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Session 2007-2011

Project Supervisor

Kashif Shehzad (2007-Elect-90)
Arslan Fida (2007-Elect-143)
Ahsan Rashid (2007-Elect-206)
Asif Shafiq Khan(2007-Elect-208)


In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent and The
Most Merciful

This thesis is submitted to the Faculty of Department of Electrical Engineering,

University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore in partial fulfillment of the requirements for

Bachelors Degree

Electrical Engineering


Signature_______________ Signature_______________





We declare that the work contained in this report is our own, except where explicitly stated
otherwise. In addition, this work has not been submitted to obtain another degree or professional

_____________________ _____________________

Kashif Shahzad Arslan Fida

_____________________ _____________________

Ahsan Rashid Asif Shafiq Khan


First of all we are very thankful to my almighty ALLAH WHO gave us the courage and
patience to complete this project.

We would like to express our profound gratitude, most sincere appreciation and special thanks to
our project supervisor, Prof. Dr. Asghar Saqib for his fabulous suggestions, invaluable advice
and continuous encouragement through the completion of this project.

We are extremely thankful to the entire staff of Department of Electrical Engineering, U.E.T.
Lahore for their co-operation and help.

Dedicated to our Parents


The electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa is
the workhorse in a drive system, and when the output speed of the motor can be controlled by
changing its input frequency ,then the drive is said to be VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE or

Presently, it is just the combination of a motor and a controller. Drives can be classified as,

1) DC Drives

2) AC Drives

AC Drives mainly consist of Induction motor drives and Synchronous motor drives. The control
of dc motors requires providing a variable dc voltage which can be obtained from dc choppers or
controlled rectifiers.

These voltage controllers are simple and less expensive. DC motors are relatively expensive and
require more maintenance due to brushes and commutators. However, dc drives are used in many
industrial applications. As far as AC drives are concerned, their control requires complex control
algorithms by microprocessors or by microcomputers commonly known as CONTROLLERS.

The AC motors have number of advantages e.g.

1) They are 20% to 40% lighter than equivalent dc motors.

2) Applications of variable speed ac motors with inverter control include crane hoists, blowers,
pumps and textile plants etc.

3) The speed and torque of induction motors can be controlled by following methods,

a) Stator voltage control

b) Voltage control Rotor

c) Frequency control

d) Stator Voltage and frequency control

e) Stator current control

f) Voltage, Current and Frequency control

In this project we are going to control the speed of induction motor by STATOR VOLTAGE
AND FREQUENCY method using microcontrollers.



Figure 2.1 ..Typical Squirrel Cage Rotor

Figure 2.2...Speed-Torque Characteristics of Induction Motor
Figure 2.3...Typical Name-Plate of Induction Motor


Figure 1.1...Components of VFD

Figure 1.2...PWM and Sine Wave
Figure 1.3...Speed-Torque Characteristics of Induction Motor with V/F Control
Figure 1.4...Block Diagram of VFD System

Figure 2.1...Half Wave Rectifier Using 2 Diodes

Figure 2.2...Full Wave Rectifier Using 4 Diodes
Figure 2.3...3-Phase Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit
Figure 2.4...3-Phase Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier Waveform

Figure 3.1...VDMOS Structure Showing Source, Drain and Gate

Figure 3.2...MOSFET
Figure 3.3...IGBT

Figure 4.1...Typical Single Phase Inverter (Full Wave)

Figure 4.2...Single Phase Inverter Output
Figure 4.3...Typical Three Phase Inverter
Figure 4.4...Block Diagram of Inverter
Figure 4.5...Line Interactive Inverter
Figure 4.6...Online Inverter
Figure 4.7...Output of a Pure Sine Wave Inverter
Figure 4.8...Harmonics
Figure 4.9...140 Watt Portable Inverter

Figure 5.1...Pin Diagram of PIC16F877
Figure 5.2...Table of Pins Description of PIC16F8X
Figure 5.3...Table of Pins Description of PIC16F8X
Figure 5.4...Key Features of PIC microcontroller
Figure 5.5...Option Register
Figure 5.6...Registers Associated with TMR0
Figure 5.7...Timer1 Control Register
Figure 5.8...Registers Associated with Timer1 as a Timer/Counter
Figure 5.9...Transmit Status and Control Register
Figure 5.10 Receive Status and Control Register
Figure 5.11.Register Associated with Baud Rate Generator

Figure 6.1...Principle of Delta PWM

Figure 6.2...Principle of Sigma-Delta PWM
Figure 6.3...Generation of PWM using Natural Sampling

Figure 4.1...Valve Control
Figure 4.2...VFD Soft-Start System
Figure 4.3...Under-voltage Fault Indication
Figure 4.4...Over-Current Fault Indication
Figure 4.5...Motor Not Running Fault Indication




1.1 Statement of Problem...3
1.2 Aim and Objective ..3
1.3 Scope of the Project.........3
1.4 Methodology of Research4
Induction Motors...716
2.1 Types of AC Motors....7
2.2 Induction Motor Construction and Principle...7
2.3 Speed of Induction Motor9
2.4 Types of AC Induction Motor..9
2.5 Torque in Induction Motor.12
2.6 Electrical Frequency of Rotor13
2.7 Speed-Torque Characteristics of Induction Motor14
2.8 Typical Name-Plate Rating of an Induction Motor...16


VFD (Components and Types).18--25
1.1 Introduction........18
1.2 Types of VFD18
1.3 Components of VFD..19
1.4 Basic Working of VFD..20
1.5 V/F control theory of VFD22
1.6 Block Diagram.......25

Power Source and Rectifiers26--33
2.1 Power Supply.26
2.2 Power Supply Types..27
2.3 Rectifiers........29
2.4 Applications.......33

Switching Devices..34--42
3.1 Types of Transistors...34
3.2 Power MOSFET........34
3.3 IGBTs...39
3.4 Applications...41
3.5 MOSFET and IGBT Comparison..42
3.6 Conclusions........42

4.1 History43
4.2 Classification of Inverters..45
4.3 Disadvantages of Square or Quasi Wave Inverter.49
4.4 Applications...49

PIC Microcontroller..52--67
5.1 Why We Used PIC Microcontroller?...............52
5.2 Basic Introduction to PIC16F877......52
5.3 Resources of PIC16F877 Used56
5.4 Timer1 Module..59
5.5 Addressable USART..62
5.6 USART Baud Rate Generator.65
5.7 Sampling.66
5.8 Interrupts66
Pulse Width Modulation...68--75
6.1 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) ..68
6.2 Types of Pulse Width Modulation.69
6.3 Applications...72


Project Softwares.77--84
1.1 Introduction77
1.2 Circuit Maker.........77
1.3 PROTEUS..........78

1.4 ORCAD (PSpice)...82
1.5 MPLAB..........84
Project Code...85--93
2.1 Introduction ...85
2.2 Built In Routines Of Micro C Compiler....87

2.3 The Source Code89

Project Simulations....94--104
3.1 Introduction94

3.2 Generation of PWM Signals (PROTEUS).95

3.3 VFD Simulation (PROTEUS)...98

3.4 Variation of Frequency (PROTEUS)....99

3.5 Inverter Simulation (CIRCUIT MAKER)...101

3.6 VFD with Resistive Load (ORCAD)...102

Applications, Benefits and Troubleshooting of VFDs..105--114
4.1 Applications of VFDs.105
4.2 Benefits of VFDs110
4.3 Troubleshooting VFDs...112

APPENDIX A.115-116

APPENDIX B..117-121





There are millions of motors in use in industry and offices around the world. They
operate sewage and irrigation pumps, milking machines and ski lifts, paper machines and
power-plant fans, sawmill conveyors and hospital ventilation systems, to name just a few
examples. In fact, more than 65 percent of industrial electrical energy is consumed by
motors. Hence, electric industry plays a vital role in the progress of a country because all
the other industries are directly or indirectly based on the electrical energy and it becomes
even more critical when a country like Pakistan is in consideration. Energy crises have
been glued with Pakistan for almost last two decades and because of that, energy saving
becomes as much crucial as much as using it. Even a small contribution from every
individual can make look things far better than they actually are, as they say little drops
of water make the mighty ocean.

More often than not motors run below their rated capacity and as stated above that more
than 65 percent of the industrial load is contributed by motors, so a large amount of
energy can be saved by controlling the power that is fed into the machine. Variable
frequency drives exactly do that i.e. they save energy because they can change the speed
of an electrical motor by controlling the power that is fed into the machine.

ABB (global leader in power and automation technologies) states that:

Using a drive with a 30 kilowatt (kW) motor running 5,000 hours a year to
control the air flow in a ventilation system brings an annual saving of 76,500 kW
hours of electricity compared with regulating the flow rate by adjusting a damper.
The saving is 51,000 kW hours per year compared with modulating the fans on or
off and 52,500 kW hours versus the use of a two-speed motor.

So due to its vast applications, popularity and significance in todays industry, we were
inclined to work on variable frequency drives.


Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor Using PIC Microcontroller


The aim of the project is to design more intuitive modalities, and to evaluate those
modalities. Project was really helpful in understanding the vast applications and use of
power electronics at industrial level. We got the knowledge of PIC peripherals, inverter
circuits, the driving techniques and capability of various switching devices.

The main objective was to design a circuit utilizing the modern power electronics that
will help various industrial process to run economically by saving energy , and there was
no better way to do but by controlling the speed and torque of electrical drives that are
essential part of every industry.


The need to save energy and economy has given engineers to build devices that are not
only economical but also cost effective. Variable frequency drive provides us with both
quality and economy. These features have made industrialists to switch to variable
frequency drives. VFD provides speed control by maintaining constant torque. Therefore
applications that require maintaining constant torque all the times are being switched to

In our project we have tried to design an economical but efficient drive. This project can
be used for speed control of medium sized motors. We know that the motors seldom
operates at full load and mostly operates at less than full load so our design can be used in
these situations providing economy and quality.

We have used sinusoidal PWM in our project so the output waveform closely replicates
the Sine wave, hence loads that need pure sine wave for their operation can be connected
to the VFD. Besides due to sinusoidal nature the losses are reduced considerably.


The whole report is divided into three sections. The brief overview of the chapters is as

PART 1 gives an introduction of the project and induction motor.

CHAPTER 1 discusses the project in detail and gives a brief overview of the
methodology of research.
CHAPTER 2 is completely dedicated to induction motor. It explains principle of
induction motor, its different types and construction also discusses torque-speed
characteristics of induction motor.

PART 2 discusses the theory and basic working of different components used in the

CHAPTER 1 discusses the basic working of a VFD, V/F control theory and also lists all
components of a VFD system and is shown diagrammatically as well.

CHAPTER 2 gives a detailed explanation about various types of power supplies, types
of rectifiers and their working.

CHAPTER 3 deals with different types of switching devices used in building an inverter
circuit, while structure and characteristics of power MOSFETs and IGBTs are
explained in detail.

CHAPTER 4 is dedicated to inverters. This chapter explains history of inverters, inverter

principle, classifications of inverter and their applications.

CHAPTER 5 discusses the PIC16F877 characteristics, timers and control registers, CCP
module and PWM width and frequency.

CHAPTER 6 explains pulse width modulation, its various types and applications in
modern world.

PART 3 constitutes of project softwares and simulations and other useful data

CHAPTER 1 gives basic information about different softwares used in the project.

CHAPTER 2 presents the programming code used.

CHAPTER 3 includes all the design work, different circuits and simulations carried out
during our project.

CHAPTER 4 is about benefits of variable frequency drives, their applications and also
few flow charts regarding troubleshooting of VFDs.

APPENDIX A discusses some basic mechanics and formulas regarding torque and horse

APPENDIX B includes all the data-sheets of various components of a VFD.



An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current. It consists of

two basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current
to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that
is given a torque by the rotating field.


There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the
Synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a sub-multiple of
the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current
delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet. Dc field current is required to run
the machine.

The second type is the Induction motor, which runs slightly slower than the supply
frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current.

In our project, we have controlled the speed of induction motor using VFD. So we will
explain only induction motor.


Distinguishing feature of an induction motor is that no dc field current is required to run

the machine. Like most motors, an AC induction motor has a fixed outer portion, called
the stator and a rotor that spins inside with a carefully engineered air gap between the
two. Virtually all electrical motors use magnetic field rotation to spin their rotors. A

three-phase AC induction motor is the only type where the rotating magnetic field is
created naturally in the stator because of the nature of the supply. DC motors depend
either on mechanical or electronic commutation to create rotating magnetic fields. A
single-phase AC induction motor depends on extra electrical components to produce this
rotating magnetic field. Two sets of electromagnets are formed inside any motor. In an
AC induction motor, one set of electromagnets is formed in the stator because of the AC
supply connected to the stator windings. The alternating nature of the supply voltage
induces an Electromagnetic Force (EMF) in the rotor (just like the voltage is induced in
the transformer secondary) as per Lenzs law, thus generating another set of
electromagnets; hence the name induction motor. Interaction between magnetic field of
these electromagnets generates twisting force, or torque. As a result, the motor rotates in
the direction of the resultant torque.

2.2.1 Stator

Stationary part of motors

2.2.2 Rotor

Moving part of the motors.


The magnetic field created in the stator rotates at a synchronous speed (NS).

Ns = 120 * f/p.

Ns= Synchronous speed of the stator magnetic field in RPM.

F= Frequency the supply in hertz.

P= No of poles on the stator.

The magnetic field produced in the rotor because of the induced voltage is alternating in
nature .To reduce the relative speed, with respect to the stator, the rotor starts running in
the same direction as that of the stator flux and tries to catch up with the rotating flux.

However, in practice, the rotor never succeeds in catching up to the stator field. The
rotor runs slower than the speed of the stator field. This speed is called the Base Speed
(Nb).The difference between NS and Nb is called the slip. The slip varies with the load.
An increase in load will cause the rotor to slow down or increase slip. A decrease in load
will cause the rotor to speed up or decrease slip. The slip is expressed as a percentage and
can be determined by the following formula.
nslip nsync nm
nslip = slip speed of the machine

nsync = speed of the magnetic field.

nm = mechanical shaft speed of the motor.


Generally, induction motors are categorized based on the number of stator windings.
They are:
Single-phase induction motor
Three-phase induction motor

Our project is based on the speed control of 3 phase motor so we will discuss only 3
phase motor.

Three-phase AC induction motors are widely used in industrial and commercial

applications. They are classified either as squirrel cage or wound-rotor motors. These
motors are self-starting and use no capacitor, start winding, centrifugal switch or other
starting device. They produce medium to high degrees of starting torque. The power
capabilities and efficiency in these motors range from medium to high compared to their
single-phase counterparts. Popular applications include grinders, lathes, drill presses,
pumps, compressors, conveyors, also printing equipment, farm equipment, electronic
cooling and other mechanical duty applications.

2.4.1 Squirrel Cage Motor

Almost 90% of induction motors are squirrel cage motors. This is because the squirrel
cage motor has a simple and rugged construction. The rotor consists of a cylindrical
laminated core with axially placed parallel slots for carrying the conductors. Each slot
carries a copper, aluminum, or alloy bar. If the slots are semi closed, then these bars are
inserted from the ends. These rotor bars are permanently short-circuited at both ends by
means of the end rings, as shown in Figure. This total assembly resembles the look of a
Squirrel cage, which gives the motor its name. The rotor slots are not exactly parallel to
the shaft. Instead, they are given a skew for two main reasons:

a) To make the motor run quietly by reducing the magnetic hum.

b) To help reduce the locking tendency of the rotor. Rotor teeth tend to remain locked
under the stator teeth due to direct magnetic attraction between the two. This happens if
the number of stator teeth is equal to the number of rotor teeth.

2.4.2 Wound Motor

The slip-ring motor or wound-rotor motor is a variation of the squirrel cage induction
motor. While the stator is the same as that of the squirrel cage motor, it has a set of
windings on the rotor which are not short-circuited, but are terminated to a set of slip
rings. These are helpful in adding external resistors and contactors. The slip necessary to
generate the maximum torque (pull-out torque) is directly proportional to the rotor
resistance. In the slip-ring motor, the effective rotor resistance is increased by adding
external resistance through the slip rings. Thus, it is possible to get higher slip and hence,
the pull-out torque at a lower speed. A particularly high resistance can result in the pull-
out torque occurring at almost zero speed, providing a very high pull-out torque at a low
starting current. As the motor accelerates, the value of the resistance can be reduced,
altering the motor characteristic to suit the load requirement. Once the motor reaches the
base speed, external resistors are removed from the rotor. This means that now the motor
is working as the standard induction motor. This motor type is ideal for very high inertia
loads, where it is required to generate the pull-out torque at almost zero speed and
accelerate to full speed in the minimum time with minimum current draw.


Generally torque induced in induction motor is due to the interaction of the stator and
rotor magnetic field.

It depends on the following factors

The strength of stator magnetic field.

The strength of rotor magnetic field.
The sine of angle between them.
A constant representing the construction of motor.

When current flows in the stator, it will produce a magnetic field in stator as such that Bs
(stator magnetic field) will rotate at a speed:

120 f e
Where fe is the system frequency in hertz and P is the number of poles in the machine.
This rotating magnetic field Bs passes over the rotor bars and induces a voltage in them.
The voltage induced in the rotor is given by:

Eind = (v x B) l

Hence there will be rotor current flow which would be lagging due to the fact that the
rotor has an inductive element. And this rotor current will produce a magnetic field at the
rotor, Br. Hence the interaction between both magnetic field would give torque:

ind kBR BS

The torque induced would generate acceleration to the rotor, hence the rotor will spin.

However, there is a finite upper limit to the motors speed.

If the induction motors rotor The rotor bars would be stationary

were turning at synchronous relative to the magnetic field

No rotor current No induced voltage

No rotor magnetic Induced torque =

field 0

Rotor will slow down due to

Conclusion: An induction motor can thus speed up to near synchronous speed but it can
never reach synchronous speed.


An induction motor is similar to a rotating transformer where the primary is similar

to the stator and the secondary would be a rotor. But unlike a transformer, the
secondary frequency may not be the same as in the primary.

If the rotor is locked (cannot move), the rotor would have the same frequency as the
stator (refer to transformer concept). Another way to look at it is to see that when the
rotor is locked, rotor speed drops to zero, hence by default, slip is 1. But as the rotor starts
to rotate, the rotor frequency would reduce, and when the rotor turns at synchronous
speed, the frequency on the rotor will be zero.

nsync nm
And rotor frequency may be expressed as:

f r sf e

Hence combing both equations would give:

nsync nm
fr fe

And since nsync=120fe / P,

nsync nm
Which shows that the relative difference between synchronous speed and the rotor speed
will determine the rotor frequency


Figure shows the typical speed-torque characteristics of an induction motor. The X axis
shows speed and slip. The Y axis shows the torque and current. The characteristics are
drawn with rated voltage and frequency supplied to the stator. During start-up, the motor
typically draws up to seven times the rated current. This high current is a result of stator
and rotor flux, the losses in the stator and rotor windings, and losses in the bearings due
to friction. This high starting current overcomes these components and produces the
momentum to rotate the rotor. At start-up, the motor delivers 1.5 times the rated torque of
the motor. This starting torque is also called locked rotor torque (LRT). As the speed
increases, the current drawn by the motor reduces slightly. The current drops significantly
when the motor speed approaches ~80% of the rated speed. At base speed, the motor
draws the rated current and delivers the rated torque.

At base speed, if the load on the motor shaft is increased beyond its rated torque, the
speed starts dropping and slip increases. When the motor is running at approximately
80% of the synchronous speed, the load can increase up to 2.5 times the rated torque.
This torque is called breakdown torque. If the load on the motor is increased further, it
will not be able to take any further load and the motor will stall. In addition, when the
load is increased beyond the rated load, the load current increases following the current
characteristic path. Due to this higher current flow in the windings, inherent losses in the
windings increase as well. This leads to a higher temperature in the motor windings.
Motor windings can withstand different temperatures, based on the class of insulation
used in the windings and cooling system used in the motor. Some motor manufacturers
provide the data on overload capacity and load over duty cycle. If the motor is overloaded
for longer than recommended, then the motor may burn out. As seen in the speed-torque
characteristics, torque is highly nonlinear as the speed varies. In many applications, the
speed needs to be varied, which makes the torque vary. We will discuss a simple open
loop method of speed control called, Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF or
V/f) in this application note






Among the electrical quantities, the sine wave frequency is probably the most
complicated to change. Today there are two usual ways to do this, either by rotary motor-
generators or by electronics. Rotary converters can convert between fixed frequencies
like 50 to 60 Hz, or DC (0Hz) to AC and the opposite, but if the frequency needs to
change often/dynamically like in servo motors, it can only be done by electronics.

A variable-frequency drive (VFD) is a system for controlling the rotational speed of

an alternating current (AC) electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical
power supplied to the motor. A variable frequency drive is a specific type of adjustable-
speed drive. Variable-frequency drives are also known as adjustable-frequency drives
(AFD). Variable-speed drives (VSD), AC drives, micro drives or inverter drives. Since
the voltage is varied along with frequency, these are sometimes also
called VVVF (variable voltage variable frequency) drives.


All VFDs use their output devices (IGBT, transistors, thyristors) only as switches, turning
them only on or off. Using a linear device such as a transistor in its linear mode is
impractical, since the power dissipated in these devices would be about as much as the
power delivered to the load.

Drives can be classified as:

Constant voltage
Constant current

In a constant voltage converter, the intermediate DC link voltage remains approximately
constant during each output cycle. In constant current drives, a large inductor is placed
between the input rectifier and the output bridge, so the current delivered is nearly
constant. A cyclo-converter has no input rectifier or DC link and instead connects each
output terminal to the appropriate input phase.

1.2.1 Type of VFD Designed in the Project

We have designed the most common type of packaged VF drive is the constant-voltage
type, using pulse width modulation to control both the frequency and effective voltage
applied to the motor load (Induction motor) utilizing the v/f control theory(explained in
the upcoming pages of this chapter).


Rectifier circuit (It will convert a three phase supply to Dc)

Storage Capacitors (Act as Dc buss)
Inverter Circuit (3-phase inverter for creating the desired ac waveform)
Control circuit (Usually PIC-microcontroller for generating gating signals that
determines the voltage and frequency of the inverter output)


Electronic VFD's rectifies the 50Hz current and make a smooth DC-voltage in capacitors
(working like small batteries). In other words the frequency is "eliminated" from the
system, or changed to zero. Then the VFD must create its own frequency by alternating
the DC-voltage through transistors at the desired frequency. Also (very important) the
voltage must be proportional to the frequency. You cannot output all 230 volts when the
motor is near zero speed. The voltage is usually controlled by the amplitude of the sine
output. Another way is to control the voltage at the input (rectifier) side.

The figure on the next page shows the power parts of a VFD. There are two "bridges" in
the circuit, one three phase rectifier and one three phase inverter bridge. The rectifier
(left) is working without any additional electronics. All electrical current is simply
conducted in the same direction as the arrows in the diode symbols. When the rectified
current is stored in the capacitors, the value of the voltage reach the peak value of
230VRMS (Root Mean Square) which is 230*1.41 = 325V. This is a DC-voltage like what
is coming from batteries, the frequency is zero. A VFD can run from batteries (like in
electric vehicles) or single phase.

The inverter bridge (the transistors) is kind of the opposite of the rectifier. The current is
conducted into the motor in the same direction as the arrows in the transistor-symbols,
but the transistors are not conducting all the time like the diodes. Actually if all
transistors were conducting, it would short-circuit the whole system.

1.4.1 Generation of Control Signals For Inverter Operation of VFD

The transistor bridge is controlled by a switching pattern corresponding to the new

frequency that is to be generated. These signals are made by ordinary low power
electronics like analog signal generators and amplifiers, digital circuitry and/or
microprocessors/microcontroller e.g. PIC. The signal pattern can be simple like square
waves or more sophisticated sine-like waves.

The difference between "good" or "bad" control signals to the transistors is a tradeoff
between good efficiency, product cost and different requirements. For example a "true
sine" inverter might emit less electromagnetic noise, the motor is running smoother (less
noise, more stable torque), but the inverter is more expensive and usually less efficient. If
the transistors are controlled by square waves, the power loss in the transistors reach its
minimum (because voltage and current are not present in them at the same time), but the
motor has to filter the "bad shape" electrical current resulting in jerky mechanical torque
and power loss in the windings. Also the uneven torque generates power loss as well as
unnecessary wear on the mechanical parts the motor is driving.

1.4.2 PWM - Pulse width modulation

Pulse width modulation is a compromise between sine wave (and any arbitrary
waveform) and square wave signals. The idea is that transistors can switch the current on
and off (creating a square wave) at such a high frequency the motor would not react to it.
Of course this high switching frequency is not the one controlling the speed of the motor.
The much lower motor frequency is embedded into the higher frequency by changing the
rate between the high and low states according to the low frequency. This is called
modulation and is similar to radio waves carrying lower frequency music, although the
modulation principle is different. The goal is to run square waves in the transistors
(remember less power loss) and sine-like current in the motor (also less power loss).

The switching frequency is usually ten to hundred times as high as the motor current
(modulating) frequency. The result from this frequency difference is that the motor is
acting like a low pass (averaging) filter to high frequencies, and it only "sees" the lower
frequency. One might think there is a power loss in such a filter, but reactive loads like
motors are storing the electrical energy into the magnetic field, and the unused energy is
fed back to the inverter bridge via reverse diodes in the transistors. By switching the full
voltage on and off, there is minimal voltage drop and losses in the transistors as shown in
figure 2.2)

The motor is storing and filtering the current pulses into low frequency sine waves.
(Detail explanation on PWM will be provided in the chapter 6)


As we know that in speed-torque characteristics of induction motor, motor draws the

rated current and delivers the rated torque at the base speed. When the load is increased
(over-rated load), while running at base speed, the speed drops and the slip increases. As
we have seen in the earlier section, the motor can take up to 2.5 times the rated torque
with around 20% drop in the speed. Any further increase of load on the shaft can stall the
motor. The torque developed by the motor is directly proportional to the magnetic field
produced by the stator. So, the voltage applied to the stator is directly proportional to the
product of stator flux and angular velocity. This makes the flux produced by the stator
proportional to the ratio of applied voltage and frequency of supply. By varying the
frequency, the speed of the motor can be varied. Therefore, by varying the voltage and
frequency by the same ratio, flux and hence, the torque can be kept constant throughout
the speed range.
Stator Voltage (V) = [Stator Flux ()] x [Angular Velocity ()]
V = x 2f
= V/f

This makes constant V/f the most common speed control of an induction motor. Figure
2.3 shows the relation between the voltage and torque versus frequency. Figure
demonstrates voltage and frequency being increased up to the base speed. At base speed,
the voltage and frequency reach the rated values as listed in the nameplate. We can drive
the motor beyond base speed by increasing the frequency further. However, the voltage
applied cannot be increased beyond the rated voltage. Therefore, only the frequency can
be increased, which results in the field weakening and the torque available being reduced.
Above base speed, the factors governing torque become complex, since friction and wind
losses increase significantly at higher speeds. Hence, the torque curve becomes nonlinear
with respect to speed or frequency.

1.5.1 VFD Motor

The motor used in a VFD system is usually a three-phase induction motor. Some types
of single-phase motors can be used, but three-phase motors are usually preferred. Various
types of synchronous motors offer advantages in some situations, but induction motors
are suitable for most purposes and are generally the most economical choice.

1.5.2 Operation of VFD (During Motor Running)

When an induction motor is connected to a full voltage supply, it draws several times (up
to about 6 times) its rated current. As the load accelerates, the available torque usually
drops a little and then rises to a peak while the current remains very high until the motor
approaches full speed.

By contrast, when a VFD starts a motor, it initially applies a low frequency and voltage to
the motor. The starting frequency is typically 2 Hz or less. Thus starting at such a low
frequency avoids the high inrush current that occurs when a motor is started by simply
applying the utility (mains) voltage by turning on a switch. After the start of the VFD, the
applied frequency and voltage are increased at a controlled rate or ramped up
to accelerate the load without drawing excessive current. This starting method typically
allows a motor to develop 150% of its rated torque while the VFD is drawing less than
50% of its rated current from the mains in the low speed range. A VFD can be adjusted to
produce a steady 150% starting torque from standstill right up to full speed.

With a VFD, the stopping sequence is just the opposite as the starting sequence. The
frequency and voltage applied to the motor are ramped down at a controlled rate. When
the frequency approaches zero, the motor is shut off. A small amount of braking torque is
available to help decelerate the load a little faster than it would stop if the motor were
simply switched off and allowed to coast. Additional braking torque can be obtained by
adding a braking circuit (resistor controlled by a transistor) to dissipate the braking
energy. With 4-quadrants rectifiers (active-front-end), the VFD is able to brake the load
by applying a reverse torque and reverting the energy back to the network.

1.5.3 Available VFD Power Ratings

Variable frequency drives are available with voltage and current ratings to match the
majority of 3-phase motors that are manufactured for operation from utility (mains)
power. VFD controllers designed to operate at 111 V to 690 V are often classified as low
voltage units. Low voltage units are typically designed for use with motors rated to

deliver 0.2 kW or 1/4 horsepower (hp) up to several megawatts. For example, the largest
ABB ACS800 single drives are rated for 5.6 MW. Medium voltage VFD controllers are
designed to operate at 2,400/4,162 V (60 Hz), 3,000 V (50 Hz) or up to 10 kV. In some
applications a step up transformer is placed between a low voltage drive and a medium
voltage load. Medium voltage units are typically designed for use with motors rated to
deliver 375 kW or 500 hp and above. Medium voltage drives rated above 7 kV and 5,000
or 10,000 hp should probably be considered to be one-of-a-kind (one-off) designs.

Medium voltage drives are generally rated amongst the following voltages: 2.3 KV--- 3.3
KV, 4KV, 6KV, 11Kv. The in-between voltages are generally possible as well. The
power of MV drives is generally in the range of 0, 3 to 100 MW however involving a
range of several different type of drives with different technologies.




This chapter introduces the basics of power supply and its types. It also gives a brief note
on Rectified supplies and compares various rectified supplies. Finally it lists the
applications of rectified supplies.


Power supply is a supply of electrical power. A device or system that supplies electrical
or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a power supply unit
or PSU. The term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies, less often to
mechanical ones, and rarely to others.

A power supply may include a power distribution system as well as primary or secondary
sources of energy such as:

Conversion of one form of electrical power to another desired form and voltage,
typically involving converting AC line voltage to a well-regulated lower-voltage
DC for electronic devices. Low voltage, low power DC power supply units are
commonly integrated with the devices they supply, such as computers and
household electronics; for other examples, see switched-mode power supply,
linear regulator, rectifier and inverter.
Chemical fuel cells and other forms of energy storage systems
Solar power
Generators or alternators

A regulated power supply or stabilized power supply is one that includes circuitry to
tightly control the output voltage and/or current to a specific value. The specific value is
closely maintained despite variations in the load presented to the power supply's output,
or any reasonable voltage variation at the power supply's input.


Power supplies for electronic devices can be broadly divided into linear and switching
power supplies. The linear supply is usually a relatively simple design; it becomes
increasingly bulky and heavy for high-current equipment due to the need for large mains-
frequency transformers and heat-sinked electronic regulation circuitry. Linear voltage
regulation circuitry reduces voltage by dissipating it, making efficiency low. A switched-
mode supply of the same rating as a linear supply will be smaller, is usually more
efficient, but will be more complex.

2.2.1 Battery Power Supply

A battery is a type of power supply that is independent of the availability of mains

electricity, suitable for portable equipment and use in locations without mains power. A
battery consists of several electrochemical cells connected in series to provide the voltage
desired. Batteries may be primary (able to supply current when constructed, discarded
when drained) or secondary (rechargeable; can be charged, used, and recharged many

2.2.2 Unregulated Power Supply

An AC powered unregulated power supply usually uses a transformer to convert the

voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, nowadays usually lower, voltage. If it
is used to produce DC, a rectifier is used to convert alternating voltage to a pulsating
direct voltage, followed by a filter, comprising one or more capacitors, resistors, and
sometimes inductors, to filter out (smooth) most of the pulsation. A small remaining
unwanted alternating voltage component at mains or twice mains power frequency
(depending upon whether half- or full-wave rectification is used)rippleis
unavoidably superimposed on the direct output voltage. For purposes such as charging
batteries the ripple is not a problem, and the simplest unregulated mains-powered DC
power supply circuit consists of a transformer driving a single diode in series with a

2.2.3 Linear Regulated Power Supply

The voltage produced by an unregulated power supply will vary depending on the load
and on variations in the AC supply voltage. For critical electronics applications a linear
regulator may be used to set the voltage to a precise value, stabilized against fluctuations
in input voltage and load. The regulator also greatly reduces the ripple and noise in the
output direct current. Linear regulators often provide current limiting, protecting the
power supply and attached circuit from over-current.

2.2.4 Switched-mode Power Supply

A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) works on a different principle. AC input, usually

at mains voltage, is rectified without the use of a mains transformer, to obtain a DC
voltage. This voltage is then switched on and off at a high speed by electronic switching
circuitry, which may use a high-frequency, hence small, light, and cheap, transformer or
inductor. The duty cycle of the output square wave increases as power output
requirements increase. Switched-mode power supplies are always regulated. If the SMPS
uses a properly insulated high-frequency transformer, the output will be electrically
isolated from the mains, essential for safety.

SMPSs often include safety features such as current limiting or a crowbar circuit to help
protect the device and the user from harm. In the event that an abnormal high current
power draw is detected, the switched-mode supply can assume this is a direct short and
will shut itself down before damage is done. For decades PC power supplies have
provided a signal to the motherboard whose absence prevents operation when abnormal
supply voltages are present.
2.2.5 Uninterruptible power supply

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) takes its power from two or more sources
simultaneously. It is usually powered directly from the AC mains, while simultaneously
charging a storage battery. Should there be a dropout or failure of the mains, the battery
instantly takes over so that the load never experiences an interruption. Such a scheme can
supply power as long as the battery charge suffices, e.g., in a computer installation,
giving the operator sufficient time to effect an orderly system shutdown without loss of

2.2.6 High-voltage power supply

High voltage refers to an output on the order of hundreds or thousands of volts. High-
voltage supplies use a linear setup to produce an output voltage in this range. Additional
features available on high-voltage supplies can include the ability to reverse the output
polarity along with the use of circuit breakers and special connectors intended to
minimize arcing and accidental contact with human hands.

2.2.7 Voltage multipliers

Voltage multipliers, as the name implies, are circuits designed to multiply the input
voltage. The input voltage may be doubled (voltage doubler), tripled (voltage tripler),
quadrupled (voltage quadrupler), etc. Voltage multipliers are also power converters. An
AC input is converted to a higher DC output. These circuits allow high voltages to be
obtained using a much lower voltage AC source.


A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current
(DC), a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as
components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made
of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. A

device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an

When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking the negative or positive portion
of the waveform), the difference between the term diode and the term rectifier is merely
one of usage, i.e., the term rectifier describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to
DC. Almost all rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more
efficiently converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode. Before the
development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers, vacuum tube diodes and copper(I) oxide
or selenium rectifier stacks were used.

2.3.1 Types of Rectification

Half-wave rectification
Full-wave rectification

Half-wave Rectification

In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed,
while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the
output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification can be
achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase

Full-wave Rectification

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity
(positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the
input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient. However, in a circuit with a
non-center tapped transformer, four diodes are required instead of the one needed for
half-wave rectification. Four diodes arranged this way are called a bridge rectifier.

2.3.2 Three Phase Rectifiers

Each three-phase line connects between a pair of diodes: one to route power to the
positive (+) side of the load, and the other to route power to the negative (-) side of the
load. Poly-phase systems with more than three phases are easily accommodated into a
bridge rectifier scheme. Take for instance this six-phase bridge rectifier circuit:

The resultant waveforms achieved by this arrange is shown graphically below.

The waveform illustrates that move power is delivered by the three phase supply as
compared with the single phase supply. The ripple is also less but more number of diodes
are being used with greater rating as compared with the single phase counterpart.

Sometimes, the method of rectification is referred to by counting the number of DC

"pulses" output for every 360o of electrical "rotation." A single-phase, half-wave rectifier
circuit, then, would be called a 1-pulse rectifier, because it produces a single pulse during
the time of one complete cycle (360o) of the AC waveform. A single-phase, full-wave
rectifier (regardless of design, center-tap or bridge) would be called a 2-pulse rectifier,
because it outputs two pulses of DC during one AC cycle's worth of time. A three-phase
full-wave rectifier would be called a 6-pulse unit.


The primary application of rectifiers is to derive DC power from an AC supply. Virtually

all electronic devices require DC, so rectifiers find uses inside the power supplies of
virtually all electronic equipment.

Converting DC power from one voltage to another is much more complicated. One
method of DC-to-DC conversion first converts power to AC (using a device called an
inverter), then use a transformer to change the voltage, and finally rectifies power back to

Rectifiers also find a use in detection of amplitude modulated radio signals. The signal
may or may not be amplified before detection but if un-amplified a very low voltage drop
diode must be used. When using a rectifier for demodulation the capacitor and load
resistance must be carefully matched. Too low a capacitance will result in the high
frequency carrier passing to the output and too high will result in the capacitor just
charging and staying charged.



This chapter introduces switching devices, types, their structure and its characteristics.
Effect of capacitance and stray inductance is also considered. In modern days design of
inverter in VFD consist of MOSFETs and IGBTs as switching devices.

So we have just explained power MOSFET and IGBTS.


The general types of transistors are:

The bipolar transistor (BJT)

The gate turn off transistor (GTO)
The field-effect transistor (FET)
The metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFET)
The insulated gate-bipolar transistor (IGBT)


A Power MOSFET is a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor

(MOSFET) designed to handle large amounts of power. Compared to the other power
semiconductor devices (IGBT, Thyristor...), its main advantages are high commutation
speed and good efficiency at low voltages. It shares with the IGBT an isolated gate that
makes it easy to drive.

It was made possible by the evolution of CMOS technology, developed for
manufacturing Integrated circuits in the late 1970s. The power MOSFET shares its
operating principle with its low-power counterpart, the lateral MOSFET.

The power MOSFET is the most widely used low-voltage (i.e. less than 200 V) switch. It
can be found in most power supplies, DC to DC converters.

3.2.1 Basic Structure

The cross section of a VDMOS (see figure 4.1) shows the "verticality" of the device: It
can be seen that the source electrode is placed over the drain, resulting in a current
mainly vertical when the transistor is in the on-state. The "diffusion" in VDMOS refers to
the manufacturing process: the P wells (see figure 4.1) are obtained by a diffusion

Power MOSFETs have a different structure than the lateral MOSFET: as with all power
devices, their structure is vertical and not planar. In a planar structure, the current and
breakdown voltage ratings are both functions of the channel dimensions (respectively
width and length of the channel), resulting in inefficient use of the "silicon estate". With a
vertical structure, the voltage rating of the transistor is a function of the doping and
thickness of the N epitaxial layer (see cross section), while the current rating is a function

of the channel width. This makes possible for the transistor to sustain both high blocking
voltage and high current within a compact piece of silicon.

It is worth noting that power MOSFETs with lateral structure exists. They are mainly
used in high-end audio amplifiers. Their advantage is a better behaviour in the saturated
region (corresponding to the linear region of a bipolar transistor) than the vertical
MOSFETs. Vertical MOSFETs are designed for switching applications, so they are only
used in on or off states.

3.2.2 Switching Operation

Because of their uni-polar nature, the power MOSFET can switch at very high speed.
Indeed, there is no need to remove minority carriers as with bipolar devices.

The only intrinsic limitation in commutation speed is due to the internal capacitances of
the MOSFET (see figure 4). These capacitances must be charged or discharged when the
transistor switches. This can be a relatively slow process because the current that flows
through the gate capacitances is limited by the external driver circuit. This circuit will
actually dictate the commutation speed of the transistor (assuming the power circuit has

3.2.3 Capacitance

In the MOSFETs datasheets, the capacitances are often named Ciss (input capacitance,
drain and source terminal shorted), Coss (output capacitance, gate and source shorted), and
Crss (reverse capacitance, gate and source shorted). The relationship between these
capacitances and those described below is:

Where CGS, CGD and CDS are respectively the gate-to-source, gate-to-drain and drain-to-
source capacitances (see below). Manufacturers prefer to quote Ciss, Coss and Crss because
they can be directly measured on the transistor.

Gate to Source Capacitance

The CGS capacitance is constituted by the parallel connection of CoxN+, CoxP and Coxm (see
figure 4). As the N+ and P regions are highly doped, the two former capacitances can be
considered as constant. Coxm is the capacitance between the (polysilicon) gate and the
(metal) source electrode, so it is also constant. Therefore, it is common practice to
consider CGS as a constant capacitance, i.e. its value does not depend on the transistor

Gate to Drain Capacitance

The CGD capacitance can be seen as the connection in series of two elementary
capacitances. The first one is the oxide capacitance (CoxD), constituted by the gate
electrode, the silicon dioxide and the top of the N epitaxial layer. It has a constant value.
The second capacitance (CCDj) is caused by the extension of the space-charge zone when
the MOSFET is in off-state (see the section Blocking Voltage). Therefore, it is dependent
upon the drain to source voltage. From this, the value of CGD is:

The width of the space-charge region is given by

Where Si is the permittivity of the Silicon, q is the electron charge, and N is the doping
level. The value of CGDj can be approximated using the expression of the plane capacitor:

Where AGD is the surface area of the gate-drain overlap. Therefore, it comes:

It can be seen that CGDj (and thus CGD) is a capacitance which value is dependent upon
the gate to drain voltage. As this voltage increases, the capacitance decreases. When the
MOSFET is in on-state, CGDj is shunted, so the gate to drain capacitance remains equal to
CoxD, a constant value.

Drain to Source Capacitance

As the source metallization overlaps the P-wells (see figure 1), the drain and source
terminals are separated by a P-N junction. Therefore, CDS is the junction capacitance.
This is a non-linear capacitance, and its value can be calculated using the same equation
as for CGDj.


The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal power semiconductor

device, noted for high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric power in many
modern appliances: electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, air-conditioners and
even stereo systems with switching amplifiers. Since it is designed to rapidly turn on and
off, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulse width
modulation and low-pass filters.

The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFETs with the high-
current and lowsaturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an
isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a switch, in a
single device. The IGBT is used in medium- to high-power applications such as
switched-mode power supply, traction motor control and induction heating. Large IGBT
modules typically consist of many devices in parallel and can have very high current
handling capabilities in the order of hundreds of amperes with blocking voltages of 6kv.

The IGBT is a fairly recent invention. The first-generation devices of the 1980s and early
1990s were relatively slow in switching, and prone to failure through such modes as latch
up and secondary breakdown. Second-generation devices were much improved, and the
current third-generation ones are even better, with speed rivaling MOSFETs, and
excellent ruggedness and tolerance of overloads.

The extremely high pulse ratings of second- and third-generation devices also make them
useful for generating large power pulses in areas like particle and plasma physics, where
they are starting to supersede older devices like thyratrons and triggered spark gaps.

Their high pulse ratings, and low prices on the surplus market, also make them attractive
to the high-voltage hobbyist for controlling large amounts of power to drive devices such
as solid-state Tesla coils and coil guns.

Availability of affordable, reliable IGBTs is a key enabler for electric vehicles and hybrid
cars. Toyota's second generation hybrid Prius has a 50 kW IGBT inverter controlling two
AC motor/generators connected to the DC battery pack.

3.3.1 Device Structure

An IGBT cell is constructed similarly to a n-channel vertical construction power

MOSFET except the n+ drain is replaced with a p+ collector layer, thus forming a
vertical PNP bipolar junction transistor.

An IGBT cell is constructed similarly to a n-channel vertical construction power

MOSFET except the n+ drain is replaced with a p+ collector layer, thus forming a PNP

This additional p+ region creates a cascade connection of a PNP bipolar junction

transistor with the surface n-channel MOSFET. This connection results in a significantly
lower forward voltage drop compared to a conventional MOSFET in higher blocking
voltage rated devices. As the blocking voltage rating of both MOSFET and IGBT devices
increases, the depth of the n- drift region must increase and the doping must decrease,
resulting in roughly square relationship increase in forward conduction loss compared to
blocking voltage capability of the device. By injecting minority carriers (holes) from the
collector p+ region into the n- drift region during forward conduction, the resistance of
the n- drift region is considerably reduced. However, this resultant reduction in on-state
forward voltage comes with several penalties:

The additional PN junction blocks reverse current flow. This means that unlike a
MOSFET, IGBTs cannot conduct in the reverse direction. In bridge circuits where
reverse current flow is needed an additional diode (called a freewheeling diode) is
placed in parallel with the IGBT to conduct current in the opposite direction. The
penalty isn't as severe as first assumed though, because at the higher voltages
where IGBT usage dominates, discrete diodes are of significantly higher
performance as the body diode of a MOSFET.
The reverse bias rating of the N- drift region to collector P+ diode is usually only
of 10's of volts, so if the circuit application applies a reverse voltage to the IGBT,
an additional series diode must be used.
The minority carriers injected into the n- drift region take time to enter and exit or
recombine at turn on and turn off. These results in longer switching time and
hence higher switching loss compared to a power MOSFET.
The additional PN junction adds a diode-like voltage drop to the device. At lower
blocking voltage ratings, this additional drop means that an IGBT would have a
higher on-state voltage drop. As the voltage rating of the device increases, the
advantage of the reduced N- drift region resistance overcomes the penalty of this
diode drop and the overall on-state voltage drop is lower (the crossover is around
400 V blocking rating). Thus IGBTs are rarely used where the blocking voltage
requirement is below 600 V.


Motor control: Frequency <20kHz, short circuit/in-rush limit protection

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS): Constant load, typically low frequency
Welding: High average current, low frequency (<50kHz), ZVS circuitry
Low-power lighting: Low frequency (<100kHz)


When comparing, the MOSFET and IGBT structures look very similar. The basic
difference is the addition of a p substrate beneath the n substrate. The IGBT technology is
certainly the device of choice for breakdown.

IGBTs have been the preferred device under these conditions

High-voltage applications (>1000V)
Narrow or small line or load variations

MOSFETs are preferred in:

High frequency applications (>200 kHz)
Wide line or load variations Long duty cycles
Low-voltage applications (<250V)
< 500W output power


In the battle between MOSFETs and IGBTs, either device can be shown to provide the
advantage in the same circuit, depending on operating conditions. How does a designer
select the right device for his application? The best approach is to understand the relative
performance of each device.

Data, which select applications at the highest switching frequency, shortest pulse width or
lowest current, will tend to favor the MOSFET over the IGBT. For example, a power
supply operating at room temperature with nominal load and nominal line voltage will
make the MOSFET appear to be better than the IGBT. Conversely, if the power supply is
operated at maximum case temperature, maximum load and minimum line voltage, the
IGBT will look better. Actual Performance, however, is almost never under nominal
conditions. Variations in ambient temperature, line voltage and load are more realistic
and should be considered.



An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating

current (AC), the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use
of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits.

Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from
small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct
current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC
power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries.

The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because

early mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse, and thus were
"inverted", to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of
a rectifier.


From the late nineteenth century through the middle of the twentieth century, DC-to-
AC power conversion was accomplished using rotary converters or motor-generator sets
(M-G sets). In the early twentieth century, vacuum tubes and gas filled tubes began to be
used as switches in inverter circuits. The most widely used type of tube was the thyratron.

The origins of electromechanical inverters explain the source of the term inverter. Early
AC-to-DC converters used an induction or synchronous AC motor direct-connected to a
generator (dynamo) so that the generator's commutator reversed its connections at exactly
the right moments to produce DC. A later development is the synchronous converter, in
which the motor and generator windings are combined into one armature, with slip rings
at one end and a commutator at the other and only one field frame. The result with either
is AC-in, DC-out. With an M-G set, the DC can be considered to be separately generated
from the AC; with a synchronous converter, in a certain sense it can be considered to be
"mechanically rectified AC". Given the right auxiliary and control equipment, an M-G set
or rotary converter can be "run backwards", converting DC to AC. Hence an inverter is
an inverted converter.

Since early transistors were not available with sufficient voltage and current ratings for
most inverter applications, it was the 1957 introduction of the thyristor or silicon-
controlled rectifier (SCR) that initiated the transition to solid state inverter circuits.
The commutation requirements of SCRs are a key consideration in SCR circuit designs.
SCRs do not turn off or commutate automatically when the gate control signal is shut off.
They only turn off when the forward current is reduced to below the minimum holding
current, which varies with each kind of SCR, through some external process. For SCRs
connected to an AC power source, commutation occurs naturally every time the polarity
of the source voltage reverses. SCRs connected to a DC power source usually require a
means of forced commutation that forces the current to zero when commutation is
required. The least complicated SCR circuits employ natural commutation rather than
forced commutation. With the addition of forced commutation circuits, SCRs have been
used in the types of inverter circuits described above.

In applications where inverters transfer power from a DC power source to an AC power

source, it is possible to use AC-to-DC controlled rectifier circuits operating in the
inversion mode. In the inversion mode, a controlled rectifier circuit operates as a line
commutated inverter.


4.2.1 Classification W.R.T Phase

Single Phase Inverter

It consists of four choppers. When G1 will conduct +ve V1 will appear across load and
when G2 will conduct ve V1 will appear across the load.

Three Phase Inverter

These are normally used for high-power applications; there are two modes of
operation namely a) 120 degree mode of conduction b) 180 degree mode of conduction.
We have used 3-phase inverter in our project
4.2.2 Classification W.R.T Control Circuit

Offline UPS

The OFFLINE UPS supplies (or routes) the incoming mains supply directly through to
the output usually through a relay contact. Some high frequency noise filtering and surge
suppression may be included in this path. The UPS switches on its inverter as soon as
mains supply failure is detected or below the normal load and simultaneously switches
the output relay to the inverter side to supply battery sourced power to the load. This
transition involves a delay on account of the time to reliably detect mains failure and
switch over a relay, and the output is broken for this period (usually for 2 to 12msec).
OFF - LINE UPS are usually the least expensive as compared to the other two.

Line Interactive Inverter

The true LINE INTERACTIVE design is in fact a combination of OFFLINE & ONLINE,
in which the inverter plays a dual role of charging the battery when mains supply is
present as well as regulating the output voltage and working as a normal inverter in
absence of mains supply, so to the user it appears like an ONLINE System.

Online Inverter

An ONLINE UPS is the one in which the inverter always supplies power to the protected
load and hence the same quality of power is ensured all the time. When mains supply is
present, the inverter derives its power from thee mains supplied rectifier and the backup
batteries are also kept in charged state. When the mains fail, the source of DC power for
the inverter section shifts to the battery without any breaks whatsoever in the output to
the Inverter. It also bears all the vagaries and noise borne out of the mains supply and
insulates the secure bus supply from it. An ONLINE UPS is especially useful for
sensitive and critical equipments/devices.

4.2.3 Classification on the Basis of Output

Square Wave Inverter

The output of this kind of inverter is square wave which is most easily generated. Half
bridge can be used to produce this output with minimal control circuitry. They are the
cheapest of inverters.

Modified Sine Wave Inverter

This kind of inverter is better than the square wave but worse as compared to pure sine
wave inverter because it contains harmonics.

Pure Sine Wave Inverters

The output of this kind of inverter is pure sine wave and its free of harmonics

Voltage spikes
Over Voltages
Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic distortion is multiples of frequency superimposed on the power waveform,
causing excess heating in the wiring and fuses. It is the reason for distortion and causes
electro- magnetic interference.


4.4.1 DC Power Source Utilization

Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in an
automobile. The unit shown provides up to 1.2 amperes of alternating current, or just
enough to power two sixty watt light bulbs.

An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels,
or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular
it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at
any desired voltage.

Grid tie inverters can feed energy back into the distribution network because they
produce alternating current with the same wave shape and frequency as supplied by the
distribution system. They can also switch off automatically in the event of a blackout.

4.4.2 Induction heating

Inverters convert low frequency main AC power to a higher frequency for use
in induction heating. To do this, AC power is first rectified to provide DC power. The
inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency AC power.

4.4.3 HVDC Power Transmission

With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is
transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter
plant converts the power back to AC.

4.4.4 Variable Frequency Drives

A variable-frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by controlling

the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor. An inverter provides the
controlled power. In most cases, the variable-frequency drive includes a rectifier so that
DC power for the inverter can be provided from main AC power. Since an inverter is the
key component, variable-frequency drives are sometimes called inverter drives or just

4.4.5 Electric vehicle drives

Adjustable speed motor control inverters are currently used to power the traction
motors in some electric and diesel-electric rail vehicles as well as some battery electric
vehicles and hybrid electric highway vehicles such as the Toyota Prius. Various
improvements in inverter technology are being developed specifically for electric vehicle
applications. In vehicles with regenerative braking, the inverter also takes power from the
motor (now acting as a generator) and stores it in the batteries.

4.4.5 Air conditioning

An air conditioner bearing the inverter tag uses a variable-frequency drive to control the
speed of the motor and thus the compressor.

4.4.6 The general case

A transformer allows AC power to be converted to any desired voltage, but at the same
frequency. Inverters, plus rectifiers for DC, can be designed to convert from any voltage,
AC or DC, to any other voltage, also AC or DC, at any desired frequency. The output
power can never exceed the input power, but efficiencies can be high, with a small
proportion of the power dissipated as waste heat.


This chapter is dedicated to the resources of PIC16F877 which we utilized in our project.
Only those features are discussed that we employed in our circuitry. The features like
timers, interrupts, USART are discussed below and it is explained how to configure these
according to our requirement. A little bit of basic introduction of PIC 16F877 is also


We opted to PIC microcontroller as an obvious choice because of its simplicity and

efficiency. The compiler programs like MICKRO C contain built in routines for
programming different modules of PIC. That makes its programming very easy and

PICs are powerful microcontrollers. Common alternatives are the 8051 architecture or the
Atmel AVR architecture. But in my views use of 8051 is getting obsolete and there is not
much use of these in industrial applications. PICs are used heavily in the industry. They
also come with an excellent development environment. PICs also come in various forms.
Such as PIC16, PIC18 etc. the same goes for other architecture. So when you compare
you want to compare at compute power, power efficiency, physical dimensions etc.


It is a 40 pin and 8-bit machine with operating speed upto 20 MHz. it has got 8K 14-bit
words flash memory and 368bytes RAM and also 256bytes EEROM. It is available in

DIP, QFP and PLCC packages. It has very low power consumption and a very long
operating voltage range : 2.0-5.0V. pin configuration and other features are given below
in tabulated form, obtained from microchip data sheet.

Figure 5.1


Figure 5.2

Legend: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power

= Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as general purpose I/O and a
TTL input when used in the Parallel
Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus).
4: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a
CMOS input otherwise.
Figure 5.3

Figure 5.4



The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following features:

8-bit timer/counter
Readable and writable
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Internal or external clock select
Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h
Edge select for external clock

Timer mode is selected by clearing bit T0CS(OPTION_REG<5>). In Timer mode, the
Timer0 module will increment every instruction cycle(without prescaler). If the TMR0
register is written, the increment is inhibited for the following two instruction cycles. The
user can work around this by writing an adjusted value to the TMR0 register.

Counter mode is selected by setting bit T0CS(OPTION_REG<5>). In Counter mode,

Timer0 will increment either on every rising, or falling edge of pinRA4/T0CKI. The
incrementing edge is determined by the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit,
T0SE(OPTION_REG<4>). Clearing bit T0SE selects the rising edge. The prescaler is
mutually exclusively shared between the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. The
prescaler is not readable or writable. We have used timer mode in our application.

5.3.2 Timer0 Interrupt:-

The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h.
This overflow sets bitT0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked by clearing bit
T0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit T0IF must be cleared in software by the Timer0 module
Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling this interrupt.

5.3.3 Prescaler:-

There is only one prescaler available, which is mutually exclusively shared

between the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. A prescaler assignment for
the Timer0 module means that there is no prescaler for the Watchdog Timer, and vice-
versa. This prescaler is not readable or writable (see Figure 5-1). The PSA and PS2:PS0
bits (OPTION_REG<3:0>) determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio. When
assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions writing to the TMR0 register (e.g. CLRF
1, MOVWF 1,BSF 1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When assigned to WDT,
a CLRWDT instruction will clear the prescaler along with the Watchdog Timer.
The prescaler is not readable or writable.

5.3.4 Register associated with timer0:-

Figure 5.5

bit 7 RBPU
bit 6 INTEDG
bit 5 T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT)
bit 4 T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin
bit 3 PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0 PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits

Figure 5.6


The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting of two 8-bit registers

(TMR1H and TMR1L), which are readable and writable. The TMR1 Register
pair(TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. The
TMR1 Interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow, which is latched in interrupt flag
bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1
interrupt enable bit TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).
Timer1 can operate in one of two modes:

As a timer
As a counter
The operating mode is determined by the clock select bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>).

In Timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction cycle. In Counter mode, it

increments on every rising edge of the external clock input.

Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing control bit TMR1ON


(Additional information on timer modules is available in the PICmicro Mid-Range

MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023).)


T1CON the register used to control the operation of is shown below and
each bit explained under:

Figure 5.7

bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as '0'

bit 5-4 T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3 T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Oscillator is enabled
0 = Oscillator is shut-off (the oscillator inverter is turned off to eliminate power drain)

bit 2 T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
When TMR1CS = 1:
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
When TMR1CS = 0:
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1 TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0 TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1

Figure 5.8


The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module

is one of the two serial I/O modules. (USART is also known as a Serial
Communications Interface or SCI.) The USART can be configured as a full duplex
asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as CRT
terminals and personal computers, or it can be configured as a half-duplex synchronous
system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as A/D or D/A integrated
circuits, serial EEPROMs etc. Communication in our project between the control circuit
and personal computer will happen through USART.

The USART can be configured in the following modes:

Asynchronous (full duplex)

Synchronous - Master (half duplex)
Synchronous - Slave (half duplex)

Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins
RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter. In our project we will utilize asynchronous mode. The registers associated
with USART operation are explained below.


(ADDRESS 98h):-

The bitwise operation of the TXSTA register used for serial transmission is given under

Figure 5.9

bit 7 CSRC: Clock Source Select bit

Asynchronous mode: Dont care
Synchronous mode:
1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from B
0 = Slave mode (clock from external source)
bit 6 TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit transmission
0 = Selects 8-bit transmission
bit 5 TXEN: Transmit Enable bit
1 = Transmit enabled
0 = Transmit disabled
Note: SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in SYNC mode
bit 4 SYNC: USART Mode Select bit
1 = Synchronous mode
0 = Asynchronous mode
bit 3 Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 2 BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = High speed
0 = Low speed
Synchronous mode:
Unused in this mode
bit 1 TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit
1 = TSR empty
0 = TSR full
bit 0 TX9D: 9th bit of Transmit Data, can be parity bit
(ADDRESS 18h):-

The bitwise operation of the RCSTA register used for serial transmission is given under

Figure 5.10

bit 7 SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit

1 = Serial port enabled (configures RC7/RX/DT and RC6/TX/CK pins as serial port pins)
0 = Serial port disabled
bit 6 RX9: 9-bit Receive Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit reception
0 = Selects 8-bit reception
bit 5 SREN: Single Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
Dont care
Synchronous mode - master:
1 = Enables single receive
0 = Disables single receive
This bit is cleared after reception is complete.
Synchronous mode - slave:
Dont care
bit 4 CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Enables continuous receive
0 = Disables continuous receive
Synchronous mode:

1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit CREN is cleared (CREN overrides
0 = Disables continuous receive
bit 3 ADDEN: Address Detect Enable bit
Asynchronous mode 9-bit (RX9 = 1):
1 = Enables address detection, enables interrupt and load of the receive buffer when
RSR<8> is set
0 = Disables address detection, all bytes are received, and ninth bit can be used as parity
bit 2 FERR: Framing Error bit
1 = Framing error (can be updated by reading RCREG register and receive next valid
0 = No framing error
bit 1 OERR: Overrun Error bit
1 = Overrun error (can be cleared by clearing bit CREN)
0 = No overrun error
bit 0 RX9D: 9th bit of Received Data (can be parity bit, but must be calculated by user

5.6 USART Baud Rate Generator (BRG):-

The BRG supports both the Asynchronous and Synchronous modes of the USART.
It is a dedicated 8-bit baud rate generator. The SPBRG register controls the period of a
free running 8-bit timer. In Asynchronous mode, bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>) also controls
the baud rate. In Synchronous mode, bit BRGH is ignored.
Table 4-1 shows the formula for computation of the baud rate for different
USART modes which only apply in Master mode (internal clock).
Given the desired baud rate and FOSC, the nearest integer value for the SPBRG register
can be calculated using the formula in Table 4-1. From this, the error in baud rate can be
determined. It may be advantageous to use the high baud rate (BRGH = 1), even for
slower baud clocks. This is because the FOSC/(16(X + 1)) equation can reduce the baud
rate error in some cases. Writing a new value to the SPBRG register causes the BRG
timer to be reset (or cleared). This ensures the BRG does not wait for a timer overflow
before outputting the new baud rate.


The data on the RC7/RX/DT pin is sampled three times by a majority detect circuit to
determine if a high or a low level is present at the RX pin.

Figure 5.11


The PIC16F87X family has up to 14 sources of interrupt. The interrupt control register
(INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has individual and
global interrupt enable bits.

A global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>) enables (if set) all unmasked interrupts,
or disables (if cleared) all interrupts. When bit GIE is enabled, and an interrupts
flag bit and mask bit are set, the interrupt will vector immediately. Individual interrupts

can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in various registers. Individual
interrupt bits are set, of the status of the GIE bit. The GIE bit is cleared on RESET.

The return from interrupt instruction, RETFIE, exits the interrupt routine, as well as
sets the GIE bit, which re-enables interrupts.

Note: Individual interrupt flag bits are set, regardless of the status of their
corresponding mask bit, or the GIE bit. The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change
interrupt, and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register.

The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers, PIR1 and
PIR2. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special function
registers, PIE1 and PIE2, and the peripheral interrupt enable bit is contained in special
function register INTCON.

When an interrupt is responded to, the GIE bit is cleared to disable any further interrupt,
the return address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h. Once in the
Interrupt Service Routine, the source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling the
interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before re-enabling
interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts.


An overflow (FFh 00h) in the TMR0 register will set flag bit TINTCON<2>).
The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit



This chapter introduces the basics of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). Then it lists the
various PWMs techniques namely Delta, Delta Sigma, Space Vectors and SPWM.
Emphasis will be on SPWM. Finally applications of PWM are listed.


Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a powerful technique for controlling analog circuits
with a processor's digital outputs. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications,
ranging from measurement and communications to power control and conversion. It is a
very efficient way of providing intermediate amounts of electrical power between fully
on and fully off. A simple power switch with a typical power source provides full power
only when switched on.

Basically, a PWM variable-power scheme switches the power quickly between fully on
and fully offe.g. several times a minute in an electric stove, 120 Hz in a lamp dimmer,
and well into the tens or hundreds of kHz in a computer power supply (which has a
regulated output). In any event, the switching rate is much faster than what would affect
the load, which is to say the device that uses the power. In practice, applying full power
for part of the time does not cause any problems; PWM is very practical.

The term duty cycle describes the proportion of on time to the regular interval or period
of time; a low duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of
the time. Duty cycle is expressed in percent, 100% being fully on.

PWM works well with digital controls, which, because of their on/off nature, can easily
set the needed duty cycle.
PWM of a signal or power source involves the modulation of its duty cycle, to either
convey information over a communications channel or control the amount of power sent
to a load.


6.2.1 Delta

In the use of delta modulation for PWM control, the output signal is integrated, and the
result is compared with limits, which correspond to a reference signal offset by a
constant. Every time the integral of the output signal reaches one of the limits, the PWM
signal changes state. The diagram illustrates the Delta modulation.

The output signal (blue) is compared with the limits (green). These limits correspond to
the reference signal (red), offset by a given value. Every time the output signal reaches
one of the limits, the PWM signal changes state.

6.2.2 Delta-sigma

In delta-sigma modulation as a PWM control method, the output signal is subtracted from
a reference signal to form an error signal. This error is integrated, and when the integral
of the error exceeds the limits, the output changes state.

The top green waveform is the reference signal, on which the output signal (PWM, in the
middle plot) is subtracted to form the error signal (blue, in top plot). This error is
integrated (bottom plot), and when the integral of the error exceeds the limits (red lines),
the output changes state.

6.2.3 Space vector modulation

Space vector modulation is a PWM control algorithm for multi-phase AC generation, in

which the reference signal is sampled regularly; after each sample, non-zero active
switching vectors adjacent to the reference vector and one or more of the zero switching
vectors are selected for the appropriate fraction of the sampling period in order to
synthesize the reference signal.

6.2.4 Sinusoidal PWM

Sinusoidal PWM is a type of "carrier-based" pulse width modulation. Carrier based

PWM uses pre-defined modulation signals to determine output voltages. In sinusoidal
PWM, the modulation signal is sinusoidal, with the peak of the modulating signal always
less than the peak of the carrier signal. Sinusoidal PWM inverter leg and line-line
voltages are illustrated below.

The amplitude modulation depth, ma is defined using the ratio of peak modulation and

carrier signals as follows

Where Vm, VC are the modulating and carrier signal voltages, respectively.

For sinusoidal PWM, the amplitude modulation depth must be less than 1.0
The fundamental output voltage for one leg is given by

and the fundamental line-line voltage is given by


6.3.1 Telecommunications

In telecommunications, the widths of the pulses correspond to specific data values

encoded at one end and decoded at the other.

Pulses of various lengths (the information itself) will be sent at regular intervals (the
carrier frequency of the modulation).

_ __ ___ _____ _ _____ __ _

| | | | | | | || | | || | | |
| | | | | | | || | | || | | |
__| |____| |___| |__| || |____| || |___| |____

Data 0 1 2 4 0 4 1 0
The inclusion of a clock signal is not necessary, as the leading edge of the data signal can
be used as the clock if a small offset is added to the data value in order to avoid a data
value with a zero length pulse.

6.3.2 Power delivery

PWM can be used to reduce the total amount of power delivered to a load without losses
normally incurred when a power source is limited by resistive means. This is because the
average power delivered is proportional to the modulation duty cycle. With a sufficiently

high modulation rate, passive electronic filters can be used to smooth the pulse train and
recover an average analog waveform.

High frequency PWM power control systems are easily realizable with semiconductor
switches. The discrete on/off states of the modulation are used to control the state of the
switch(es) which correspondingly control the voltage across or current through the load.
The major advantage of this system is the switches are either off and not conducting any
current, or on and have (ideally) no voltage drop across them. The product of the current
and the voltage at any given time defines the power dissipated by the switch, thus
(ideally) no power is dissipated by the switch. Realistically, semiconductor switches such
as MOSFETs or bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are non-ideal switches, but high
efficiency controllers can still be built.

During the transitions between on and off states, considerable power is dissipated in the
switches. However, the change of state between fully on and fully off is quite rapid
relative to typical on or off times, and so the average power dissipation is quite low
compared to the power being delivered.

PWM is also often used to control the supply of electrical power to another device such
as in speed control of electric motors, fundamental operation of Class D audio switching
amplifiers or brightness control of light sources and many other power electronics
applications. For example, light dimmers for home use employ a specific type of PWM
control. Home use light dimmers typically include electronic circuitry which suppresses
current flow during defined portions of each cycle of the AC line voltage. Adjusting the
brightness of light emitted by a light source is then merely a matter of setting at what
voltage (or phase) in the AC cycle the dimmer begins to provide electrical current to the
light source (e.g. by using an electronic switch such as a triac). In this case the PWM duty
cycle is defined by the frequency of the AC line voltage (50 Hz or 60 Hz depending on
the country).

In electric cookers, continuously-variable power is applied to the heating elements such

as the hob or the grill using a device known as a Simmerstat. This consists of a thermal

oscillator running at approximately two cycles per minute and the mechanism varies the
duty cycle according to the knob setting. The thermal time constant of the heating
elements is several minutes, so that the temperature fluctuations are too small to matter in

6.3.3 Voltage regulation

PWM is also used in efficient voltage regulators. By switching voltage to the load with
the appropriate duty cycle, the output will approximate a voltage at the desired level. The
switching noise is usually filtered with an inductor and a capacitor.

One method measures the output voltage. When it is lower than the desired voltage, it
turns on the switch. When the output voltage is above the desired voltage, it turns off the

Variable-speed fan controllers for computers usually use PWM, as it is far more efficient
when compared to a potentiometer or rheostat. (Neither of the latter is practical to operate
electronically; they would require a small drive motor.)

6.3.4 Audio effects and amplification

PWM is sometimes used in sound (music) synthesis, in particular subtractive synthesis,

as it gives a sound effect similar to chorus or slightly detuned oscillators played together.
(In fact, PWM is equivalent to the difference of two saw-tooth waves. The ratio between
the high and low level is typically modulated with a low frequency oscillator, or LFO. In
addition, varying the duty cycle of a pulse waveform in a subtractive-synthesis
instrument creates useful tumbrel variations. Some synthesizers had a duty-cycle trimmer
for their square-wave outputs, and that trimmer could be set by ear; the 50% point was
distinctive, because even-numbered harmonics essentially disappeared at 50%.

In more recent times, the Direct Stream Digital sound encoding method was introduced,
which uses a generalized form of pulse-width modulation called pulse density
modulation, at a high enough sampling rate (typically in the order of MHz) to cover the

whole acoustic frequencies range with sufficient fidelity. This method is used in the
SACD format, and reproduction of the encoded audio signal is essentially similar to the
method used in class-D amplifiers.





Simulation software is based on the process of imitating a real phenomenon with a set
of mathematical formulas. It is, essentially, a program that allows the user to observe an
operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. Simulation
software is used widely to design equipment so that the final product will be as close to
design specs as possible without expensive in process modification.


The Circuit Maker software provides a Virtual Electronics Lab where users can freely
experiment with electronic circuits and learn how to create working electronic devices.
Users can design basic to advanced circuits, like those used in radios, TVs and
computers. The software provides a comprehensive library of devices to choose from,
and has various? Virtual instruments? Like oscilloscopes and multi-meters that allow
users to measure, test and troubleshoot the circuits they create.

Digital engineers spend a lot of time tediously diagramming circuits and constructing
prototypes. Circuit Maker promises to relieve that tedium, by providing a circuit-drawing
tool with a digital circuit simulator. The drawing tool lets you quickly lay out schematic
diagrams with standard or custom components, and the digital.

1.2.1 Benefits

Features and Benefits Rapid circuit design with intuitive user interface.
Improves electrical wiring design quality through drafting standards control and
Accelerates the design process through automated capabilities such as object
name composition and automatic cross-reference generation.
Embedded electrical simulation helps engineers test and validate their designs.
Leverages data reuse through tight integration into the data-centric CHS
environment, including a common parts library and MCAD/PDM bridges.


Proteus is software for microprocessor simulation, schematic capture, and printed circuit
board (PCB) design. It is developed by Labcenter Electronics. The XGameStation Micro
Edition was designed using Labcenter's Proteus schematic entry and PCB layout tools.

1.3.1 System components

ISIS Schematic Capture - an easy to use yet extremely powerful tool for entering your

PROSPICE Mixed mode SPICE simulation - industry standard SPICE3F5 simulator

combined with high speed digital simulator.

ARES PCB Layout - high performance PCB design system with automatic component
placer, rip-up and retry auto-router and interactive design rule checking.

VSM - Virtual System Modeling lets you co simulate embedded software for popular
micro-controllers alongside your hardware design.

1.3.2 System Benefits

Integrated package with common user interface and fully context sensitive help make for
a quick and easy learning process. Technical supports direct from the program authors
means that expert help is available when you need it.

Virtual Prototyping with Proteus VSM substantially cuts software and hardware
development schematic capture, SPICE circuit simulation, and PCB design to make a
complete electronics design system. Add to that the ability to simulate popular micro-
controllers running your actual firmware, and you have a package that can dramatically
reduce your development time when compared with a traditional embedded design

The Proteus Design Suite is wholly unique in offering the ability to co-simulate both high
and low-level micro-controller code in the context of a mixed-mode SPICE circuit
simulation. With this Virtual System Modeling facility, you can transform your product
design cycle, reaping huge rewards in terms of reduced time to market and lower costs of

If one person designs both the hardware and the software then that person benefits as the
hardware design may be changed just as easily as the software design. In larger
organizations where the two roles are separated, the software designers can begin work as
soon as the schematic is completed; there is no need for them to wait until a physical
prototype exists.

Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM) combines mixed mode SPICE circuit
simulation, animated components and microprocessor models to facilitate co-simulation
of complete microcontroller based designs. For the first time ever, it is possible to
develop and test such designs before a physical prototype is constructed.

This is possible because you can interact with the design using on screen indicators such
as LED and LCD displays and actuators such as switches and buttons. The simulation
takes place in real time (or near enough to it): a 1GMHz Pentium III can simulate a basic
8051 system clocking at over 12MHz. Proteus VSM also provides extensive debugging
facilities including breakpoints, single stepping and variable display for both assembly
code and high level language source.

1.3.3 Schematic Entry

Proteus VSM uses our proven Schematic Capture software to provide the environment
for design entry and development. ISIS is a long established product and combines ease

of use with powerful editing tools. It is capable of supporting schematic capture for both
simulation and PCB design. Designs entered in to Proteus VSM for testing can be net-
listed for PCB layout either with our own PCB Design products or with third party PCB
layout tools. ISIS also provides a very high degree of control over the drawing
appearance, in terms of line widths, fill styles, fonts, etc. These capabilities are used to
the full in providing the graphics necessary for circuit animation.

1.3.4 Circuit Simulation

At the heart of Proteus VSM is ProSPICE. This is an established product that combines
uses a SPICE3f5 analogue simulator kernel with a fast event-driven digital simulator to
provide seamless mixed-mode simulation. The use of a SPICE kernel lets you utilize any
of the numerous manufacturer-supplied SPICE models now available and around 6000 of
these are included with the package.

Proteus VSM includes a number of virtual instruments including an Oscilloscope, Logic

analyzer, Function Generator, Pattern Generator, Counter Timer and Virtual Terminal as
well as simple voltmeters and ammeters. In addition, we provide dedicated
Master/Slave/Monitor mode protocol analyzers for SPI and I2C - simply wire them onto
the serial lines and monitor or interact with the data live during simulation. A truly
invaluable (and inexpensive!) way to get your communication software right prior to
hardware prototyping.

Should you wish to take detailed measurements on graphs, or perform other analysis
types such as frequency, distortion, noise or sweep analyses of analogue circuits, you can
purchase the Advanced Simulation Option. This option also includes Conformance
Analysis - a unique and powerful tool for Software Quality Assurance.

1.3.5 Co-Simulation of Microcontroller Software

The most exciting and important feature of Proteus VSM is its ability to simulate the
interaction between software running on a microcontroller and any analog or digital
electronics connected to it.

The micro-controller model sits on the schematic along with the other elements of your
product design. It simulates the execution of your object code (machine code), just like a
real chip. If the program code writes to a port, the logic levels in circuit change
accordingly, and if the circuit changes the state of the processor's pins, this will be seen
by your program code, just as in real life.

The VSM CPU models fully simulate I/O ports, interrupts, timers, USARTs and all other
peripherals present on each supported processor. It is anything but a simple software
simulator since the interaction of all these peripherals with the external circuit is fully
modeled down to waveform level and the entire system is therefore simulated.

VSM can even simulate designs containing multiple CPUs, since it is a simple enough
matter to place two or more processors on a schematic and wire them together.

1.3.6 Source Level Debugging

Whilst Proteus VSM is already unique in its capability to run near real time simulations
of complete micro-controller systems, its real power comes from its ability to perform
these simulations in single step mode. This works just like your favorite software
debugger, except that as you single step the code, you can observe the effect on the entire
design - including all the electronics external to the microcontroller.

VSM achieves this in a number of ways, dependent on the processor family and the tools
that you are using. For detailed information on the third party.

In short, Proteus VSM improves efficiency, quality and flexibility throughout the
design process.

1.4 ORCAD (PSpice)

SPICE is an electronic circuit simulation tool that was developed at the University of
California at Berkeley in the mid 1970s. SPICE is an acronym that stands for
Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis. It was developed specifically
for use in verifying the proper operation of new integrated circuit designs before they are
ever committed to silicon. Therefore, SPICE had to yield very accurate predictions of
circuit performance, since many dollars are at stake when committing a new IC design to

SPICE soon became a very popular industrial and academic general circuit simulation
tool, because it was developed under U.S. government funding and was therefore
distributed free of charge to any U.S. citizens. Early versions of SPICE were confined to
run on large computer mainframes that used the UNIX operating system, but soon SPICE
programs capable of analyzing relatively small circuits were migrated to run on the IBM
PC platform in the early 1980s, as the IBM PC came into widespread use

The original SPICE program required a net list description of the circuit to be entered.
(The net list was also called a simulation SPICE deck in the old days of computer
punched cards.) In the net list, each circuit component must be entered on a line that
contained a label that denoted the component type, the component value, and the node
numbers across which the device is connected. Making a net list required drawing the
schematic and then numbering the nodes. (The ground node must be numbered 0, but
the rest of the node numbering is arbitrary).

PSPICE is an enhanced commercial version of SPICE. PSPICE was first marketed by

MicroSim. Then MicroSim was bought by OrCad, which was in turn recently acquired
by Cadence. OrCad PSPICE has a very useful schematic capture front end pre-
processing program called CIS Capture, that allows the circuit schematic to be drawn
on the computer screen, and then PSPICE automatically numbers the nodes and generates
the net list. PSPICE also has a very nice graphical plotting back end program called
PROBE. Using the PROBE graphical post-processor, the PSPICE output can be

plotted. Multi-trace plots are easily generated. A set of X-Y cursors can be employed to
read and display precise values at any desired point on any selected waveform.

1.4.1 Types of Analog PSPICE Simulations:

There are several distinct types of analog PSPICE simulations:

DC quiescent operating bias point calculation

Transient analysis
Sinusoidal steady-state AC sweep (frequency response) analysis
DC sweep (voltage transfer curve) analysis.

DC quiescent operating bias point calculations are performed automatically, since

the DC operating point must be known in any electronic circuit containing diodes or
transistors before the AC behavior of the circuit can be determined.

Transient analysis simulations are probably the most popular type of PSPICE analysis,
where one or more time-varying response waveform(s) are calculated based upon one or
more specified time-varying input source waveform(s). Various types of input source
waveforms are available for transient analysis. The most popular transient simulation
sources are the sinusoidal voltage source (VSIN), voltage pulse train (VPULSE),
exponential voltage source (VEXP), or piecewise-linear voltage source (VPWL), where
any piece-wise linear waveform may be ascribed to the source. In addition, VPULSE has
the following special cases: square wave (Vsq), triangle wave (Vtri), saw-tooth voltage
source (Vramp), and TTL-level (0 5V) square wave with adjustable frequency and duty
cycle (V_ttl)

AC Sweep analysis simulations calculate the amplitude and phase of the AC (small-
signal) part of the response signal as a sinusoidal steady-state source (usually the AC
sinusoidal steady-state source is called VAC) is varied over a specified range of
frequencies. Such simulations yield standard frequency response curves, or Bode plots
of the indicated sinusoidal steady-state output node voltage (either magnitude or phase)

vs. source frequency. It is essential to keep in mind that while AC sweep analyses yield
very useful gain and phase frequency response information, they give no indication of the
dc offset (which is calculated separately by the DC quiescent operating point calculation).
In addition, AC sweep analyses do not indicate signal saturation levels, as they are based
purely on small-signal analysis theory. Thus in an AC sweep analysis, the AC input
source can be assigned unrealistically high voltage amplitudes, say 1 V, even when a high
gain amplifier circuit is being simulated, whose output would actually saturates with a 1
V input. The level of saturation must be investigated via a separate transient simulation.

DC Sweep analysis simulations yield voltage transfer curves, where a dc source voltage
(usually the dc source is called VDC) is varied over a prescribed range of values.
Then the indicated output node voltage is plotted versus the swept source voltage.


MPLAB IDE is a software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for

Microchip microcontrollers. It is called an Integrated Development Environment, or IDE,
because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded

MPLAB IDE is a "wrapper" that coordinates all the tools from a single graphical user
interface, usually automatically. For instance, once code is written, it can be converted to
executable instructions and downloaded into a microcontroller to see how it works. In
this process multiple tools are needed: an editor to write the code, a project manager to
organize files and settings, a compiler or assembler to convert the source code to machine
code and some sort of hardware or software that either connects to a target
microcontroller or simulates the operation of a microcontroller.



2.1 Introduction:-

Programming was do to generate pwm but we tried to add extra feature in our project that
is serial communication with computer.pic16f877 has two built-in pwm modules. But we
did not utilize them because it was not possible to create the delay of 60 degree between
the three pwm waves if it were produced using hardware pwm modules. So we decided to
generate pwm in software. Programming involved the nested interrupts of timer0 and
timer1 for pwm generation.timer1 was used to generate the required frequency and
timer0 was used to generate the proper duty cycle. Serial interrupts for serial transmit and
serial receive were also utilized. The flow of our program was as under. The source code
of the main program is given in the end of the chapter


The micro c compiler program contains very helpful built-in routines that provide a
programmer an easy way of using pic modules without going into its inner details the
routines we used are explained under

2.2.1 Delay_us

Prototype void Delay_us(const time_in_us);

Returns Nothing.
Description Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_us microseconds (a
Range of applicable constants depends on the oscillator frequency.
Requires Nothing.
Example Delay_us(10); /* Ten microseconds pause */

2.2.2 Delay_ms

Prototype void Delay_ms(const time_in_ms);

Returns Nothing.
Description Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_ms milliseconds
Range of applicable constants depends on the oscillator frequency
Requires Nothing.
Example Delay_ms(1000); /* One second pause */

2.2.3 Usart_Init

Prototype void Usart_Init(const unsigned long baud_rate);

Returns Nothing.
Description Initializes hardware USART module with the desired baud rate.
Usart_Init needs to be called before using other functions from USART
Example This will initialize hardware USART and establish the communication at
2400 bps:

2.2.4 Usart_Data_Ready

Prototype unsigned short Usart_Data_Ready(void);

Returns Function returns 1 if data is ready or 0 if there is no data.
Description Use the function to test if data in receive buffer is ready for reading.
Requires Usart_ini module must be initialized and communication established
using this function.
Example If data is ready, read it:
int receive;

if (Usart_Data_Ready()) receive = Usart_Read;

2.2.5 Usart_Read

Prototype unsigned short Usart_Read(void);

Returns Returns the received byte. If byte is not received, returns 0.
Description Function receives a byte via USART. Use the function usart_data_ready
test if data is ready first.
Requires Usart_init module must be initialized and communication established
using this function.
Example If data is ready, read it:

int receive;
if (Usart_Data_Ready()) receive = Usart_Read();

2.2.6 Usart_Write

Prototype void Usart_Write(unsigned short data);

Returns Nothing.
Description Function transmits a byte (data) via USART.
Requires USART HW module must be initialized and communication
before using this function.
Example int chunk = 0x1E;
Usart_Write(chunk); /* send chunk via USART */


/*main program for control of three phase induction motor and its emulation*/
unsigned char mode='1';
void frq_func (unsigned char x){
case '1':
TMR1H = 0x9e; //for 10 hz and 9% duty cycle
TMR1L = 0x57;



//for 25 hz and 25% duty cyc
case '2':
TMR1H = 0xd8;
TMR1L = 0xef;

case'3': //for 35 hz freq and 33% duty cycle
TMR1H = 0xe4;
TMR1L = 0x18;

break ;
TMR1H = 0xec; //for 50 hz frequency and 50 % duty cycle
TMR1L = 0x77;

TMR1H = 0xef; //code for 60 hz and 57 % duty cycle

TMR1L = 0xb9;



void interrupt() {
if (PIR1.TMR1IF == 1)
{ PIR1.TMR1IF = 0;
frq_func (mode);
else if (PIR1.RCIF)

{ PIR1.RCIF = 0;
while (!Usart_Data_Ready());
mode = Usart_Read();

void main() {
// ANSEL = 0; // Configure AN pins as digital I/O
// ANSELH = 0;
PORTB = 0xF0; // Initialize PORTB
TRISB = 0; // PORTB is output
T1CON = 0x71; // Timer1 settings+prescalor 1:8
PIR1.TMR1IF = 0; // clear TMR1IF
TMR1H = 0x00 ; // Initialize Timer1 register
TMR1L = 0x00;
PIE1.TMR1IE = 1;
PIE1.RCIE = 1;
// enable Timer1 interrupt

// initialize cnt
INTCON = 0xC0;

// Set GIE, PEIE

do {

} while(1);




Simulation is the imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of
simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or
behaviors of a selected physical or abstract system.

Simulation is used in many contexts, including the modeling of natural systems or human
systems in order to gain insight into their functioning. Other contexts include simulation
of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training and

Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and
courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged. The
real system may not be engaged because it may not be accessible, it may be dangerous or
unacceptable to engage, or it may simply not exist.

In this chapter we have simulated VFD and its different modules to analysis the practical
aspect of our design.

Maximum work has been done in Proteus. It includes

Simulation of PWM signals

Simulation of complete VFD with all its modules connected

Simulation showing the variation in frequency and voltage.


The schematic diagram for the generation of PWM signals is shown (drawn in Proteus
environment) Components were PIC16, Potentiometer, resistor, ground terminal Dc
source (for providing power to the PIC) and oscilloscope(to view the PWM signals )

Figure shows the Sensor is simulated using a potentiometer and the variable voltage
provided by the potentiometer will decide the frequency and voltage of VFD output.

First of all the voltage sensed by the PIC microcontroller will be converted in to digital
value by ADC converter (which is built in module of PIC16). This converted value will
be scaled according to Formula given below

Frequency scale/Frequency

Whereas Frequency= ADC value sense through potentiometer

Frequency scale = Depends on Instruction cycle,sample per cycle.

This calculated value (depending on the position of potentiometer probe) will be loaded
in to timer0 and that will define the output frequency of the VFD output signal.

The voltage level similarly depends on the position of potentiometer, the incoming value
from ADC will be scaled and loaded in to the CCPRL register , and that will define the
duty cycle of the pulses and thus the output voltage level

3.2.1 Results of Simulation

Setting the probe of potentiometer at highest position will run the PIC to generate
the pulses of max duty cycle that will corresponds to max voltage (Line voltage)
and frequency will also be at maximum

In the following figure the probe at highest position is providing the motor with max
frequency and voltage that will definitely run the motor at maximum speed

Setting the probe of potentiometer at lower position will run the PIC to generate
the narrow pulses or pulses with less duty cycle that will corresponds to less
voltage and frequency will also be lesser as shown.


The simulation of full VFD with all modules (inverter, converter, Dc bridge) attached is
shown below. The components used in Proteus environment are listed below

Ground terminal
Dc source
Not gates


When the probe of potentiometer will be moved the value from the ADC module will
alter this will alter the value of CCPRL and Timer0 values. As these both registers are
responsible for deciding the voltage level and frequency and thus the speed of the motor.

In the following figures of Proteus environment simulations we have shown the impact of
change of potentiometer on frequency and voltage of output signal

When probe is rested at maximum level the output frequency and voltage will be
at maximum level as shown in figure;

When probe is moved downward the frequency and voltage is varied to less as
shown in simulation figure.

As you can see the frequency is clearly varying with the change in position of probe however the
change in voltage is not very clear because of inefficiency in Proteuss oscilloscope, if however
AC voltmeter is connected between any two phases of inverter bridge it also show the clear
effect of voltage variation.


We have simulated (as shown below) in circuit maker the most important portion of VFD
i.e inverter.

Figure shows a very practical circuit, as separate ground references are provided for
microcontroller signals (to MOSFETs) which are simulated using function generators
with specific delays.

Opto-isolators and Zener diodes are employed for improving operation and signal
efficiency. The output of inverter is filtered (to show a smooth sine wave) the circuit of
filter is shown below along the output

3.5.1 Output Of Circuit Maker (With Rectifier Arrangement)


In this simulation the signals provided by the controller are actually produced by pulse
generator by carefully controlling the 180 degree mode of operation (of inverter) and
accurately setting the duty cycle and duration of the pulses.

The output load is resistive which result in the generation of staircase output of VFD.

Components used are

Pulse Generator

Dc source
Resistive load
Below is the simulation figure in ORCAD environment and its output snapshot.





Increased process efficiency and reduced production costs are the ultimate goals of
process optimization. Energy is an important production cost. Motor energy consumption
in a typical paper machine is approximately $15/ton (3% of all operating costs). Pumping
systems account for 35% of all motor energy use (approximately 1% of all operating
costs). A recent study concluded that the average pumping efficiency is less than 40%.
There is much room for improving energy efficiency in pumping systems.

Variable Frequency Drive (VFD's) technology has matured and presents an attractive
optimization option. VFD's not only provide energy savings but the potential for vastly
improved control performance and lower process variability. Few applications of variable
frequency drives are discussed here.

4.1.1 Centrifugal Pump Application

Centrifugal pumps are the most likely pump style to provide a favorable return based on
energy savings when applied with a variable-frequency drive (VFD).They are used on
many industrial and commercial applications and are generally sized to operate at or near
the best efficiency point at maximum flow. The maximum flow requirements, however,
frequently occur for a very short period during the operating cycle with the result that
some method of flow control is required. The traditional approach to flow control has
used valves; which increase system pressure, inherently waste energy, and generally
cause the pump to operate at reduced efficiencies. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) can
achieve reduced flow by providing adjustable speed pump operation. This results in
reduced system pressure and operation near the pump's Best Efficiency Point (BEP).

The two most common methods for controlling variable pump system output are a
control valve (throttling) and a variable speed drive.

Controlling the flow with a throttling valve is like modulating the speed of a car using
only the brake pedal. You set the accelerator pedal at a fixed point and use the brake to
change speed. The engine works at nearly the same rate, but applying the brake restricts
the work output by changing the resistance of the drive train. At low speed, the engine
strains, the brakes overheat and reliability suffers while consuming fuel at a nearly
constant rate. Of course, this is a silly way to control your car, but most varying pumping
systems are controlled in an analogous manner. The pump speed is fixed and a control
valve adds system resistance, changing the system curve and thus restricting the output of
the pumping system while consuming nearly the same amount of energy. Figure 9.1
shows the scenario where fixed speed AC motors drives centrifugal pump and reduced
flow has been achieved by using control valve. The desired reduction in flow has been
achieved, but at the expense of increased system pressure relative to 100% flow.

Using variable-speed control, on the other hand, can be compared with the way people
drive cars, changing vehicle speed by changing the engines output. Variable-speed
pumping uses the same principle. Instead of changing the system resistance to modulate
flow, the pump speed changes. This shifts the pumps head-capacity (HQ) curve to alter
the point at which it crosses the system curve. Variable-speed control changes the energy
input rather than relying on a valve to strip system energy. The result is often a dramatic
energy savings. Since the output power required is significantly reduced at reduced flows,
there is a reduction in losses in each system element at reduced speed. Energy savings

can be substantial even when the equipment providing variable speed operation is
relatively inefficient.

While a throttled pump consumes slightly less power than it would running free, it
continues to rotate at the same speed, thus maintaining high velocity in the mechanical
seal and bearings, and velocity directly determines bearing and mechanical seal life.
Moving the operation of a centrifugal pump equipped with a constant pressure volute (the
most common centrifugal pump type) away from BEP alters the hydraulic balance
between the volute and impeller. The pump develops ever-increasing radial thrust loads,
which increases radial forces that produce high bearing loads and shaft deflection affects
mechanical seal alignment and, therefore, reduces bearing and mechanical seal life.

In addition to energy savings, operation at reduced pressures can result in longer pump
seal life, reduced impeller wear, and less system vibration and noise. These benefits could
provide additional savings over potential energy savings.

4.1.2 Soft Starter Application

The modern petrochemical industry requires large compressors in the high power range.
Specifically the polyethylene production is moving towards bigger rated machines that
are often large enough to take advantage from soft starting or even impose the utilization
of a soft starting solution. The commonly used Direct on Line (DOL) starting method
implies in high transients in the power system and the machine. The high current drawn
from the grid can cause problems such as voltage drop and in some cases uncontrolled
shutdown, reducing process reliability and eventually resulting in production and
financial losses. Towards the machine, the high starting current causes additional
mechanical stress that may also affect the driven equipment, limiting the number of
consecutive starts and reducing equipments lifetime. These disadvantages can be
overcome by using a soft start method. One or more of the large drives in a process plant
can take advantage of the soft starting providing a more reliable, flexible and safe
electrical installation. Figure 9.2 illustrates a typical configuration and the main
components of a VFD.

The synchronous machine (SM) with its main excitation and the running circuit breaker
(RCB) are the components which are required to operate the load direct on line. The task
of the VFD is to accelerate the SM from zero up to nominal speed and synchronize it to
the power supply system by closing the RCB, and optionally - after RCB has been
opened to decelerate the SM from nominal speed to standstill. Its main function is to
control the energy exchange between the power system and the motor, which during
acceleration and deceleration is operated at variable frequency and voltage.

For induction motors, the starting torque is approximately proportional to the square of
the starting current drawn from the line. This starting current is proportional to the
applied voltage (V). So the torque can also be considered to be approximately
proportional to the applied voltage. By adjusting voltage during starting, the current
drawn by the motor and the torque produced by the motor can be reduced and controlled.
The soft start technology constantly monitors the voltage and current going to the motor.
When the voltage and current sine waves diverge, greatly when the phase-lag increased
the motor is lightly loaded and operating inefficiently. When this happens the soft start
reduces the current and voltage appropriately, while always maintaining the motor at a
constant (full) operating speed. When the load on the motor increases, the soft start reads
this condition and increases the power to the motor so it does not stall. A Soft Start keeps
the motor running at full RPM and reduces the power used by the motor when it is lightly
loaded, much like cruise control in cars. Soft-starters are normally air cooled due to their
short operation time. For high powers or in case of reduced availability of cooling air,
water cooled converters might be preferred.

4.1.3 Other Applications:

When applied properly, the variable frequency drive (VFD) is the most effective motor
controller in the industry today. Modern VFDs are affordable and reliable, have
flexibility of control, and offer significant electrical energy savings through greatly
reduced electric bills. Variable frequency drives are frequently used in many areas
because of their energy saving quality and reduced cost.

Hence it is almost impossible to list all the applications but few other common areas or
equipment where we find a VFD system are as follows:-

Radiator fans of Synchronous Machine

Ventilation systems
Condensate pumps
Water supply pumps, etc.
Oxygen-generators of steel production
Cement Filling station in Cement Industry
Machine Tools

Smooth and accurate speed control
Optimisation of power
Reduction in cost of controls / switch gear
Improved system efficiency
Energy savings
Low motor starting current
Reduction of thermal and mechanical
Stresses on motors and belts during starts
Simple installation high power factor
Lower KVA
Reduction in maximum Demand.

4.2.1 Low Inrush Motor Starting

It is common for AC induction motors to draw 6 to 8 times their full load amps when
they are started across the line. When large amounts of current are drawn on the
transformers, a voltage drop can occur, adversely affecting other equipment on the same
electrical system. Some voltage sensitive applications may even trip off line. For this
reason, many engineers specify a means of reducing the starting current of large AC
induction motors. Wye-delta, part winding, autotransformer, and solid-state and VFD
starters are often used to reduce inrush during motor starting. A VFD is the ideal soft
starter since it provides the lowest inrush of any starter type as shown in Table 9.1

4.2.2 High Power Factor

Power converted to motion, heat, sound, etc. is called real power and is measured in
kilowatts (KW). Power that charges capacitors or builds magnetic fields is called reactive
power and is measured in Kilovolts Amps Reactive (KVAR). The vector sum of the KW
and the KVAR is the Total Power (energy) and is measured in Kilovolt Amperes (KVA).
Power factor is the ratio of KW/KVA.

Motors draw reactive current to support their magnetic fields in order to cause rotation.
Excessive reactive current is undesirable because it creates additional resistance losses
and can require the use of larger transformers and wires. In addition, utilities often
penalize owners for low power factor. Decreasing reactive current will increase power

Power factor correction capacitors can be added to reduce the reactive current measured
upstream of the capacitors and increase the measured power factor. The VFDs include
capacitors in the DC Bus that perform the same function and maintain high power factor
on the line side of the VFD. This eliminates the need to add power factor correction
equipment to the motor or use expensive capacitor banks. In addition, VFDs often result
in higher line side power factor values than constant speed motors equipped with
correction capacitors.

4.2.3 Easy Installation

Many pieces of equipment are factory shipped with unit mounted VFDs that arrive pre-
programmed and factory wired. Motor leads, control power for auxiliaries, and
communication lines are all factory wired. The VFD cooling lines on unit-mounted
chiller VFDs are also factory installed. The installing contractor needs only to connect the
line power supply to the VFD.


4.3.1 Under-voltage Fault Indication

4.3.2 Over-Current Fault Indication

4.3.3 Motor Not Running



Torque is constant at any speed while there is a direct proportional relationship between
horsepower and speed; horsepower varies directly with the speed. Therefore, horsepower
is motion dependent, torque is not.


A force applied in a manner that tends to produce rotation, such as a pipe wrench
on a shaft. Torque (force) without rotation is termed static torque, since no motion
is produced.
Torque is measured in Ib-in or Ib-ft which is
the product of the force in pounds (I b) x the
distance in inches (in) or feet (ft) from the
center of the point of apparent rotation.
Figure 16 shows 120 Ib-in (12 inches x 10
Ibs) or 10 Ib/ft torque.
Because most power transmission is based upon rotating elements,
torque is important as a measurement of the effort required to produce work

Power (Horsepower)

A force applied in a manner that produces motion and, therefore, works over a specified
time period. A common unit of power is horsepower. One horsepower (HP) is defined
as the force required to lift 33,000 Ibs, one foot in one minute.

Three basic factors are involved:

Factor Unit
Distance (Radius) Foot (or inches)
Force (Push or Pull) Pounds
Time One (1) Minute
F (Load in pounds) x Feet per Minute
HP =

Horsepower-Torque, Getting It Together

Suppose 50 lb load is acting on the 5 inch radius (distance) of the winch,
producing a load torque of 250 lb-in (50 lbs x 5 inches) that must be overcome to
lift the load. Since the hand crank arm has a 10 inch radius (distance), a minimum
force of 25 lbs must be exerted to overcome the load torque (25 lbs x 10" = 250
lb/in). If no motion is involved, the system is in balance. Although torque is being
exerted, no work is accomplished and no horsepower is developed.
The winch diameter is 10 inches. Therefore, each revolution of the hand crank
will lift the weight 10 inches X = 31.416 inches (2.618 feet).

If the crank is turned at 10 RPM, 50 Ibs will be lifted a distance of 26.18 feet in
one minute:
50 x 26.18
HP = = .03966 HP

Turning the crank twice as fast (20 RPM) will develop twice the horsepower.

50 x 52.36
HP = = .07933 HP

Hence, HP of rotating elements can be calculated as:

Fx2 x R x RPM T x RPM

HP = =
33,000 5252





M.H. Rashid, January 1988, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and Applications,
Prentice Hall.

Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Rolin D. McKinaly, Danny Causey, February 2007, PIC
Microcontroller And Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C for Pic18, Prentice

Stephen J. Chapman, June 2010, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill

Science Engineering.

Susan A. Riedel, James William Nilsson, January 2002, Introduction to PSpice Manual
Using Orcad Release 9.2 for Introductory Circuits for Electrical and Computing
Engineering, Prentice Hall

Ytha Yu, Charles Marut, Assembly Language Programming and Organization of IBM

Rakesh Parekh, 2004, VF control of three phase induction motor using PIC16F7X7,
AN889, Microchip Technology Inc.

Padmaraja Yadamale, 2005, Bidirectional VF Control of Single and Three Phase

Induction Motors Using PIC16F72, AN967, Microchip Technology Inc.

VFD Fundamentals,2002, Kilowatt Classroom, LLC

Speed Control Of three Phase Induction Motor ( )

Datasheets of different Components (