Anda di halaman 1dari 32

Yoga

and
Meditation
By: Sarah Kramer, Soumya
Boyanapalli, and Kelsey
McGonagle
Origin of Yoga
Believed to have originated in ancient
India sometime between 500 BC and 800
AC
The word yoga comes from the Sanskrit
root yuj which means union, or join
Yoga is one of the six schools of thought
(darshanas) in Hinduism Fig. 1 Fossils Found of Indus Saraswati Valley Civilization Depicting Yoga
Source: Basavaraddi, Dr. Ishwar V. "Yoga: Its Origin, History and Development." Ministry of External Affairs,
Government of India. Ministry of External Affairs, 23 Apr. 2015. Web.

References to yoga are made throughout


Hindu scripture, dating back to 800 BCE
Eight Limbs of Yoga
1.) Yama= morals/ethics
2.) Niyama= self-discipline
3.) Asana= posture
4.) Pranayama= breathing techniques
5.) Pratyahara=withdrawal of senses
6.) Dharana= concentration
7.) Dhyana= meditation
8.) Samadhi= supreme state of
consciousness Fig. 2 Eight Limbs of Yoga
Source: Drucker, Noah. "What Is Yoga?" Denver Pain and Performance Solutions. N.p., 10 Feb. 2017. Web.
Yoga Sutras
Text on yoga which outlines how to live a fulfilling and meaningful life
Compiled prior to 400 BCE by Sage Patanjali

Fig. 3 Patanjali Yoga Sutra


Source: "Art of Living India." Art of Living (India). The Art of Living, n.d. Web.
Types of Yoga
Bikram/Hot Yoga
Hatha
Vinyasa
Kundalini
Yin Yoga

Fig. 4
Source: Benefits, Health. "Bikram Yoga Poses Best For Your Health and Wellness." Health X Wellness.
HealthxWellness, 15 July 2016. Web.
Physical Health Benefits

Decreased blood pressure


Improves balance
Lowers heart rate
Lowers cortisol levels
Increase in serotonin levels
Improved flexibility
Improves and increases muscle
mass Fig. 5 Physical Strength From Yoga
Source: Janzer, Cinnamon. "3 Physical Benefits of Yoga." Under Armour. My Fitness Pal, 04 Apr. 2017. Web.
Mental Health Benefits

Fig. 6 Brain Strength


Source: Jones, Dr. Carrie. "Mental Health Is Just as Important as Physical Health: Here's Why." EmpowHER. HER Inc., 03 Oct. 2016. Web.
Fig. 7 Yogas impact on back pain
Source: "Yoga's Impact on Low-back Pain." National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, 14 Mar. 2016. Web. 27 Mar.
2017
Fig. 8 Reasons People Practice Yoga
Source: "Why People Practice Yoga." National Institutes of Health. U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, 14 Mar. 2016.
Risks of Yoga
Pain from nerve damage
Pulled muscles
Head and neck injuries

Fig. 9 Yoga Injuries


Source: YogaSpy. "Aches and Pains: Are You injury Prone? (Part I)." Yoga Spy. N.p., 04 Feb.
2017. Web.
Traditional Vs. Modern Yoga
A lot of experts say that the practice dates back to the time before the term
Hindu.
Hindu roots.
Deeper philosophy and it is not just about the exercise
Yoga has changed a lot over the years
Nowadays people practice yoga for health and fitness purposes.
Campaign called Take Back Yoga, to show how the Hinduism can connect with
yoga.
True lifestyle aspect of yoga is truthfulness, nonviolence and purity.
Traditional Vs. Modern Yoga
In the 1920 and 30s most of the tantric and sexual aspects were removed from
yoga and more of the health and exercise were put in.
Though yoga can connect back to the Hindu roots many believe that it is
important that people should feel free to use yoga
To use yoga for satisfaction and/or emotional and mental awakening
And it is not important not to overstress the Hindu origins of yoga.

Fig. 10 Traditional Yoga Fig. 11 Modern Yoga


Source:Http://combadi.com/188-yoga-holiday-meditation.html.Google Search. Source: Google. Google, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2017
Google, n.d. Web. 23 Apr.2017
Training, Certification
There are many different training programs for
yoga teachers throughout the country
The programs can range from few days to more
than 2 years
It really depends on the style of yoga
Most of the programs have certain curriculum and
educational standards that need to be met.
For example one of the nonprofit groups requires
at least 200 hours of training and a specified
number of hours in different techniques such as Fig. 12 Yoga Certification
Source: Yoga+certification. Google Search.Google, n.d. Web.23 Apr.2017

anatomy, physiology, philosophy, etc.


Yoga Poses
There are many different various poses in yoga
There are 10 main poses that are taught as beginners
Child Pose
- This pose helps with lower back, hips, thighs, knees, Fig. 13 Child Pose

and ankles. It relaxes your spine, shoulders and neck Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The New York Times,
n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.

- Dont do this pose if you have knee injuries and ankle


problems, or have high blood pressure or pregnant.
Downward Facing Down
- Helps make your arms, shoulders and back stronger
- Dont do this pose if you have carpal tunnel
syndrome or wrist problems or high blood pressure
or pregnant Fig. 14 Downward Facing Down
Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The New York
Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.
Yoga Poses
Plank Pose
- Helps strengthen the core, shoulders, arms and legs
Fig. 15 Plank Pose
- Dont do this pose if you suffer from carpal tunnel Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The
New York Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.

syndrome, wrist problems or have lower back pain


Four Limbed Staff Pose
- Good pose to learn if you want to eventually work on more
advanced poses
- Dont do this pose if you have carpal tunnel syndrome, Fig. 16 Four Limbed Staff Pose
Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The
New York Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.

lower back pain, shoulder injury or pregnant


Cobra Pose
- Helps Strengthen the back muscles, increases spinal
flexibility, strengthens the chest, shoulders and abdomen
- Dont do it if you have arthritis in spine/neck or low back Fig. 17 Cobra Pose
Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times.
The New York Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.

injury
Yoga Poses
Tree Pose
- Improves balance and strengthens core, ankles, thighs
and spine Fig. 18 Tree Pose
Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The
New York Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.

- Dont do this pose if you have low blood pressure or any


medical conditions that affect your balance
Triangle Pose
- Builds strength in legs, hips, spine, chest and shoulders.
Helps increase mobility in hips and neck Fig. 19 Triangle Pose
Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The
New York Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.
- Dont do this pose if you have a headache or low blood
pressure
Seated Half-Spinal Twist Pose
- Flexibility in your back, shoulders, hips and chest. Relieve
tension in middle of back Fig. 20 Seated Half-Spinal Twist Pose
Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times.

- Dont do this pose if you have a back injury The New York Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.
Yoga Poses
Bridge Pose
- Stretches the chest, back and neck
- Dont do this pose if you have a neck injury.
Corpse Pose
- Helps sink into a relaxing, meditative state Fig. 21 Bridge Pose
Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The New York
Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.

- Dont do this pose if you dont want moments


peace

Fig. 22 Corpse Pose


Source: Couturier, Kelly. Yoga for Everyone. The New York Times. The New York
Times, n.d. Web 23 Apr. 2017.
Meditation
WebbMD definition : the practice of focusing your attention to help you feel
calm and give you a clear awareness about your life
Yoga International definition: Meditation is a precise technique for resting the
mind and attaining a state of consciousness that is totally different from the
normal waking state
Psychology definition: Meditation is the practice of turning your attention to a
single point of reference. It can involve focusing on the breath, on bodily
sensations, or on a word or phrase known as a mantra
Meditation Origins
First found in the Indus Valley
Archaeologists discovered evidence of meditation in wall art dating from approximately
5,000 to 3,500 BCE
Meditation related descriptions were also found in Indian scriptures dating back around
3,000 years ago
Between 600-500 BCE meditation developed in
Taoist China and Buddhist India
653 CE First meditation hall opened in Japan
Meditation used in Religion
Hinduism- plays a part in all aspects of Indian spiritual life, to greater and lesser degrees
depending on the individual practitioner, his or her chosen path, and stage of life

Buddhism- Buddhism evolved from the meditations of Siddhartha Gautama


- Buddha identified eight principles (The Noble Eightfold Path) that develop the fully
realized state of a person; right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right
livelihood, right effort, right awareness, right meditation
Judaism- Students of the Qabalah transform their essential inner natures with the essential
external Nature, by internalizing symbols and gradually absorbing their characteristics
through meditation
Meditation used in Religion
Christianity- Whether expressed through song, prayer, study or contemplation, focus is
generally directed first towards the heart, producing a deeply felt understanding that suffuses
the whole being
Islam- The pupil teacher relationship is central to Sufi spiritual practice; the master is the only
ones able to initiate pupils
- Masters dictate meditation practices
- the aim of meditation (fikr) is to prevent the mind from going astray while the heart is
focuses on God
Meditation as a Whole
While many religions offer the same essential practices, each religion has its unique
orientation; drawing on its own special symbols, stories, and teachings; favoring certain
practices, subjects, and goals

Universal Principle of Meditation:


The whole being (body, mind, emotion) is actively applied, through a variety of focus points, to
develop awareness, insight, and transformation

Figure 23. Digital image. Breathe Meditation. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.
How Meditation Affects the Brain

Dan Harris: Hack Your Brain's Default Mode with Meditation. Dir. Johnathan Fowler, Elizabeth Rodd, and Dillion Fitton. Perf. Dan Harris.
YouTube. N.p., 19 Aug. 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2017.
Why Practice Meditation?
Even if practicing is not influenced by religion there are many mental
and physical benefits:

Physical-

Lowers high blood pressure, increases energy level


and boosts immune system
Lowers the levels of blood lactate, reducing anxiety attacks
Increases serotonin production that improves mood
and behavior
Decreases tension-related pain, such as, tension headaches,
ulcers, insomnia, muscle and joint problems
Figure 24. Digital image. 60 Seconds of Solitude. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.
Why Practice Meditation?

Mental-

Decreases anxiety, improves emotional stability, increases happiness,


one can gain clarity and peace of mind

Meditation sharpens the mind by increasing focus


and expands through relaxation

Dinker, Bill. Figure 25. Digital image. Discovery Place. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.
Ways Meditation can Improve Your Life
Reduces stress
Improves concentration
Encourages a healthy lifestyle
Increases self awareness
Increases acceptance
Benefits cardiovascular and immune health

Cooper, Kelli. Figure 26. Digital image. Naturally Earth Friendly. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.
Types of Meditation
Mantra Meditation
Metta Meditation
Mindfulness Meditation
Transcendental Meditation
Vipassana Meditation
Yoga Meditation
Zen Meditation
Which Meditation is right for you
There are so many different types of meditations
It depends on the actual reason of why you are meditating
Meditations for being more relaxed, being more focused, being more healthy,
etc.
The key point is to choose one that you enjoy doing and help you achieve your
goal.
How Meditation Can Be Used Incorrectly
Blindly following the rules
Feeling like you have to do the poses perfectly
Pushing yourself to do the wrong type of meditation
Facing suppressed emotions
Trying to use meditation as a substitute for therapy
How Meditation & Yoga Connect
Yoga postures were actually designed to systematically prepare the body to meditate

They work together to unite our small self with our higher soul self

One cannot be present without the other.

We need to be aware of the body in order to forget about it, in order to go inward in
meditation
Where to find Yoga & Meditation
Charlotte Meditation: 725 Providence Road, Suite 300 (Third Floor) Charlotte, NC 28207
Yoga for Life: 1410 West Morehead Street, Suite 200 Charlotte, NC 28208
Yoga One: 1318 Central Avenue Charlotte, NC 28205

On campus! For free!

Mondays at 8 PM

Tuesdays at 12:30 PM and 8 PM

Figure 27. Digital image. Yoga One. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2017.
Works Cited
Adler, Margot. "To Some Hindus, Modern Yoga Has Lost Its Way." NPR. NPR, 11 Apr. 2012. Web.
"Art of Living India." Art of Living (India). The Art of Living, n.d. Web.
Basavaraddi, Dr. Ishwar V. "Yoga: Its Origin, History and Development." Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Ministry of External Affairs, 23 Apr. 2015. Web.
Couturier, Kelly. "Yoga for Everyone." The New York Times. The New York Times, n.d. Web.
Hudson, Clare. Home. ThoughtBrick.N.p., 04 Feb. 2015. Web.
Janzer, Cinnamon. "3 Physical Benefits of Yoga." Under Armour. My Fitness Pal, 04 Apr. 2017. Web.
Jones, Dr. Carrie. "Mental Health Is Just as Important as Physical Health: Here's Why." EmpowHER. HER Inc., 03 Oct. 2016. Web.
Thynn, Thynn. "Dynamics of Meditation." Living Meditation Living Insight. Carmel, NY: Buddhist Association of America, 2001. 59-61. Print.
Types of Meditation: Extensive List of Techniques. Mental Health Daily. Mental Health Blog, 24 Mar. 2015. Web.
Woodyard, Catherine. Exploring the Therapeutic Effects of Yoga and Its Ability to Increase Quality of Life. International Journal of Yoga 4.2 (2011): 4954. PMC. Web.
"Yoga Beyond Asana: Hindu Thought in Practice." Hindu American Foundation (HAF). Hindu American Association, n.d. Web.
"Yoga: In Depth." National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 26 Sept. 2016. Web.