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Nama : Yuke Djulianti

Kelas : TL-C

NRP : 25-2015-105

A. Identifying Noise Sources

Penilaian kebisingan pada umumnya tentang mengevaluasi dampak dari satu sumber
kebisingan spesifik, ini tidak selalu mudah. Di hampir setiap lingkungan, sejumlah besar
sumber yang berbeda berkontribusi terhadap kebisingan ambient pada titik tertentu.
Kebisingan ambient adalah suara dari semua sumber gabungan kebisingan, seperti
kebisingan pabrik, lalu lintas suara, kicau burung, air mengalir, dll
Kebisingan spesifik adalah suara dari sumber yang diselidiki. Kebisingan spesifik
adalah komponen dari kebisingan ambien dan dapat diidentifikasi dan dikaitkan dengan
sumber tertentu.
Kebisingan residual adalah kebisingan ambient tanpa kebisingan spesifik. Kebisingan
residual adalah kebisingan yang tersisa pada titik di bawah kondisi tertentu ketika suara
dari sumber spesifik dengan tekanan.

B. Measuring Noise
Tujuan pengukuran tingkat suara yang merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dari setiap
program perlindungan kebisingan lingkungan. Standar dan peraturan menentukan parameter
harus diukur, dan dalam kebanyakan kasus mereka juga menetapkan cara mengatur peralatan
pengukuran dan menangani berbagai faktor seperti kondisi meteorologi.

1. Getting an Average
Menilai tingkat kebisingan secara fluktuasi berarti mendapatkan nilai untuk
tingkat yang, dengan sederhana, yaitu tingkat rata-rata.
Leq adalah tingkat suara yang terus-menerus dan setara, , dikenal di seluruh
dunia sebagai suatu parameter yang penting.
Jika Leq pada saat diukur stabil makan akan mewakili jumlah energy yang
Leq diukur dengan alat sound level meter.
2. Using Statistics

3. 7 Day or Two Hour Measurements?

Measuring noise for the complete reference time interval is ideal. This could
range from two hour to week-long measurements. Longer periods such as month
and year-long measurements are sometimes used for good reason. In such cases,
a log of values obtained every second, minute or quarter of an hour is used to ob-
tain a time history of noise levels.

4. Broadband or Frequency Analysis?

The Leq or, better, the LAeq (the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound
level) is the most important parameter. Broadband measurements, i.e.,
measurements covering the whole of the audible frequency range, are made
using the A fre- quency weighting when assessing environmental noise. It
is good practice to al- ways state the applied frequency weighting.

5. Where to Place the Microphone

Legislation often specifies where measurements should be made, for example
at property boundaries or at a complainants property. Other factors also need
to be taken into account when measuring because sound levels vary at
different heights above ground level.

This will often mean making measurements:

away from facades
away from obstacles
in dry conditions with a wind speed of less than 5 m/s
with the microphone 1.2 1.5 m above ground level
However, measurements can be made at the faade or at other specified
heights (the European Union is considering making 4 m the standard).

C. Calibration
What you actually do when calibrating is check the instruments sensitivity
at one specific frequency and sound level (usually 1 kHz and 94 dB). While
this is true for high-quality instruments, calibration data should always be
reported for anything but survey measurements for three reasons:
1. Calibration assures that a days work is not lost. Any transducer or instru-
ment failures are detected on the spot
2. Calibration data is required by legislation and standards
3. Extreme environmental conditions can affect results
For professionals, the sound level meter and the calibrator go together. But
to en- sure continuing accuracy, and for validity in court cases, more detailed
calibra- tions and checks are required.

D. The Measurement Report

One of the most undervalued aspects of evaluating noise is the reporting of
re- sults. Quite often, only marginal data, such as a few discrete dB values, is
report- ed.
Standards and recommended practices are a great help when making a
measure- ment report. The following standards lay out the framework for
what information you must record and what information you are
recommended to record.
ISO 1996 states that the following information must be recorded:
Measurement technique
Type of instrumentation used
Measurement procedure used
Calculations used
Prevailing conditions
Atmospheric conditions (wind direction and speed, rain, temperature,
atmospheric pressure, humidity)
Nature/state of ground between source and receiver
Source variability
Calibration data
Measurement date, start and stop time
Number of measurements made
Description of the sound sources under investigation
It is also advisable to include additional information such as:
The purpose of the measurement
The standard used
Equipment used, including serial numbers
Map showing position of sound sources, relevant objects and observation
It is also important to write the report in an easy-to-understand, readable
style. Depending on your target audience, the use of graphics, sketches, and
illustra- tions can sometimes help to explain the data. In other cases, text
and figures will suffice.