocene and Creta-
processors used on complex ceous turbidite/fan deposits. Acquisition is
oil and gas reservoir simulation expected to commence in May and will con-
models to improve exploration tinue over multiple seasons. Data processing
and production results. will be performed by TGS using its Clari-FiTM
The breakthrough in parallel broadband technology and advanced denoise
simulation used 716,800 proces- and demultiple techniques. Both projects are
sors, the equivalent of harnessing supported with industry funding.
the power of 22,400 computers
with 32 processors per comput- CGG completes
er. What ExxonMobil called a Bahraini AGG survey
Fugro will support the Shell Ocean Discovery
record run is said to have resulted in data CGG has completed acquisition and pro-
XPRIZE with high-resolution bathymetry data of
output thousands of times faster than typical cessing of what it claims is the first airborne
the competition area. (Image courtesy Fugro)
oil and gas industry reservoir simulation. It is gravity gradiometry (AGG) survey over the
expected to result in reductions in the amount Kingdom of Bahrain. The company performed
Fugro to acquire seafloor data of time previously taken to study reservoirs. the survey on behalf of the Bahrain Petroleum
Fugro has announced a partnership with ExxonMobils scientists worked closely Co. (Bapco) using FalconPlus, the newest
the Shell Ocean Discovery XPRIZE to support with the NCSA to benchmark a series of multi- release and the lowest-noise of CGGs suite
first round testing of the global, three-year million to billion cell models on NCSAs Blue of Falcon AGG systems.
competition, which incentivizes the develop- Waters super computer. This new reservoir
ment of rapid, unmanned and high-resolution simulation capability efficiently uses hundreds
ocean mapping technologies. Its role is to of thousands of processors simultaneously
provide high-resolution deepwater baseline and will have impact on reservoir manage-
bathymetry data over a 500 sq km (193 sq ment workflows.
mi) competition area. The company said it has ExxonMobil said its collaboration with the
recently collected more than 1 million sq km NCSA required careful planning and optimiza-
(386,102 sq mi) of high-resolution bathymetry tion of all aspects of the reservoir simulator
data per year globally, predominantly in water from input/output to improving communications
depths greater than 750 m (2.460 ft). across hundreds of thousands of processors.
The company will acquire the seafloor data These efforts have delivered strong scalability
using techniques and equipment including a on several processor counts ranging from more
deepwater autonomous underwater vehicle than 1,000 to nearly 717,000, the latter being
(AUV) equipped with sonar-based survey the full capacity of NCSAs Cray XE6 system.
systems. This information will be used to
ground-truth the work of 21 semi-finalist teams TGS bags GoM survey
advancing to Round 1 of the competition. The TGS was awarded the Otos multibeam and
challenge for the competing teams is to deploy seep study project in the US Gulf of Mexico.
their inventions to operate at 2,000 m (6,561 ft) Acquisition of the multibeam survey is un-
ocean depth, mapping 20% of the project site at derway and is the first stage of a seep and
5 m (16 ft) resolution, and identifying at least geochemistry program covering the US GoM.
five archaeological, biological, or geological The survey is designed to mirror the Gigante
features, all within a 16-hour timeframe. multibeam and seep study in the Mexican
In addition to increasing the speeds and side of the GoM, conducted in 2016. The new
Shown here is the extent of the Bapco Falcon-
methods by which baseline bathymetry could program will cover approximately 289,000 sq
Plus survey area. Existing seismic and well data
be acquired, the competition offers a mon- km (111,583 sq mi) and include 250 cores with will be included in the interpretation of the new
etary incentive sponsored by the US National advanced geochemistry analysis. TGS will data set. (Image courtesy CGG)
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for continue to work with the same acquisition
systems that can also detect and track biologi- providers as in the Mexico program, Fugro A resultant data set is now available compris-
cal and chemical signals. Such advancements (multibeam) and TDI Brooks (coring and ing around 18,000 km (11,184 mi) of high-resolu-
would improve emergency response and foster geochemical analysis). Final results in all tion, low-noise airborne gravity gradiometer and
the discovery and monitoring of new marine areas should be available in late 2017. magnetic data over roughly 7,700 sq km (2,973
life and underwater communities, Fugro said. Previous to that, the company landed its sq mi) of open exploration acreage across the
First round testing for semi-finalist teams is first new multi-client acquisition project in Kingdoms offshore licensing blocks.
scheduled to commence in September. Fugro 2017, AM17 Atlantic Margin 3D in the Norwe- Bapco and future license holders can make
will acquire, process, and deliver the datasets gian Sea. AM17 is a 40,000 sq km (15,444 sq use of the results to evaluate the offshore
in advance. mi) project in the central-southern Norwegian hydrocarbon potential and identify exploration
Sea. The project is the single largest 3D sur- priorities ahead of future licensing rounds.
Exxon claims vey carried out by any company in northern CGG will work with Bapco on an integrated
processing record Europe and covers largely open blocks in a study that will combine the AGG data with
ExxonMobil, working with the National relatively under-explored area with limited existing seismic, well, and other geological
Center for Supercomputing Applications drilling to date. New understanding of the information. March 2017 Offshore 23

1703off_23 23 2/28/17 4:32 PM


Geophysical companies cope

with further uncertainty
Raised, sustained oil prices
could spur offshore exploration
and help bring about a recovery
to the G&G sector. (Image cour-
tesy Shearwater GeoServices)

Low E&P levels continue to disrupt seismic activity

I think the worst is behind us and that In October, World Bank raised its 2017 oil
Sarah Parker Musarra
1Q 2016 marked the trough of this cycle, price forecast to $55/bbl from $53.
said Johansen. I think we are going into a A December study from Wood Macken-

recovery cycle, but it is going to take some zie, Global Exploration: What to look for in
ears have now passed under the time before we get back to a healthy market 2017, found that exploration would return
dark cloud of one of the industrys again. to profitability after the last five years of
worst-ever downturns, which be- A review of some of the previous years slim returns. Then, in January 2017, Wood
gan in 2014. Companies have begun tumult will make more apparent why 2017 Mackenzies global upstream outlook for
looking toward a recovery that is is being seen by some in the industry as a the year saw confidence beginning to return
now seeming to take shape, but what will transitional year. to the sector, with exploration and produc-
this year bring for those in the marine seis- tion spend set to rise by 3% to $450 billion.
mic sector? Year in review Evercore ISIs annual Global E&P Spend-
Since the start of 2017, Offshore has been As the oil and gas industry continued to ing Outlook, released in December 2016,
speaking with numerous company leaders limp through one of the worst crude busts reported that exploration spend had bot-
in the marine geophysical sector as well in modern history, 2016 likewise stumbled tomed, and projected global E&P capex to
as other industry experts in an effort to right out of the gate. Oil prices hovered increase by 1.7% in 2017. A similar outlook
understand how the segment will fare in south of $30/bbl and hopes of a possible from Barclays in January 2017 was more
the upcoming year. production deal with the Organization of bullish, forecasting a 7% growth in global
With offshore E&Ps renaissance not the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) E&P spend. The reports author, Senior
yet expected for some time, the picture is eventually soured. However, 2016 ended Analyst J. David Anderson, PE, CFA, noted
not entirely clear, however, what is clear is true to the transitional year moniker many that the increase corresponded to the two
that most, if not all, experts interviewed for had given it: Over the 12-month period, oil previous market recoveries: in 2003 (up
this story believe that 2017 will be better returned to $50/bbl, US production began 10%) and 2010 (up 11%).
than the brutal market many experienced slowing, and the staunch cabal of OPEC
in 2015 and 2016. member countries finally produced the long- Offshore E&P in 2017
Many, including TGS CEO Kristian Jo- awaited output deal with just weeks to go. While analysts outlook for 2017 were posi-
hansen, believe that the first indications The term cautious optimism was em- tive for the overall oil and gas industry, off-
of improvement are appearing, even if the ployed by industry experts more and more shore was last to depress, and will therefore
market will likely not experience a full turn- frequently as over 4Q 2016, as several in- be the last to rebound. Barclays found in its
around for some time. dicators began to point to a brighter 2017. Global E&P Spending Report that offshore

24 Offshore March 2017

1703off_24 24 2/28/17 4:32 PM


spend will take a hit in 2017 once again, despite first to detect activity, underpinning explora- dends, and youre continuing to see these
the forecasted growth in E&P capex. tion efforts in mature and frontier basins, companies are just not putting money into
We expect offshore spend to fall around which he referred to as the bellwether for the ground, in particular offshore, he said,
20-25% in 2017, following declines of 12% and the upturn, he said. pointing to Chevron as an example. They do
34% in 2015 and 2016, respectively, Anderson Following years of depressed exploration, not plan on [making any final investment deci-
wrote in the report. companies could rely on quality seismic data sions] for their major projects this year. They
This finding is consistent with a reality that to help manage their risk. are continuing to focus on the Permian. Short-
many, such as CGG, recognize: Any recovery The downturn has generated a hole in dis- cycle returns- thats what theyre looking for.
for marine seismic sector has yet to arrive. coveries and developments that the industry Oil prices are still a topic of concern, de-
At this point in time, we do not expect to see will race to fill to prevent supply shortages in spite 2016s pricing gains. Anderson said that
any market improvement in 2017, Christophe the future, Hodgson said. As oil companies some offshore projects could be economical in
Barnini, said. The first half of 2017 will be are leaner and more considered in their drill- the $50/bbl range, just like onshore develop-
very similar to 2016. The second half of 2017 ing investments, and they will rely ever-more ments. However, these offshore project still
will depend on our clients confidence in the on modern high-quality seismic to reduce the could not offer the same short production
recovery of oil prices. Barnini is the seismic risks on prospectivity. cycle. He said a sustainable $60/bbl price was
giants executive vice president, Geomarket Barclays Anderson similarly concluded that really necessary to get offshore moving again.
Sales, Marketing & Group Communications. oil companies were not showing any sense of TGS Johansen said despite the oil price
Many oil companies have turned toward urgency to indicate they were running out of rebound, levels are still relatively low in a
the North American land plays, in need of the inventory in their development projects, there- historical context.
quick returns promised by short-cycle shale by needing to up their exploration spending. If you compare it to two years ago when the
plays. James West, senior managing director In addition, he said that offshore exploration oil price was between $100 and $120/bbl, we
and partner, Oilfield Services, Equipment & spend was at the low-end of the typical range, are still at a very low level and its going to take
Drilling for Evercore ISI wrote in the firms which is 10-20% of a companys budget. One some time for our clients to be able to reduce
annual survey that: North America will re- in-field example of this reduction could be seen their cost base to cope with that, he said.
bound first and the strongest, followed by the in the number of exploration wells expected to
international markets, where the rebound will be drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. In 2013, the State of industry
be more methodical. Offshore markets will year before the downturn, 50 of these wells The drastic, prolonged downturn has fun-
likely be the last to recover. were planned; currently, there are 20. damentally changed the industry and how
Companies throughout the geophysical He also pointed out the continued reti- it operates, which Halliburton Landmarks,
sector feel the strain and uncertainty. cence on behalf of the IOCs to invest in Alex Page, manager of Geology, pointed out.
In the third year of the downcycle, the offshore after years of bad returns while From what I am seeing, there are some very
worst is behind us on the commodity price weathering the downturn. positive signs, but for the most part, there are
front, but there is still a tremendous amount of This is all about balance sheets and divi- equal measures of realism too, Page observed.
volatility and uncertainty in the market, Fair-
fieldNodals CEO Charles W. Davison said. Tracking a comeback
Both Anderson and West pointed to 2018 as Speaking to Offshore, Barclays Senior Analyst J. David Anderson, PE, CFA pointed
the year offshore would really recover. Evercore to data from some of the indicators he tracks to illustrate what the industrys path to
ISIs West told Offshore that although overall recovery could look like.
exploration spending was believed to have bot- What we have seen overall, over the last year, is that for every four rigs that
tomed, offshore activity was still in the process roll off contract, one continues to work, he said. We think thats going to slightly
of bottoming. Companies had been keeping improve to one out of three in the first half of 2017. Then, its one out of two in the
themselves busy on projects under develop- second half of 2017.
ment, but low reserve replacement ratios would We think by 2018, rigs will start to be added to the rig count. So overall, we think
suggest exploration activity is forthcoming, not that the floating rig count is going to bottom at about 120 rigs active by the end of
in 2017, but probably in 2018, he said. this year. That should start to grow in 2018, which is where we see things picking up.
Spectrum Geo Ltd.s Neil Hodgson, execu-
tive vice president, Geoscience, acknowledged
the flat exploration spending, but pointed out
that some of the grimmer aspects of the cur-
rent climate might soon lead to more positive
market moves.
The market indicators are clear the de-
mand for oil is growing by 1 MMb/d irrespec-
tive of oil price; consequently, there is good
support for a steady oil price.
We see that 2017 exploration spending will
be flat comparing to 2016. In the downturn
costs of exploration and development have
reduced to a fraction of those previously and
oil companies may use this opportunity to
stabilize drilling and seismic capacity to get
some of their offshore work programs firmed
up in 2017 and 2018, he said.
Further, he reminded that seismic was the March 2017 Offshore 25

1703off_25 25 2/28/17 4:32 PM


Shown is an image from a recent

Spectrum Geo acquisition from the
Northwest Shelf of Australia, which
Hodgson said featured strongly in the
companys developing 2017 program.
Also named were the Santos, Campos, and
Potiguar basins in Brazil, a shallow-water
3D survey in Gabon, Mozambique, and the
Norwegian North Sea. (Image courtesy
Spectrum Geo Ltd.)

Our industry has been through a massive jointly owned marine geophysical company in grated and owned by the company. We have a
transformation over the past two years. For October 2016, injecting $60 million through competitive cost base because of the way the
those of us lucky enough to still be involved, new equity to fund operations. The transac- company is structured, Telfer said.
we have been forced to face a new reality. tion closed a few months later in December. Shearwater GeoServices has been busy, most
Page continued: Though rigs counts are It has been terrible; a huge amount of ca- recently signing an agreement with TGS in Janu-
starting to show an upward trend, and other in- pacity was removed from the market, Telfer ary for two seismic surveys offshore Norway.
dicators like an uptick in the sales of multi-client said. To be honest, we do not really see a full Hunter said that he expected to see some
seismic studies [support that], many industry recovery in 2017. We do see stability at the mo- stabilization this year; however, he noted a
experts still believe we face a rough road ahead. ment, and a small increase in tenders, but no couple of unknown factors that could still
The key to this feeling of general insecurity increased demand beyond the current capacity. affect the industry as it regains its footing.
as an industry is based on the uncertainty of He commented that he did not see a need One example he gave was oil prices; the other
not knowing exactly how we will reinvent our for the number of vessels that were currently was uncertainty surrounding the potential
business models and practices to meet the chal- cold-stacked, but noted that those working policies and decisions of newly inaugurated
lenges of the new normal, he said. should be fairly stable. US President Donald Trump, particularly
Another one of the more deleterious effects While some might consider a downcycle speculation that he might change or lift sanc-
of the downturn on the seismic and other market as an unusual time to introduce a tions against Russia.
service providers right now has been the new player to the market, Telfer said that
steep drop in pricing over the last few years, Shearwaters two parent companies had a Hopeful signs
Anderson said. An average spread that might long-term vision. They are also mindful of the TGS recently experienced one important
have cost around $10 million per month a few short-term - that customers would want to take indication of a turnaround. The company re-
years ago would now cost about $2 million. advantage of the current low market prices. ported a 4Q revenue of $165 million, over $132
In addition, the market is over-saturated with They (GC Rieber Shipping and Rasmus- million in 4Q 2015. Johansen said that while
vessels, a fact upon which both Anderson and sengruppen) felt like it was a great opportunity the black ink was certainly a good starting
Craig Hunter, Seismic Editor, Marine, for IHS and that now is the time to establish a solid point to become a bit more optimistic, he felt
Markit commented. and well-funded geophysical company - dur- the full recovery was still to come.
If the market does show signs of improve- ing the downturn, so that they are ready for When we look into 2017, I think one should
ment this year, which it may well do, then the market improvement and ahead of the be a bit cautious in expecting it to only go
these companies will just have the option curve, he explained. one way, he commented. We think its still
of adding the vessels back to the market, The two parent companies have been in going to be a relatively challenging market.
Hunter told Offshore. In terms of price, in or around the marine seismic market for de- Its going to take some time for a significant
terms of day rates, or company profit, you cades. GC Reiber entered the seismic market recovery to take place.
cannot expect to see them changing much. I in the 1960s, and Rasmussengruppen has a Within its revenue growth, one area Johan-
think that the price will be kept down by the long history in the Norwegian offshore and sen highlighted was TGS recent increase in
ability to just reintroduce spare capacity. marine sectors. late sales, or sales of existing databases, as a
Many of the vessels laid-up around the They do not really see themselves as en- first indication of recovery.
world are less than 10 years old, he said. tering the market now given the established Typically where we see a recovery is in the
Hunters assertions were consistent with track record of the fleet, but they do see that late sales, because that is considered discre-
the opinion of Shearwater GeoServices Vice Shearwater is a new vehicle for them to be able tionary spending. When companies have to
President, Processing & Imaging, Simon Telf- to build upon, providing high-quality services to reduce their costs, thats the first thing they
er. GC Rieber Shipping and Rasmussengrup- that seismic market Shearwater has a young could cut immediately, he said.
pen AS established Shearwater as a 50/50 fleet, and has processing and software all inte- The companys late sales totaled $145 mil-

26 Offshore March 2017

1703off_26 26 2/28/17 4:32 PM


lion in 4Q 2016, up 60% year-over-year. Industry venture capital markets are pres- vices as a way to adopt our software platform
Also, IHS Markits Hunter reported some ently looking for investment opportunities in more quickly. In general, customers have
positive signs in the current marketplace, with high performance computing, geoscience fewer staff working today, but they still have
various countries seeing an uptick in activity, earth modeling and production simulation, about the same total production targets. As a
including a Russian season that he sees being 4D seismic marine acquisition and geophysical result, our services group has seen increas-
busy, and likely to stay that way over the next bore hole measurements, all of which are state- ing demand to help our users, not just in a
few years. Norway also still looks busy, and of-the-art science and engineering, he said. re-processing effort as might have been the
Mexico is still holding companies attention, Further, due in part to geophysics rela- case in the past, but rather, working side by
even if the US side of the GoM looks to be tionship to high-performance computing, side with them across the entire workflow.
somewhat quiet once again. Barkhouse believes that certain areas of the Landmarks Page continued by discussing
In addition, ocean bottom seismic (OBS) is industry could rebound from the downturn how Landmark had tried to meet the needs
another market he said is starting to pick up. to be stronger than ever. of the rapidly changing industry, noting that
Ocean bottom looks a bit more promising Geophysics is a direct beneficiary of the the company now released its solutions three
long term and the more it expands, the more continued evolution of high performance com- times a year, a change that allows us to be far
it is used, he said. The age of 4D surveying puting, virtualization reality, earth modeling, more agile than our competitors in terms of
is still relatively young. and simulation with geoscience simulators, reacting to the requirements of the industries
Like Hunter, Barclays Anderson also noted he noted. Interpretation related technology changing fortunes. The company had also
that brownfield and 4D seismic would be in- are seeing relatively tremendous support and moved to the Cloud.
teresting areas to watch in terms of demand funding. With the announcement of DS365, our
for services, as operators could start wanting Shearwaters Telfer has also seen increased end-to-end suite of geoscience solutions can
to re-shoot some of their acreage to see what, activity in reprocessing sales. We have seen now be made available to our customers in-
if anything, has changed over the last couple this in previously downturns. Companies will stantaneously, he said, commenting that as
of years. focus on reprocessing current data with newer E&P companies scale their workforces up
FairfieldNodals Davison said that nodal ma- technology to see what they can get out of and down, they no longer need to worry about
rine seismic sometimes benefitted from being it and the costs are a lot cheaper, he said. the logistics and provisioning costs to access
an opex, versus capex, spend. As companies It is definitely worth them doing that and it the software.
cut exploration spend, they look to enhance reduces their risk and enhances their recov- Page said that Landmark is examining how
recovery from their existing asset bases, he ery rate factors. In processing, technology to best to leverage automation, real-time inte-
said, which is why he foresaw the production is continuously improving. Like the rates for gration and the Cloud, and Big Data analytics.
monitoring side and life-of-field seismic recover- acquisition dropping in this downturn, the While some organizations have dwindling
ing first in his market. To this end, the company rates for processing have also dropped. R&D budgets and employee development
will soon debut a new product to meet a need PGS said it foresees an increase in acquisi- programs, Davison said that FairfieldNodal
that Davison classified as semi-permanent res- tion activity this year, driven by 4D streamer approached its re-organization differently: It
ervoir monitoring: ZLoF will be able to sit on monitoring surveys and 3D multi-client proj- increased its technology spend significantly,
the seafloor for five years, and can be turned ects. It expects to take delivery of the Ram- filing for 24 patents last year. The company
on and off to offer seismic-on-demand. form Hyperion newbuild soon. also used the downturn as an opportunity to
For the overall nodal market, Davison ac- implement a new business model and system
knowledged that the landscape would con- Role of technology that aims to run more efficient, simpler opera-
tinue to be lumpy, but with pockets of activity Indy Chakrabarti, senior vice president of tions. It also exited some areas that it felt did
around some brownfield and mature plays. He Product Management and Strategy for Para- not add value, such as data processing centers
identified Brazil, GoM, West Africa, and the digm, says that the first signs of recovery in three areas.
North Sea as regions that continued to be a are already evident, most visibly onshore. We are an applied technology company, he
good market for nodal seismic. He believes the offshore market will be soon commented. We recognize that if you look at the
Other experts believe that signs of a turn- to follow. broader theme of oil and gas, the need for new
around were already evident, or would soon Geophysical applications that are increas- technology has intensified. The supply chain
be evident, in at least some areas, such as ingly in demand in the offshore environment has to help customers increase productivity, to
Society of Exploration Geophysicists Associ- include a greater focus on managing subsur- help them get more out with less.
ate Executive Director, Business Development face risk by assessing pore pressure changes To do that, one of the companys goals is
and Chief Geophysicist William Barkhouse. in real-time, and simulating stress changes to decrease the overall cost of nodal seismic.
He told Offshore the he believed the impair- due to production, he said. Lowering the costs of marine nodal services
ment will pass this year if the early market Software has the advantage of being able to will open up the fairway. Nodal is not for all
improvements are sustained. adapt more fluidly to a changing market. Both means, but it has a good value proposition,
Relative to 2016 and 2015, the geology and Paradigm and Landmark pointed to instances particularly around maturing assets. I think
geophysical communities are beginning to see where each company had tried to adapt its nodal will be needed to improve the success
new projects as positive indications of recovery respective product lines to quickly meet the rates for customers. Better image quality will
underway in 2017, said Barkhouse. The recent needs of an industry in transformation. yield better value, he said.
public announcements of large seismic data Customers are increasingly looking for If you look at the technology contributions
acquisitions are encouraging, and individual integrated platforms, without having to com- happening onshore, it has been massive, and
geophysicists that were sidelined for the last promise on high-end functionality. One of our there is a lot of technology in the offshore
two to three years are currently receiving calls main goals in 2017 is to use our advanced environment. Technology will continue to trans-
for hiring in interpretation and processing. technology to ensure they dont have to give form oil and gas through things like more
Barkhouse said that he believes technolo- up either one, Chakrabarti continued. sensing technology, more data analytics, and
gies leading to better data quality and inter- A strategy that is particularly popular with the movement to marry the physical to the
pretation will recover the quickest. our customers is to use our geoscience ser- analytical world. March 2017 Offshore 27

1703off_27 27 2/28/17 4:32 PM


The DSME shipyard in Okpo, South

Korea. (Courtesy Bruce Beaubouef)

Standardization JIP aims to improve

design and construction efficiencies
South Korean shipyards play key role

outh Koreas three major shipyards Jessica Tippee plexity, less rework and delays, and greater
have suffered in the past few years Assistant Editor predictability. This, DNV GL points out, will
from a lack of new orders, order can- help reduce cost and increase predictability
cellations, and delivery delays due to without compromising quality and safety, en-
low oil prices. For instance, in Novem- abling more projects to move forward. The
ber 2016, Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) initial focus was on simple components and
announced that it will split its non-shipbuilding plexity in construction of floating and fixed equipment, such as tertiary structures and
divisions into independent companies as it offshore oil and gas installations. bulk materials for construction, piping, and
looks to improve management efficiency and Unfamiliar specifications and processes electrical and instrumentation engineering.
sharpen its core competitiveness. The cur- often result in rework, delays, misunder- In July 2016, the first phase of the JIP de-
rent Shipbuilding, Offshore & Engineering, standings, and miscommunication and add livered four recommended practices (RP):
and Engine & Machinery Division will form thousands of engineering hours to the design DNVGL-RP-E401 Recommendation for
a new Hyundai Heavy Industries. A month and construction of offshore assets. Cost sav- selecting standards for piping compo-
later Chevron North Sea Ltd. canceled its ings are delivered by addressing variations in nents
$1.9-billion contract with HHI to provide the owner, operator, and regulatory requirements DNVGL-RP-E402 Recommendation for
Rosebank FPSO. during engineering and construction phases. selecting standards for electrical and
Also in December, Daewoo Shipbuilding & In July 2015, DNV GL launched a joint in- instrumentation
Marine Engineering Co. (DSME) and Atwood dustry project (JIP) with HHI, DSME, SHI, DNVGL-RP-B201 Recommendation for
Oceanics Inc. agreed to delay the delivery the Korea Offshore and Shipbuilding Asso- selecting standards for structural steel
of the newbuild ultra-deepwater drillships, ciation (KOSHIPA), and the Korea Marine materials
Atwood Admiral and Atwood Archer, by two Equipment Research Institute (KOMERI) DNVGL-RP-E403 Recommendation for
years to Sept. 30, 2019 and June 30, 2020, to establish a new international standard for selecting standards for steel bulk items.
respectively. engineering and construction of offshore oil According to DNV GL, the objective of the
In addition, to restructuring, workforce and gas installations. It aims to develop com- first RP is to provide a uniform reference for
reductions and other cost-cutting measures, mon and global best practices for components design and fabrication of ball valves, piping
HHI, DSME, and Samsung Heavy Industries and equipment to reduce the number of, and insulation, welded and clamp shoes in piping
(SHI) have focused on collaboration and cross- variations in, requirements to the minimum systems. The second RP looks to provide a
industry efforts to help lower cost and com- necessary. The outcome will be reduced com- uniform reference for selection of standards

28 Offshore March 2017

1703off_28 28 2/28/17 4:32 PM


for design and fabrication of low voltage ca-

bles, high voltage cables, instrument cables,
telecommunication cables, instrumentation
tubes, instrument tubing fittings and clamps.
The objective of the third RP is to standardize
the specifications of plate, section, and tubular
steel materials for use in special, primary,
secondary, and tertiary structural elements.
The fourth RP aims to provide a uniform refer-
ence for design and construction of tertiary
structural items such as hand rails, stairs,
vertical ladder, and grating.
Standardization will provide an opportunity
to enhance efficiency and competitiveness of
whole value chains in the oil and gas indus-
try and induce environmental improvement
by minimizing the surplus resources, said
Kil-seon Choi, chairman and CEO of HHI.
These RPs are a very positive and radical
step forward which will help to reduce inef-
ficiencies in design and construction as well
as to increase predictability and quality even
The HHI shipyard in Ulsan, South Korea. (Courtesy Hyundai Heavy Industries)
In October 2015, ABS entered into a memo-
randum of understanding with South Koreas ects based on relevant industry and interna- risk assessments, and provide a gap analysis
three major shipyards to establish a JIP with tional regulations, and class requirements. report.
operators, drilling contractors, and engineer- ABS said that it will lead the standardization At last years Offshore Technology Con-
ing companies to develop new international process to verify technical compatibility of ference, 15 companies including the three
design standards for offshore oil and gas proj- the developed standards, conduct safety and Korean shipyards, operators, drilling contrac-

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1703off_29 29 2/28/17 4:33 PM


In July 2016, HHI delivered what it

claims is the worlds largest semi-
submersible drilling rig to Diamond
Offshore Drilling. The Ocean Greatwhite
is 123 m (404 ft) long and 78 m (256 ft).
(Courtesy Hyundai Heavy Industries)

tors, engineering companies, and classifica- Advisory-Korea, DNV GL-Oil & Gas. Our dardization: material, design, procedure, and
tion societies signed a memorandum of ambition is to establish a standard for oil and equipment.
understanding to establish a unified JIP for gas projects that builds on a well-established The IOSS aims to deliver familiarity and
standardization. The goal is develop criteria approach for classification. Industry estimates simplification. A document well-known to
to help shipbuilders and designers increase for potential cost savings on construction of both builder and client would help both par-
design and construction efficiencies, manage installations range well into double-figure ties proceed with a clear understanding of all
and reduce project costs, and improve safety. percentages. expectations from the start of the project. In
According to ABS, while smaller JIPs have In August 2016, the unified offshore stan- the shipyard, the elimination of rework and
formed to address standardization issues, the dardization JIP set out to develop an industry- change orders will save time and energy and
number of companies participating in this wide standard building specification called the conserve raw materials. In the offices of the
partnership is said to constitute an indus- Integrated Offshore Standard Specification oil majors and engineering companies, the
try first, bringing together a broad range of (IOSS). standardized specification will reduce the
leaders with the common goal of improving The ABS-led IOSS development program work-hours spent in engineering design and
consistency and reducing construction inef- consists of two JIPs, one focusing on equip- analysis.
ficiencies. The signing parties were DSME, ment and one on bulk material (which in- In 2016, Energy Maritime Associates pre-
SHI, HHI, KOSHIPA, KOMERI, MODEC In- cludes structure, piping, electrical, and instru- dicted that fundamental reforms, including
ternational, Royal Dutch Shell, Chevron, Wood ment). The tasks are divided among working standardized designs and closer collaboration,
Group Mustang, McDermott International, groups located in Houston, Korea, London, will reduce the costs for offshore hydrocar-
Technip, ABS, DNV GL, Bureau Veritas, and and Paris. Although separate efforts, the two bon developments and result in new orders
Lloyds Register. JIPs overlap through the participating compa- for floating production systems. According
The objective is to reduce cost and increase nies: the bulk material JIP works closely with to its 2017-2021 Floating Production Systems
predictability without compromising safety in the three shipyards and has the oil majors and Outlook Report, that prediction proved to be
international offshore oil and gas engineer- engineering companies as advisers, while the true. After cancelling what would have been
ing, procurement, and construction projects equipment JIP works closely with oil majors the largest spar ever built, BP spent two years
by using standardized bulk materials and and engineering companies and has the ship- revising its development concept for the Mad
equipment, construction, and qualification yards as advisers. Dog Phase 2 project in the deepwater US
procedures, and documentation requirements. This integrated effort seeks to find accept- Gulf of Mexico and was able to reduce the
Designers, yards, and suppliers work more able common ground between the numerous overall project cost by 60%. A simplified and
efficiently when projects apply standards with individual standards, practices and require- standardized production semisubmersible
which all players are experienced, said Pet- ments in offshore projects. The working platform design was ordered from SHI in 4Q
ter Ellingsen, group leader Offshore Risk groups are focusing on four areas for stan- 2016 at a cost of $1.26 billion.

30 Offshore March 2017

1703off_30 30 2/28/17 4:33 PM


TGT field FPSO with platform in the distance.

(Image courtesy John Hepler/SOCO)

SOCO helps Vietnam sustain oil

production from deep-lying reservoirs
ietnam has widespread gas resources, Jeremy Beckman of foreign oil companies bidding for shares
but the countrys main oil discoveries, Editor, Europe in the countrys offshore blocks. We went
and three-quarters of its oil production there with an ex-pat Vietnamese who had
to date, have come from the Cuu Long worked for Mobil in East Texas, but had gone
and South Con Son basins offshore back to Vietnam to teach reservoir engineer-
the southeast coast. Bach Ho, the countrys ing, Story explained. We knew we faced
longest-producing and largest oilfield, is one Europes Perm region, at a time when Perm- stiff competition in the bid round as at the
of various fields located in fractured granite NefteGas was joining the ranks of privatized time the Vietnamese were only interested in
basement in Cuu Long, a Tertiary rift basin Russian government entities. attracting big companies, but we managed to
formed during rifting in the Early Oligocene. This led to the formation of PermTex, with convince the authorities there that the prime
Other oil finds in the area have come from Lukoil later stepping into PermNefteGas po- oil-prospective region, the Cuu Long basin,
overlying Oligocene-Miocene shale, clastics sition. In 1990, the joint venture with Snyder should be partitioned via joint ventures, fol-
and volcanic sections. bought a controlling interest in Australian lowing the same model we had operated in
Although volumes in-place are in some company Command Petroleum which had a Russia. We went on to help the government
cases substantial, the subsurface challenges subsidiary Holland Sea Search (HSS), at the draw up the structure under which foreign
of development have largely deterred west- time the second largest listed oil company on parties fund exploration, with the Vietnamese
ern upstream investors. One exception is the Dutch Stock Exchange after Shell. This led state (via PetroVietnam) backing in for any
SOCO International, which has developed to involvement in Bangladeshs fledgling E&P subsequent production phase.
two fields in these geological settings in part- industry and signing of the gas-prone offshore These efforts led to SOCO securing in-
nership with PetroVietnam and PTTEP, and Sangu Sangu concession, followed in 1996 by terests in two 25-year offshore production
which is now looking to prove a similar play start-up of the Ravva oilfield offshore eastern concessions in the Cuu Long basin, both close
in under-explored, deeper waters offshore India. Soon afterwards, Story and Cagle sold to the Bach Ho field, as a partner in two joint
eastern Vietnam. both these interests to Edinburgh-based Cairn operating companies (JOCs) that have since
SOCOs founders are President and CEO, Energy, with HSS director Mike Watts also de- been aligned as a single management com-
Edward Story, and Executive Vice President parting to head up Cairns exploration group pany. The other parties are PetroVietnam,
and Deputy CEO, Roger Cagle. Both had (although Watts recently rejoined SOCO to the single largest shareholder, and Thailands
backgrounds in the financial sector: Story, spearhead the companys expansion plans). PTTEP. Production from the Ca Ngu Vang
who had worked for Exxon in the Far East At that point in the 1990s, SOCOs main (CNV) field in the western part of one con-
before returning to the US in 1975, when assets were an exploration venture onshore cession, block 9-2, started in 2008, six years
the war in Vietnam ended, recruited Cagle Mongolia and production through PermTex. after discovery, while the Te Giac Trang field,
to Exxon and the pair teamed up four years Vietnam had started opening up to foreign discovered in 2005 in the northeastern part of
later at Superior Oil. The duo went on to form investors, including the US, and Story and block 16-1, produced first oil in 2011.
a joint venture with Snyder Oil Corp. which Cagle, who had connections in the country, During the Vietnam conflict, Mobil drilled
in the early 1990s developed fields in eastern saw an opportunity for SOCO to join the legion the initial discovery well on the giant base- March 2017 Offshore 31

1703off_31 31 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Ca Ngu Vang development schematic. Development drilling has proven to be complex due to the vertical
(Courtesy SOCO International)
Dinh Co and horizontal compartmentalization of the reservoirs, necessitating
CNV Gas, LPG terminal CNV WHP vertical wellbores through the reservoirs to accommodate sliding
& condensate sleeves, avoidance of high-angle step-outs to accommodate regular
to market
intervention, and use of water injection to maintain reservoir pres-

sure. Development has been phased and focused on reserves from

Ho to

the different fault block accumulations. Current facilities comprise

three wellhead platforms, with produced oil sent to the FPSO Armada
Dinh C

TGT 1 for processing and onward tanker export to regional refineries.

o gas

Produced gas heads through a pipeline to Bach Ho for processing

Bach Ho s
km and transportation to shore to the Vung Tau power and gas plants.

CPP-3 25
Progressive development over the years and improved understand-

ing of the reservoirs has led to production rising from the original
government estimate of 10 MMbbl to the over 70 MMbbl. During 2016,
output averaged 27,650 boe/d, although the facilities have nameplate
capacity to produce up to 55,000 b/d of oil and 30 MMcf/d of gas.
Following a two-year hiatus, development drilling resumed late
ment Bach Ho field which the Gazprom/PetroVietnam joint venture last year with the PetroVietnam Drilling jackup PVD-6 drilling two
Vietsovpetro went on to develop in the 1980s via a multi-platform infill wells from the H4-wellhead platform, both encountering hydro-
complex. SOCO also saw basement oil potential in block 9-2, which carbons throughout the targeted Miocene and Oligocene horizons.
was proven in the CNV field via a series of wells drilled during 2002-06. Results from these and interventions in existing wells helped boost
The development that followed involved installation of an unmanned gross production. The JOC plans to follow up later this year with two
wellhead platform exporting oil and gas to Bach Hos CPP3 central more infill wells from the southern H5-wellhead platform and the
processing platform through two 26-km (16-mi), 10-in. subsea pipelines. TGT-14X appraisal well on the H5 South fault block. In addition, the
In 2013 the JOC received regulatory approvals for their full field JOC has received approval for the TGT full field development plan
development plan, which involved accessing previously untapped to Vietnams authorities, detailing the scope for additional wells and
reserves in the southwestern part of CNV based on interpretation of options for facilities to increase fluid handling capacities.
3D seismic over the area. The jackup Naga 2 spudded the CNV-7P TGT is a multi-layered field with over 50 sands and thin horizons,
development well in April 2014, but this had to be abandoned after Story explained, and the wells completed to date are not in all the
failing three times to penetrate overlying conglomerates en route to sands. In some areas we didnt complete in the most prolific sands as
the target. It proved to be a costly exercise, impacting the projects we are still trying to establish the characteristics of the field. Tradi-
economics; however, with rig rates still relatively low, the partners tionally, Vietnam has a philosophy of no barrel left behind, but with
are considering another try. TGT what we are doing is drilling wells and trying to figure out what
As a basement field, CNV is not a reservoir in the classic sense, we have. You can get to the field edge and find water drive, then you
Story said, so you are looking at fissures to bring out the oil through need to figure out which are the zones with the higher water cut, and
cracks in the granite. We have imaged off 3D seismic where most of then go back in and drill those zones with the lower water cut. We are
the big seams area, and based on our interpretation of the reserves, trying to explain to the Vietnamese that we can re-enter those wells
we think this southwest section hasnt really had suitable penetrations later and shut them in as the water cut rises.
to date, and may contain a third of the fields remaining reserves. According to Cagle, the suspension of drilling on TGT over the last
Last year production from CNV averaged 6,211 boe/d, and rates two years was due to PetroVietnams budget cuts, in response to the
are expected to remain stable for some time. The development is lower oil price. The JOC has to have unanimity for any new invest-
profitable even at an oil price in the low $20s, Story said. The JOC ments to proceed, he said. Last November, we had approval for a third
owns the concession through 2029, and barring some unknown well, Story added, but we didnt have the necessary long-lead items,
event, CNV should still be producing at that point. However, we need so since completing the two infill wells the rig has been stacked on
to re-evaluate our understanding of the drive mechanisms as the the TGT production platform. Now we have approval to drill up to 18
reservoir goes from a mainly oil to a gas-dominant reservoir, and at wells under the full-field development plan, which is actually an outline
the moment we cant recover enough of the oil. Knowledge of base-
ment production remains limited: the conventional wisdom is that
water injection-based pressure maintenance is critical to ensuring
the highest possible recovery of the oil, but strangely, this turns out
to be not necessarily the case.

Re-assessing TGT reservoirs

Block 16-1 was originally awarded to a consortium of SOCO, Exxon,
and Amerada Hess. We negotiated the rights to the concession for
two years, but finally Exxon departed Cagle said. Eventually after
drilling several basement dry holes Hess withdrew, paying us to take
on their interest. The next well drilled was the TGT discovery well.
The TGT field is in the northern part of block 16-1, 100 km (62
mi) southeast of Vung Tau and 20 km (12.4 mi) northwest of Bach
Ho. It comprises various separate fault block accumulations of Early
Miocene or Upper Oligocene age. The reservoirs feature vertically
stacked sand layers with a limited distance between production zones
and the oil-water contacts. TGTs complex reservoir. (Courtesy SOCO International)

32 Offshore March 2017

1703off_32 32 2/28/17 4:33 PM


based on a macro-environment. This works as follows: if the oil price are staffed by Vietnamese crews that have worked for PetroVietnam
is at a high enough level, the JOC looks to a more capital-intensive their entire careers, so they know the capabilities of the facilities.
solution. If it is lower, an operating costs solution. In the past, the
Vietnamese government wouldnt have considered committing funds Phu Kanh potential
for a new incremental scheme beyond a year. This solution is beyond Unlike most other relatively small independent E&P companies
12 months, which is a new concept for them. SOCO is debt-free, and is now looking to expand elsewhere in Vietnam,
One thing we plan to do to solve TGTs myriad production prob- the wider Asia region and North Africa, if suitable opportunities arise.
lems, Cagle explained, is to install water handling facilities on the H1 We think now is the right time to grow, Story said. Having come off
platform, raising the liquid handling capacity by 90,000 b/d to add to the period of highs and lows, the industry is now at an intermediate
the FPSOs nameplate capacity. We have tested the FPSOs production level where things can stabilize. We think there will be a lot of M&A
capacity and have achieved oil rates over 65,000 b/d, even though the activity over the months ahead, and we dont want to be left behind.
nameplate capacity is 55,000 b/d. But production is currently limited One of the target areas is the Phu Kanh basin offshore central Vietnam,
by the water handling capability: there are different fault blocks that where the company has finished negotiations for a production-sharing
we havent accessed in outlying parts of the license, with different contract (PSC) for blocks 125 and 126, adjacent to the coastline and in
anomalies at differing depths but why drill wells in those areas when moderate to deepwater. Multiple structural and stratigraphic plays have
there are constraints on the liquids handling capacity? shown up on available seismic, and SOCO sees potential for similar source,
TGT has proven to be one of Vietnams most profitable fields, Cagle expulsion and migration of oil from basement as in the Cuu Long basin.
claimed, with operating costs falling at one point below $10/bbl, JX Nippon Oil and Gas and ConocoPhillips are partners in an adjacent
although $11 is more likely this year, due in part to market develop- block, while ExxonMobil is developing a major gas discovery to the north
ments. Lack of new drilling activity generally caused the slowdown and building an associated power station. Eni, too, has discovered gas
in steel and equipment manufacturing, which in turn extended the nearby and another well on block 127 encountered oil.
lead times for drilling the wells hence the current stacking of the No wells have ever been drilled on blocks 125 and 126, however, and
PVD-6. The impact on production therefore cancels out the benefits if oil can be proven, it could be transformational for the company, Story
of the substantially lower day rate for the rig, currently $50,000/d suggested. Execution of the PSC, which SOCO would operate in the
compared with $120,000/d previously. exploration phase in partnership with Vietnamese investment conglomer-
For both development projects the JOC has worked with three Viet- ate SOVICO, should follow by mid-year. The main advantage of a PSC in
namese platform fabricators. All are good, Story said, as are the quality Vietnam, Story explained, is that the operator has the ultimate say on how
of their drilling rigs in fact, the best performance we have achieved the project goes forward, while a JOCs decisions depend on unanimity
on our wells has been with Vietnamese rigs. One reason is that the rigs among the partners, something that is not always easy to achieve.

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1703off_33 33 2/28/17 4:33 PM

Cuttings transport model shown

to decrease certain drilling risks

ransient cuttings transport models Eric Cayeux passage for the fluid. Thus, the fluid velocity
(TCTM) can be used to assist the International Research increases while the sedimentation of cuttings
planning and the execution of drilling Institute of Stavanger particles reduces.
operations, especially for long and com- Drilling fluids are viscoelastic, behaving
plex wells. Drilling problems such as like a viscous fluid during circulation and
pack-offs, excessive torques, overpulls, or Amare Leulseged like an elastic solid when at rest. This prop-
setdown-weights can result from poor hole International Research erty is crucial for keeping cuttings particles
cleaning. Institute of Stavanger in suspension when the circulation stops.
The movements of cutting particles along However, because of momentum and fluid
the annulus depends on several factors such Roald Kluge compressibility, the fluid velocity decreases
as the wellbore trajectory, the borehole and Statoil relatively slowly when the mud pumps are
drillstem diameters, the drilling fluid prop- stopped. As a consequence, cuttings particle
erties, and drilling parameters such as the Jarle Haga that were directly transported prior to the
flow rate, drillstring rotational speed, and Repsol change of flow-rate, may reach the low-side
the rate of penetration. Thus, modeling the of the borehole, in highly inclined sections of
precise movements of the cutting particles a well, before the drilling fluid gelation has
considering the above constraints can help had a chance to stop the particle movement.
minimizing immediate and delayed drilling Based on those principles, and together
operations problems. fluid velocity field (including whether the flow with a transient hydraulic model, drillstring
After reviewing important features neces- is laminar, transitional, or turbulent), the fluid mechanical model, and heat transfer model, it
sary for a transient cuttings transport model- effective viscosity, the drillstring eccentricity, is possible to estimate how cuttings particles
ing, this article will present two example cases and its rotational speed. The resulting move- are transported into a borehole as a function
of the use of such a model. ment of individual cuttings particles along a of the applied drilling parameters.
length of borehole is complex. However, there Such a model has been used in two different
Cuttings transport model is a minimum bulk fluid velocity, called criti- contexts. In one case, it was used to compare
To circulate cuttings particles out of the cal transport fluid velocity (CTFV), for which the potential performances of different drilling
well, a force should be applied to overcome each cuttings particle is directly transported fluids prior to the drilling of an 8-in. section
the effect of gravitation that pulls the solid by the flow. In addition to the aforementioned of an extended-reach drilling (ERD) well. It
particles to the low-side of the borehole. This factors, the CTFV depends on the particle led to the choice of a drilling fluid system for
force is induced by the viscous friction gener- dimensions and density, and the wellbore incli- the coming drilling operation. In the other
ated by the relative movement of the drilling nation. With fluid velocity below the CTFV and instance, the model was used to post-analyze
fluid compared to the surface of the particles. with inclination higher that 35, cuttings may a difficult drilling operation performed in a
This force can be decomposed into a drag and start to settle on the low-side and accumulate tapered wellbore architecture, showing that
a lift component, which depends on the local in a cuttings bed. This reduces the available there were natural causes to the problems
East that had been encountered dur-
-16,000 -14,000 -12,000 -10,000 -8,000 -6,000 -4,000 -2,000 0 ing drilling and running in hole
with a liner.
0 0 27 in. This methodology has also
500 been used to assist in decision-
making while drilling, but that
1,000 18-5/8 in.
-2,000 will not be covered in this article.
-3,000 Fluids


evaluation study
An ERD well was being drilled
3,000 -5,000 from a fixed platform with an in-
tegrated drilling facility package
-6,000 13-3/8 in. which was about 25 years old. All
4,000 the conductors ran directly from
-7,000 9-5/8 in.
4,500 the platforms wellhead deck, sur-
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 mounted by a high-pressure riser,
Vertical section a BOP stack, and a low-pressure
Shown here is the well trajectory and the corresponding casing architecture of an ERD well in the North Sea. riser. The top-drive could deliver
(All images courtesy IRIS) at most 60 kN.m at high rotational

34 Offshore March 2017

1703off_34 34 2/28/17 4:33 PM


toward the end of the section, the flow rate

A B 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
would be limited to 1,800 l/min for SBM1 and
2,100 l/min for SBM2 in order to avoid exceed-
160 ing 300 bar (4,351 psi) at the mud pumps.
140 6,800 Note that the two fluids had equal mud
Critical RPM

density of 1.68 sg at atmospheric pressure
100 and 60C (140F) and similar pressure vol-
80 7,200 ume temperature behavior. However, they

Depth (m)
7,400 had dissimilar rheological properties. SBM2
20 was much less viscous than SBM1, but also
0 its effective viscosity did not depend as much
1,400 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 2,100 2,200 7,800 on pressure than the standard SBM, even
Flow-rate (l/min) though both fluids rheological properties de-
pended greatly on temperature. As could be
TD max speed Max flow-rate SBM1 expected, the simulations also showed that
at high torque
50 100 the downhole pressure variation as a function
Max flow-rate SBM2 Surface torque (m.kN) of flow rate would be more limited for SBM2
Measured free-rotating torque than for SBM1.
In A): With fluid SBM1, the maximum permissible flow rate is Estimated free-rotating Assuming a minimum fracturing pressure
about 1,800 l/min and at the flow rate the minimum rotational torque using SM2
gradient of 2.02 sg for the open hole section,
speed should be more than 150 rpm, therefore requiring a torque
it would have been very easy to fracture the
lower than 60-70 m.kN, but SBM2 can be pumped up to 2,100 l/min and, at that flow rate, the mini-
mum rotational speed is just above 120 rpm which is compatible with large top-drive torque values.
well with SBM1 with even as low a flow rate
In B): Using SBM2, the top-drive torque was estimated to be lower than 50m.KN and the measured as 1,600 l/min.
torque values have stayed within the expected bounds. Torque and drag calculations for the 8-in.
section showed that the free rotating torque
speed, but higher torque values could only be 9-in. casing was ran and cemented to the would be between 50 and 75 kNm when using
obtained below 120 rpm. end of the section. The plan was to drill the SBM1, while it would be significantly lower
During the drilling of the 12-in. section, 8-in. section starting at the same inclination when using SBM2 (from 40 to 50 kNm as a
torque limitations required the top-drive speed for 1,125 m (3,691 ft), and then drop to 40 function of the bit depth). This means that us-
to be reduced to 120 rpm. These limitations using a curvature of 2.2/30 m to the section ing SBM2 could allow to maximum rotational
also caused severe cuttings transport prob- target depth at 8,250 m MD (27,067 ft MD or speed all the way down to the section target
lems, noticeable through continuous pack-off 4,000 m TVD). depth while SBM1 would probably require to
tendencies. Furthermore, it was not possible The downhole pressure and temperature reduce the top-drive speed toward the end of
to rotate the top-drive at a high speed while conditions at target depth were expected the section.
cleaning the hole just before pulling out of to be up to 700 bar (10,153 psi) and around Based on the model, a critical top-drive
hole and several overpulls were observed 150C (302F), therefore indicating condi- rotation speed required to transport cuttings
indicating that cuttings beds had been left in tions that are very close to high-pressure/ has been calculated. For SBM1, the maximum
the borehole. high-temperature. flow rate would be limited to 1,800 l/min be-
As the 8-in. section was 1,750 m (5,741 To determine the risk levels for each mud cause of the pump pressure, and it would be
ft) long, there was a concern that similar systems, the first step was to determine the necessary to rotate the drillstring above 160
problems could be encountered, with the maximum flow rate that would be possible to rpm in order to transport the cuttings in the
potential risk of losing the section. It was use without exceeding the certification limit near horizontal parts of the well, which is
therefore decided to evaluate which of two of the pumping system. After application of a obviously incompatible with the torque limit
mud systems would provide the least risk safety margin, the calculations showed that that was discussed just above. On the other
levels for hole cleaning. The East
originally planned mud was -4,000 -3,500 -3,000 -2,500 -2,000 -1,500 -1,000 500 0
standard synthetic base mud -200 600
(SBM) that will be referred to as 0
SBM1. The second alternative 30 in. 200
400 200
was based on micron-size barite
600 0
particles and will be denoted 20 in.
as SBM2. 1,000 Casing shoe -200
The well was a side track of 1,200 Change of diameter -400

an existing well with a 13- 1,400


14 -600
in. casing installed at 4,277 m 1,600
1,800 13-3/8 x 14 -800
(14,032 ft) measured depth 13-3/8 2,000 10-3/4
(MD) (3,207 m total vertical X
14 in.
depth, TVD) at an inclination 2,400
9-5/8 x 10-3/4 -1,200
of 51. The 12-in. section was 10-3/4
2,600 -1,400
drilled slant to 6,500 m MD X 2,800
9-5/8 in. 3,000 -1,600
(21,325 ft or 3,571 m TVD) af-
-500 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000
ter increasing the inclination to
84 utilizing a dogleg severity Vertical section

(DLS) of 2.5/30 m (98 ft). A Demonstrated here is the casing architecture and corresponding wellbore trajectory of a tapered well. March 2017 Offshore 35

1703off_35 35 2/28/17 4:33 PM


hand, the maximum allowable flow rate with 5,000 m MD (16,404 ft). The section had a the downhole ECD decreased from 1.695 sg
the SBM2 would be around 2,100 l/min and 560 m (1,837 ft) of tangent section at 80, to 1.68 sg, which was still higher than the ex-
the corresponding critical drillstring rotation and then dropped to 40 over the remaining pected value of 1.64 sg. The transient cuttings
speed would slightly be above 120 rpm and 440 m (1,443 ft) to reach the section target. transport model predicted that there should
therefore be compatible with more demanding have been a 400 m (1,312 ft) long of cuttings
torque conditions than anticipated. Analysis of operation bed inside the 10-in. liner section.
Based on the findings of the study, the deci- The operation started by drilling out the At the time of the drilling operation, the
sion was made to use the SBM2 mud for the 9-in. casing shoe and cement with 1,900 drilling crew thought that the well was clean
drilling of the 8-in. section and the section l/min flow rate and 60 rpm. The standpipe and started to pull out of hole. Despite the fact
was drilled without any problems. During the pressure started to fluctuate substantially that the model indicated that it was likely that
actual drilling process, the top-drive torque by about 10 bars over a longer period of time a cuttings bed was left inside the 14-in. casing,
was reported to be below 50 kNm for the hole and had pressure bursts of up to 20 bars (290 the pull-out of the hole went smoothly, with a
section, as predicted by the model. psi) over a few minutes. These over-pressures sliding friction starting at 0.2, decreasing to
However, the downhole ECD was observed were accompanied by drops of free rotating 0.15 over the first 300 m (984 ft), pulled, and
to be higher than predicted by the model for weight by up to 15 tons. These are typical stayed constant thereafter.
the recommended flow rate of 2,000 l/min. signs of bridging or pack-off situations. With Even though the operation went without
Instead, 1,850 l/min was used, and the mea- the current drilling parameters, the TCTM es- any problems, totally different observations
sured downhole ECD was within the range timated that two cuttings beds were forming, were made while running the 7-in. liner. Past
of 1,930 and 1,990 kg/cu m. The reason for one inside the 9-in. liner, and another one 1,500 m MD (4,921 ft), the apparent sliding
the discrepancy was that the actual viscosity just above the 10-in. liner hanger. Measure- friction increased to 0.3 and shortly after it
of the mud was larger than the one used dur- ments showed that there were very high levels continued to increase up to 0.4. As the liner
ing the study. Even though a lower flow rate of stick-slip and erratic downhole pressure, passed the 10-in. cross-over at 2,500 m MD
was used, the fact that the drillstring could both facts were additional indications that a (8,202 ft), the apparent sliding friction contin-
be rotated at high velocity allowed a proper possible cuttings bed was forming inside the ued to increase reaching values between 0.5
transport of the cuttings. 9-in. liner. and 0.6, and then started to decrease slowly.
Before starting to drill the new formation, When approaching the 9-in. casing shoe, the
North Sea case study the well was circulated, and the downhole sliding friction had decreased to 0.45.
On a different fixed platform in the North ECD dropped to values that were compatible A set-down weight was experienced at 4,350
Sea, the transient cutting transport model with a cleaned hole. m MD (14,271 ft) and it was not possible to
has been used to analyze the hole cleaning When the drilling of the new formation pass that depth. As a result, back-reaming
conditions of an 8-in. drilling operation of started, the drillstring rotation and flow rate was initiated. While reaming up to the cas-
a challenging well with a tapered casing ar- were increased first to 120 rpm and 2,100 l/ ing shoe large quantities of cuttings were
chitecture. min and then to 140 rpm and 2,200 l/min, transported to surface, which was visible by
The tapered architecture was constituted of respectively. With these drilling parameters, the decrease of the pit volume as cuttings
a 10 x 9-in. liner inside a 13 x 14-in. casing. the TCTM showed that the cuttings bed inside got separated from the drilling fluid. When
The objective of this large diameter borehole the 9-in. liner should no longer exist while attempting to run in hole, the sliding friction
was to install an electrical submersible pump the one just above the 10-in. liner hanger had decreased to 0.2, and the liner could be
inside the 13 x 14-in. casing at a maximum would continue to accumulate cuttings. After landed and cemented without any problems.
inclination of 40. more than three hours of drilling into the new The predictions made by the model that a
This is part of the tail production of this formation, the model showed that no cuttings large cuttings bed had been left during the
mature field, where a forced depressurization had reached the surface. hole cleaning operation at the end of the 8-
of the reservoir is performed to increase the This could be confirmed since the pit vol- in. drilling operation was therefore indirectly
production of the remaining gas. The principle ume had not decreased even though 49 m confirmed by the problems encountered dur-
of this strategy was to decrease the reservoir (161 ft) of formation had been drilled since ing the running in hole of 7-in. liner.
pressure by pumping out water below the starting the section. If the cuttings would
initial oil-water contact to release solution gas have been transported to the surface, they Conclusion
in residual and trapped oil that is uneconomic should have been separated by the shakers A first example has shown that a TCTM
to produce or has been by-passed. and since the bottomhole depth increased, it can be used to make important decisions in
should have resulted in a pit volume decrease order to decrease the risk levels in complex
Description of well of 1.8 cu m. The model predicted that the first drilling operations when the possible condi-
For this particular well, the 13 x 14-in. cas- cuttings should have arrived on the shaker 16 tions are not very intuitive. A second example
ing was set at 2,060 m MD (1,800 m TVD) with hours after the drilling started, and that the has shown that the transport of cuttings is a
an inclination limited to 40. This part of the amount of cuttings would be limited. Both non-holonomic process and that it is impor-
well had a kick-off at 760 m MD (2,493 ft) that the timing and quantity were confirmed by tant to track the whole history of the cuttings
increased the inclination to 33 with a DLS of the pit volume decrease. transport to evaluate the actual downhole
2.7/30 m. The angle was further increased High stick-slips, in the range of 180 to 260 conditions.
to 40 over the last 330 m MD (1,082 ft) of the rpm, were observed during the drilling of the
section with a DLS of 0.3/30 m. With a target remaining section. However, the magnitude
TVD at 2,800 m (9,186 ft), a second kick-off of the stick-slips decreased when the bottom-
Based on paper SPE-178862-MS: Use of a Transient
was necessary below the 13 x 14-in. casing hole assembly started to enter the dropping Cuttings Transport Model in the Planning, Monitoring
shoe in order to increase the inclination from section (in the range of 20 to 90 rpm peak to and Post Analysis of Complex Drilling Operations in
40 to 80 and a 10 x 9-in. liner was set at peak while the top-drive speed was 160 rpm). the North Sea, by Cayeux, E., Leulseged, A., Kluge, R.,
3,881 m MD (7,841 ft MD or 2,390 m TVD). After reaching the target depth of the sec- Haga, J. and presented at the SPE Drilling Conference
The 8-in. section had a target depth of tion, the well has been circulated clean and in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, March 1-3, 2016.

36 Offshore March 2017

1703off_36 36 2/28/17 4:33 PM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S T A L L AT I O N

Research finds rigless abandonment

procedures to be robust
Part three highlights results and limitations
Mark J. Kaiser APM count of temporarily abandoned wells in 2010.
Center for Energy Studies
Louisiana State University

s more offshore production platforms
grow older and are taken out of ser-
vice, operators are looking for the
most cost-effective means of decom-
Rigless well abandonment procedures are
the most common abandonments in the GoM
as a decommissioning option, but to date no
empirical studies have attempted to quan-
tify the reliability of this well abandonment
The purpose of this three-part series has
been to estimate the probability that a dry
tree well abandoned using rigless technolo-
gies requires remediation. This third part
of the series outlines the characteristics of
leaking/bubbling wells and the limitations
of the analysis. tions appear approximately lognormal for both Six of the 27 area blocks reported leak-
As mentioned in parts one and two, a ran- the sample and universe for both temporarily ing events, and for those area blocks with
dom sample of 502 platform wells abandoned abandoned and permanently abandoned wells. wells that required remediation, the leakage
in 2010 in water depths less than 400 ft (122 Most, but not all APMs submitted or approved probabilities ranged from 2.6% to 4.4%. Most
m) were tracked from 2010-2015 to identify in 2010 resulted in well abandonments in 2010. area blocks recorded no leaking events. The
leaking/bubbling events. Nine wells were All 27 area blocks in the shallow-water Gulf confidence level associated with area block
identified that required remediation leading of Mexico were sampled. Six area blocks (EI, probabilities is smaller than the aggregate
to a remediation probability of 1.8%. Wells EC, HI, SM, SS, and WC) each exceeded 100 probability because of smaller sample sizes.
utilizing gas-lift mandrels exhibited a 3.1% abandonment applications in 2010; eight area
remediation probability compared to 1.0% for blocks had between 25 to 100 applications; Gas-lift remediation
non gas-lift wells. and seven area blocks had less than five ap- There were 193 sample wells with gas-lift
plications. Area blocks with less than 10 well mandrels and 309 sample wells without gas-
Sample applications were sampled completely, but for lift mandrels. Six of the nine leaking wells
The random sample of 502 shallow-water the other blocks sampling ranged from 25% were gas-lift leading to a 3.1% conditional
development wells with submitted or approved to 60% of all applications. In total, about one- remediation probability. Wells with gas-lift
applications for abandonment in 2010 was third of all wells were sampled (502/1,506). mandrels were three times more likely on av-
selected from a universe of 1,506 well aban- erage than wells without mandrels to require
donment applications in 2010. The number Remediation probability remediation, 3.1% (6/193) versus 1.0% (3/293).
of APMs exceeds the number of abandoned A total of nine wells from the 502 wells However, since sample sizes decrease with
wells in 2010 since they represent permitted sampled reported leaking and required re- data partitioning, confidence levels are lower
activities that may or may not be performed mediation after abandonment operations were relative to the aggregate statistic.
and may or may not be related to abandon- completed, yielding an estimated remediation In terms of well construction, there is no
ment activity. probability of 1.8%. Since p = 1.8% and n = 502, a-priori reason why gas-lift wells should be
For each sampled well, all APMs associ- = 0.6%, a 95% confidence interval more susceptible to leaking after plugging
ated with the wellbore from 2010-2015 were on remediation probability under a normality than wells without gas-lift mandrels, and so
reviewed, and APM counts identified. On aver- assumption would place the population pro- these results may be a coincidence or limita-
age, each well was associated with 3.1 APMs portion within plus or minus two sample stan- tion of the database.
over the 2010-2015 period, and the distribu- dard deviations, or from 0.6% to 3.0%. Eighteen area blocks utilized gas-lift wells, March 2017 Offshore 37

1703off_37 37 2/28/17 4:33 PM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S T A L L AT I O N

and three of these blocks exhibited leaking Categorization. Deepwater and subsea wells Detection. Accuracy of the leaking/bubbling
wells. Area block gas-lift leak probabilities are usually more complex than dry tree shal- data depends upon the ability of operators to
ranged from 5.3% to 10%. Twenty-two area low-water platform wells with a greater number detect leaks. It was assumed that all detected
blocks had wells that were not gas-lift, and of casing strings, higher reservoir pressure, leaks were reported, but it is conceivable that
three of these blocks exhibited leaking wells more side tracks, more complex wellbores, etc., there are leaking wells that are not detected,
with failure rates ranging from 2.9% to 5.6%. but these wells were not considered. say, because wellheads or platforms have
Again, uncertainty levels associated with these
estimates are larger than the aggregate esti- 2010 APM data source, sample, and leaks reported after abandonment operations.
mate since the sample sizes are smaller.
2010 Wells Sample Leakage reported

Remediated wells Area Well TA APM PA APM Well TA APM PA APM Event %
Wells that recorded a leaking/bubbling BA 24 43 49 7 23 23
event after abandonment operations were BM 1 2 1 1 2 1
performed are identified by problem and re- BS 5 11 0 5 11 0
mediation technique. All of the leaking wells CA 6 0 16 6 0 16
were in temporarily abandoned status during
EC 118 327 166 70 211 55 3 4.3
remediation. Most of the trees were likely on
EI 213 310 273 45 70 50 2 4.4
and platforms were in place as inferred from
the APM report, but it is also possible to have EW 0 0 0 0 0 0
a well that is in fully temporarily abandoned GA 6 4 12 6 4 12
status with all plugs in place that have no GI 87 80 257 29 19 82
tree. Gas-lift mandrel counts ranged between HI 191 378 308 37 71 51 1 2.7
four to nine, and all but one well had a single MC 22 37 22 11 16 11
production tubing. Five of the leaking wells MI 61 68 103 29 44 39
were on structures reefed-in-placed.
MO 2 4 3 2 4 3

Limitations MP 39 90 14 11 24 4
Some of the limitations of the analysis are MU 31 43 53 18 25 30
described below. PL 7 0 15 7 0 15
Sample size. In theory, it is possible to track PN 7 22 10 7 22 10
all 11,000 wells abandoned in the GoM since SA 0 0 0 0 0 0
2004 and estimate abandonment remediation SM 155 231 310 29 58 45 1 3.4
probability with a reasonably high level of
SP 43 85 30 20 38 15
confidence. In practice, besides the time and
SS 114 157 122 39 61 38 1 2.6
resource constraints that limit the amount
of processing that can be performed, the ST 90 147 86 45 83 44
estimated probabilities can only serve as a SX 0 0 0 0 0 0
proxy of future activity, and so complete enu- VK 1 2 0 1 2 0
meration needs to be approached cautiously. VR 48 86 75 13 27 12
Low probability events require large samples WC 177 206 245 37 64 52 1 2.7
to reliably estimate, but how large is large WD 58 58 111 27 27 51
enough to provide useful statistics is a matter
Total 1,506 2,391 2,281 502 906 659 9 1.8
of debate. For granular well subclasses (e.g.,
Note: Well columns represent APMs submitted for 2010 wells and the random sample. TA APM and PA APM columns
gas-lift wells), confidence levels associated
represent the 2010-2015 APM counts for the 2010 well universe and the random sample.
with estimated probabilities are lower because
of smaller sample sizes.
Evaluation period. Wells are constructed Sampled wells requiring remediation after abandonment operations.
according to the geologic conditions, the in- API Block Operator Problem Remediation
dustry practices, and government regulations
177004033000 WC180 W&T Offshore a Mill beneath drive pipe shoe and inject all annuli
at that time, and at the end of their useful
177044039100 EC272 Chevron a Liquid bridge plug inside wellcap
life, wells are abandoned according to the
knowledge, regulations, and technology at 177044020500 EC272 Chevron a Liquid bridge plug inside wellcap
the time of abandonment. We believe that 177044039500 EC272 Chevron a Liquid bridge plug inside wellcap
any year within the period is representative, 177074018800 SM48 Maritech b Mill beneath drive pipe shoe and inject all annuli
but since the sample wells were constructed 177114067900 SS63 PetroQuest c Pull pack off plug and set CIBP deeper
over many decades, well vintage and best
177104033303 EI339 Chevron a Mill window in casing, set inflatable packer, and
practices at the time of construction vary more top off with cement or liquid stone
significantly. Selecting year 2010 as the sample 177104038000 EI338 Chevron a Mill window in casing, set inflatable packer, and
period provides a five-year time window to top off with cement or liquid stone
detect leaks after operations are performed, 427114086400 HI226 Maritech b Mill window in casing, set inflatable packer, and
which is considered adequate time to detect top off with cement or liquid stone
near-term failures. Of course, there is no way a. Bubbling observed coming from the annulus
to ensure that any leak after plugging will not b. Failed leak/pressure test
manifest itself within five years. c. Plug leaking from tubing/casing communication

38 Offshore March 2017

1703off_38 38 2/28/17 4:33 PM



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After the inner casing is removed, on the next run specially
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2017 Weatherford. All rights reserved.



1703off_39 39 2/28/17 4:33 PM

Topsides, Platforms & Hulls
Conference & Exhibition
is the offshore industrys
only event dedicated to the
topsides, platforms and hulls
for both deep and shallow
water. A comprehensive
technical program presented
concurrently with an
exhibition, Topsides, Platforms
& Hulls Conference &
Exhibition covers the design,
engineering, construction,
transportation, installation,
and modification of topside
structures, platforms
and hulls. Visit www. for
up-to-date event information.

Photo credit: Versabar


February 6 8, 2018
Moody Gardens Hotel & Convention Center
Galveston, Texas


1703off_40 40 2/28/17 4:33 PM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S T A L L AT I O N

Characteristics of sampled wells requiring remediation after abandonment. conclusions on the leaking probabilities of
gas-lift vs. non gas-lift wells requires a larger
Gas-lift Number of
sample and more detailed analysis.
API Area Well status (# mandrels) prod. tubing Reef site
New technologies. Technology advancement
177004033000 WC180 TA No 1 and better knowledge of failure mechanisms
177044039100 EC272 TA Yes (6) 1 + should produce lower failure rates, for all things
177044020500 EC272 TA Yes (6) 1 + equal, than abandonments performed in an
177044039500 EC272 TA Yes (6) 1 + earlier era. However, because the period of
177074018800 SM48 TA No 2
evaluation was short, this effect is unlikely to
be detectable. New self-healing cement tech-
177114067900 SS63 TA Yes (9) 1
nologies developed in recent years should help
177104033303 EI339 TA Yes (7) 1 + ensure long-term well integrity in the future,
177104038000 EI338 TA Yes (4) 1 + and better behind pipe log evaluation tools will
427114086400 HI226 TA No 1 improve cement placement and seals.
Reporting error. It is not uncommon for well
been removed. There are no active monitor- are notorious for their unpredictable completion status to be misclassified. One of the ways this
ing programs for abandoned wells except for and wellbore conditions, but whether these may occur is when a temporarily abandoned
those abandoned wells that were reported as conditions lead to increased remediation risk well is classified as completed or a permanently
leaking. The likelihood of an expression being and leak probability were not considered. abandoned well. Temporarily abandoned wells
seen on the surface decreases with increasing Spurious effects. The higher failure rate for may be misclassified as a permanently aban-
water depth. gas-lift wells relative to non gas-lift wells may doned well when all annular plugs have not
Misinterpretation. Well APM history is be spurious, and one or more other factors been set, plug testing has not been performed,
subject to interpretation error because sub- (e.g., reservoir pressure, cement placement, and most obviously, when conductors and cas-
mission/approval dates may not be recorded well configuration) may be responsible. Al- ings have not been cut 15 ft (4.6 m) below the
properly, or dates were recorded properly but though the occurrence of gas-lift wells in the mudline. A well that has its conductors and
not properly interpreted. Wellbore schemat- sample of leaking wellbores is striking, gas-lift casings in place at the time a permit is submit-
ics and other information reported in the wells are quite common in the shallow-water ted is not a permanently abandoned well at the
APM were used to identify rigless procedures, Gulf and so their presence among leaking time of submission. Misclassifications should
which are believed to be reliable. Approval and wells is not surprising. To make definitive not materially impact the results.
submission dates were used to distinguish
between remediation activities occurring dur-
ing and after operations were performed, and
in some cases may be ambiguous.
Fluid and reservoir conditions. No distinc-
tion was made between fluid or fluid severity.
Wells with sour fluids may experience higher Oil Spill Monitoring for Offshore Platforms

corrosion rates and stress cracking which may

result in a higher probability of failure over
time, but this was not evaluated. Oil wells de- Optical Oil Detection
pleted at abandonment with low gas-oil ratios Real-Time Alerts
(GOR) and low bottomhole pressures (BHP)
Continuous Monitoring
are less likely to leak relative to oil wells with
high GOR and high BHP, and gas wells, based Wireless Connectivity
on industry experience. Explosion-Proof
Reservoir pressure can also affect the prob-
ability of leakage. Producing wells at the time Submergible
of abandonment generally have higher shut-in Installation & Maintenance
pressures than non-producing wells; produc- Services Included
ing gas wells usually have higher shut-in pres-
sures than producing oil wells. Wells with high Minimize Risk & Maximize Safety
shut-in pressure or sustained casing pressure
may be associated with wells that are more
susceptible to leaking.
Well configuration. Shallow-water wells are
mature and at the time of their construction may
have applied less advanced completion proce-
dures or materials than are currently available.
Completion type (e.g., gravel pack, tubing string,
gas-lift mandrels, liner, etc.), cement integrity
and placement, and other factors may affect the
probability of leakage but was not a factor in
assessment. Wellbore complexity was also not InterOcean Systems, LLC
a factor or a control variable. Most wells on the
shelf are old, and well interventions on old wells
An affiliate of Delmar Systems, Inc.

1703off_41 41 2/28/17 4:33 PM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S T A L L AT I O N

New CFD simulation solution proves

cost-effective for predicting wind loads
R&D project delivers industrially feasible platform topsides analysis
Daniel Barcarolo identify the bias of experiments such as confinement,
HydrOcean scale effects, and boundary layer effects.

Wind Loads II
omputational fluid dynamics (CFD) With the use of CFD validated, the
simulations of offshore oil and gas CITEPH Wind Loads II project was
platforms are used to predict the designed to push CFD to its limits. This
maximum wind loads acting on the project, again managed by HydrOcean,
structure of the platform topsides. required finding ways of increasing the
This includes the upper half of the platform, fidelity of both the physical models used
above sea level and outside the splash zone, in wind tunnel and wave basin testing, and
as well as the oil production plant, the accom- the numerical CFD model.
modation block, and any drilling equipment. View of the full-featured CFD model.
Traditionally, in physical experiments used
Wind loads can be significant in specific ocean (All images courtesy HydrOcean) to assess wind loads over offshore structures,
areas; and these metrics must be taken into ac- the detailed CAD model of the platform is sim-
count when designing the mooring of the structure, just as wave and plified substantially in the process of creating a physical model for
current loads are. Because platform topsides geometries were traditionally testing. Small pipes are replaced by porosity grids, while complex
considered too complex to mesh in high detail, CFD simulations relied objects are replaced by boxes, cylinders or other simplified geom-
on simplified, de-featured models. Their low fidelity meant that, when etry. But in this project, the participants realized that contemporary
CFD was used, the results needed to be validated and refined through 3D printing technology would make it feasible to produce physical
expensive, labor-intensive fabrication and testing of physical models in models that reproduce all the details contained in the CAD model.
wind tunnels. Meanwhile, for numerical simulation, in theory, any kind of geometry
But a recent R&D project succeeded in meshing a fully detailed can be captured with todays CFD meshing tools.
CAD model of a topsides module. This research was funded primarily Hence, in this project, there were two parallel workgroups. On
by Total S.A., with engineering management and additional funding the experimental side was CSTB, the French national organization
from offshore engineering firm DORIS Engineering, as well as from that provides research, testing, certification, and training for built-
HydrOcean, a subsidiary of Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore. environment and construction industries. CSTB managed the wind
Using this high-fidelity CFD model, HydrOcean investigated the tunnel testing for the project, while OCEANIDE, an offshore and
effects of multiple wind angles on the platform, matching experimental coastal engineering firm, took charge of wind load experiments in
data from wind tunnel and wave basin tests with wind generation capabili- wave basin testing.
ties to within 10% and in most cases 3 to 5% at a fraction of the cost. Meanwhile, on the numerical side of the project, the goal was to
The project was financed through the Collaborative & Innovative take a 3D CAD model of the platform topsides provided by DORIS
Technology Program in Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons Engineering designed for other purposes (layout, MTO), and mesh it
(CITEPH), a French national program that facilitates access to private directly without having to suppress or
funding of innovative R&D projects in oil and gas and related energy correct any geometry details.
industries. This was the second of two CITEPH projects in which After months of trial and er-
HydrOcean received funding from Total to develop ror, HydrOcean succeeded in
and validate the use of numerical CFD technology meshing this extremely com-
(specifically STAR-CCM+), to compute wind plex 3D Rhino model using the
loads on offshore platforms. surface wrapper in STAR-CCM+. This
solution shrink-wraps a high-quality trian-
Wind Loads I gulated surface onto the geometry, closing
The CITEPH Wind Loads I proj- holes, joining disconnected and overlapping
ect was completed in 2013 and was surfaces, and automatically discards obsolete
funded entirely by Total. In that project, surfaces. The generated grids in this model had on
HydrOcean used CFD to reproduce average 140 million trimmed hexahedral cells.
results of wind tunnel experiments that In a joint effort with the Siemens PLM Software support
had been performed for a large FPSO team in France, HydrOcean found the cor-
unit offshore West Africa. The project Flow simulation results rect parameters that provided good mesh
successfully validated the use of CFD for using full-featured CFD model. quality (wrapper and volume mesh) and
such applications, and enabled engineers to good numerical parameters for the simula-

42 Offshore March 2017

1703off_42 42 2/28/17 4:33 PM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S T A L L AT I O N

tion model. The ultimate goal was

to prove the feasibility of bypassing
the CAD cleaning phase and use the
surface wrapper instead, and this was Fully-featured 3D printed model used
successfully demonstrated. in wind tunnel and wave-basin testing.

CFD results
Initially, HydrOcean simulated
seven to eight wind heading angles, using CAD data to create physical
and the results for the forces were models for wind tunnel testing, the
within 3 to 5% of experimental test companies knew that this process al-
data. Ultimately, the firm simulated though requiring some simplification
13 headings in all. In the largest diver- of the CAD model is nonetheless
gence from test data, the simulation much more straightforward than the
results differed by 10%. labor-intensive geometry simplifica-
Next, two levels of simplification tion and de-featuring traditionally re-
were performed on the CFD model quired for CFD model preparation.
and the corresponding 3D printed Their goal, says HydrOcean, was to
model to assess the impact of each simplification on the measured develop a comparable approach for CFD.
wind loads and moments. In the first simplification exercise in the The 3D CAD model that HydrOcean received from DORIS En-
3D printed model, small pipes were replaced with porosity grids and gineering in Rhino format was clean and had been developed for
complex objects such as pumps and valves were replaced with boxes, purposes other than CFD modeling (layout, MTO, etc). However, it
cylinders or other simplified shapes typical of industry-standard presented some features which made it difficult to mesh for a CFD
practice at present. In the second, more drastic simplification, the analysis. These features included multiple disconnected surfaces and
entire platform geometry was replaced by a simple box shape. The elements, and very high levels of geometric detail.
resulting geometries were simulated numerically and also tested Initially, the Siemens PLM support team suggested that HydrOcean
physically in the wind tunnel. split the model into multiple boxed regions, perform a local wrapping
Both levels of simplifications compared well for the wind load forces. of each box, then perform a single wrapping operation to merge all
Simulation results differed 5 to 10% from experimental results for the the boxes. But HydrOcean decided that approach would require an
first level of simplification, and 8 to 15% for the second level. For the unrealistic amount of time and labor, and would not be the industrially
moment, however, it was harder to obtain a match, mainly for the feasible method sought by Total and DORIS.
most simplified geometry. For the most highly detailed geometry, Instead, a decision was made to invest time and research in finding
simulation results were within 4 to 8% in an average of the test results. a way to apply the surface wrapper tool to accomplish meshing of the
No comparisons were made for the first level of simplification. For entire geometry in a single process, without splitting the geometry
the second (most extreme) level of simplification, simulation results and significant loss of detail. The majority of time was spent on
were within 4 to 6% in an average of the experimental results. finding how to create a wrapped surface that could generate a good
volume mesh. The quality of the simulation solution, as confirmed
CFD model preparation by comparison with experimental data, will be the confirmation of a
One key interest of project funders Total and DORIS Engineering good wrapping setting and methodology.
was to learn whether preparation of CFD models from 3D CAD files Initially, the solution did not converge. Upon closer examination, the
could be made as straightforward as the process of converting 3D CAD simulation model showed some areas of high-pressure, high-velocity
files into STL files for 3D printing. From extensive prior experience profiles and other results that revealed some regions of the volume
mesh were not of high quality. The analysis
indicated that these results were caused
Correlation of CFD simulation vs. physical test results by the wrapper, so the next step was to
(triangles show simulation results, dashed line shows test results). explore how to adjust the wrapping process
1.2 to create a volume mesh that would yield
1.0 a simulation that converged.
Over some 15 iterations, numerous sur-
face parameters were varied, seeking to
find the best connection among elements
Coefficient de traine Cy

0.4 while avoiding such things as suboptimal

0.2 triangulation areas in the mesh. In the end,
it found surface parameter settings that
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 yielded simulation results that in all instanc-
es were within 10% of experimental values.
-0.4 The end result of these efforts was the
-0.6 delivery of an industrially feasible CFD
simulation approach by HydroOcean for
full-scale, high fidelity, fully featured off-
shore platform modeling. In the future,
-1.2 the STAR-CCM+ solution should be able
Incidence (*)
to lower prototype and testing costs in the
Cy Cy CFD industry. March 2017 Offshore 43

1703off_43 43 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Field developers assess David Boggs

Energy Maritime

viability of FPSO redeployment Associates

here are currently 51 idle floating pro- FPSO characteristics ployed units can process less than 50,000 boe/d,
duction systems (FPS) in the global Successfully redeployed FPSOs have sev- compared to about one-third of the currently
offshore market 25 FPSOs, 10 pro- eral characteristics in common. installed FPSO fleet. More striking is that a
duction semis, eight FSOs, six MOPUs, Location. Most of these redeployed FPSOs quarter of redeployed units process under
one spar, and one FLNG are available. 25,000 boe/d, as compared to less than 10%
did not have to travel too far between assign-
This is an increase of almost 100% from just ments. Two-thirds were relocated to another of the currently installed fleet. However, some
one year ago, with 23 units coming available field in the same region (staying within thelarge capacity units also have been redeployed,
in 2016. However, some of these units have including four units with 100,000 boe/d capacity.
North Sea, Africa, Brazil, Southeast Asia, Chi-
been idle since 2011. na, or Australia). The FPSOs that did changeIn some cases, the FPSOs full capacity is not
FPSOs are the most prevalent type of FPS, regions were mostly between Brazil and Africa,
utilized in the new location; while in others the
with 166 installed and 26 on order. Therefore, field operator may amend their development
or from the North Sea to less severe locations
the current FPSO utilization is 87%, and there in Brazil, Africa, and Asia. plans to suit the FPSOs capabilities.
are almost as many FPSOs laid-up as on order. Clients. While the units may not have trav- Time between contracts. The length of time be-
Almost half of these idle FPSOs are owned by tween one contract and redeployment to the next
eled very far between contracts, 82% of rede-
larger leasing contractors with three or more ployed FPSOs did change clients. Those that ranges from one to six years. The vast majority
units. The top seven FPSO leasing contractors kept the same client were either chartered of redeployed units were off-hire for less than
(BW Offshore, SBM, Modec, Teekay, Bumi four years, including the time for modifications
to Petrobras, or owned by the field operator.
Armada, Bluewater, and Yinson) all have at Technical specification. Thirty-six percent
to suit the new field. Some 61% took less than
least one available unit. of redeployed FPSOs were designed for the two years between contracts, while another 25%
Redeploying an FPSO, while possible, is not harsh environmental and regulatory condi- took two to four years. Only 14% of redeployed
as easy as it may appear. Unlike a drilling rig, tions of the North Sea or Australia/New Zea-units were idle for more than four years.
floating production systems are bespoke as- land. Most of these were purpose-built units The main driver of the time between con-
sets designed for a specific regulatory regime constructed to higher standards with design tracts was the time needed to find a new client,
and field requirements, including the weather lives of 20 years or more. not the time spent in the shipyard. Most units
conditions, water depth, oil and gas character- Redeployed FPSOs generally have smaller required life extension work to the hull and
istics, as well as gas, water, and/or chemical processing capacities almost 70% of rede- some topsides modification, while a few units
injection for reservoir management. needed to be completely reconverted to suit
A good example of the difficulty in rede- Top FPSO owners by unit status the new field.
ploying FPUs can be seen with the FPSO Under On Ownership. Some 72% of the units were
Falcon. This unit was the first of three ge- Repair Available Order Installed leased on their initial contract, while 81%
neric West African FPSOs ordered by Exxon Petrobras 12 14 were leased on the redeployed contract. This
in 2002, followed bySerpentinain Equatorial BW Offshore 1 2 2 10
is because four units were sold by the field
Guinea andXikombain Angola. These units operator to a leasing contractor while one unit
SBM 1 1 13
were designed to be suitable for a wide range was sold from a leasing contractor to a field
CNOOC 2 12
of field properties, weather conditions, and operator. In general, leasing contractors have
water depths. The FPSO Falcon operated in Modec 1 1 12 more opportunities to redeploy an FPSO than
Nigerias Yoho field for four years and then Teekay 1 2 8 a field operator, particularly where the field
was laid-up. Despite this generic design Bumi Armada 2 8 operator has multiple partners. These same
and large processing capacity of 165,000 Total 3 6 partners are unlikely to have another field
b/d of oil, 95 MMscf/d of gas, 90,000 b/d ExxonMobil 8 in common where the unit could be reused.
of water injection, and 2 MMbbl storage Bluewater 3 2 National oil companies, such as Petrobras
capacity, the FPSOFalconnever operated Chevron 5
and CNOOC, have successfully redeployed
on another field and was eventually sold for three of their own FPSOs.
Yinson 1 1 3
demolition in 2016.
Depending on the differences between MISC 4 Past and present
the fields, redeployment can require modi- Shell 4 redeployments
fications ranging from relatively minor re- BP 3 The most successfully redeployed FPSO by
furbishment to extensive modification or ENI 3 far is the Petrojarl 1, which has operated on 10
replacement of the topsides and mooring. OSX 3 fields in the North Sea since 1986, including 12
As a result, only 36 FPSOs have been re- Petrofac 1 2 years on Statoils Glitne field. Extensive time
deployed to at least one other field after Sea Production/ Rubicon 3
and modification was not needed between
completing their initial contract. Energy these deployments as they were in the same
Statoil 3
Maritime Associates has analyzed these region with similar field characteristics.
Woodside 3
FPSOs to see what made them more suit- For its latest contract, the Petrojarl 1 is
able for continued service in a new location. Source: Energy Maritime Associates being relocated to the Atlanta field in Brazil,

44 Offshore March 2017

1703off_44 44 2/28/17 4:33 PM

Prospects of available FPSO units, 2017-2019
Grand Redeployment Redeployment
Current Location Total Likely or Scrap Scrap P R O D U C T I O N O P E R AT I O N S
Brazil 14 5 3 6
Southeast Asia 13 2 7 4
North Sea 11 3 6 2
cording to Enquest, the effort BW Offshores available FPSOs will be used
Africa 8 1 3 4 started out with a project that on this field starting in 2018. The estimated
Australia / New Zealand 8 3 3 2 was refurbishment of a vessel... field development costs are $150 million
Mexico 4 1 3 and ended up with a nearly new excluding the FPSO upgrade, which is not
China 3 3 vessel. expected to be substantial. BW Energy will
SW Asia / Middle East 2 1 1 Similar to the Petrojarl 1 FPSO look to deploy BW Offshores idle assets on
Source: Energy Maritime Associates is the Petrojarl Varg FPSO, which other offshore developments.
was demobilized in mid-2016 While most FPSO owners will continue to
which has different characteristics including after 18 years in operation offshore Norway. seek long-term contracts with strong coun-
heavy oil. The modifications were expected Teekay hopes to secure a multi-year contract terparties for new projects, it is expected that
to take fourteen months with a cost of $183 for the Petrojarl Varg in the North Sea by 2020, some owners will take a more commercial ap-
million. However, there have been delays and with expected upgrade costs in the range of proach for their idle assets. This would include
cost overruns due to a larger scope of work $100-400 million. arrangements exposing the FPSO owner to oil
relating to field specific requirements and the Another recently demobilized UK FPSO price and reservoir risks as well as rewards.
age of the unit, as well as slower than expected is the Aoka Mizu, which produced for seven
work progress, according to Teekay. years on the Ettrick and Blackbird fields. After Future redeployments
Cost and schedule overruns are not uncom- less than a year idle, the unit is in exclusive In addition to the 25 FPSOs currently avail-
mon for all types of floating production units, and negotiations for the Lancaster field in the UK, able, another 38 are likely to come off contract
redeployment of idle FPSOs are no exception. It which is targeting first oil by 1H 2019. Hurri- in the next two to three years. Out of these 63
is critical to thoroughly understand the condition cane Energy and Bluewater signed a heads of assets, at least 40% will certainly be scrapped,
of the existing unit, the requirements for the terms to charter the FPSO for up to 10 years, either immediately upon demobilization or
new location, and the modifications needed to subject to project sanction and final contractual after some period of lay-up. Based on EMAs
meet those requirements. A prime example is agreements by November 2017. analysis of these units and the prospective
the Enquest Producer FPSO, which had been on project pipeline, it is believed that almost a
the UKs Fife field for 14 years and then laid-up A new approach quarter of these available FPSOs will find new
for almost five years before beginning upgrades In December 2016, BW Energy (a new employment. Another 23 of these units might
for a new assignment on the Alma field in the joint venture between BW Offshore and BW have a chance for another contract, depending
UK. The modification works took twice as long Group) purchased majority stakes in the largely on the oil price and the appetite of the
as expected with significant cost overruns. Ac- Dussafu Ruche field offshore Gabon. One of FPSO owner to accept field risk.


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1703off_45 45 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Vessel-deployed coil tubing system

offers benefits for downhole maintenance
Technique proven during shallow gas investigations
Jeremy Beckman
Editor, Europe

riserless coil tubing (CT) technique applied in open water
could lower the cost of subsea well interventions. Developer
Island Offshore (Island) has proven the system during two
campaigns offshore Norway, one involving a test for shallow
gas. The company is currently working to extend applications
to various types of intervention, including P&A operations, following
interest from various North Sea operators.
The equipment spread has so far been deployed from two of the
companys monohull light well intervention vessels. There is no re-
quirement for a rigid workover riser: instead, the coil tubing is kept
in tension between the vessel and the systems subsea injector via a
second injector onboard the vessel. Pressurized drilling fluid pumped
into the coil tubing drives the mud motor, causing the bit to rotate.
The ROV-operated subsea injector pushes the coil tubing into the
well forming weight on bit, and pulls the coil tubing out once drilling
has been completed.
Island Offshore started work on conceptual engineering in 2006. Equipment spread for the Oda pilot well. (All images courtesy Island Offshore)
We were already considering whether we could perform interven-
tion with coil tubing from our Light Well Intervention [LWI] vessels, samples taken from three offshore locations. We took a price risk
said Per Buset, Manager for Top Hole Drilling and P&A Activities. on this project, Buset said, because if the subsea injector failed, no
Initially during 2006-09 we looked into the possibility of running other unit was available as a back-up. But the four-week operation
the coil tubing through a rigid riser from one of our LWI vessels. We was successful, confirming the systems efficiency and its suitability
determined what modifications we would have to make to our ves- for offshore oil and gas wells, with the rough sea conditions out in
sels, but the price estimates for implementing the equipment were the fjord similar to those encountered in the North Sea.
too high to take development further, unless someone could come During the program in the fjord we invited various oil industry
up with large numbers of wells for intervention. clients onboard the vessel to witness operations first-hand, Buset
We then decided to work on a less costly solution, a riserless explained. One was Centrica: they had a potential challenge with
coil tubing system, and by the end of 2013 we had proven that this shallow gas at their Oda [ex-Butch] development in the southern
concept was do-able and our analysis showed that the coil would Norwegian North Sea. They had decided to drill three development
survive in open water, even if the vessel were moving. However, if wells using a subsea template, with a jackup for the two producers,
you are developing new technology, you also need standards in place one water injector and subsea completions. But they would have to
to qualify your system before you present it to the authorities. We install the template one summer and come back at a later date with
therefore invited DNV to join our R&D team and they followed up the drilling rig. If they then discovered shallow gas, as was possible
with the necessary risk assessments from mid-2011 into 2012. The in this area, it would have been a major setback to the program.
R&D team had also defined and engineered the solution for a control Centrica evaluated using a semisubmersible to drill a pilot hole,
system and the necessary modifications in order to marinize a coil but with a water depth of 66 m [216 ft], this would have been chal-
tubing injector-head for subsea operations. lenging. Therefore, they looked for alternative solutions like using
Island Offshores coil tubing system. Rig rates at that point were also
Offshore test case higher, and even at todays rates such an operation would have been
The next step was to find an oil company willing to trial the technique expensive. Centrica is a company that is prepared to try new things,
in a live offshore well. As is so often the case, none wanted to be the and their team agreed to our lower-capex, less manpower-intensive
first, Buset said. However, Statens Vegvesen (the Norwegian Public proposal using one of our intervention vessels.
Roads Administration) agreed to apply the system for obtaining core Prior to spudding the pilot hole in summer 2015, Island Offshore
samples in a fjord off southwest Norway for use in assessing geological undertook intensive training of the drillfloor crew of the chosen vessel
conditions at the planned location for a subsea road tunnel. Late in Island Constructor. We also devised scenarios with Baker Hughes,
2014 riserless CT operations started from the Island Performer, with which had supplied the relatively standard coil tubing spread, but
a total of 450 m (1,476 ft) of well drilled and 150 m (492 ft) of core more importantly, we trained the crew on how to react if shallow gas

46 Offshore March 2017

1703off_46 46 2/28/17 4:33 PM

At Cudd Energy Services (CES), we use unconventional thinking to solve unconventional
challenges. When our client faced a challenge that required repetitive rig ups and rig downs,
we delivered a patent-pending, coiled tubing solution. CES eliminated costly steps, increased
operational efficiencies and improved personnel safety on the job. The possibilities are
endless with ingenuity and experience.

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1703off_47 47 2/28/17 4:33 PM


said, and after the Oda pilot hole we highlighted 25-30 more areas
for improvement, although nothing major, as all aspects of the equip-
ment had behaved as expected.
We have since held discussions with other operators about using
the technique to investigate shallow gas in the North Sea, the most
susceptible areas being the Utsira High region and fields such as Gyda,
Ula, and Frigg. Operators using rigs in this region to drill pilot holes
may find shallow gas at subsurface depths of around 400 m [1,312
ft]: this means the drilling rig will have to set the 20-in. casing higher
than the ideal setting in this area.
Aside from shallow gas, the company has also discussed adaptation
of the riserless CT method with operators in the UK and Norwegian
North Sea for intervention in subsea wells to address issues such as
removal of scale, sand or wax, nitrogen lifts, and milling of nipples.
Subsea intervention is currently performed typically from light
well intervention vessels, with wireline through a subsea lubricator.
Obviously wireline has its limitations compared to coil tubing, Buset
said. With coil tubing it is possible to apply much more hydraulic
power downhole by pumping, and the capability to circulate and clean
Island Offshore completed Odas pilot well three days ahead of schedule. the well is in general miles ahead of what is achievable with wireline.
Although Baker Hughes supplied the coil tubing spread for both
appeared. We performed full-scale tests of the equipment at the quayside initial jobs, Island Offshore has since engaged Halliburton to provide
in Tananger, outside Stavanger, including the emergency shutdown and further develop this equipment as the riserless CT system pro-
system and a full pressure test of the various systems. And we had gresses. For the subsea injector we went to Hydra Rig in Fort Worth,
representatives of Norways Petroleum Safety Authority onboard the which is owned by NOV, Buset said. They produce coil tubing power
vessel during the mobilization to check that everything was in compli- packs and injector heads: following a few days discussing with them
ance with legislation. what we were looking for, we ordered a standard CT injector head,
Aside from the CT spread, the main equipment comprised the but with a few modifications to be ready to go subsea.
customized subsea coil tubing injector, incorporating slight modifica- When Hydra Rig builds injector heads, they are encased within
tions to the injector-head, and a subsea guidebase system that Island a hollow, steel pipe framework. We asked them to drill holes in the
Offshore had developed for landing the equipment on the seafloor. steel pipes so that seawater can go in and out of the cavities, with no
During this campaign we implemented specialized drilling proce- risk of air becoming compressed, which might lead to collapse of
dures which allowed the unconsolidated sand and shale formations the steel structures subsea. We ourselves designed the guide base
encountered to be drilled safely and without any major issues, Buset including a 16-m (52-ft) long lubricator-pipe, providing a false hole
said, with offshore operations completed within four days, and no below the subsea injector for the initial bottom hole assembly. Island
evidence of shallow gas. The forecast had anticipated seven days Offshore also co-operated for a long time with a software company in
on location, so Centrica ended up saving big money on reduced days developing the control system for the subsea injector, and in design
of operation. They calculated that the overall saving, compared to and manufacturing of the ROV interfaces.
bringing in a drilling rig for the task, was in the order of near 50%. Currently the final process is under way for engineering of the
The trajectory of the riserless CT deployment in open water means stripper element that will be incorporated between the subsea injector
that the LWI vessel can allow more horizontal offset from the well loca- and subsea lubricator in order to hold back pressure from the well.
tion during operations than a drilling rig. Another important aspect It will take a few more months to complete this development and it
is that a rig will need far more time than a vessel to move away should will then need to be qualified for offshore use. Most likely it will be
a well-control situation occur, Buset explained. In addition, the coil ready for a subsea intervention application in 2018. The riserless CT
tubings flexibility makes the vessel able to keep pumping mud down equipment spread can be deployed from any of the companys LWI
the well to hold back or stop a potential shallow gas influx, while mov- vessels, Buset added. It takes four to five days to rig up a complete
ing the vessel off to a secure area if there is too much gas in the water. CT package with all associated equipment.
Should one come across gas and the well needs to be cemented back, Even though manning and mobilization costs are lower for smaller
it will prove costly to move the rig to a new location for a possible new size well intervention vessels, compared with a drilling rig, deploying
pilot hole, in terms of anchorhandling and other ancillary costs. this system for one single pilot hole or well intervention job would
Crew safety is another consideration. During coil tubing operations still be relatively costly. It would be more economic, he claimed, to
on drilling rigs there is also a risk of injuries to personnel while working apply it for a multiple well intervention campaign in the same region,
on compensated equipment inside the derrick in a riding belt. Personnel possibly co-funded by several operators.
on our vessels using the riserless CT method, however, are not work- Throughout the North Sea area, the large number of fields approach-
ing on compensated equipment, using a riding belt, or working under ing decommissioning will increase demand for P&A services, and this
a suspended load. The risk to crew members associated with running is another potential area of interest for the CT riserless system. If we
and pulling a rigid workover riser is not an issue, and for the same can go into live subsea production wells with CT, we could use the
reason time spent normally running and pulling the riser is eliminated. technique, for instance, to set deep cement plugs, Buset said. And
in future, with new and improved downhole coil tubing tools enter-
Lessons learned ing the market, we will be able to do much more P&A work with coil
Following the initial campaign for the road tunnel, Island Offshore tubing. The goal is to perform a full P&A on subsea-completed wells
drew up a list of potential improvements and learnings arising from from LWI vessel in the future. With close to 8,000 subsea-completed
this operation. Before we went out to do the Centrica job we had wells worldwide. We foresee a huge potential for this type of service
identified and closed almost 100 points that we addressed, Buset in years to come.

48 Offshore March 2017

1703off_48 48 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Intermediate connections Pedro Viana

2H Offshore

optimize flexible riser design

Installation costs balanced out by reduced opex

n most offshore settings, a flexible riser intermediate connections can also form an rity during installation. Flanged connections
typically comprises one continuously integral part of a wider integrity management are a well-understood design solution with a
manufactured riser section terminated and standardization approach for flexible ris- broad track record in subsea environments.
with end fittings. However, a dynamic ers or even hybrid risers, facilitating the con- Within a flexible riser line, they are placed in
riser can consist of two or more sections nection to a steel or composite pipe. sections with reduced dynamic movement,
with an intermediate flanged connection join- Globally there are around 300-400 risers typically where either no bend stiffener is
ing the end fittings of each section together, in operation that are fitted with intermediate required or only one of a reduced length, in
to suit transportation or installation purposes riser connections, in water depths ranging order to limit the risk of fatigue failure. Exclud-
or even design requirements. from 400-2,250 m (1,312-7,382 ft). Between 80 ing cases with material incompatibility issues,
Outside the Brazilian sector, however, there and 90% are in Brazilian waters, most servicing a flanged connection presents a risk, but one
appears to be a widespread lack of confidence Petrobras platforms. The Brazilian national that is controlled and restricted.
in the use of intermediate connections in dy- oil company owns the majority of the flexible A hardware element considerably more
namic flexible risers. This is due to real but risers and flowlines installed to date, often complex than the flange connection is the
also perceived factors such as the introduction employing up to six flexible sections within end-fitting assembly. Each manufacturer has
of an additional leak path, increasing risk; the one riser. The number of sections tends to its own design, but all designs share the inher-
higher cost associated with the additional sec- increase the deeper the water, with interme- ent risks associated with the manual process
tion and hardware such as bend stiffeners; in- diate connections featuring in most of the of sealing and locking the multiple steel and
creased offshore installation time; restrictions flexible risers in the ultra-deepwater presalt polymeric layers, including the individual
in annulus monitoring; armor wire fatigue in areas. Consistent use of flexible risers with tensile armor wires. The end-fitting assembly
end fittings; and a limited (published) track intermediate connections is not only a result of is one of the critical areas of concern for flex-
record of the performance of intermediate the specific needs of that operator, but is also ible riser integrity, and requires particular care
connections offshore. down to broader strategic decisions related to during fabrication and installation. During op-
In fact, the risks associated with flexible design standardization and installation, which eration, most of the issues with the end-fittings
intermediate connections are mostly low, and rely on the use of intermediate connections. arise under high tension, in particular when
can be mitigated through standard design subjected to cyclic fatigue loads found at the
and fabrication procedures. Early specifica- Managing risks riser top or the touch down zone. Placement
tion of an intermediate connection during Risk perception varies among operators and of an intermediate connection and associated
design allows for optimization of the global offshore region. Clearly, there is an intrinsic end-fittings should avoid the fatigue-critical
riser configuration and intermediate flexible risk when introducing a connection point to a locations along the riser this can be achieved
structures. The additional hardware and in- structure because of the potential additional without major issue as long as it is considered
stallation costs imposed by an intermediate leak path. early during design.
connection can be balanced by direct and As with any flanged connection, a back seal Another operational risk worth reviewing
indirect cost savings. Beyond single projects, test is performed to assure connection integ- when considering use of intermediate connec-

* May not equal

100% due
to rounding.

Distribution of installed flexible risers with intermediate connection. (All images sourced by and courtesy 2H Offshore) March 2017 Offshore 49

1703off_49 49 2/28/17 4:33 PM


transport, and installation, requiring careful

handling at all stages. The additional offshore
installation time incurred for an intermedi-
ate connection depends on multiple factors,
including the capability of the offshore crew,
but is typically one to two days. An alterna-
tive option could be a continuous single riser
section installed using a carousel-fitted vessel,
with no need to stop the riser lay for make-up
of the intermediate connection; however, the
installation vessel would have to sail to the
spool base for trans-spooling and loading of
the line onto the carousel, which also involves
Schematic shows a lazy wave flexible
riser with single structure (left) and with
time and cost.
top and bottom structures, split through If the intermediate connection is driven by
an intermediate connection (right). the need for different flexible structures, the
additional cost for manufacturing set-up and
fabrication of shorter lengths of flexibles can
be prohibitive. On the other hand, the require-
tions is the potential contact between flexible riser is a challenge due to the different loads ment for one line can lead to optimization and
risers, or other structures, placed in close and pressure requirements. Optimizing the standardization for multiple lines, with longer
proximity. Some low-energy contact between design of the structure (or layers) in terms of lengths manufactured and employed across
flexible riser structures is usually acceptable, in situ performance becomes more challeng- different risers sections and eventually in
but the contact between a flexible riser and ing the deeper the environment and the more flowlines.
a flanged connection could cause damage to demanding the overall project requirements. Through applying an existing design to a
the risers outer sheath and the layer of armor An intermediate connection can also serve top riser section with an intermediate connec-
wires underneath. In such cases, protective to optimize the design, or provide a solution, tion, the time to first oil can be significantly
covers can be adopted, although these tend to for risers with a high permeation rate from reduced. The resultant cost savings can al-
increase the drag area and contact diameter, the bore to the annulus. In a design where low for a top-section design with a fatigue
and consequently the risk of clashing. It is a single-section riser would have the annu- life below the field requirement, making it
advisable, therefore, to avoid intermediate lus filled up by condensate to the top critical commercially feasible to replace just the top
connections in regions with potential for con- section, a split riser might benefit from the section at a future point.
tact with adjacent structures. lower permeation at the top section (due to
An intermediate connection, it should be the lower temperature and differential pres- Standardization
stressed, is also a risk limiter. Any structural or sure). Additionally, the design may allow for Flexible riser technology is constantly
sealing failure during the factory acceptance a different layer arrangement and increased evolving. Standardization is an intrinsic chal-
test, installation, or operation of a flexible annulus volume to ensure the top armor wire lenge, further complicated by each projects
riser could compromise the whole structure. annulus section stays dry throughout the specific requirements, but standardization
Flexible risers are often longer than 2,000 m fields life, leading to a much improved fatigue does bring direct cost benefits and technical
(6,562 ft), with the top 30 m (98.4 ft) or the performance. and integrity management efficiencies.
100-m (328-ft) touch down zone commonly Another consideration might be the maxi- Whether driven by the project design team
being the critical sections. If the riser is split mum installation length, often limited by the or the manufacturer, standardization can be
into multiple sections, damage to any of these available installation reel capacity. In cases applied in a single development, or can be
critical sections is not likely to compromise where an operator has contracted multiple considered more broadly for multiple devel-
the whole riser line. The replacement of a day rate vessels or is looking to increase the opments or regions. When a riser comprises
damaged section can be performed offshore, installation vessel availability, limiting a sec- multiple sections, this allows for discrete stan-
limiting production losses. Even when a dam- tions length to allow for reel-lay can avoid the dardization through the intermediate struc-
aged riser is composed of a single section, need for carrousel-fitted installation vessels, tures. In other words, any riser configuration
an offshore section cut and re-termination of which often command higher day rates. can be made up of different combinations
the line (with or without an additional riser of similar, pre-qualified structures, or there
section and associated intermediate connec- Cost controls may only be a need for qualification for a
tion) is a field-proven solution. However, the The cost implications of an intermediate certain section.
offshore re-termination and inclusion of an connection can be considerable, especially For multiple fields, the benefits increase
end-fitting is best avoided, as the quality of for small-scope projects. However, the added and the delivery time for the flexibles can
the end-fitting manual assembly will never be outlay can be minimized through planning be expedited, eventually with a need for only
as good as the one achieved in a controlled early on in the design phase to incorporate limited engineering. Standardization com-
factory environment. some of the advantages discussed above. bined with replacement or re-termination
Hardware and installation costs can be further of a flexible top section also increases the
Design optimization balanced by capex and opex benefits arising overall versatility of the flexible riser solu-
A flexible riser is typically a bespoke prod- from standardization, integrity management, tion. For instance, a spare riser section
uct in which the type and number of layers and life extension. that suits multiple fields becomes more vi-
and their characteristics are combined to suit End-fittings are not only an expensive long- able. Additionally, re-use of flexible sections
project-specific needs. Achieving a standard lead item, but also are often the most criti- which have not exceeded their fatigue life
solution for the top and bottom sections of a cal part of the flexible riser for fabrication, can be an attractive long-term proposition.

50 Offshore March 2017

1703off_50 50 2/28/17 4:33 PM

Certified agent inspections
prove useful in safely
maintaining aging risers
Alan Yu
John L. Upchurch

onsidering the vast number of deepwater production risers
and their accompanying pipeline systems installed in the last
20 years, the general service record has been exceptional.
For the most part, these risers and pipeline systems are not
working in high-pressure/high-temperature conditions or in
ultra-deepwater, but many of them are reaching the end of their design
lives. In the Gulf of Mexico alone, there are at least six production
platforms that are at more than 15 years of service life, with 11 hav-
ing service lives that fall between 11 and 15 years. Many associated
riser and pipeline systems are reaching their original design lives
(which for most is 20 years), and many more will reach this point in
the next five to 10 years.
By and large, risers and pipeline were designed using API RP 2RD
and API 1111, both of which are working stress design codes that do
not contain provisions that outline how assets owners will address
end-of-design-life or how risers and pipelines can safely remain in It is important to ensure that riser systems are inspected, tested, and used
service beyond that point. according to the design code and execution plan. (Image courtesy think4photop)
While 30 CFR 250 has requirements for how a certified verification
agent (CVA) reviews designs, fabrication, and installation for newbuild one operator to another. For steel catenary risers that were connected
risers or risers that need to undergo modification, there is no require- to the pipeline and welded together when installed, retrieval poses
ment to do anything for the vast number of risers that do not require an enormous challenge. The only way to retrieve these types of ris-
modification but are reaching or exceeding their original design lives. ers is to cut them into pieces or reel them back in. Recovering these
Most of these risers and pipelines were installed without a monitor- risers, inspecting them, testing them, and then re-installing them is
ing system, so there is limited data available for use in determining a process that is cost prohibitive. The impracticality of this process
how much wear or fatigue these assets have experienced during their raises serious questions about how industry deals with these risers
working lives. Quite possibly, the pristine service records are an when they are approaching their design lives.
indication that the original API RP 2RD design code was too conserva-
tive and that the risers and pipelines actually are fit for much longer Verifying integrity
continued service. Without performance data, however, there is no When risers were being designed, a lot of effort went into predicting
way to gauge with certainty how much wear they have experienced their ability to withstand the loads and forces associated with long-term
and how that might affect performance. deployment. Strength checking employed computer simulation to predict
the extreme and survival loads exerted on the riser systems to determine
Retrieval challenges that loads experienced during the risers working life would not cause the
Top tensioned risers (TTR) are made of joints that were installed by riser system to yield or to buckle. Most systems were designed based
connecting them into a string offshore, with the bottom end attached on identified extreme load cases that were given with a minimum safety
to the subsea wellhead and the top ends tensioned. Earlier versions of factor of 1.25 in the API RP 2RD design code. In fact, the performance
tensioning devices on spars used buoyancy cans positioned in the center of dynamic risers mostly is governed by their fatigue resistance to envi-
well. More recent methods use long-stroke tensioners similar to those ronmental and operational cyclic loads. Most of the risers in use today
used on TLPs with the tensioner resting on the production deck. TTRs were designed using this cumulative damage ratio method.
were designed to be able to be taken apart when retrieved offshore. Simply put, the fatigue design curves were generated by testing
Some operators have taken the required steps to clean, inspect, many representative riser material samples. The predicted fatigue
and test their TTRs so that following official permitting by the US life of the riser was the duration at which the cumulative damage
Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement the risers could reached 100%. The general safety factor for fatigue life assessment is
be re-installed for continued service. Of course, the recipes for getting 10. To truly understand how much damage a riser has experienced,
these retrievable risers recertified for continued service vary from the cumulative fatigue damage from all sources has to be taken into March 2017 Offshore 51

1703off_51 51 2/28/17 4:33 PM


account. These include vortex induced cyclic

loads, vessel motion, induced fatigue, opera-
tional effects, and installation cyclic loads.
Looking at the incident-free track record
of more than 10,000 riser years of service, it
is apparent that this approach to design has
served the industry well. The engineering,
fabrication, and installation were done with due
diligence, and the riser systems have exhibited
pristine performance.
While performance to date has been excel-
lent, the unknown still presents a challenge.
The question surfaces about what comes next. The riser integrity management approach adopted by ABS is similar to the ongoing API 2RIM (riser
Should nothing be done because of the perfor- integrity management) standard task groups recommendation.
mance records and because the code does not
require asset owners to do anything, or should industry be proactive an initial crack that could be of concern. By the time the pressure
and begin looking for a practical process that can be applied consis- measurement detects a major leak, a crack has grown through the
tently to determine how these riser and pipeline systems can move riser pipe wall. At that point, propagation of the crack through the
safely beyond their design lives? entire riser cross section could be imminent.
To date, there has never been such an incident, but as a riser system
Bridge to continued service is kept in place beyond its design life, it becomes critically important
The past 20 years of environmental loads and service conditions to ensure that it is inspected, tested, and used according to the design
may or may not be indicative of what should be expected in the future, code and execution plan. A reasonable recommendation is to have
so there has to be a prudent and informed way to deal with continued internal or external subject matter experts and offshore operation
service. One approach is to follow a process like the one published teams go through the original design data between years 17 to 20 and
in API structural integrity management that begins with generating review field measurement data, remotely-operated vehicle inspection
the design document (data), followed by an assessment of the work records and other relevant data, formulate a plan to assess the system,
by a CVA. When these steps have been completed, a field inspection and then revise the inspection plan. The value of this approach is that
plan is developed that is followed by an examination. The results of an inspection plan can guide the future operation team regarding what
the inspection are fed back into the data, and the cycle continues so and how often to inspect the riser and pipeline system. The process
that the data upon which decisions are being made is current. continues until the system is decommissioned.
When systems are within a few years of the original design life, a
certified agency should be involved in reviewing the original design Dealing with refurbishment, conversion
documents, data from field inspections, and updated environmental data. There is a great deal of similarity between the considerations taken
The result of the review will determine whether the systems can continue into account for riser systems and vessels the environmental loads,
to be used without interruption or if additional measures are required. steel as the basic structural material, the need for corrosion protection,
The review may simply conclude that a ro- and regulatory agencies involved. There are
bustly designed system is functioning as it structures on an offshore vessel that can
should with a stable production record, stable easily be inspected at a dry dock and areas
trending, and that hindcast metocean data that cannot be accessed easily for inspec-
are still in line with the original data. With tion. The approach to fleet refurbishment
this type of positive result, nothing needs and continuing service or conversion of an
to be done other than updating the fatigue asset for another service can be applied by
life to reflect the actual consumed damage the riser and pipeline industry.
from the original fatigue life. If the review In many cases, the process used to pre-
indicates that there are issues, steps would pare a vessel to sail into its next life could
need to be taken to determine the extent of be applied to the reuse or repurposing of
the safety risks and mitigate them. riser systems. Knowing what is needed to
Current devices on TTRs measure the top responsibly maintain a floating asset beyond
tension of the riser and relative stroke to the its original design life would be valuable
production deck, production pressure and in determining how riser systems could
temperature, and discrete riser lateral ac- remain in service or be reused for another
celeration along the risers. Although these purpose.
measurements can detect issues with the There are industry-accepted procedures
tensioners and riser functionality, they can- in place to refurbish and redeploy various
not be used to determine whether there is types of floating vessels. The associated
methods could provide an algorithm to
When systems are within a few years of the
develop procedures eventually leading to
design life, a certified agency should be extended service life for risers and even
involved in reviewing the original design redeployment for other purposes.
documents, data from field inspections, and Using performance and operational data
updated environmental data to formulate a can help industry get the most value out
plan based on the results. (Image courtesy of existing systems and improve safety in
Ligados/Shutterstock) continued operation as those assets age.

52 Offshore March 2017

1703off_52 52 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Active heating technologies enhance

benefits of subsea processing systems
Field architecture can be arranged to reduce capex, opex
Dwayne Duke
Sriram Subramanian
Rebecca Roth Temp. Profile Un-Insulated Flowline
INTECSEA Temp. Profile Wet Insulated Flowline
Temp. Profile Flowline with Active Heating

he offshore industry is facing an era
of increasing challenges not only from
reduced oil prices but also the need

to develop new methods to reach pre-

viously inaccessible reserves. In this
context, there currently exists one shared
goal among operators: reducing costs. Tech- Active Heating Target Temp.
nological advances are being made today with Max. Hydrate Formation Temp.
reduced capex/opex as the driving factor.
On the forefront of innovation, operators are
investing in the future of subsea processing Wax Appearance Temp.
with active flowline heating. In alignment with Ambient Temp.
the theme for the 2017 Worldwide Survey of
Subsea Processing and Active Heating Sys-
tems poster, this article discusses combin-
ing the technologies available today and why Pipeline/Flowline Length
they are vital to gain access to these unique Active heating maintains an equal, or positive radial temperature gradient across the pipeline con-
offshore reserves. tents by electrical current to limit temperature loss. (Courtesy INTECSEA)


Since its inception, subsea processing has 3,000 m
maintained the primary goal of enabling opera- 9,843 ft.
tors to recover additional reserves by placing
pumps and compressors on the seabed near 2,500 m ETH-PiP DEH Wet Insulated
the wells. Secondly, the equipment on the 8,202 ft. Projects Rigid Pipe Projects
seabed reduces topsides facilities space and
weight. Operators have achieved these goals 2,000 m 18
6,562 ft.
with the help and technology from service
Water Depth

companies. Subsea processing technology is

considered to be mature as well as field prov- 1,500 m 21
4,921 ft.
en. Nevertheless, next-generation iterations 22
are evolving in the form of modularity and 19 7
compatibility between equipment manufactur- 1,000 m
3,281 ft.
ers. Operators can significantly benefit from IPB-Flexible Pipe
17 Projects
standardization, reducing opex and future field 13
500 m 14 15
expansions by creating a more competitive 1,640 ft. 10 9
8 3, 16
environment when selecting manufacturers. 20 2 1
5 4 11
Active heating 0 ft.
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
The development of deep and ultra-deepwa-
ter fields has pushed the industry to develop U Value (W/m2K)
DEH-Single Pipe DEH-PiP ETH PiP IPB Flexible Pipe
cost-efficient solutions to mitigate wax deposi-
tion and hydrate formation during periods of Next-generation active heating systems are proving that lower power requirements and higher ef-
low production rates and shutdowns, or for ficiency are possible. (Courtesy INTECSEA/Subsea 7) March 2017 Offshore 53

1703off_53 53 2/28/17 4:33 PM


POWERJump Subsea Boosting System

Slow the production decline curve, boost recovery from existing subsea elds
World Trends an
and capture stranded reserves by integrating a cost-effective production for Offshore Oil
boosting system into existing subsea architecture.

Reimagine deepwater production at

2017 Aker Solutions and Baker Hughes. All rights reserved. 42663 02/2017

SUBSEA SEPARATION SYSTEM TYPES: Fig. 4: Saipem Multipipe Fig. 5: Aker Solutionss Conceptual Deep- SUBSEA SEAWATER TREATMENT A
(Prototype Tested 2-phase Booster with Separation System Flexsep
Gas/ liquid Separation
and Boosting System)
Fig. 1: Aker Solutions
LiquidBooster Subsea Raw
Fig. 2: Conceptual Illustration
of Installation of Tyrihans
PROCESSING AND ACTIVE HEATING SYSTEMS Fig. 1A: TechnipFMC Conceptual Subsea Separation System for the Tordis Project Fig. 2: TechnipFMC Conceptual SS
Gas/Liquid Separation & Boosting
System for Pazflor Project
Fig. 3: GE Subsea Separation and
Produced Water Reinjection System
for Troll C
Seawater Injection System
(Photo: System for Statoil
Tyrihans Subsea Raw Water
Subsea Raw Seawater
Injection (SRSWI) System


MARC H 2017
Prepared By: Tanaji Dabade, Sriram Subramanian, Rebecca Roth, Veerendhar Ponagandla, Fig. 1B:
Mac McKee, Mike Paulin, Dwayne Duke, Craig Hume and David McLaurin of INTECSEA, Separator
Courtesy of GE Courtesy of Aker Solutions
E. Kurt Albaugh, Consulting Engineer & Volunteer Poster Editor, 4 Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Courtesy of Saipem Courtesy of Aker Solutions
and David Davis of Offshore Magazine
Poster Assembled By: Chris Jones of; Digital Images by: Sid Aguirre of 3DMM Fig. 6: Saipem SpoolSep (Laboratory Tested 3-phase Fig. 7: NOV Produced Water Separator meeting strict Fig. 4 & 5: Saipem-Veolia-Total Prototype deep- Fig. 6: GE Subsea
Courtesy of TechnipFMC Separation and Produced Water Reinjection System) reservoir injection or discharge requirements by gravity -water tested at the Alima FPU in Congo (Whole Injection System
E-Mail Comments, Corrections or Additions to: based produced water cleaning system Industrialization phase is ongoing) ultra-filtration an
For Archived SS Processing Posters: HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR - This type is more efficient for oil/water separation. An Subsea Sulphate Removal Unit capable of technologies sca
example is the orange colored horizontal separator for the Tordis Project shown in Fig. treating and injecting up to 80 kbwpd
For Educational Videos on SS Processing: 1A above.

VERTICAL SEPARATOR This type is more efficient for gas/liquid separation. The liquid Courtesy of TechnipFMC
keeps a fluid blanket on the pump and reduces potential pump cavitation. An example is
the Pazflor vertical separator shown in Fig. 2. Courtesy of TechnipFMC

2. CAISSON SEPARATION Fig. 9: Caisson Separation/ Fig. 10: TechnipFMC

ESP Boosting System Vertical Access Caisson Courtesy of Saipem Courtesy of NOV
SYSTEMS (Figs. 810) with ESP Boosting (Gas/
M A G A Z I N E INSTALLED < 100 m Liquid Separation & Boost-
ing System Diagram)
Fig. 14: ExxonMobils SS Compact Separation, Courtesy of Saipem Courtesy of GE
INTO SEABED 3. COMPACT/DYNAMIC SEPARATION SYSTEMS (Figs. 11-14) Boosting, and Produced WI System Using
INTECSEA, Inc. Offshore Magazine Multiple Technologies for Three-Phase
Separation plus Sand
Fig. 7: SWIT Technology - a disruptive technology for
providingtailor made water with superior quality at the
Fig.8: O
575 North Dairy Ashford St 1455 West Loop South, Suite 400 Fig. 11: OneSubsea Conceptual Fig. 12: OneSubsea Conceptual Fig. 13: TechnipFMC 3-Phase Separation
seabed forimproved and enhanced oil recovery purposes. System
Two-Phase Separation System Three-Phase Separation System System with Produced WI Using In-Line
Houston, TX 77079 USA Houston, TX 77027 USA Separation Technology for the Marlim Project
Thorough disinfection by the Seabox is a key Filtratio
Fig. 8: Centrifugal Subsea Submersible differentiator for a longterm reliable Sulphate and/or Salt
Tel: 281-987-0800 Tel: 713-621-9720 Pump (BCSS) Removal System, easily scalable to required capacity. Membrane feed pump
RO Membranes


INTECSEA and Offshore Magazine wish to acknowledge the following companies and individuals who continue to support our efforts to educate
and inform the oil & gas industry on the status of subsea processing, and more specifically subsea pumping, technologies.
ABB: Rita-Wei Fu; Aker Solutions: Jonah Margulis, Justin Evans and Kate Winterton; Consultants: Ron Bass and Ron Pettus; ExxonMobil: Michael D. Olson; Flowserve: Alejandro Fratini;
GE: Alisdair Mcdonald, and Felipe Galvis; Genesis: Chuck Horn, Mike Zerkus, and Tim Lowry; ITP InterPipe: Wayne Grobbelaar; ITT Bornemann: Stefan Ladig; Leistritz: Jeffery De Vaul;
MAN Diesel & Turbo North America: Domingo Fernandez; Nexans: Angline Afanoukoe; NOV: Torbjorn Hegdal, Eirik Dirdal; OneSubsea: Timothy Taylor and Phillip Luce; ProlabNL BV: Seabox
Toine Hendriks; Saipem: Claude Valenchon, Giovanni Chiesa, Antonio Bassi and Marco Casotto; Shell: Chris Shaw; Siemens: Rachel Ketelaars and Richard Barratt; Schneider Electric: Courtesy of TechnipFMC Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of OneSubsea 4
Kristina Hakala; Schlumberger: Grant Harris, Jennifer McMurtry and Lisa Ann Hofmann; SPX Flow: Ross Dobbie; Statoil: Ole kland, Bjrgulf Haukelidster Eidesen and Atle Harald Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of Baker Hughes Figs. 2 & 3: Courtesy of OneSubsea
Courtesy Courtesy of OneSubsea
of TechnipFMC Courtesy of OneSubsea
Courtesy of ExxonMobil Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of NOV Courtesy
Brnes; Subsea 7: Michael Firmian, Marcel Landwehr and Arnaud Reveilloux; Sulzer: Mika Tienhaara; TechnipFMC: Janardhan Davalath and Allen Neciosup 4

The poster is divided into discrete sections

Subsea Field Architec


and each section is marked by a background



color. The color denotes the type of technology and Active Heating as


(GVF) (5)

carried throughout the poster. Below are the color COMMENTS OWNER/FIELD or
code designations for each of the seven themes. OPERATOR COMPR. TYPE
Full Wellstream Subsea Boosting Case 1: Long Dis
Subsea Separation COMPANY Meters Feet Km Miles M3/Hr. BAR (4) PSI (4) MW MW COMPANY TYPE COMPANY MTHS Single flowline tie
Subsea Gas Compression 1 DEMO 2000 Q Statoil K-Lab Test Statoil Offshore Norway 3.60 n/a OneSubsea Counter Axial OneSubsea 2001 SS Multiphase B
Water Injection with Subsea Pumps 2 Ormen Lange Gas Compression Pilot CP Testing 1 train @ Nyhamna, Norway Norske Shell Offshore Norway 10 33 0.0 0.0 25,000 3,776 60.0 870 12.50 58.00 n/a Aker Solutions 1 Centrifugal GE Compr/Aker Pump 2011 30-Aug-16 DEH Active Hea
3 sgard - Midgard & Mikkel Fields (7) O Subsea Gas Compression Statoil (18) Offshore Norway 300 984 40.0 25.0 20,000 3,021 50.0 725 11.50 24.40 n/a Aker Solutions (11) 2+1 Spare +1 Centrifugal MAN/Aker pumps 6-Sep-15 1-Mar-17 18
Water Injection

Flowline Active Heating

4 Gullfaks South Brent (25) I, N Subsea Wet Gas Compression Statoil (18) Offshore Norway 135 443 15.5 9.7 9,600 1,450 30.0 435 5.00 10.00 95% OneSubsea (10) 2 + 1 Spare Counter Axial OneSubsea 12-Oct-15 2-Nov-15 1
Power Transmission/Distribution and Controls 5 Ormen Lange Gas Compression 2 (27) C Subsea Gas Compression Norske Shell Offshore Norway 860 2,821 120.0 75.0 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD n/a TBA 2 Centrifugal TBA 2021
Miscellaneous Information/Combination of Technologies 6 Troll C Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 340 1,116 4.0 2.5 n/a TBA Undecided TBA TBD
7 Peon (34) P/H Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 385 1,263 TBD TBD TBD TBD
8 Snohvit C Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Barents Sea 345 1,132 143.0 89.4 TBD n/a TBA TBA 2020
TABLE 3 ACRONYMS & 9 Shtokman (35) P/H Subsea Gas Compression Gazprom Barents Sea 350 1,148 565.0 353.1 TBD n/a TBA Centrifugal TBA 2022
ABBREVIATIONS 10 sgard - Midgard & Mikkel Fields C Subsea Gas Compression - Phase 2 Statoil Offshore Norway 300 984 40.0 25.0 12,000 60.0 11.50 24.40 n/a TBA 2+1 Spare +1 Centrifugal MAN/Aker pumps 2021
AC Alternating Current 1 Prezioso (18) A MPP at Base of Platform ENI Italy 50 164 0.0 0.0 65.0 10 40.0 580 0.15 30-90% Saipem 1 Twin-Screw Nuovo Pignone (9) 1994 1995
AL Artificial Lift 2 Draugen Field (17) A Hydraulic Drive MPP Norske Shell Offshore Norway 270 886 4.0 2.5 193.0 29 50.0 725 0.75 42% OneSubsea 1 + 1 Spare SMUBS, 1-MPP SPX ClydeUnion Nov-95 15-Nov-96 12.2
ALM Artificial Lift Manifold
ASD Adjustable Speed Drive
3 Lufeng 22/1 Field (10) A Tieback to FPSO Statoil South China Sea 330 1,083 1.0 0.6 675.0 102 35.0 508 0.40 3% OneSubsea / TechnipFMC 5+2 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Jan-98 15-Jul-09 138.0
BCSS Centrifugal Subsea Submersible Pumps 4 Machar Field (ETAP Project) A Hydraulic Drive MPP BP UK North Sea 85 277 35.2 21.9 1,100.0 166 22.0 319 0.65 64% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea
BPD Barrels per Day 5 Topacio Field O 1 x Dual MPP System ExxonMobil Equatorial Guinea 550 1,805 8.0 5.0 940.0 142 35.0 508 0.86 75% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Aug-00 1-Mar-17 197.1
BOET British Offshore Engineering Technology 5
BOPD Barrels of Oil per Day 6 Ceiba C3 + C4 O Phase 1 SS MPP Project Hess Equatorial Guinea 750 2,461 7.0 4.3 600.0 91 45.0 653 0.85 75% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Oct-02 1-Mar-17 171.1
BWPD Barrels of Water per Day 7 Jubarte EWT A Riser lift to Seillean drillship Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,400 4,593 1.4 0.9 145.0 22 140.0 2,000 0.70 22% TechnipFMC 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Dec-02 1-Dec-06 47.9
CAPEX Capital Expenditure 1
CB Circuit Breaker
8 Ceiba Field (FFD) O Full Field Development (FFD) Hess Equatorial Guinea 700 2,297 14.5 9.0 2,500.0 378 40.0 580 1.20 75% OneSubsea 6+ 2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Dec-03 1-Mar-17 157.1
COSSP Configurable Subsea Separation & Pimping 9 Mutineer / Exeter (16) O 2 x Single MPP Systems Santos NW Shelf, Australia 145 476 7.0 4.3 1,200.0 181 30.0 435 1.10 0-40% OneSubsea 2 MPP Helico-Axial OneSubsea (16) Mar-05 1-Mar-17 142.1
CSSP Centrifugal Subsea Submersible Pump 10 Lyell (Original Install) A SS Tieback to Ninian South CNR UK North Sea 146 479 15.0 9.3 1,100.0 166 18.0 261 1.60 40-70% Aker Solutions 1 Twin Screw Bornemann SMPC 9 Jan-06 Dec-06 11.0
CTCU Cable Traction Control Unit
DEH Direct Electrical Heating 11 Navajo (17) I, N ESP in Flowline Riser Anadarko US GOM 1,110 3,642 7.2 4.5 24.0 4 40.2 583 0.75 57% Baker Hughes 1 ESP Baker Hughes Feb-07 1-Aug-07 5.5
DMBS Deepwater Multiphase Boosting System 12 Jubarte Field - Phase 1 (22) A Seabed ESP-MOBO, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,350 4,429 4.0 2.5 120.0 18 138.0 2,002 0.90 10-40% TechnipFMC 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Mar-07 Aug-07 5.0

EHTF Electrical Heat Traced Flowline

ESP Electrical Submersible Pump
13 Brenda & Nicol Fields O MultiManifold with 1 MPP Premier Oil UK North Sea 145 476 8.5 5.3 800.0 121 19.0 276 1.10 75% OneSubsea 1+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Apr-07 1-Mar-17 117.1
ETH Electrical Trace Heating 14 King (8) A SS Tieback to Marlin TLP Anadarko US GOM 1,700 5,578 29.0 18.0 496.5 75 50.0 725 1.30 0-95% Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare Twin-Screw ITT Bornemann / Loher Nov-07 15-Feb-09 15.0

FFD Full Field Development 15 Vincent O Dual MPP System Woodside NW Shelf, Australia 475 1,558 3.0 1.9 2,400.0 363 42.0 609 1.80 25-70% OneSubsea 2+2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Aug-10 1-Mar-17 77.1
FPS Floating Production System
FPSO Floating, Production, Storage & Offloading 16 Marlim A SBMS-500 SS Field Test Petrobras Campos Basin 1,900 6,234 3.1 1.9 500.0 75 60.0 870 1.20 0-100% Curtiss-Wright/OneSubsea 1 Twin-Screw Leistritz 6
GLCC Gas/Liquid Centrifugal Cyclonic 17 Golfinho Field O Seabed ESP-MOBO, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,500 4,922 11.0 6.8 146.0 22 138.0 2,002 1.20 10-40% TechnipFMC (32) 2 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) (32) Dec-14 4-Jan-17 25.1
GLR Gas Liquid Ratio
GVF Gas Volume Fraction
18 Azurite Field A Dual MPP System Murphy Oil Congo, W. Africa 1,338 4,390 3.0 1.9 350.0 53 41.0 595 0.85 28% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Sep-10 1-Oct-13 36.5
Hp Horsepower 19 Golfinho Field O MOBO BCSS (ESP) Caissons (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,500 4,922 5.0 3.1 146.0 22 138.0 2,002 1.20 10-40% Aker Solutions 2 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) (32) Dec-14 4-Jan-17 24.2
HSP Hydraulic Submersible Pump 20 Espadarte (Field Trial) A Horizontal ESP on Skid Petrobras Brazil 1,350 4,429 11.5 7.1 125.0 19 100.0 1,450 0.90 10-40% TechnipFMC 2 ESP Baker Hughes Dec-11 Mar-13 14.5
HV High Voltage
IPB Integrated Production Bundle 21 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 (20) O Caisson / Artifical Non-Separated Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 9.0 5.6 185.0 28 152 2,205 1.10 40% TechnipFMC 2 ESP Baker Hughes Jul-09 1-Mar-17 91.3
IOR Improved (Increased) Oil Recovery 22 Parque Das Conchas (BC-10) Phase 2 O 2 additional ESP systems Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 9.0 5.6 185.0 28 152 2,205 1.10 40% TechnipFMC 2 ESP Baker Hughes Oct-13 1-Mar-17 40.4 6
kW Kilowatt
Km Kilometer
23 Parque Das Conchas (BC-10) MPP Repl. M Replacement MPP system Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 9.0 5.6 185.0 28 40% TechnipFMC 1 TechnipFMC
LDDM Long Distance Delivery Management 24 Jubarte Field - Phase 2 (22) O Tieback to FPSO P-57, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,400 4,593 8.0 5.0 1,325.0 200 200 3,000 1.20 30-40% Aker Solutions 15 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) 6-Dec-10 1-Mar-17 74.7
LDDS Long Distance Delivery System 25 Cascade & Chinook (6) I, N Skid BCSS - Horizontal ESP on Skid Petrobras US GOM 2,484 8,150 8.0 5.0 135.0 20 220.0 3,191 1.10 10% TechnipFMC 4+2 Spare ESP Baker Hughes 14-Jul-12 Unkown
MPP Multiphase Pump
MW Mega Watts 26 Barracuda (29) O SS MP High Boost Pump System Petrobras Campos Basin 1,040 3,412 10.5 6.5 280.0 42 70.0 1,015 1.50 35-60% OneSubsea 1 Helico-Axial OneSubsea 14-Jul-12 1-Mar-17 55.4
NF Natural Flow 27 Montanazo & Lubina O Single MPP System Repsol Mediterranean 740 2,428 12.3 7.6 80.0 12 65.0 943 0.23 10% OneSubsea 1 + 1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea 15-Jan-14 1-Mar-17 37.4
OPEX Operational Expenditures 28 Schiehallion I, N 2 x Dual MPP Systems BP UK, West of Shetland 400 1,312 4.0 2.5 2,700.0 408 26.0 377 1.80 74% GE/OneSubsea 4+0 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea 2014 Delayed Start Up
O/W Oil and Water
PCM Power Control Module 29 CLOV (19) O Subsea MPP System Total Angola, Blk 17 1,170 3,839 11.0 6.8 660.0 100 45.0 652 2.30 50% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea 31-Jul-16 1-Mar-17 7.0
PCDM Power and Communication Distribution Module 30 Jack & St. Malo O 3 x Single SPP Systems (JSM) Chevron US GOM 2,134 7,000 13.0 21.0 1,191.0 180 241.3 3,500 3.00 10% OneSubsea 3+2 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea 10-May-16 1-Mar-17 9.7
PFD Process Flow Diagram Notes:
PiP Pipe-in-Pipe 31 Lyell Retrofit O MPP Retrofit System - Tieback to Ninian CNR UK North Sea 145 476 7.0 4.3 700.0 106 21.0 305 1.00 97% OneSubsea 1 Helico-Axial OneSubsea 21-Aug-14 1-Mar-17 30.3
1. Conventional flowline loop r
PLET Pipeline End Termination 32 Rosa / Girassol (24) O Field Expansion Project Total Angola, Blk 17 1,350 4,429 18.0 11.2 600.0 91 130.0 1,885 2.50 20-50% OneSubsea 4+2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q2 2015 1-Mar-17 2. Shows brownfield addition o
PLIM Pipeline Inline Manifold 33 Draugen Field (Infill Program) O 2 x Dual MPP Station A/S Norske Shell Offshore Norway 268 879 4.0 2.5 1,710.0 253 47.5 689 2.30 10-31% OneSubsea 2 Helico-Axial OneSubsea 24-Nov-16 1-Mar-17 3.2
PSIG Pipeline Simulation Interest Group
PSUTA Pump Subsea Umbilical Termination Assembly 34 Julia O SS Tieback with Dual SPP Systems ExxonMobil US GOM 2,287 7,500 27.2 17.0 331 50 175.0 2,550 3.00 10% OneSubsea 2 Centrifugal (SPP) TBD Q1 2017
PWRI Produced Water Reinjection 35 Moho Phase 1bis I, N Brownfield Tieback to Alima FPU Total Congo, W. Africa 650 2,133 6.7 4.0 400 60 133.5 1,935 3.50 49% OneSubsea 2 Helico-Axial OneSubsea 2015 TABLE 5: 2017 WORL
ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle
RPM Revolutions per Minute 36 Stones M Single Phase HPHT Pump System Shell US GOM 2,927 9,600 5.0 3.1 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD <10% OneSubsea 2 +1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea 2018
RWI Raw Water Injection 37 Appomattox C MPP in future Phases Shell US GOM 2,222 7,290 TBD TBD
SCM Subsea Control Module 38 Parque Das Baleias (14) O Horizontal ESP on Skid Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,500 4,922 10.0 6.2 125.0 19 140 2,058 1.20 10-25% TechnipFMC 5 +1 Spare ESP Schlumberger (REDA) 3/19/14 1-Mar-17 35.3
SIORS Subsea Increased Oil Recovery System 39 Greater Enfield M Dual MPP System Woodside W. Australia 850 2,788 32.0 20.0 959.0 145 110.0 1,595 2.60 5.20 81% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea 2018
SIT System Integration Testing 40 Dalmatian (33) M Single MPP System Murphy E & P Co. US GOM 1,779 5,837 35.0 22.0 231.0 35 150.0 2,176 2.20 2.20 65% OneSubsea (33) 1+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea (33) 2018
SMUBS Shell Multiphase Underwater Boost Station
SPEED Subsea Power Electrical Equipment Distribution
41 West Hub M Mud Line Boosting Pump ENI Angola Block 15/06 1,000 3,281 TechnipFMC TBD Q2, 2018
SPP Single Phase Pump 42 Vigdis C Subsea Boosting of existing wells Statoil Offshore Norway 280 919 6.5 4.1 50.0 725 2.30 2.30 20-40% TBA 1 TBD TBA 2021
SS Subsea 1 Troll C Pilot (15) (21) O SUBSIS (SS Sep. and WI Sys.) Statoil Offshore Norway 340 1,116 3.5 2.2 250.0 38 151.0 2,190 1.60 0% GE / OneSubsea 1+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Aug-01 1-Mar-17 185.8

SSBI Subsea Separation Boosting Injection


Columba E.

SSP Subsea Processing 2 I, N Dual SPP System CNR North Sea 145 476 7.0 4.3 331.0 50 305.0 4,424 2.30 0% OneSubsea 2+0 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea May-07 1-Oct-13 76.4
SUBSIS Subsea Separation and Injection System 3 Tordis (WI) (13) O Dual SPP & SS RWI Filtration System Statoil Offshore Norway 210 689 11.0 6.8 700.0 106 77.0 1,117 2.30 0% TechnipFMC 1+1 Spare SPP&MPP OneSubsea 1-Nov-07 1-Mar-17 109.1
SUTA Subsea Umbilical Termination Assembly
TRL Technology Readiness Level
4 Tyrihans O 3 SPP & SS RWI Filtration System Statoil Offshore Norway 270 886 31.0 19.3 583.0 88 205.0 2,973 2.70 0% FMC / Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) Aker Solutions 12-Mar-13 1-Mar-17 47.5
TUTA Topside Umbilical Termination Assembly 5 Albacora L'Este Field (30) O Raw Water Injection to 7 Wells Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil 400 1,312 4 to 9 2.5-6.0 1125 170 85 1,233 1.2 0% OneSubsea 3+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea 14-Mar-14 1-Mar-17 35.5
VASPS Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System
VSD Variable Speed Drive
1 Zakum A Shallow Water Test Separation System BP Offshore Abu Dhabi 24 79 1969 1972 36
WD Water Depth 2 Highlander Field (31) A SS Separator / Slug Catcher Repsol Sinopec (26) UK North Sea 420 1,378
WI Water Injection Argyll

3 A SS Sep. and Pumping Unit (SSPU) Hamilton Bros UK North Sea 80 262 BOET (27) 1989 TYPE 1A: Direct Electr
WI XT Water Injection Christmas Tree
XT Christmas Tree
4 Marimba Field (21) I, N VASPS Field Test Petrobras Campos Basin 395 1,296 1.7 1.1 60.0 9 52.0 754 0.3 OneSubsea 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Jul-01 1-Jul-08 83.0
(DEH) Wet Insulated
5 Troll C Pilot (15 & 23) O Horizontal SUBSIS (SS Sep. & WI Sys.) Statoil Offshore Norway 340 1,116 3.5 2.2 250.0 38 151.0 2,190 1.60 0% GE / OneSubsea 1+1 Spare n/a OneSubsea Aug-01 1-Mar-17 185.8
6 Tordis O (12), Separation, Boosting, WI Statoil Offshore Norway 210 689 11.0 6.8 1,500.0 227 27.0 392 2.30 10-68% TechnipFMC 1+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Oct-07 1-Mar-17 112.3
7 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 O Separation Caisson / Artifical Lift Manifold Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 25.0 15.6 185.0 28 152.0 2,205 1.10 15% TechnipFMC 4 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift Aug-09 1-Mar-17 90.3
Information Accuracy: We have attempted to use 8 Perdido O Caisson Separation and Boosting (28) Shell US GOM 2,438 7,999 0.0 0.0 132-264 20-40 158.8 2,303 1.20 15% TechnipFMC 5 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift Mar-10 1-Mar-17 84.0
correct and current, as of press time, information for the 9 Pazflor O 3 Gas/Liquid Vertical Separation System Total Angola, Blk 17 800 2,625 4.0 2.5 1,800.0 272 105.0 1,523 2.30 <16% TechnipFMC 6+2 Spare Hybrid H-A OneSubsea Aug-11 1-Mar-17 65.9
subsea processing systems and equipment described
herein. No installed, sanctioned, or pending application 10 Marlim SSAO - Pilot O In-Line Separation Petrobras Campos Basin 878 2,881 3.8 2.4 135.0 20 245 3,553 1.9 67% TechnipFMC 1 Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Mar-13 1-Mar-17 46.9
was intentionally excluded. We have summarized the 11 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 2 M 2 additional ESP systems Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 25.0 15.6 185.0 28 152.0 2,205 1.10 15% TechnipFMC 2 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
capability and operating experience by acting as a neutral 12 Corvina (26) CP VASPS w/Horizontal ESP Petrobras Campos Basin 280 919 8.0 5.0 135.0 20 21 305 0.4 <10% TechnipFMC 1 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
party and integrator of information. Information has
been collected from public sources, company brochures, CURRENT STATUS CATEGORIES NOTES: 1. Qualification Status See information accuracy statement below title block and note 8. King Field MPP are off line. There are no indications that Anadarko will reactivate these 16. Mutineer/Exeter Projects: Manufacturers are: OneSubsea and Centrilift. There are 2 22. Jubarte Field (Phase 2) Phased installations from 2010 thru 2015. Wells were 29. Barracuda Is the first installation of high boost MPP. Ref. 2013 OTC Paper 24217 for TYPE 1B: Direct Electr
personal interviews, phone interviews, press releases, that the qualification status categorizations shown in this table, and throughout the pumps in the near future. ESPs per well feeding 1 x OneSubsea MPP per asset on seafloor. connected to the FPSO P-57. All wells will have gas-lift as a backup. additional information about the MPP. (DEH) Pipe-in
C Conceptual Project poster, are based on unverified claims from equipment suppliers and field operators. 9. Nuovo Pignone is now part of GE. 17. Draugen MPP This was the worlds first Multiphase Subsea Pump which was 23. SUBSIS The world's longest operating subsea separation system and first subsea 30. Albacora Field Ref. 2013 OTC Paper 24167
industry magazines, vendor-supplied information, and These qualification status designations are not necessarily derived using technology 10. Gullfaks Go to OTC Paper 27224 by OneSubsea. This paper will provide an overview installed in 1993. It ran successfully from 1995 for 12 Months (1,000 hours) and was water injection pump system. 31. Highlander Field SS Tieback to the Tartan Field which has a SS separator/slug catcher
Q Qualified/Testing
web sites. No guarantee is made that information is readiness level (TRL) assessments per API RP 17Q or DNV-RP-A203. of the Technology Qualification Program (TQP) completed for Statoil's Gullfaks Subsea decommissioned and abandoned due to change in water injection strategy. 24. Rosa/Girassol development project includes the Rosa field with 4 SS boosting pumps. installed for the tie-in to the Tartan Platform. See papers: 1994 OTC #7438-MS, 1987
accurate or all-inclusive. Neither INTECSEA nor Offshore M Awarded and in Manufacturing or Delivered 2. Pumping & Boosting: The terms Pumping and Boosting are used interchangeably Compression (GSC) project. 18. Statoil See OTC Paper 27201 by Rune Ramberg & other for Statoil's research leading 1st set operational in Sept., 2015 & 2nd set operational in April, 2016. SPE #13970-PA, 1987 SPE # 16532-MS
TYPE 2: Electrica
Magazine guarantees or assumes any responsibility O Installed & Currently Operating throughout this poster and in the industry. 11. sgard Project: See OTC Paper #27197 by Anders Storstenvik: Aker Assgard Project. up to the Subsea Factory Compressor Stations. It highlights Statoil's future vision. 25. Gullfaks South was shut down in Nov. 2015. The root cause has been identified as 32. Petrobras changed ESP supplier from Baker Hughes to Schlumberger (REDA) January Heating (ETH) Pip
or liability for any partys 3. Unit Motor Power: Is the unit motor power for either a pump or compressor assembly. 12. START: Month & Year indicates first month and year of operation for the SS processing 19. CLOV Two (2) MPPs are on the sea floor since Dec. 2015. The seabed MP boosting AC corrosion in the umbilicals that led to the leakage, ruling out any fault with the 2015. 1 of each still has a Baker Hughes ESP as of February 2015.
I,N Installed & Not Currently Operating or In-Active 4. Differential Pressure: Differential Pressure values are for individual boosting units. system. pumps will boost flow from 4 fields which are: Cravo, Lirio, Orquidea and Violeta. compressors according to a Statoil spokesman. 33. Dalmatian will be the longest subsea tieback in the GOM with SS boosting (35 KMs / 22
2017 Offshore

use of the information

POSTER 5. GVF = Gas Volume Fraction at inlet of a boosting assembly. 13. Tordis Field: 1+1 Spare Multiphase Boosting Pumps, and 1+1 Spare Water Injection 20. Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 Composed of 3 reservoirs: Ostra, Abalone and 26. Repsol Sinopec full Operator name is REPSOL SINOPEC RESOURCES UK LIMITED. Miles). Murphy E & P has awarded the Subsea Integration Alliance (SIA) (Onesubsea + TYPE 3: Integrated Prod

A Abandoned, Removed
presented. If any information 6. Cascade & Chinook Utilizes horizontal ESPs on a skid above mudline. It is an Pumps; Tieback to Gullfaks C platform. Argonauta B-West. Argonauta O-North to be added in Phase 2. Awarded to FMC but Repsol acquired the field through the Talisman acquisition. Subsea 7) an EPCIC contract for the the subsea multi-phase boosting system.
is found to be incorrect, CP Canceled Project alternative ESP boosting configuration to caisson in the seabed. This technology is 14. BCSS Centrifugal Subsea Submersible Pumps. Pumps are placed in protective holes in installed. 27. Ormen Lange Gas Compression 2 Currently Norske Shell is working to simplify the 34. Peon Development In March, 2014 Statoil and partners placed the project on hold (IPB) Flexible
not current, or has been P/H Postponed or On Hold designed to cover the low GVF and high DeltaP multiphase flow. the seabed, 200m from producing wells. MOBO - Modulo de Bombas (Pumping Module). 21. Marimba VASPS 2000 - First installation in Marimba (JIP Petrobras / Eni-Agip/ design, remove unnecessary redundancy, and reduce module size, and reduce weights until they see how SS gas compression is performing on other projects.
omitted, please send commen 7. sgard is the longest subsea tieback in the world with SS gas compression. In Sept., 15. Troll C Pilot: Separation began on Aug. 25, 2001. See OTC paper 20619, page 10 for ExxonMobil, 2001 - Startup and Operation (July to Dec.) until ESP failure, 2002 End of by more than 50%. 35. Shtokman Field In 2014 Gazprom decided not to go ahead with the the development
2016 sgard passed a major milestone. It has run successfully for over 12 months with further details on operating experience. Note that injection pump data is only shown in JIP, By-pass production, 2003 - Workover Plan (IWP), 2004 - Workover and Re-start on 28. Peridido Cassion for separation is 350 feet long drilled into the seabed. Read OTC of the Shtokman field. NOTES: 1. Subsea 7 installed riser Sys
ts to an almost perfect track record. the subsea water injection section of the table. May 8, 2004. From 2005 until 2008 VASPS operated well until well failure. Paper 21716



Dry-mate connectors
FLOWSERVE Courtesy of Siemens GE (2) NAXYS TechnipFMC (14) Courtesy of Siemens
TechnipFMC/ GE (2)
SULZER (6, 14)
Courtesy of GE Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 6: Siemens SpecTRON 10 Wet-Mate Connectors DIRECT DRIVE SYSTEMS ALLIANCE (SPA) (1)
ONESUBSEA (8, 15) subseaproduction
GE (2) GE (2) TechnipFMC (14) DRESSER RAND
SEACON SIEMENS Fig. 7: Siemens SpecTRON 45 Conne
LEISTRITZ ONESUBSEA (8, 15) LOHER (16) MAN Diesel & Turbo include typical water injection using a PRYSMIAN SCHLUMBERGER Technip Umbilical SIEMENS TELEDYNE ODI TELEDYNE ODI (Brazil)
NOTES: pump on a topside facility.
1. Aker Solutions and Baker Hughes have formed a Subsea 4. Liestritz have partnered with Rosetti SHELL GASMER STATOIL: P-LAB & K-LAB
SCHLUMBERGER ClydeUnion (SPX FLOW) ONESUBSEA (8, 15) Production Alliance to develop technology for subsea ONESUBSEA (8, 15) Marino for potential twin screw 7. PROLAB is a Sulzer company. 12. Fuglesangs Subsea AS and German pump company At press time,, (Houston, TX) (Norway)
SUMITOMO production solutions. marinization. 8. OneSubsea is a Schlumberger RuhRPumpen collaborate to develop advanced subsea and are active.
2. GE and Baker Hughes have entered into an agreement 5. Deutsch is part of TE Connectivity. company. centrifugal pump solutions as Fuglesangs Subsea. 15. Subsea Integration Alliance (SIA) is a worldwide SOUTHWEST RESEARCH SULZER (6)
to combine GEs oil and gas business and Baker Hughes. SIEMENS INDUSTRIAL 6. TechnipFMC and Sulzer have formed 9. Benestad is an Aker Solutions company. 13. Includes system integrators and specialty hardware non-incorporated partnership between OneSubsea, INSTITUTE
3. Subsea seawater injection refers to only those projects
a long-term and exclusive 10. Diamould is a OneSubsea company. suppliers. Schlumberger, and Subsea 7. Courtesy of GE Courtesy of Siemens Courtesy of Siemens
utilizing a subsea pump to inject seawater and does not collaboration agreement. 11. ASCOM re-branded as Sulzer Chemtech. 14. Technip and FMC have merged to become TechnipFMC. 16. Loher is a Siemens company.

Accelerate production targets 17 TH ANNUAL

OneSubsea pumps deliver greater return on investment to field development concepts,

including long-tieback and brownfield applications.
2017 Schlumberger. 17-OSS-243025

1703OFF_subseaPOSTER_1 1

nd Technology
and Gas Operations We are enhancing the performance of the oil and gas industry.

Stations in the Factory Test Pit
350 Fig.1: Installation of the Fig. 2: OneSubseas Pump Fig. 3: OneSubseas Helico- Fig. 4: OneSubseas Cen- for System Integration Test (SIT)
TABLE 2 PUMP TYPE & APPLICATIONS 5,100 Pump Types GVF Range (Approximate) Pressure Differential (bar) OneSubsea Pump Mod- Station with Pump Unit and Axial Pump Module for the trifugal Pump Module with Immediately Prior to Filling with Water

Differential Pressure (Bar/psi)

300 SPP - Single Phase Pump (Centrifugal) ule into Pump Station Mixer for the CNRs Lyell Total GirRi project handling tool during SIT for
TYPE NORM. CONFIG. APPLICABILITY FOR SUBSEA BOOSTING 4,400 SPP (Centrifugal) TSP - Twin Screw Pump SPP (CENTRIFUGAL) during SIT for the Exxon project the Exxon Julia project
Fig.3: OneSubsea Raw WGC - Wet Gas Compression
SINGLE PHASE HORIZONTAL H Highest differential pressure capability among pump types. 250 HYBRID (CENTRIFUGAL/HELICO Julia project
Seawater Injection System (CENTRIFUGAL) OR VERTICAL H Handles low Gas Volume Fraction (GVF) < 15% at suction conditions. DGC - Dry Gas Compression OR SEMI AXIAL)
3,625 High Boost
being installed Helico-Axial HSP - Hydraulic Submersible Pump MUDLINE ESP 70%
for Columbia E Field H Combination of helico-axial and centrifugal impeller stages. 200
HYBRID VERTICAL H Primary application is for use downstream of separator or in low GOR 2,900
applications where GVF is consistently <38% at suction.
H Widely deployed technology used for boosting in wells, caissons, flowline 2,175 95% 160 (Note 2)
MUDLINE ESP risers, and mudline horizontal boosting applications. TSP TWIN SCREW 175 (Note 3)
H Tested for conditions of GVF < 70%. 1,450 HSP
H Compact hydraulic drive boosting pump for wells, caissons and mudline 50 TSP
Courtesy of OneSubsea 1 Courtesy of 1 Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of OneSubsea
HORIZONTAL applications. Standard
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 100 200 300 400 OneSubsea
HSP 725 Notes:
OR VERTICAL H Applicable for conditions of GVF < 75% (continuous) and for improved flow Helico-Axial WGC DGC
assurance. 0 bar 1. GVF range and pressure differential represents maximums and cannot be combined. Fig. 7: GE Boosting Station Fig. 8: OneSubseas Pump Modules for Fig. 9: Installation of the OneSubsea
Courtesy of OneSubsea 0 psi 2. There are a number of other parameters/factors that need to be considered for any pump Total GirRi and Shell Draugen prior to SIT Pump Station for the Total GirRi
H Applicable for higher Gas Volume Fraction boosting applications typical range 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 selection Courtesy of OneSubsea 1 project
MULTIPHASE VERTICAL of 30-95% GVF at suction conditions. 3. Base upon recent updates from Flowserves new SS boosting pumping system test results.
a Sulphate Removal and H Moderate particulate tolerance. % GVF LIQUID GAS Fig. 6: TechnipFMC
m built on a combination of GE Note: For pump applications, the term differential pressure is used. However, for compressor SS Multiphase Pumping
nd nano-filtration membrane HORIZONTAL H Good for handling high GVF up to 98% GVF at suction conditions. COURTESY OF COURTESY OF Module with Sulzer Pump
TWIN SCREW applications the term pressure ratio is used.
alable to any capacity. OR VERTICAL H Preferred technology for high viscosity fluids.

(For GVF < 70%) EXAMPLES (For GVF < 75%) (For GVF < 15%) (For GVF < 38%) (For GVF < 95%) (For GVF < 98%) Courtesy of GE Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of OneSubsea
1 1
Fig. 1: Diagram of Vertically Fig. 2: Horizontal ESP Boosting Station Fig. 4: Diagram of HSP Fig. 5: Vertically Configured Fig. 6: Vertically Configured Fig. 7: Vertically Configured Fig. 8: Vertically Configured Fig. 9: Vertically Configured Fig. 10: Vertically Configured Fig. 11: Twin Screw Pump
Configured Gas Handling ESP Principle of Operation Centrifugal Single Phase Centrifugal Single Phase Hybrid Pump & Motor Hybrid Pump & Motor Helico-Axial Pump & Motor Semi-Axial Pump Cross Section Diagram Fig. 10: Jack & St Malo Pump Stations in the Fig. 11: OneSubseas SIT Testing of Fig. 12: Aker Solutions MultiBooster
in a Seabed Caisson Pump & Motor Diagram Pump & Motor Diagram Diagram Diagram Diagram Pump & Motor Diagram Factory Pit for System Integration Test (SIT) Total MoHo Subsea Boosting System System - Dual Pump Station

OneSubseas Testing of the

re Raw Seawater Injection
m during SIT of Pump and
Courtesy of TechnipFMC
on System Courtesy of Leistritz
Courtesy of Sulzer 1 Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of OneSubsea 1 Courtesy of Aker Solutions 1
Fig. 3: ESP Jumper Boosting System
Fig. 13: TechnipFMC Centrifugal Pump Fig. 14: Loadout of the OneSubsea Pump Fig. 15: OneSubsea Loadout of
Fig. 12: Flowserve Horizontally Station with Multiphase Pump (Exposed) Station for the Total CLOV Project 1 of 6, 2.3 MW Hybrid Pumps for
Configured Twin Screw Pump & Pazflor Project
Motor Concept
Courtesy of ClydeUnion 5
Pumps (SPX FLOW)

HSPs can be configured as a

downhole pump with the power
Courtesy of Schlumberger pressure pump residing on
a platform or on the seabed.
The downhole pump can also
ESPs can be installed in a caisson Courtesy of Baker Hughes be vertically configured in a
to gather and boost flow from seabed caisson for boosting and
y of OneSubsea multiple wells. separation purposes. Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of Flowserve Courtesy of TechnipFMC 1 Courtesy of OneSubsea 1

G OF FLOWLINES STATUS OF THE TECHNOLOGY ACTIVE HEATING SYSTEM TYPES Fig. 2: Nexans Conceptual DEH Cable Cross-sections & Attachments Fig. 3: Aker Solutions DEH Riser Cable Fig. 4: Aker Solutions Piggyback DEH Cable
for Two Heated Flowlines or Segments
cture Cases using Subsea Processing TYPE 1A: Direct Electrical Heating
s Complementary Technologies (DEH) Wet insulated rigid pipe with Courtesy of OneSubsea
Case 2: Satellite Field with Low Pressure/Low Temperature Wells piggyback power cable
Armored Fig. 16: sgard Single Phase Pump
DEH riser cable feeder cable
Single flowline tie-back enabled by: Fig. 1: Aker Solutions Conceptual DEH Cable & Attachment
(for heating one or
to Flowline
stance Tie-back SS Multiphase Boosting (oil + gas + water) two segments) Piggyback
e-back enabled by: ETH Active Heating (Type 2)
DEH riser cable
Boosting (oil + gas + water) Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of Aker Solutions
ating (Type 1A)
Fig. 6: TYPE 1B: Pipe-In-Pipe DEH
from Topside
6 Topside Power

Feeder cable DEH Cable

Courtesy of Nexans 6 Wetmate power
connectors Current in outer
Fig. 5: Aker Solutions Piggyback DEH Cable on Flowline
Junction box Current in inner
Piggyback cable Outer Pipe

6 Inner pipe

Courtesy of Aker Solutions

Mid-Line Assembly (MLA) CROSS SECTION
Conducting Bulkhead Conducting Bulkhead
Courtesy of
Courtesy of Aker Solutions Aker Solutions Courtesy of INTECSEA Fig. 17: Seafloor Boosting System Using
6 ESPs in Caissons
TYPE 2: Electrical Trace Heating (ETH) - Pipe-in-Pipe TYPE 3: Integrated Production Bundle (IPB) Flexible pipe
5 6
5 Fig. 8: Subsea7/ITP InterPipe Electrically Heat Traced with electrical trace heating
Fig. 7: TechnipFMC Electrically Heat Traced Pipe-in-Pipe Pipe-in-Pipe Fig. 9: TechnipFMC Electrically Heat Traced Pipe-in-Pipe
Specific insulation material with reduced Centralizer
3 Carrier Pipe pressure in PiP annulus
Second layer passive Heating Wires
4 insulation Core of the IPB

1 Courtesy of Baker Hughes

Fiber-optic cable

Electrical heat trace cables Fig. 18: OneSubsea Loadout of the Shell
Flowline Outer Pipe
Draugen Pump Station
First layer passive insulation Gas lift tubes
Protection Sheet
2 Fiber Optic Cable Thermal insulation
Centralizer Inner pipe
Courtesy of TechnipFMC/Heat Trace Ltd Courtesy of Subsea7/InTerPipe Courtesy of TechnipFMC
Case 3: Late Life Field
Brownfield SS Separation (water + multiphase) 1, 2, & 3 (Illustrated in the graphic to the left) 1. REDUCED CAPEX 4. FLOW ASSURANCE ADVANTAGES



Brownfield SS Multiphase Boosting (oil + gas) TECHNOLOGY 1.1 SURF CAPEX reduced due to removal of riser and pipeline for round trip pigging loop arrangement 4.1 Increased flow assurance efficiency vs standard insulated pipe
Courtesy of OneSubsea
1.2 Tie-back to existing infrastructure possible where existing platform/FPSO cannot accommodate 4.2 Effectively manage hydrate formation and wax deposition, 1
Brownfield SS Water Treatment and Reinjection
multiple additional risers or deck space for chemical storage and injection improving life of field deliverability.
Retrofit DEH Active Heating (Type 1A) Full Wellstream Subsea Boosting 1.3 Topsides equipment to handle dead oil injection no longer needed and chemical storage topsides 4.3 Increase temperature of flowing system to reduce chemical Fig. 19: GE Multiphase Boosting System

is very limited, reducing space and weight injection requirements
Subsea Separation 1.4 Reduced flowline insulation requirements 4.4 Alternative to pigging loop for hydrate/wax management
COURTESY OF Subsea Gas Compression
removed as the addition of Active Heating reduces the need for regular maintenance pigging. 2. REDUCED OPEX 5. FACILITIES ADVANTAGES
of production umbilical, subsea separation, subsea multiphase boosting, water treatment and water injection systems
Water Injection with Subsea Pumps H 2.1 Increased process efficiency for long tiebacks, low temperature fluids and heavy oils production 5.1 Reduce or eliminate topsides chemical storage

due to guaranteed target temperature and usage (CAPEX & OPEX Savings)
Power Transmission/Distribution and Controls 2.2 Shorter restart process in the case of production shutdowns 5.2 Small hardware footprint and weight
2.3 EHTF allows any topside maintenance to be performed outside of critical path 5.3 Local (topside) controls
Type 1A Active Heating - DEH





NOTE: The above list of drivers and reasons for Active Heating and Subsea

Type 2 Active Heating - ETH PiP



Processing is not inclusive of all benefits that may be realized from the







3.1 Longer tiebacks (>50 km) combined with local subsea processing


complimentary technologies.
ATING TYPE FIELD/PROJECT OWNER 3.2 Enables recovery from marginal, heavy oil and deep water fields
3.3 Reliable and simple to operate, low intervention / maintenance 1

Fig. 20: Seafloor

ESP in Caisson
1 sgard Statoil 10 9 300 5.0 1,000 1,520/12 1.50 2000 North Sea Nexans TechnipFMC Reeling
Fig. 21: HSP
2 Alve Statoil 12.6 16 350 3.0 1,200 1,300/12 2.40 2009 North Sea Nexans TechnipFMC Reeling GRAPH 3 APPLICATION RANGES AND INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE (Refer to Table 1 for Project Details) GRAPH 4 FLOW ASSURANCE ADVANTAGES for Mudline
3 Goliat ENI 12 7.5 330 4.0 1,200 1,300/12 2.40 2012 North Sea Aker Solutions TechnipFMC Reeling 3,000 m Boosting
4 Gullfaks South Statoil 6/8 6.2 150 4.0 630 980/12 1.10 2014 North Sea Aker Solutions TechnipFMC Reeling 9,843 ft.
5 Huldra Statoil 8 16 175 3.5 650 1,100/24 2.00 2002 North Sea Nexans TechnipFMC Reeling Temp. Profile Un-Insulated Flowline
6 Kristin Statoil 10 7 370 8.0 1,200 1,500/12 1.60 2005 North Sea Nexans TechnipFMC Reeling Temp. Profile Wet Insulated Flowline
2,500 m ETH PiP4 DEH Wet Insulated Temp. Profile Flowline with Active Heating
7 Lianzi Chevron 12 43 1,050 3.0 1,400 1,400/24 9.00 2015 West Africa Nexans Subsea 7 Reeling 8,202 ft. Projects Rigid Pipe Projects
rical Heating 8 Maria Wintershall 14 26 370 3.5 1,000 1,350/24 4.00 2017 North Sea Nexans Subsea 7 Reeling (Type 2) (Type 1A)
d Rigid Pipe 9 Morvin Statoil 10.5 20 300 5.0 1,200 1,500/24 4.00 2008 North Sea Nexans TechnipFMC/Subsea 7 (1) Reeling
10 Norne Urd Statoil 12.6 9 390 4.0 1,200 1,450/12 2.30 2007 North Sea Nexans TechnipFMC Reeling 2,000 m 18
6,562 ft.
Water Depth

11 Olowi (2) CNRI 8 4 30 4.5 1,000 1,300/12 2.70 2010 West Africa Aker Solutions Saipem S-lay
Courtesy of Aker
12 Ormen Lange Hydro, Shell 30 20 1,000 20.0 1,200 3,000/52 8.00 2006 North Sea Nexans Saipem S-lay Solutions
13 Shah Deniz Ph. II BP 14 18 500 4.0 1,000 1,300/24 2.50 2016 Caspian Sea Nexans Saipem S-lay 1,500 m 21
4,921 ft.
14 Skarv BP 12 12.8 375 3.0 1,200 1,400/2 2.20 2010 North Sea Nexans Subsea 7 Reeling 22 Active Heating Target Temp. Fig. 22: Fuglesangs
15 Skuld Statoil 14 25 380 3.5 1,200 1,300/24 4.00 2012 North Sea Nexans Subsea 7 Reeling 7
19 Centrifugal Pump
16 Tyrihans Statoil 18 28 330 4.0 1,200 1,600/52 10.00 2007 North Sea Nexans Subsea 7 S-lay 1,000 m Max. Hydrate Formation Temp.
3,281 ft.
17 Habanero Shell 6/10 7 600 1.0 (3) N/A N/A 2003 GoM N/A McDermott J-Lay
IPB - Flexible Pipe
rical Heating 3
18 NaKika Shell 10/16 13 1,900 1.1 N/A N/A 1.00 2004 GoM N/A TechnipFMC J-Lay 17 Projects (Type 3)
n-Pipe 19 Serrano/Oregano Shell 6/10 12 1,000 1.0 (3) N/A N/A 1.00 2001 GoM N/A McDermott J-Lay 13 Wax Appearance Temp.
500 m 14 15
1,640 ft. 10 9 Ambient Temp.
al Trace 20 Islay Total
6 120 1.0 48 (4) 0.6/1.0 0.18 2012 North Sea (UK) Heat Trace TechnipFMC Reeling
8 3, 16 Courtesy of ClydeUnion
PiP 20 2 1
pe-in-Pipe 5 4 11
Pump (SPX Flow)
duction Bundle 21 Dalia (risers) Total 10.75 1.658 1,350 3.5 66 (4) 0.6/1.0 0.25 2004 West Africa Draka TechnipFMC Reeling 0 ft.
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Pipeline/Flowline Length
e Pipe 22 Papa-Terra Petrobras-Chevron 6 27 (5) 1,200 4.8 166 (4) 0.9/1.6 1.00 (6) 2014 Offshore Brazil General Cable TechnipFMC Reeling
U Value (W/m2K)
stem Only. 2. Olowi uses a continuous DEH system. 3. U values are assumed. 4. Number of cables size of cable (these are 3 phase cables) 5. Papa-Terra project has three (3) risers and four (4) flowlines. 6. The specified power demand of 1 MW is required per line. DEH-Single Pipe DEH-PiP ETH PiP IPB Flexible Pipe 2

SUBSEA POWER DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT Note: The Siemens Subsea Power Grid is shown in Fig. 2, with the main building blocks in Figs. 3, 4, and 5.
Wet mate 36kV connectors and control system will also be part of the Siemens Subsea Power Grid.
Fig. 6: Ormen Lange Pilot
Subsea Pump VSD
Fig. 7: GE 24kV Switchgear Prototype
Tested in Shallow Water
SUBSEA GAS COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Fig. 3: SS Compression Station 2.0 concept
compared to sgard SS Compression
Fig. 5: sgard Subsea Compression Module

Fig. 1: Ormen Lange Pilot SS Circuit Breaker Fig. 2: Siemens Conceptual Subsea Power Grid Fig. 3: Siemens SS Transformer Fig. 4: Siemens Conceptual Fig. 5: Siemens Conceptual SS Fig. 1: Ormen Lange Compression Station Test Fig. 2: TechnipFMC Conceptual 2-Train Dry Gas
Prototype at Shallow Water Test SS Variable Speed Drive Switchgear Compression Station with Replaceable Modules

Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 3

Courtesy of Aker Solutions

Fig. 4: NOV Passive Cooler Field proven

Courtesy of GE 5 technology lowering production temperature
Courtesy of Siemens 5
Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of Siemens Courtesy of Siemens 5
5 Courtesy of Siemens 5 Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of Aker Solutions Fig. 10: BlueC
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Courtesy of TechnipFMC Compressor
Fig. 9: 6MVA Subsea Variable RotoConverter Fig. 10: sgard 100 KVA Subsea Fig.13: ABB Conceptual Subsea Fig.14: ABB Conceptual
Alternative to Subsea VSDs Control Power Distribution Module Fig. 11: ABB Conceptual Subsea Power Grid Switchgear Subsea Variable Speed Drive Fig. 6: OneSubsea Multiphase Compressor
Fig. 8: sgard 19 MVA Subsea Transformer Fig. 12: ABB Conceptual Subsea Fig. 9: GE Conceptual Wet Gas Compression
Module Transformer Units for Gullfaks Field Fig. 7: sgard SS Compressor System (25 MW )
Courtesy of NOV
Fig. 8:
Installation of the OneSubsea Multiphase
Compressor Station for the Gulfaks Field

Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of Aker Solutions Courtesy of Aker Solutions 5 Courtesy of ABB 5 Courtesy of ABB 5 Courtesy of ABB 5 Courtesy of ABB 5 Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of MAN Diesel & Turbo Courtesy of OneSubsea Courtesy of GE Courtesy of GE

Energizing subsea
MARCH 21-23, 2017
From flexible pipes and components to complete systems, we Siemens Subsea
provide a range of components that maximize field uptime and
WWW.SUBSEATIEBACKFORUM.COM Enabling subsea processing by
profitability for offshore operators everywhere.
connecting innovation with
Discover more at\subsea
2017 National Oilwell Varco | All Rights Reserved

3/1/17 9:15 AM

use as continuous temperature regulation to flows in the outer pipe wall, is transferred to the Reduce or eliminate chemical injection
optimize production. inner pipe via a conducting bulkhead, and then opex
The solution is active heating, which com- flows in the inner pipe wall. The PiP electrical Reduce capex by eliminating pigging
bines the function of maintaining an equal, or connections are made either on the host facil- riser/flowline
positive radial temperature gradient across the ity (end-fed system) or subsea using wet-mate Gain economic feasibility for remote
pipeline contents by manner of electrical cur- power connectors (center-fed system). In both marginal fields.
rent, together with the high thermal efficiency DEH system architectures, the pipeline steel
of pipeline insulation, to limit temperature loss acts as a resistor, heating the contents to a Field development
in a cold, deepwater environment. Subsea target temperature. INTECSEA has identified all projects that
processing shares a common interest with Electrical trace heating pipe-in-pipe. This is have installed active heating, which can be
active heating in the form of positioning pro- the latest evolution of active heating technol- found in Table 5 of the 2017 Worldwide Sur-
duction facilities on the seabed instead of the ogy. Benefits include: only one conductor to vey of Subsea Processing and Active Heating
traditional approach of using topsides space. supply power (no return to platform); cost Systems poster. There are a few developments

Active heating avoids the need for chemical injection,

fluid circulation, storage and heating facilities.
Implementation of this concept decreases saving through decreased power consump- deemed noteworthy as they represent the
size and weight requirements of the topsides, tion compared to DEH; a more uniform heat principle of this article: those which over time
effectively reducing capex. Another reduc- transfer and greater thermal efficiency by have incorporated both subsea processing
tion in capex can be achieved in the form of means of an insulation medium which fills and active heating.
eliminating the need for a second flowline the void between the outside and inside pipes. The projects described above are as follows;
used for pigging. Although there are only a limited amount of Statoil sgard in the North Sea, Shell Ormen
By combining subsea processing with ac- these in service, they are proving to be the Lange also in the North Sea, and Shell Ser-
tive heating, a long-distance tieback to an choice of operators when PiP flowlines are rano/Oregano in the Gulf of Mexico.
existing infrastructure can make a marginal, planned for future field developments.
remote field economically feasible with mini- Integrated production bundle. When used in Industry trends
mal rework to the platform. To date, these conjunction with actively heated flowlines, IPB For deep and ultra-deepwater fields, the
technologies have been applied independently. risers provide the link to create a continuously trend remains of reducing topsides real estate
However, by incorporating them together, heated system from well to platform. IPB ris- requirements for equipment associated with op-
operators can maximize the potential effi- ers allows for a more uniform temperature of erating subsea fields. This holds true for subsea
ciency of developing an offshore field while the pipeline contents, and solve the issue of processing, as well as the application of active
furthering cost savings. significant heat loss to the environment as flowline heating. The development of remote
well as pressure decrease from the seafloor marginal fields can be realized by advances
Active heating technologies up to the platform. In addition to providing made in these two technologies, especially
Active heating technology is considered to active heating, integrated production bundles when considering tiebacks to existing brown-
be fairly developed, with the first version of can also provide a means to handle gas lift field infrastructure. By combining the two field
direct electrical heating (DEH) installed as when required. proven technologies of subsea processing and
early as 2000 for the Statoil sgard project. active heating, the field architecture can be
However, next-generation active heating sys- Active heating benefits strategically arranged in such a way to achieve
tems are proving that lower power require- Historically, intervention methods such as the vision of reduced capex and opex for off-
ments and higher efficiency are possible. chemical injection, circulation of dead oil and shore developments. The combination of these
Subsea processing is also a very mature and depressurization have been used to solve deep two technologies presents a cost effective and
field proven technology, with installations and ultra-deepwater flow assurance issues. environmentally friendly field development op-
now circling the globe with a high level of Active heating avoids the need for chemical tion with the promise of continuous evolution
reliability. Some of the key technology types injection, fluid circulation, storage and heating through industry alliances and investment in
are described below. facilities. These advantages complement sub- joint industry projects.
Direct electrical heating. This is the earliest sea processing in relocating topsides facilities
of the active heating designs, and as a result is to the seafloor. The specific benefits relating Subsea processing poster
the most field proven technology. In the single to subsea processing with active heating are This issue of Offshore also contains the
pipe/wet insulated system, electrical current is listed below. 2017 Worldwide Survey of Subsea Process-
transmitted via a platform-supplied riser cable Alternative to chemical injection ing and Active Heating Systems, the tenth
and contains two conductors, one connected Allow longer tiebacks installment of this industry resource. The
to the platform end of the pipeline and a sec- Flow assurance reliability primary aims of this poster are to chronicle the
ond connected to a piggy back cable which is Reduced topsides equipment handling development and developers of these systems,
secured to the outside of the pipeline. Current Reduced HSE exposure to chemicals and to document the continued commitment
is transmitted through the piggy back cable, Reduced environmental risk of oil companies to the application of these
which is connected to the pipeline end furthest Improved reservoir production capa- technologies.
from the platform, then travels through the pipe bilities For online access to view and download all
wall back toward the platform. In the Pipe-in- Reduced production start-up interval 10 posters, please visit http://www.offshore-
Pipe (PiP) DEH system, the electrical current after shutdown

54 Offshore March 2017

1703off_54 54 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Flexible ILI tool key to successful

inspection campaign offshore Angola
Modified ultrasonic pigging device overcomes bore restrictions

Staff report

ecently, BP Angola needed a baseline inline inspection (ILI)
of the 36-km (22-mi) Plutao deepwater flowline and riser
systems, which operate in waters down to 2,000 m (6,500
ft) offshore Angola. The baseline inspection was part of the
operators standard practice, and was designed to provide a
blueprint of the pipeline, giving exact internal inspected status fol-
lowing commissioning.
When the BP subsea projects team began the ILI campaign, its first
challenge was to thoroughly prepare for every possibility. Unexpect-
edly, the Plutao operation experienced a shutdown. This gave the team
a new window of opportunity to start the project ahead of the initial
schedule, with the condition that mobilization had to start within 24
hours to coincide with this unforeseen shutdown.
To run the ILI equipment, it was first necessary to clean the flowline
with a series of pigs, each designed for a specific task. The first step
was to use a foam pig to ensure that all of the valves were fully open.
Then, a de-sanding pig was used to dislodge accumulated sand and
wax, and to sweep away any debris. Finally, a gauge plate pig with a
special disc matching the diameter of the pipeline was run to verify A custom-engineered ultrasonic in-line inspection tool provided a high-
that the pipeline had the required bore for the inspection tool. definition survey of a flowline offshore Angola. (Courtesy NDT Global)
Once the team was mobilized, initial cleaning pigs in the line went
as planned. The debris returned was minimal, indicating the line was reduced minimum diameter, a rapid response was required. This
cleaner than expected. A decision was then taken to run the gauge new diameter was below the qualified diameter of the intelligent ILI
pig ahead of schedule. tool, but the team needed to complete the planned inspection during
When it returned to the surface, the gauge disk resembled a bowl the shutdown window. The NDT Global engineering team worked
rather than the flat plate that had set out on the journey. This identi- with the Sunburyflowlinesteam to develop a plan that would put the
fied a problem. The challenge now was to engineer a solution in time pig on a diet. These teams worked together to identify and mitigate
to safely run the ILI tool below its current design limit, keeping risks risks for design changes to the tool. After 96 hours of re-modeling,
within acceptable levels. design assurance and risk assessments, the green light was given to
BP has a worldwide agreement with NDT Global for intelligent pig- launch the modified UMp tool.
ging services. After a review of requirements, an advanced ultrasonic With the reconfigured ILI tool, the following results were obtained:
tool was selected to accurately measure wall thickness and metal Reduced operations downtime. Halting production at such an im-
loss. The use of ultrasonic measurement is particularly important portant facility is very expensive. (The operation has a production
since it ensures accuracy in thick wall pipes, which other technology rate of 150,000 b/d.) The project team successfully leveraged an
cannot achieve. unexpected shutdown to conduct the ILI with minimal disruption to
For this project, NDT Globals UMp configuration was selected. flowlines. This was only possible due to the responsiveness of the
This configuration provides a high-definition picture of the pipeline, team and reliability of the tool.
including pitting corrosion, general corrosion, gouging or mid-wall A successful campaign. Eleven months of planning permitted 10 suc-
flaws such as laminations or inclusions.Due to the heavy walled nature cessful pig runs to be safely executed over 18 days, while overcoming
of the pipeline, a custom configuration was required. a bore restriction that could easily have destroyed the campaign on the
While NDT Globals tools are designed to be customized to specific fifth run. Open communication between BP and NDT Global was vital
customer requirements, any tailor-made tool still requires both testing to overcoming these challenges, especially when critical issues arose.
and qualification. A test loop that replicated the pipeline characteristics First run success. The new flexible tool achieved a first run success.
and flows was built onshore at the companys test yard in Stutensee, It returned safely to the FPSO and the first run was completed in
Germany. The project tool followed a meticulous test program before the planned 16 hours. The modifications that had been made did not
being delivered to site. adversely affect the inspection, which was essential for the overall
When the gauging pig (deployed offshore) returned showing a project plan. March 2017 Offshore 55

1703off_55 55 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Concept studies enhance Michael Schorr

Hubert Lindner
Marc Fischer

inline inspection results ROSEN Technology

and Research Center

Research offers solutions to unpiggable pipelines

s oil and gas development moves further and deeper offshore, A multitude of multi-diameter systems (pipeline systems with a
pipeline operators worldwide tend to look closer at the future diameter range larger than 2-in. difference) were reviewed for piggabil-
inspectability of the pipelines they are planning to build. His- ity and inspectability, such as 12-in./18-in., 26-in./30-in., 30-in./36-in.,
tory has shown that the vintage designs often prohibit or limit 32-in./42-in., and 28-in./42-in.
inline inspections, as they were not considered when they were
first engineered and constructed. Multi-diameter system
Todays most common inspection technologies are magnetic flux One exemplary multi-diameter case was a 14-in./18-in. deepwater
leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic technology (UT). Approximately two application where multi-diameter tool development was taken one step
thirds of the worlds oil, gas, and product pipelines can be inspected further. The tool concept and later the actual tool were designed to
with off-the-shelf inspection tools. The other third is deemed unpig- cover the specific parameters, features, and installations the asset held:
gable or challenging at the very least. This results from the fact Pipeline length: 163.9 km
that with few exceptions it was common industry practice to involve Diameter: 14-in. for 11.9 km (wall thickness: 20.6 mm 22.2 mm)
any ILI provider only at a project stage when an ILI inspection is Diameter: 18-in. for 151.9 km (wall thickness: 22.2 mm 28.6 mm)
imminent. This way knowledge and experience as well as innovation Bend radius: 5D
potential were left untouched. Maximum water depth: 1,900 m
The primary factors that render a pipeline unpiggable are diameter Maximum pressure: 290 bar
changes, pressure, line wall thickness, product velocity, product type, Known minimum ID: 300 mm
installations, or a combination thereof. Medium: natural gas.
To start changing this, ROSEN assembled a team of specialists Furthermore, the pipeline had several subsea appurtenances (notably
that is working on case studies for numerous clients throughout the check valves, connectors, ball valves, tees and reducers), two jumpers
world. Currently, this is done mainly to consult on existing cases, but in the subsea connection segment, and an adjacent Y-piece. The transi-
more often, to review a pipeline system during its design process. tion from the 14-in. to the 18-in. section occurred in one leg of the Y-
Below, case studies are pre- junction. This meant that one part
sented for different systems that of the cleaning or inspection tool
discuss the following: had to expand its driving unit and
Existing challenging systems pass the cavity of the Y-connection
Design review to confirm while its rear parts were still in the
inspectability of alternative 14-in. pipeline.
solutions Tests were conducted in a full
Design review of new pipeline size test set-up at the ROSEN
system for inspectability and Technology and Research Cen-
pigging economy. ter, Germany, which featured all
the mentioned crucial pipeline
Existing challenges features of the original system.
Operators of subsea systems, During the various test runs,
The ROSEN 14-in./18-in. test loop. (All images courtesy ROSEN)
especially in deepwater regions pipeline flow and pressure were
like the Gulf of Mexico and offshore measured; and in combination with
Brazil, are often met with challenging differential pressure and tool inclina-
or unknown conditions where a straight tion, provided reliable information on
forward pigging is a high risk for the tool performance within the system.
pipeline operation. A system shut down, With these measurements at hand, the
or worse system failure would be engineers were able to optimize tool
unacceptable. behavior where necessary.
Many of the show-stoppers can be At the end of the development pro-
taken care of by detailed research and cess, a proven design was delivered and
individual tool design. Product veloci- the line was inspected successfully to the
ties exceeding the operating specifica- full satisfaction of the client.
tions of ILI tools can be taken care of
by specifically designed tools which High-pressure system
optimized drag and maximize speed A client contracted ROSEN to as-
control functions. The ROSEN 14-in./18-in. test loop pressure and inclination. sess the feasibility of operating various

56 Offshore March 2017

1703off_56 56 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Results of FEM calculations.

Tool segment Standard Stainless Steel
under investigation [bar] Duplex Steel [bar]
Transmitter Unit 150 335
Battery Units 260 / 335 585 / 775
Model for FEM calculations.
MFL Unit 415 910
Geo Unit 205 445
Electronic Unit 530 not applied

Test samples under investigation.

Item Type Test sample GEO MFL UT Amount
1 UT Probe (pressure test at supplier) - - - 8
2 MFL Sensor DXD20 - X - 30
3 GEO Sensor LIFX16 X - - 30
4 GEO Sensor DICX16 X - - 30
5 Feed through sockets FTS X X X 24
6 Cardan Connection Var. 1 56 pol. X X X 5

3D model of FEM calculations on 20-in./26-in. MFL and GEO units. 7 Cardan Connection Var. 2 28 pol. X X X 5
8 Tool Connector Var. 1 56 pol. X X X 10
multi-diameter tools for geometry and metal loss inspection at high
pressure in its pipeline in the Gulf of Mexico. Further, it was agreed 9 Tool Connector Var. 2 28 pol. X X X 10
that ROSEN would perform large-scale pressure tests to prove the 10 Sensor cable X X X 122
high-pressure capabilities of their inspection tools. 11 MFL Sensor DXD Prototype A Cast - X - 2
Apart from the multi-diameter set-up and high wall thickness of
12 MFL Sensor DXD Prototype B Cast - X - 2
the system, the high-system pressure of up to 518 bar (7,500 psi) was
identified as the main challenge. Pressure tests proved that sensors 13 GEO Sensor LIF Prototype C Cast X - - 10
and tool components of various inspection techniques can withstand 14 GEO Sensor LIF Prototype A Cast X - - 11
high pressure values. A tool concept has been developed to achieve
full inspection of the pipeline system. the borders of the existing sensor and component design. On the
findings of these tests, prototypes were manufactured to prove the
FEM calculations concept in the following step.
To evaluate the behavior of the tool mechanics under pressure, FEM In the second step, the test samples (including rapid prototype
calculations were performed on tool segments (pressure vessels) of samples) were tested up to a pressure of 550 bar.
comparable tool sizes. The goal was to prove the feasibility of building The first step was performed at ROSEN Technology and Research
tool segments which could withstand high pressures up to 518 bar. Center (RTRC), Lingen, Germany, while the second step was per-
For reference calculations, an existing design of a 20-in./26-in. MFL formed at the University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, with ROSEN
and geometry tool was chosen. engineers present to witness the tests) which have the possibilities
The results of the initial calculations proved that high-pressure val- to perform pressure tests up to 600 bar.
ues already could be achieved with the ROSEN standard tool design. During the test execution, all functions and signals of the test
Before the next calculation step, the material type was changed from samples were monitored and recorded. The pressure medium was
standard stainless steel to duplex steel. The result proved that except water and the test was performed at ambient temperature. After each
for the transmitter unit and for the geometry unit, all units would pressure test all test samples were tested on function. The recorded
withstand high pressures as requested. With the final step, which data was evaluated after the pressure test.
is increasing the wall thickness of the units under investigation, all Pressure starting point: 100 bar/1,450 psi
units would withstand more than 518 bar (7,500 psi). Pressure ramp up step size: 50 bar/725 psi
In summary, it can be said that by using high pressure resisting Pressure holding time: 0.5 h at every step value
materials in combination with the right material thickness, mechanical Maximum pressure point: internal: 450 bar/6,527 psi | external:
tool segments (pressure vessels) can be designed and built. Further 550 bar/7,977 psi
findings from these investigations are that high pressure O-ring seals Pressure holding time: 3.0 h at maximum pressure point
need to be used. These types of seals have a higher hardness and a Acceptance criteria included:
higher thickness. Consequently, this needs to be considered within Visual inspection. The sensors have to pass a visual inspection,
the mechanical design of the tool segments. where sensors are checked for any visible mechanical damage.
Functionality check. Before and after the pressure test, the sensors
Test procedure were connected to an electronic to check the functionality of the sen-
The pressure tests on sensors and components were performed sors. All sensor channels had to be verified for functionality.
in two steps. In the first step, all test samples were initially pressure Data evaluation. When the sensors passed these tests, the recorded
tested to a pressure of 450 barg. All samples which passed the test data during the pressure test was evaluated to verify that they did
were qualified for the next step. This initial step was performed to not have any malfunctions when they were under pressure, and to
qualify the test samples for the high pressure tests and to identify determine at which pressure value the sensor failed. March 2017 Offshore 57

1703off_57 57 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Test results
The sensor data which was recorded was
evaluated during the pressure test. All sensors
sent back data to a data logger. The values which
were sent back needed to be in a pre-defined
range to pass the test. The sensors which were
lying above the threshold did not pass the test.
In summary, it can be said that all sensors and
components performed well and as expected Above: 18-in./24-in. ROSEN MFL tool with 18-in./28-in. pull unit in 28-in. pipe.
during the pressure tests. All sensors and com- Below: 16-in. ROSEN UT tool with 16-in./28-in. pull unit in 28-in. pipe.
ponents passed the pressure tests up to 550 bar.
The most important findings from the pres-
sure tests were that the main focus had to be on
the production process of the sensors, and on
the material used to manufacture the sensors.
No general adaption of the design of the
outer dimensions of any sensor or component
is required. It was observed that sensors failed
(independent from technology), whether directly during the pres- identified as one of the possible solutions for this complex challenge.
surizing phase or during the depressurizing phase. The root cause The team also considered an existing 16-in. UT tool where the pull
for this was identified in the production process of the sensors. The unit was replaced by a new concept design to cover the full range
sensors are built up in several steps. In the first step, the electronic desired by the client, 16-in. to 28-in.
components are assembled and afterwards these components are This concept represents a second solution to these types of pig-
cast into the formative and sealing material. ging dilemmas. This time a new pull unit, in combination with an
Looking into the details of the casting process, weak points have existing UT tool, was proposed as one of the possible solutions for
been identified with regard to high pressure application. Air pockets this complex challenge.
introduced during the casting process may remain during the hard- Apart from giving the client a range of options for an inspection of
ening of the material. Pressurizing or depressurizing these flawed the pipeline, the main and foremost important question was answered:
sensors can lead to electronic failure as they are rapidly compressed It was possible to develop a 16-in./28-in. multi-diameter tool to inspect
or decompressed. 16-in. and still pass through 14-in. and 28-in.
The manufacturing process was optimized for the test samples With the study results, the client had confirmation and confidence
and will be optimized for the sensor production of high-pressure that the preferred 16-in. solution was feasible, thus saving the client
sensors in future. The casting material will be enhanced to basically a significant amount by reducing his construction budget and also
eliminate the risk of air inclusions and deliver a higher durability in enhancing production performance.
its final aggregate state.
Design review
Alternate solutions Taking it one step further, an operator can involve an ILI provider
Apart from feasibility reviews of existing subsea systems, the in- during the planning phase of a new pipeline system. In cases like these,
dustry has been expressing interest in alternative systems or system pipeline design will not only be reviewed for suitability and adaptation/
extensions. These alternative designs give offshore pipeline operators creation of ILI tools engineered, but the ILI provider can also give
confidence in their ability to have inline inspections performed in a valuable input for the actual design and layout of the new system.
safe and reliable manner.
A sample case for this type of enquiry was the extension of an Long-distance inspection
existing system with a new pipeline. The new tie-in was planned to Recently, ROSEN was approached by a client to review the avail-
be either 18-in. or 16-in., where 16-in. was the preferred dimension. ability of intelligent pigging technologies to pig a long-distance, large-
The challenge was not only to determine the inspectability of the diameter gas pipeline. After reviewing the constructional and operating
extension, but also to determine if the ILI tool could travel through parameters known so far, the following main factors were identified:
the existing line sections up to the receiving platform. In this case, High wall thickness
24-in. and 28-in. were possible. Additionally, the inspectability of the Product velocity
24-in. section had to be reviewed. Line length.
The ILI services to be included in the study were metal loss,
circumferential cracking, geometry and XYZ mapping. The primary FEM calculations
challenges identified early in the study were High resolution MFL inspection is only achieved if the magnetiza-
Wye passages in 18-in. (or 16-in.) and 24-in. tion level is between 10 and 30 kA/m for standard pipe material. Tool
Multitude of jumpers in all three diameters speed, wall thickness, and material changes influence these levels and
Subsea manifolds in 24-in. and 28-in. need to be taken into account while planning a new pipeline system.
1,500 m to 2,100 m water depth FEM models, taking into account all existing parameters, can de-
High WT > 1-in. termine the level of magnetization at a predetermined wall thickness.
To address these challenges, engineers considered an existing
18-in./24-in. MFL tool, where the pull unit was replaced by a new Tool velocity
concept design to cover the 28-in. section as well. Another major impact on the performance of current MFL technolo-
Based on the conceptual design of the pull unit and the exhaus- gies can be seen in gas velocity and velocity changes, which influences
tive experience in multi-diameter development combined with the the recording/sampling interval. MFL technologies are measured at
inspection record of the existing MFL unit, a feasible concept was intervals in longitudinal direction. This is called the recording/sam-

58 Offshore March 2017

1703off_58 58 2/28/17 4:33 PM


pling distance and it determines the longitudinal resolution. Accurate

sizing of defects is optimal if the sampling distance is maintained at ROSEN ILI tool 3D FEM model
2.5 mm interval, which normally can be guaranteed at a tool veloc- for static magnet
ity of 0.5 m/s to 3 m/s. Maximum tool velocities of 5 m/s might be field simulation.
managed by an intelligent MFL tool, while loss of sensitivity, loss of
pre-set resolution in longitudinal direction and possible mechanical
damage might occur outside of the above mentioned limits. Opposite,
lower velocities than 0.5 m/s in gas lines might incur unstable pig
running conditions, which in terms of achieving an appropriate and
accurate data basis are also to be avoided.
Having calculated the average gas velocities in function of absolute
pressures for the present pipeline, the utilization of a speed control unit
(SCU) was mandatory during any inspection run. The SCU provides
controlled bypass to reduce the tool velocity while aiming to achieve
the programmable target tool speed and to keep it constant. additional battery compartment is the most used solution to
Describing the functionality of the SCU for the chosen example, ensure sufficient energy supply and giving an additional spare
the MFL tool speed increases with rising gas velocities. For the un- for any unexpected delays.
derlying case, until having reached the target tool speed of 3 m/s no Memory capacities which limit the amount of data that can be
corrective measures are taken. Within the set boundaries described stored in an ILI tool and therefore determine the resolution and
through the horizontal graph (gas velocity between 3 m/s and 7.5 inspection range. Data storage capacities of modern tools are
m/s) the SCU is taking corrective measures, allowing subsequent normally limited only by the amount of space available to install
for bypass and keeping the tool speed constant to the target level. By memory modules. In this case more than one Terabyte data
gradually opening the SCU valve, bypass capability increases, reaching (MFL, IEC, GEO, XYZ) was collected and evaluated.
the maximum capacity at 7.5 m/s gas speed. With further increased Long-distance run capacities of sensors and sealing components
gas velocities (> 7.5 m/s) hence the tool speed is accelerating exceed- which enable an ILI tool to ensure reliable, constant measurement
ing the boundary of a maximum tool speed of 5 m/s at a related gas and also pass the whole pipeline system in a safe and controlled
velocity of 9.5 m/s with the consequence that the required sampling manner. The in house development of special polyurethane elas-
interval and hence specifications are not being kept. tomers guarantees the availability of the right material. Constant
Besides guaranteeing an increased data quality due to an adjust- re-development and improvement of sensors have increased reli-
ment to an optimum tool velocity, the utilization of a speed control ability and endurance beyond pipeline requirements. Short and
unit maintains the high gas flow rates during the entire inspection, flexible production time lines are guaranteed by in house production
avoiding simultaneously throughput losses resulting from potential and assembly of the whole ILI tool including sealing elements and
flow rate reductions required without utilization of SCU. sensors. Prior to the inspection in question, ROSEN track records
included already a whole range of successfully inspected long dis-
Tool inspection capacities tance lines with a great variety of diameters from 12-in. with over
The main cornerstones for inspection capacity of this magnitude are: 400 km; to 40-in. with over 1,000 km; to 42-in. with almost 1,200 km;
Battery capacities which define the maximum run time of an to 48-in. with more than 1,000 km. These constant improvement
inspection tool and in combination with tool velocity the maximum efforts combined with the profound experience in long distance
inspection range. Generally, the inspection range is limited by the runs were the foundation to a successful inspection complying
amount of batteries an ILI tool can store in its compartments and with service specifications and exceeding client expectations.
more important by the energy consumption of its components.
ROSEN tools are designed with the latest in electronic technology Outcome and consequences
to reduce energy consumption to a minimum while maximizing Parallel to the study performed by ROSEN, the client filed an ap-
feature detection capabilities. If this is not enough, adding an plication to build a service platform halfway through the pipeline. In
the following year, based on industry progress and
Operational flow velocity range for speed control units. also the aforementioned study, the client withdrew
its provisional application to the government. In view
of the local debate and concerns regarding such an
9 installation, the client was pleased that technological
Min. gas velocity Max. gas velocity progress obviated the need for a platform at mid-point
of the scheduled pipeline route.
7 By spending a fraction of what the station would
Tool speed (m/s)

Operational flow velocity range have cost, the client saved millions in planning and
6 legal efforts as well as in construction. Not to men-
5 tion the unmeasurable profit in public appearance
Max. tool speed and reputation gained by leaving the environment
4 basically undisturbed.
Target tool speed
1 Acknowledgment
0 Based on a paper presented at the Rio Pipeline Conference &
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Exposition, held Sept. 22-24, 2015, in Rio de Janeiro. March 2017 Offshore 59

1703off_59 59 2/28/17 4:33 PM


New tools and technology for the offshore industry

ZADCO uses SACS to reinstate ship-impacted wellhead platform
Anne-Marie Walters jacket braces, a dented and ruptured deck leg, curate impact analyses, damage assessments,
Bentley and platform deformation. Vessel speed at the and pushover studies, provided documenta-
time of impact was assessed by comparing tion for the required short-term repairs and
Upper Zakum offshore Abu Dhabi is damage measurements: the ship impacted the technical substantiation for the insurance
the worlds fourth largest oil field. Zakum deck leg with an estimated force of 485 metric claim to cover the losses resulting from the
Development Co. (ZADCO) develops the field tons (534 tons), causing a 6.6% loss in platform accident.
on behalf of Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (AD- strength. Subsequently the platform was repaired
NOC) and the joint venture between ADNOC, ZADCO undertook a linear static in-place and its structural integrity restored, so that
ExxonMobil, and Japan Oil Development Co. analysis, including soil-pile structure interac- the wellhead could be certified for operation
When a 1,600-ton marine vessel hit an operat- tion, to assess the damage and verify whether and reinstated for production in line with
ing wellhead platform on the field, ZADCO the platforms primary members and piles health and safety environment requirements.
had to evaluate and reinstate the structural were safe for a one-year storm event. The The understanding of post-impact behavior
integrity of the platform before oil produc- team also performed detailed dent mapping gained from SACS analyses helped ZADCO
tion could resume. In the wake of the ships and subsea and topsides inspections. execute the stage-wise release of the platform,
collision, the unrepaired wellhead allowing it to become operational
platform was determined to be able earlier than anticipated. Production
to survive seasonal storms, but resumed with the plat-
could only support the landing of form restored to near
helicopters and the docking of light full pre-impact capacity.
vessels. By performing the
With production shut down until preliminary analyses
repairs could be implemented, in-house, optimizing
ZADCO needed to assess and repair the scope of inspections,
the facility as quickly as possible so and outsourcing the detailed
that it could be returned to service engineering for short-term and
and associated losses could be mini- final repair packages, ZADCO
mized. This had to be accomplished significantly reduced the project
while mitigating risk, ensuring safe delivery time and costs. The only
startup, and avoiding environmental major outlay as a result ($1.15 mil-
pollution. Moreover, the accident lion) was for the repairs required to
and resulting damage had to be reinstate structural integrity. These
substantiated in such a way that the savings, together with those realized
insurance claim would repay the on inspection costs, amounted to 70%
losses incurred. of the total cost of the project which
Performing a structural analysis was fully recovered as a result of the
of the platform was complicated Using SACS allowed ZADCO to assess the post-impact behavior of insurance claim.
by several factors. There was no the collision and determine potential threats to the integrity of the Having a defensible estimation of
current SACS model available to platform, and in this case a jacket leg. (Courtesy Bentley) post-impact platform capacity also
jump-start the required analyses, helped the company to lessen the risk
and the vessel speed data required for model- Inspection scope associated with this project. By identifying
ing the impact of the accident was unreliable. To estimate the percentage of the platform and mitigating possible threats to platform
In addition, the platform piles were driven into that suffered degradation due to the impact, integrity, the team improved safety and
weak-to-hard rock, making it difficult to model the team conducted pre-impact, post-impact, prevented damage to the facility and the
the non-linear soil-pile interaction in combina- and post-repair ultimate strength analyses, marine environment. The platform life and
tion with a non-linear inelastic structure. and then tabulated the resulting reserve usability were ultimately enhanced as a result
ZADCO opted for a rapid, iterative strength ratios. of the fully updated SACS model, which can
boat-impact analysis in-house using various Use of SACS for the impact analyses al- be easily referenced for future operations and
SACS modules, including SACS Precede for lowed ZADCO to optimize the scope of the maintenance.
platform modeling and load application; SACS inspections and focus attention on critical
PSI for pile and soil property modeling; and subsea nodes (weld joints) that required a
SACS Collapse for non-linear boat impact more detailed review. The optimized scope The author
analysis and parameter coding, and for result and schedule allowed work to be performed Anne-Marie Walters is a chartered chemical engineer
verification. within the narrow window dictated by weather who joined Bentley in 2004 as a global marketing
director. She is responsible for promoting the companys
The non-linear boat impact analysis conditions. Planned subsea inspections by div- solutions and products that address the needs of the
performed in the SACS Collapse module ers were reduced from 134 days to 34 daysa process, power, and enterprise arena. She represents
helped to accurately simulate the post-impact 75% saving of inspection time, representing an the company on the board of the Construction Industry
behavior of the platform and the spread of $850,000 savings in project costs. Institute and is also heavily engaged in the activities
damage, which included buckled deck and The inspection reports, supported by ac- of FIATECH.

60 Offshore March 2017

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Kaombo valve choices governed by capex, corrosion criteria

James Moir
PJ Valves
Typical valves supplied for an
FPSO. (Image courtesy PJ Valves)
Totals Kaombo project in An-
golas deepwater block 32, 175 km
(109 mi) southwest of Soyo and The company and the client
the Angola LNG facilities, is due also collaborated to identify
to be completed later this year. It special coatings to counter the
involves conversion of two very effects of the harsh environment,
large crude carriers (VLCCs) into including stringently managed
a pair of turret FPSOs, named application of the project-
Kaombo Norte and Kaombo Sul. specified coating systems on ball
These will be connected via valves. They selected carbon
300 km (186 mi) of subsea inter- coating as a wear and erosion-
field pipelines to 59 subsea wells resistant surface for tungsten
in water depths of 1,400-1,900 m valves, while electro-less nickel-
(4,593-6,233 ft) over an 800-sq km plated coating provided the re-
(309-sq mi) site that covers six quired corrosion resistance. The
of the 12 discovered fields in the choice of base materials such
block. Total estimated reserves as nickel aluminium bronze and
across the Kaombo field amount to 650 PJ Valves (PJV) was selected to provide a duplex stainless steel also ensured the valves
MMbbl, with production expected to reach solution which met these criteria coupled with would be able to withstand Kaombos chang-
230,000 b/d. cost-saving ideas. ing process conditions and rigours of use.
Effective treatment of seawater and Based on its previous experience with PJV has supplied and manufactured around
produced water is critical to help maximize similar projects, PJV recommended the use 2,000 valves in various consignments for this
recovery of the oil and to maintain a suf- of side entry valves in places rather than project, including ball, globe, check and nee-
ficiently processed resource for re-injection more expensive top entry valves, bringing an dle valves, and both single and double-block
into the reservoirs. However, filtration of upfront capex saving to the project. However, and bleed valves. For orders that involved non-
seawater in this area presented a challenge in terms of maintenance, top entry valves are destructive testing and special paint systems,
due to the high level of salinity, making the designed to be serviced while still fixed in the company used both its own manufacturing
water extremely corrosive and liable to rapidly piping, meaning it is less time consuming and facilities and those of a trusted partner to com-
corrode any valves it came into contact with. costly to maintain them. plete items outside of its production range.

Dual-string section mill facilitates P&A

Hydrocarbon migration in a well that has been plugged and abandoned poses a real
danger to asset integrity and the environment. The most effective way to prevent this
is by employing a plug and abandonment (P&A) procedure that achieves a rock-to-
rock, cement-to-formation bond. The Weatherford Endura dual-string section
mill (DSSM) accomplishes this with the use of specially designed
blades and stabilizers that enable through-casing milling of the
adjacent string of casing to access the borehole quickly and ef-
New ficiently. Separate milling and stabilizer blades provide two points
and of stabilization while creating finer, more manageable cuttings.
tools logy First, the DSSM mills the inner casing to provide access to
the outer casing. On the next trip, the DSSM passes through the
inner string and the cutting blades expand to remove the outer
casing, thereby creating a casing-exit window. The remainder of
the casing is removed in a third run with the DSSM using 17-in.-long
milling blades. By completely removing all casing to expose the forma-
tion, the milling run prepares wellbores for permanent rock-to-rock cement plugging.
This hydraulic seal mimics natural bedding, mitigates gas migration, and can be
confirmed with a pressure test. The DSSM produces substantial rig-time savings in
offshore environments and results in a stable, permanent, and verifiable seal, fulfilling
some of the most stringent regulatory requirements for offshore well abandonment.

Weatherford says that its Endura dual-string section mill

employs specially designed blades and stabilizers that
enables access to the borehole quickly and efficiently.
(Courtesy Weatherford) March 2017 Offshore 61

1703off_61 61 2/28/17 4:33 PM


Halliburton introduces large bore

subsea safety system
Halliburton has released the Dash large bore subsea
safety system, which provides full electrohydraulic
control of well safety and intervention functions. The fully
customizable system brings new benefits to deepwater op-
erators for completion and intervention work that improve
critical well control of the subsea safety system, tubing
hanger, and deepwater subsea field developments.
Halliburton collaborated with customers to design a
system that is simpler to test, easier to assemble, faster to
activate and configurable to individual customer and proj-
ect requirements. It can isolate the lower landing string in
as little as six seconds or less, disconnect from the lower
landing string in as little as 10 seconds or less and provide
downhole data for greater confidence in decision-making.
The two larger bore sizes, 6 in. and 7 in., in addition
to the existing Dash 3-in. system, broadens the use of the
companys electrohydraulic subsea safety systems. Opera-
tors will now have the ability to deploy this technology
across the full breath of their ultra-deepwater offshore The Dash large bore subsea safety
operations to help minimize operational risk. system provides full electrohydraulic
Grant Roscoe, vice president of Testing and Subsea, control of well safety and intervention
said: The Dash large bore system adds to our capabili- functions. (Image courtesy Halliburton)
The Spartan plug range was developed to ties by providing a technology that we believe is more
secure well integrity during operations. effective and efficient. This launch furthers our commitment to helping customers reduce their
(Courtesy Archer Oiltools) deepwater development costs without compromising safety.
Noble Energy used the Dash large bore system during recent P&A operations in the Gulf of
Archer expands Mexico. Dash safely and effectively served as the primary well control barrier and BOP. This
dual functionality eliminated the need for alternative measures during the operation, which
well plug range reduced rig time by several days.
Archer Oiltools has introduced the
Spartan plug range, designed to ensure
well integrity during operations, secure well ExxonMobil awards drilling technology license
suspension, and safe P&A operations. ExxonMobil has awarded to Pason
The plugs are said to provide protection Systems, Inc., the first global license
for short-, medium-, or long-term suspen- of its patented Drilling Advisory Sys-
sions and facilitate rapid deployment and tem, which it says is a key component
retrieval, helping to reduce operational time of the companys Fast Drill tech-
and costs. nology suite. The licensing agree-
Archers plugs portfolio includes three ment accelerates the technologys
other systems. The Vault dual plug system commercialization by combining
allows two of the companys plugs to be Pasons expertise in drilling data and
installed in one run, streamlining plug ExxonMobils experience in drilling
operations. surveillance and optimization.
Spearhead is designed to withstand Fast Drill combines high-end model-
increased hangoff loads or pull forces, ing of drilling physics with structured
thereby improving the efficiency of P&A well planning and design to identify
ExxonMobil says that the Drilling Advisory System auto-
operations. limiters and maximize performance. mates and enables implementation of its Fast Drill pro-
Hunter is a tandem plug system that ExxonMobil says that its drilling rate cess in real time on the rig floor. (Courtesy ExxonMobil)
allows a barrier plug to be run in combina- has improved more than 80% since
tion with other downhole tools, saving the introducing the Fast Drill process more than a decade ago. The Drilling Advisory System automates
number of trips and rig time. and enables implementation of the Fast Drill process in real time on the rig floor by integrating
The Spartan line adds to the existing ExxonMobil proprietary modeling with data analytics. Use of the Drilling Advisory System has thus
Lock plug family of gas tight well suspen- far improved ExxonMobils drilling performance at nine fields.
sion plugs. These product lines, which Energy producers today are looking for any opportunities to improve operational efficiency
are designed to reduce rig handling, form and reduce costs, said Tom Schuessler, president of ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. The
the base of Archer Oiltools plug portfolio, drilling advisory system component to our efficient Fast Drill technology provides such an oppor-
which the company says has been used tunity by enhancing monitoring and improving drilling performance, thus reducing costs.
in the field worldwide in more than 2,500 ExxonMobil says that its Fast Drill process has resulted in an annual energy savings equiva-
runs. lent to removing 1,200 cars from the road. The additional reduction in fuel consumed translates
to a proportionate decrease in emissions.

62 Offshore March 2017

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Baker Hughes, Aramco

debut rigless ESP system
Saudi Aramco and Baker Hughes completed the first installation of the
TransCoil rigless-deployed electrical submersible pumping (ESP) system,
which is designed to help operators bring wells on production faster and
lower the costs associated with installing and replacing ESPs. Because they
can eliminate the need for a rig in fields where availability is a concern or
where high intervention costs can limit artificial lift options, operators are
said to minimize deferred production and lower their overall lifting costs to
extend the economic life of their assets.

The TransCoil rigless-deployed system features an

inverted ESP with the motor on top connected directly
to the power cable. The design eliminates the motor lead
extension entirely, removing the weakest connection in
The Hardsuit system maintains constant pressure to allows mul-
traditional ESP systems. (Image courtesy Baker Hughes)
tiple depth changes per dive if needed. (Image courtesy Phoenix
International Holdings, Inc.)
Developed in participation with Saudi Aramco, the
TransCoil system features an inverted ESP system Phoenix Hardsuit ADS can
with the motor connected directly to a new, proprietary
power cable configuration, eliminating the traditional
minimize downtime, cost
ESP power cable-to-motor connection, which improves As oil and gas companies continue to utilize cost cutting
overall system reliability. Unlike wireline-deployed measures as a result of the prolonged downturn in the industry,
ESPs, the fully retrievable TransCoil system does not Phoenix International Holdings, Inc. has remained committed to
have an in-well wet connection, which requires a rig to offering cost-effective underwater services. To that end, the com-
pull and replace if the wet connection fails. pany has utilized its Hardsuit atmospheric diving system (ADS)
The power cable design enhances the reliability of for more than 14 years to provide their clients with reduced
the deployment string compared to coiled tubing-de- overall project time, costs, and risk for their subsea projects.
ployed ESPs that simply pull the power cable through The Hardsuits have long been utilized for installations, in-
the coiled tubing. Extensive fatigue testing and spections, maintenance, repairs, and decommissionings. As the
thermal growth analysis were conducted at the Baker progression of methods and procedures continues to change
Hughes Coiled Tubing Research and Engineering and advance, the systems are also being used for heavy instal-
Center to enhance materials selection and system de- lation work, including risers, large connectors, pull tubes, steel
sign. The TransCoil system cable design also extends catenary riser porches, guide frames, and subsea trees.
the operating range to 12,000 ft (3,658 m), compared Since 2003, Phoenix has owned and operated two Hardsuit
to traditional coiled tubing-deployed ESP systems, systems, each comprised of two suits, which have worked on
which are limited to approximately 7,000 ft (2,134 m) more than 100 projects in water depths ranging from 92 to 1,150
because, at greater depths, the weight of the power ft (28 to 350 m), in locations throughout the Gulf of Mexico
cable will cause it to collapse inside the coiled tubing, and around the world, including West Africa and the Mediter-
creating an electrical failure. ranean.The systems capability and versatility was recently put
The TransCoil system can be installed in 4-in. to to the test when Phoenix took on a project in West Africa on a
9-in. casing in wells with flow rates up to 18,000 b/d. platform and loading buoy that required a full spectrum of the
In mature offshore fields, where high intervention companys services, including engineering, project manage-
costs can limit the application of ESPs, the system ment, and air and mixed gas diving.
can be deployed through the existing 4-in. tubing, For their part of the project, Phoenix ADS pilots were as-
which Baker Hughes says saves the time and money signed with the installation of two risers (each a single piece
required to pull the existing completion. Another measuring 267 ft- (82 m-) long and made of highly specialized
advantage of the TransCoil technology compared to steel) while decommissioning the two old ones; installing new
wireline-deployed ESPs is that it can be installed through a deviation in the clamps; installing anodes on sleds; disconnecting pipelines; and
wellbore. This capability allows operators to land the ESP closer to the pro- decommissioning closing spools and installing new ones. To
ducing zone for greater reservoir pressure draw down and reserve recovery. perform the work, 709 hours were logged in 137 dives, operat-
A TransCoil system was recently installed and commissioned in Saudi ing in depths down to 300 ft (91 m); oftentimes, multiple depth
Aramcos Khurais field and the first-time rigless operation improved efficiency changes per dive were required to perform the task at hand.
by reducing installation time nearly 50% over a rig-based installation and further For traditional divers to perform multiple depth changes out-
deployment efficiency improvements are expected in the future. Although this side of their excursion limits, decompression time and surface
initial operation was onshore, offshore installations are planned for this year. intervals are required. Because the ADS is one atmosphere,
With a large ESP installation base, including many ESPs installed in the pressure remains constant and the diver/pilot is able to ef-
our offshore fields, the ability to rapidly deploy ESPs riglessly provides ficiently perform the work with no decompression time, thereby
tremendous cost benefits to our overall operations. The TransCoil system decreasing costly downtime.
is particularly beneficial in our challenging high H2S fields as the premium In addition to offering cost and time savings, the Hardsuit is
metallurgy in the system can significantly extend the ESP operational life in also one of the safest means of performing underwater work
harsh environment wells, says Nasir K. Al Naimi, vice president, Petroleum where a manned presence is preferred.
Engineering and Development at Saudi Aramco. March 2017 Offshore 63

1703off_63 63 2/28/17 4:33 PM


People will be based in Aberdeen. number of game-changing technologies to the

Oceaneering International has designated Aqueos Corp. has appointed David Grady subsea industry, including the MARS (multi-
Roderick A. Larson to succeed M. Kevin as project manager-special projects. ple application reinjec-
McEvoy as CEO immediately following the Ror y Ferguson has joined Petroplan as tion system), the ESSI
2017 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which CEO. Decom (enhanced
is scheduled to be held on May 5, 2017. McE- Wood Group has appointed Alan John- subsea sampling and
voy will continue to serve on the companys stone as president of its Asset Life Cycle injection) system and
board as a Class III director until at least May Solutions business in Europe. the pioneering FAM
2019. Harold D. Brannon has joined Sun Drill- (flow access module)
Prosafe has appointed Jesper Kragh ing Products Corp. as vice president Produc- technology.
Andresen as CEO and Stig H. Christiansen tion Enhancement. Oxiteno has ap-
as deputy CEO and CFO of Prosafe Manage- NEL has hired Dr. Bruno Pinguet as pointed Timothy Earl
ment AS. senior consultant. He will be working on the Madden as COO of
Greta Lydecker, managing director, verification of in situ Oxiteno USA.
Chevron Upstream Europe, and Terri King, meter performance. The Polarcus Ltd.
president, UK ConocoPhillips, have joined the Prior Diesel, a Nomination Committee has proposed the
Oil & Gas UK board. Suretank company, has appointment of Nicholas Smith as a new
Exxon Mobil Corp. has elected Dr. Susan appointed Jim Yeats director.
K. Aver y to its board of directors. An atmo- as general manager.
spheric scientist, she is the former president Cornerstone Company news
and director of the Woods Hole Oceanograph- Completion Services Pan Pacific Petroleum has agreed to
ic Institution. has appointed David sell its subsidiary WM Petroleum (WMP)
Greenland Gas & Oil Ltd. has appointed R. Reynolds as busi- to Kuala Lumpur-based Tamarind Classic
Mark Bilsland as CEO and Sam Moody as ness development and Resources. Tamarind will pay $400,000 for
non-executive director. advisory manager. PPPs shares in WMP and on completion PPP
A.P. Mller - Mrsk A/S has elected Jim NDT Global has will make a net payment to Tamarind of $5.45
Hagemann Snabe as chairman of the board hired Tim Shaw as million. PPP will then inherit all the benefits
of directors. He succeeds Michael Pram key account manager and liabilities associated with the Tui area oil
Rasmussen. Australia. fields, including environmental, decommis-
Chris Kelsall has resigned from the Global Diving & sioning, and abandonment obligations.
Polarcus Ltd. board of directors. Arnstein Salvage Inc. has ap- Lundin Petroleum plans to create a
Wigestrand has decided not to stand for pointed Bas Coppes new company to manage its assets offshore
re-election at the companys Annual General as director of salvage Malaysia and offshore/onshore the Nether-
Meeting in May 2017. and wreck removal. lands and France. Due to its recent growth
Global Maritime RAMCO has hired offshore Norway, which now accounts for 96%
Consultancy & Rob ONeill as busi- of its global reserves, the board felt the other
Engineering has ap- ness development interests would benefit from being held within
pointed Reid Berger director. a separate and independent entity, to be called
Stokke to head its OceanWorks Inter- International Petroleum Corp. (IPC).
new line of business, national has appointed With a renewed strategy and focus, Lundin
GM Solutions. GM Andrea MacIntosh as believes IPC could be developed into a leading
Solutions will focus on operations manager. international oil and gas independent, focused
identifying innovative Randy Schmidt on the production and development of assets
technical solutions has succeeded Ted around the world.
and then develop and Stokke Born as managing di- Eni has awarded Sky-Futures a three-year
promote them through rector of the Burns & contract to inspect its facilities globally.
partnerships, where funding can be found to McDonnell Terminals Weatherford International plcs Secure
cover development costs. and Pipelines group. Drilling Services facility in Aberdeen, Scot-
Grant King has joined the BHP Billiton Enpro Subsea land, has received API Specification Q2 certi-
board of directors as an independent non- Managing Director fication making it the first API Q2-certified
executive director. Ian Donald has been facility in the UK.
Anadarko Petroleum Corp. has elected recognized by his Chet Morrison Contractors has achieved
Claire S. Farley to serve as an independent peers for his outstand- a safety milestone, recording zero injuries
director. ing contribution to the and zero incidents for 2016. The company
Borets has named industry at the Subsea also posted zero motor vehicle accidents,
Obren Lekic as CEO UK Awards 2017. He fires, spills or damage to the environment and
of Borets U.S., located was chosen to receive incurred zero regulatory fines. This record
in Houston. the accolade in light of covers about 800,000 man-hours on more
Paul Rennie has his leadership, creativ- than 300 projects for nearly 100 customers.
joined Neptune as ity and commitment It includes all services and operations, such
survey operations man- to delivering results in as diving, heavy construction, fabrication and
ager for its European, both enhanced recov- deepwater riser services. Moreover, it was
Mediterranean and ery and subsea decommissioning markets. achieved despite widespread spending reduc-
African operations. He Lekic Donald has been instrumental in bringing a tions across the industry.

64 Offshore March 2017

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On Site Alignment has opened an office ing courses and competency assessment based approach to complex applications,
in the Tuas area of Singapore. As part of the programs. including attitude monitoring, vibration and
expansion, the company has entered into a Electrical heat-tracing systems provider stress monitoring, optical metrology, data
strategic partnership with Metal Machines Pentair has formed a collaboration with communications, engineering data analysis
Engineering Ser vices Ltd. to further in- Tranberg, a supplier of lighting, heating, and and integrity management. Centred in its
crease workshop and manpower resources. stainless steel enclosures for oil and gas and global headquarters in Aberdeen, the new
Unique Group has entered into a joint helideck applications. The duo will offer what group will deliver global solutions across the
cooperation agreement with Kazakhstan-based they claim is reliable and energy-efficient inte- drilling, construction, production, asset integ-
Caspian Interindustrial Co. The agreement grated winterization solutions for operation in rity and decommissioning markets.
will cover Kazakhstan primarily, with a local arctic climates. Ramboll Environ and Arctic Slope Re-
office and workshop established to support Lloyds Register has launched a subsea gional Corp. have announced an agreement
the local offshore and oil and industry. inspection service to support underwater to seek and evaluate opportunities to work
BP has prolonged Sparrows Groups cur- inspections of subsea pipelines, assets, and together to provide value-added solutions to
rent North Sea mechanical handling and crane facilities to energy companies operating off- clients.
management contract through 2025. Sparrows shore. Services include project management, NDT Global has opened a new office in
will operate and maintain all 21 pedestal cranes consultancy, personnel, quality control, data Melbourne, Australia.
across BPs eight offshore assets, including the processing and data management, applicable LOC Group has partnered with WavEC
soon to be commissioned Clair Ridge platform to ROV, AUV, and diver projects. The new Offshore Renewables, a private, non-profit
and the Glen Lyon FPSO west of Shetland. The service will be managed and coordinated in offshore marine energy research and consul-
contract scope covers the supply of crane op- Aberdeen. tancy association. As part of the agreement,
erators and maintenance of the pedestal cranes For the seventh consecutive year, Ensco LOC will provide its expertise on the complete
and other mechanical handling equipment, plc has earned first place for total customer lifecycle of offshore wind development, from
and inspection, repair, refurbishment, and satisfaction in the offshore drilling segment project blueprint to operation.
spares management. In addition, Sparrows will of the Oilfield Products & Services Customer Royal Boskalis Westminster will report a
provide training and engineering support for all Satisfaction Survey conducted by Energy- non-cash impairment charge of EUR840 million
lifting scopes including equipment change-outs Point Research. ($892 million) in its annual results for 2016.
and decommissioning activities. BP has also Paradigm has signed a multi-year access This is due almost entirely to the deteriora-
awarded Petrofac a three-year extension to agreement with Beicip-Franlab for a wide tion in the market for the companys offshore
its North Sea maintenance services contract. spectrum of software solutions, including oil and gas vessel services. Worst affected
Petrofac will continue to work on maintenance seismic and geological interpretation, forma- has been transportation specialist Dockwise,
and isolation valve sourcing scopes for the tion evaluation, and subsurface modeling. which the company acquired in 2013. However,
operators assets, many of which the company Beicip-Franlab will propose to its clients the Boskalis points out that up to and including
has supported since 2009. use of the Paradigm software in its worldwide last year, Dockwise generated around EUR900
Oilfield Helping Hands has been named petroleum upstream consulting services, million ($956 million) in cash from its operating
the 2017 beneficiary of the Offshore Tech- including applications such as SeisEarth, activities. Taking into account the initial acquisi-
nology Conference (OTC) Distinguished Geolog, and SKUA-GOCAD. tion cost, results to date and investments since,
Achievement Awards Luncheon. OTC will Damen has officially taken over the man- the return on this acquisition has been healthy,
host the Distinguished Achievement Awards agement of the former Curaao Droogdok Boskalis maintains.
Luncheon on Tuesday, May 2, 2017, at NRG Maatschappij, a shiprepair yard strategically Farstad Shipping, Solstad Offshore, and
Center in Houston. located in the Dutch Caribbean near the Deep Sea Supply have agreed to merge fol-
Oxiteno has opened a new commercial of- Panama Canal. lowing completion of a restructuring program
fice in Houston and plans to construct an Alk- M Subsea has opened its new office in at Farstad. The resultant entity, Solstad
oxylation plant in Pasadena, Texas. Scheduled Aberdeen and created 30 jobs. The fledgling Farstad, would be the largest company in
for completion toward the end of 2017, it will subsea business, which secured private equity the high-end global offshore supply vessel
have a production capacity of 170,000 tons per investment toward the end of 2016, has moved industry with a fleet of 154 vessels, although
year. The company also opened a new R&D people and equipment into headquarter only fourth when including all vessel classes
center in Hattiesburg in partnership with the premises in Arnhall Business Park at Westhill and lower spec ships. Based in Skudeneshavn,
University of Southern Mississippi. in Aberdeenshire. The company, which is Norway, it will operate a fleet of 33 construc-
Saudi Aramco has awarded Dynamic also based in Houston, expects to create 50 tion support, 66 platform supply, and 55
Industries Saudi Arabia and Houston-based onshore and 100 offshore jobs by the end of anchor handler tug supply vessels operating
Dynamic Industries International LLC a the year. Around 30 people have joined the globally in all deepwater hubs.
wide-ranging offshore project under a long- management team in the UK and the US with ProSep will supply a ProDry processing
term agreement. The scope includes engineer- more expected to be recruited as imminent system to Aker Solutions for Statoils Troll
ing, procurement, fabrication, transportation, contracts are signed. B ZMP project in the Norwegian North Sea.
installation, demolition, hookup, testing, and TDI-Brooks International Inc. acquired The system to be deployed on the Troll B
pre-commissioning of various components for engineering firm certification with the State of platform will feature ProSeps ECLIPSE mixer
offshore oil facilities. Texas due to extensive experience in the area for TEG injection. Due to the systems claimed
Premier Oilfield Laboratories LLC has of offshore environmental, geotechnical, and high mixing efficiency, Statoil will replace
acquired the assets of the ConocoPhillips geological site investigations, and expands of- a standard countercurrent TEG tower with
Subsurface Laboratory located in Bartlesville, ferings to include seafloor and subsurface soil an in-line, co-current mixer and separator/
Oklahoma. engineering services. knock-out drum. In this way the required TEG
Emerson has opened new education Ashtead Technology has established a flow compared to a conventional tower will be
facilities at its Solutions Centre in Aberdeen. dedicated Engineered Measurement Solutions reduced, allowing use of spare capacity in the
The expansion provides for a range of train- Group to focus exclusively on this solutions- existing TEG regeneration packages. March 2017 Offshore 65

1703off_65 65 2/28/17 4:33 PM

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SALES OFFICES AFGlobal Corporation ............................7
National Oilwell Varco .......................... 11
American Association of Petroleum
PENNWELL PETROLEUM GROUP Geologists .............................................33 O
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400, Houston, TX 77027
Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. ......... 17
PHONE +1 713 621 9720 FAX +1 713 963 6228
David Davis (Worldwide Sales Manager) B
OneSubsea, A Schlumberger Bastion Technologies ........................... 14 Company .................................................3
Shelley Cohen (Regional Sales Manager)
Grace Jordan (Classified Sales)
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GREATER HOUSTON AREA, TX Cudd Energy Services .........................47 Deepwater Operations Conference & Exhibition..................................... C3
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F PNEC Conferences ..........................19
Shelley Cohen Fugro........................................................9 Topsides, Platforms & Hulls Conference & Exhibition .................40
10 Springfield Close, Cross, Intecsea ................................................. 13 S. Himmelstein and Company .............66
Axbridge, Somerset, United Kingdom BS26 2FE
Interocean Systems ..............................41
PHONE +44 1934 733871
Graham Hoyle IPLOCA ..................................................29 T TechnipFMC ......................................... C4
MONACO NORTH AFRICA Karmsund Maritime Offshore W
961 Camp Redon, 83830 Callas, France Supply.................................................... 15 Weatherford.......................................5, 39
PHONE +33 (0) 4 9470 8263
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Health of geophysical industry

critical to market recovery
Energy is one of the most important markets in the world, and the Environmental groups are disseminating misinformation about the
geophysical industry is the foundation of ensuring safe, affordable, and geophysical industry because of its critical role in exploration and devel-
accessible oil and gas exploration and development. While OPECs opment, saying seismic exploration is the gateway to oil and gas drilling.
landmark agreement at the end of the year to cut oil output boosted They believe if they stop seismic exploration, they can halt development.
crude prices and optimism for some semblance of market certainty, no These extremists are increasingly advocating for application of
one can predict what the oil services market holds for 2017. One can be the precautionary principle to exploration and development activities
certain, however, that global energy demand will continue to increase, around the globe. This approach requires weighing the evidence show-
and that demand cannot be met without the geophysical industry. ing any effect of a proposed activity more than the evidence showing no
From discovery to delivery, a viable geophysicalindustry is es- effect; where effects are disputed, they argue activity should be resisted
sential to providingenergy resourcesto the world. In the past year, without boundary or reason.
the geophysical industry enabled the discoveries of significant en- This principle resists decision-making based upon the best available
ergy resources that were previously overlooked and thought impos- science, mandated by US law. In practice, however, we see increasing
sible, beneath thick salt and within shale formations, doubling the challenges to exploration industry activities calling for precautionary
worlds proved oil and gas reserves since the 1980s. mitigation measures and agency decisions, regardless of the proposed
For decades, the geophysical industry has pioneered technology activities actual limited impact on the environment or affected species.
providing the blueprint for locating and producing safe affordable en- In the Mediterranean, environmental activists attempted unsuccess-
ergy and the more than 6,000 petroleum-based products indispensable fully to oust IAGC from a treaty group after it urged science-based miti-
to everyday life. Oil and gas powers the equipment needed to construct gation, rather than strict adherence to the precautionary principle. And
cities. It powers the equipment to harvest crops and produce food, and even in the US, the principle is flexing its muscle.
the hundreds of millions of vehicles moving citizens and goods around The Obama administration recently denied applications to con-
the world. It is the foundational material for innovative and life-saving duct seismic surveying in the Atlantic, kowtowing to environmental
technology, from mobile phones to medical imaging devices. activists and substituting politics for science. The decision directly
Although the industry is currently in challenging times, the demand contradicted the Bureau of Ocean Energy Managements own re-
for these products and energy is not going away, and fossil fuels will peated findings that there is no scientific evidence of sound from
dominate the energy supply for decades, requiring the ability to explore seismic surveys adversely impacting marine animal populations, the
and develop resources currently out of reach. Critical resource plays are environment, commercial fishing, or coastal communities. IAGC is
moving farther offshore and into more complex onshore formations. working to reverse this egregious decision and see these surveys
As the cornerstone of the energy industry, the International Associ- proposed for the Atlantic permitted without delay.
ation of Geophysical Contractors (IAGC) members are driving tech- Since IAGC increased its focus in regulatory and government en-
nological innovation, reducing risk, and enhancing recovery. Even gagement and advocacy just over three years ago, it has been shaping
in the midst of the downturn, they have not let technology become and leading the oil and gas industrys dialogue on the geophysical in-
stagnant, demonstrating a relentless pursuit to innovate and improve, dustrys interaction with the environment, and engaging government
so the discoveries that are impossible today are possible tomorrow. and regulatory entities with credible scientific, technical, and legal anal-
Our members strive to provide trusted experience, improved confi- ysis. IAGC will continue to advocate for informed energy policies that
dence, and reduced uncertainty in the interpretation of the subsurface are based on the best available data, so that exploration is supported by
for their clients. Likewise, IAGC works to reduce regulatory uncer- scientific impact analyses, and development decisions are made with an
tainty by promoting and ensuring a safe, environmentally responsible, updated understanding of the resources available.
and competitive exploration industry. The industrys viability hinges As the oil services market recovers, be assured that the IAGC is work-
not only on navigating one of the longest crises in the oil services ing now to ensure that the industry is positioned for future success and
market, but also overcoming the many present and real regulatory the exploration industry still has the opportunity to operate onshore and
challenges pushed by the anti-fossil fuel lobby around the world. offshore around the world for decades to come. And as new resource
Unfortunately, attacks from environmental extremists do not diminish plays are discovered, and existing fields are yielding more than antici-
with the price of oil, but resources do. The geophysical industry is often pated, one will find the geophysical industry at the forefront of turning
the first expenditure at the earliest stage of exploration and the first pres- yesterdays overlooked and impossible into todays discoveries.
ence of oil and gas in a geographic area. As a bellwether for the service Nikki C. Martin
industry, it has been the hardest hit by the current downturn and the President
target of increasing anti-development environmental activist agenda. International Association of Geophysical Contractors

This page reflects viewpoints on the political, economic, cultural, technological, and environmental issues that shape the future of the petroleum industry. Offshore
Magazine invites you to share your thoughts. Email your Beyond the Horizon manuscript to David Paganie at

68 Offshore March 2017

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ES T . 2 003


NOVEMBER 7-9, 2017

Moody Gardens Hotel & Convention Center | Galveston, TX, USA |

The Deepwater Operations Conference and Exhibition is celebrating its 15th anniversary. This event continues the tradition of
excellence in addressing operational challenges in developing deepwater resources. The event returns to the Moody Gardens Hotel
& Convention Center on November 79, 2017 in Galveston, Texas.
Challenges in deepwater production are complex, and command the industrys attention to develop solutions that are economical
and long-term. The Deepwater Operations Conference and Exhibition provides a unique experience for attendees and exhibitors to
share, learn and connect in a forum dedicated to addressing these challenges.
The advisory board will once again solicit presentations from industry leaders who address trends, issues and developments in deepwater
production. Attendees can expect to learn and discuss the real-life issues and solutions relevant to deepwater operations today.


1703off_C3 3 2/28/17 4:34 PM

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