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TITLE: Data Logger

Student Name Student No.




An acid is any ionic compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Ionic compounds
are molecules held together by ionic chemical bonds that result from the attraction of oppositely
charged atoms, called ions.

Weak acids release fewer hydrogen ions and have a sour taste. Strong acids release more
hydrogen ions and are highly corrosive. The more hydrogen ions in the solution, the more acidic
it is.

Bases, also called alkaline substances, are compounds that release hydroxyl ions (OH-) in
solution. Weak bases have a bitter taste (opposed to sour taste of acids and sweetness of
aldehydes and ketones) and are slimy to the touch. The more hydroxyl ions in a solution, the
more alkaline it is.

Measurements of pH

Acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured by concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) versus

hydroxyl ions (OH-) and is expressed as pH level, an exponential scale that ranges from 0 (very
acidic) to 14 (very basic).

Because the scale is logarithmic, a change of just one unit represents a tenfold change in H+
concentration. When the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) equals the concentration of
hydroxyl ions (OH-) a solution is neutral.

The stomach produces hydrochloric acid. This acid provides a medium for the digestion of
protein by the enzyme protease. It also kills microbes that may be in the food. An excess of acid
can lead to indigestion and indigestion tablets (may) work by neutralising the excess acid.
Indigestion (also known as dyspepsia) happens to almost everyone from time to time. Eating
habits or a chronic digestive problem can trigger indigestion.

Examples of indigestion table

what is indigestion tablets?

what is the pH of these tablets?
how it works to reduce the indigestion?
Planning and doing an experiment:

Title : Investigating the effect of acid on indigestion tablets by data logger

Objectives :

1. To find out how effective different types and brands of antacids are at neutralizing acid
2. to measure the pH of acid and bases by using the pH probe and the data logging
Hypothesis :
All indigestion tablets will neutralise the HCl added to them

1) DrDAQ data logger connected to a PC, One pH sensor (DrDAQ Part no DD011),

Containers for the drinks (we used plastic drinking cups).

2) A selection of common drinks we used:
-Orange juice, Apple juice, Black coffee, Black tea, Lemon tea, Original Coke, Pepsi,

Cherry Coke, Ribena, Lemon squash, Milk.


1) Fill all cups with an equal amount of liquid which will cover the pH probe tip.
2) Marks the cup so that they can be identified later.
3) Plug the pH probe into DrDAQ data logger and run PicoLog software.
4) Calibrate the pH probe using buffer solution.
5) Allow all the drinks to stabilize at room temperature since pH readings vary with







MILK 6.76


PEPSI 2.63




The results here indicate that some soft drinks have a similar pH to acids. This does NOT mean

that acids are safe to drink. We can predict that the pH of the majority of our foods and drinks

will be neutral or acidic.

The application of neutralisation of acid and bases plays an important roles in our daily
life. not only in health, but they are also applied in agriculture, industries, and even at home. as
an example for the neutralisation in agriculture, lime fertilisers such as powdered lime, CaO,
limestone, CaCO 3 or ashes of burnt wood are added to the soil to neutralise it acidity as the
plants cannot grow well in acidic soil. next, basic soil can be treated by using a compost of
rotting vegetables or leaves. This is because the rotting vegetables and leaves decompose to
liberate carbon dioxide gas. The acidic gas from the decomposition of compost neutralises the
alkalis in basic soils.

In energy industry, power stations burn fossil fuels such as coal to produce electricity. The
burning fossil fuels will liberate sulphur dioxide gas as an acidic pollutant in the air. Hence,
power stations treat this acidic gas using powdered lime, CaO or limestone, CaCO 3 to neutralise
it so that air pollutant can be prevented. not only that, in the rubber industry, ammonia solution,
NH4OH, is used to prevent the coagulation of latex because ammonia solution, NH 4OH, can
neutralise the acid (lactic acid) produced by bacteria in the latex.

Decaying food particles in our teeth produces acid and cause tooth decay. so to prevent tooth
decay from occur, toothpaste is used during brushing help to neutralise the acid and preventing
tooth decay since toothpaste is an alkaline. in our daily life, we were using shampoos that are
also a mild alkaline which causes small scales on each hair which make you hair unmanageable.
So, to solve the problem we can use the hair conditioner that are mild acid. When we use it, the
acidity in the hair conditioner will neutralise the alkali and cause the scales to close up.

The formula for pH is pH= -log( H ). In chemistry, pH is the measure of the activity of the

hydrogen ion. Pure water has pH very close to 7 at 25C. Solutions with a pH less than 7 said to

be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. With respect to the result

we obtained, we can predict that the pH of the majority tested drinks are acidic and neutral.

A pH is a scale that is used to measure a substance`s acidity. A pH scale can tell if a liquid is a

more acid or more basic, just as the Farenheit and Celsius used to measure temperature. The

range of the pH scale is from 0 to 14 from acidic to very basic. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less

than 7 is acidic and greater than 7 is basic. Each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic

then the next higher value. For example a pH of 4 is ten times more acidic than a pH of 5.

Dental erosion occurs when tooth enamel and dentine are destroyed by the action of acid on

teeth. This is a different process to the damage caused by acid from decay producing bacteria.

Unlike tooth decay, erosion affects the whole surface of the tooth. Exposure to acid over a long

period of time leads to progressive loss of enamel with the effect that the tooth shrinks and

crumbles at the biting edge. Eventually the dentine is exposed leading to pain and sometimes

death of the tooth. The process is irreversible and requires expensive cosmetic dentistry to restore

function and appearance. From the results obtained here, we can see that several common drinks

fall below the safe recommended pH level of 5.5.

The function and other importance of the using the pH level test on drink in this experiment is to

assure the quality of the product, to test the water purification, to produce the cleaning agents.

Lastly, to test the sugar purification, and lastly to produce the soil neutralization.


Consumption of many acidic foods can lead to severe diseases such as cancer because acidic

condition inhibit nerve action in our human body. After acid exposure the enamel is softened and

is vulnerable. Calcium salts in saliva will remineralise and harden some of the softened enamel

given time. Therefore, do not brush our teeth straight after drinking an acid drink as the softened

enamel will be further damaged by the brushing which will speed up the process of erosion -

wait at least half an hour before brushing.

That is why we should balance our diet as it helps maintain the pH balance of the blood. When

we consume more acidic food, our blood will develop more acidic condition. Then, the body will

inevitably deposit the excess acid to another area of the body, so that the blood will be able to

maintain the alkaline condition. As this cycle continues, these areas will increase in acidity and

some cell will die. The dead cell then will turn into acids. Some cell will adapts and instead of

dying as normal cell, they will survive and become abnormal. These abnormal cells are known as

malignant cells. This type of cell do not correspond with brain function or with our DNA

memory code. This cell wil grows indefinitely and without order. This malignant cells is known

as cancer.

Lastly, when we use data logger to conduct this experiment, it is more easier to take the reading

with the tool when we are using more than one variable. Besides, while waiting for data logger to
record the data, we can spare time to discuss about the changes take place during experiment.

Next, more than one sensor can be used simultaneously (humidity and pH sensor). Lastly, pH

value and humidity changes can be observed clearly through the graph taken.