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DFD LEVEL 0 (Context Diagram) : gambaran bagaimana sistem berinteraksi dengan

external entity. Dalam CD tidak ada data store.

DFD LEVEL 1 : gambaran proses-proses utama yang terjadi di dalam


sistem yang sedang dibangun.

DFD LEVEL 2 dst. : gambaran lebih rinci dari DFD Level 1. Setiap bubble
pada DFD level 1 dapat dimodelkan secara lebih terperinci menjadi sebuah DFD lagi.
Perincian DFD berhenti sampai proses yang ada bersifat atomik (sudah cukup mendetail
dan tidak dapat diperinci).

ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM (ERD) : untuk memodelkan struktur data dan


hubungan antar data menggunakan notasi dan simbol.
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) : metodologi tradisional untuk
mengembangkan, mempertahankan, dan menggantikan sistem informasi.
o Planning : detailed steps
o Analysis
o Design : functional -> data, technical -> programs
o Implementation : code, documentation
o Maintenance : training, support

TRADITIONAL WATERFALL SDLC

CASE TOOLS : alat analisis secara otomatis memeriksa konsistensi dalam diagram,
bentuk, dan laporan.
RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT (RAD) (adv : decreases design and
implementation time, more focus on user interface and system function, less on detaile
business analysis and system performance)
o Manajemen : khususnya top management, penguji coba yang melakukan hal-
hal dengan cara baru
o Orang : tim khusus (para ahli & praktisi) untuk melakukan seluruh aktivitas
SDLC secara cepat
o Metodologi : perencanaan kebutuhan, konstruksi
o Alat Bantu : CASE tool yang memfasilitasi pembuatan prototype dan kode
program

AGILE METHODOLOGIES (motivated by recognition of software development as fluid,


unpredictable, dynamic; focuses on user goals, roles, tasks; replace waterfall SDLC with
iterative analyze-design-code-test cycle)

Prinsip :
o Adaptif dibanding prediktif
o Menekankan people dibanding roles
o Proses self-adaptive

EXTREME PROGRAMMING (adv : high level productivity, high-quality code,


communication between developers)
o Short
o Automated tests
o Two-person programming teams
o Coding, testing, listening, designing

OBJECT-ORIENTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (OOAD) (based on objects rather than


data/processes)
o Object
o Object Class : pengelompokkan logis dari objek yang mempunyai atribut dan
perilaku yang sama
o Inheritance : susunan kelas hierarki yang memungkinkan subclass mewarisi
sifat superclass

RATIONAL UNIFIED PROCESS (RUP) (object-oriented systems development


methodology)
o Tahapan : inception, elaboration, construction, transition

SYSTEM REQUIREMENT
o Traditional Method
Interviewing individuals
Interviewing groups
Observing workers
Studying business documents
o Radical Method (goals : eliminate unnecessary steps, combine steps, become more
responsive to future change)
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) : search and implement radical change in
business process to achieve breakthrough improvements in products/services
o Contemporary Method
Joint Application Design (JAD) : collect system requirements simultaneously
from key people (key users, managers, system analysts)
Group Support Systems : facilitate sharing of ideas and voicing opinions
about system requirements
CASE Tools : help discover requirements to meet changing
business conditions
System Prototypes : refine understanding of system requirements in
concrete terms

IT STRATEGIC PLANNING
o Proses identifikasi dan implementasi yang akan mendukung perusahaan dalam
pelaksanaan rencana bisnis dan merealisasikan tujuan bisnis (Curry & Ferguson, 2000).
o Kebijakan strategis terkait dengan implementasi dan pengembangan TI pada suatu
institusi.
o Termasuk ke dalam tahap Planning pada SDLC

KATEGORI SOFTWARE
o Fungsi : software system (Windows, MacOS), software application (Ms.
Office)
o Aplikasi : software system (editor, driver), real-time software, business
software (sistem akuntansi, inventory), engineering and scientific software (SolidWorks),
embedded software (microwave, handphone), PC software (game, spreadsheet),
artificial intelligent software (game)
o Hak Pemakaian : shareware (bayar tanpa kode sumber), freeware (gratis tanpa
kode sumber), free and open source software (gratis disertai kode sumber)

SOURCES OF SOFTWARE
o IT Services Firms : IBM, HP
o Packaged Software Providers : Microsoft, Oracle
o ERP Providers : Oracle, SAP AG
o Cloud Computing : Amazon.com, Google Drive
o Open Source : Linux, Firefox
o In-house