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Due 24/04/2017 ENGG1500 Assessment 2b

ENGG1500 Assessment 2b

Student number: c3257840

Name: Sovisal Sun

Discipline: Mechanical engineering

Workshop class: WR16, Tuesday 1100-1300

Team number: 1

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Table of contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Project Description

1.2 Problems

2.0 Task undertaken each week by each team member

3.0 Individuals initial design

4.0 Outcome of team discussion

5.0 Current design

5.1 Overall design

5.2 Blade design

5.3 Aerofoil design

5.4 Base design

5.5 Cost estimation

6.0 Remaining tasks for each team members

7.0 Gantt Chart

8.0 Expect performance

9.0 References

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List of Tables

Table 1 Individual Task by Sovisal Sun.............................................................................................................5

Table 2 Individual Task by Ashlee K Dodgson..................................................................................................5

Table 3 Individual Task by Bailey F Gauta........................................................................................................6

Table 4 Individual Task by PS Cheema.............................................................................................................6

Table 5 Cost Analysis.......................................................................................................................................11

List of Figures

Figure 1-Initial design by Sovisal Sun...............................................................................................................8

Figure 2-Initial design by Ashlee K Dodgson....................................................................................................8

Figure 3-Computer generated design of the blades by Bailey F Guanta...........................................................9

Figure 4-Overview of final design...................................................................................................................11

Figure 5-Blade Skeleton...................................................................................................................................11

Figure 6-Connection from the blade to the Central axis..................................................................................12

Figure 7-NACA 0012 Aerofoil profile.............................................................................................................12

Figure 8-Base design........................................................................................................................................12

Figure 9-Gantt Chart of the remaining tasks....................................................................................................14

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1.0 Introduction:

The purpose of this project is to build a small-scale wind turbine that is safe to operate under any

wind direction and at a speed of 11.1 m/s (1). The turbine also needs to generate enough electricity to light

up three 10 watts light bulbs and provide a convenience housing for the motor to be easily detached (1). The

budget for this construction is 100$, and it must be built within ten weeks (1). Additionally, the turbine

needs to fit in a box that is 750 mm high and has a 500 mm by 500 mm squared base (1).

1.1 Project description

A group of four students was formed and were given a timeframe of 5 weeks to complete the project

before the test date on 08/05/17. The team divided the tasks into three parts: construction of the blades,

construction of the foundation and final assembly (refer to figure 9). One student was allocated to the

construction of the blades and is expected to finish the task on the 24/04/2017. The other two students were

allocated to the construction of the foundation and are expected to finish on the 27/04/2017. The last student

was assigned to optimising the performance of the turbine and is scheduled to finish on the 28/04/17.The

project is 54% completed and the current spending for this project is 65.54$.

1.2 Problems

There were some issues that delayed the construction of the turbine. Firstly, the team was only

formed in week four, which means that significant amount of time for discussion of the design was lost.

Consequently, the team did not have enough time to explore potential ideas and had to rush synthesising the

design from each team members in just one week which is in week 6. In addition, one team member felt ill

during the group initial discussion week. Consequently, the team was not able to gain his perspective on his

initial design and his contribution to the final design. Moreover, due to Easter holiday, some team members

had to go home and visit the family, and therefore they were unable to work on their allocated tasks and thus

cause the delay in the construction of the wind turbine.

One major problem that can arise is the possibility that the turbine will not spin and cannot withstand

the wind force. However, the team has tried to overcome these problems by selecting the most aerodynamics

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aerofoil that can generate the maximum amount of lift and use a sturdy and heavy material for the

foundation of the turbine to ensure the turbine can perform under high wind speed.

2.0 Tasks undertaken each week by each team member.

Table 1 Individual Task by Sovisal Sun

Week Tasks completed (Sovisal Sun)


1 Began exploring the possible designs of wind turbines. Commenced safety workshop induction.

2 Learnt the safe ways of operating hand tools and cordless power tools. Define terminologies
associate with wind-turbine. Outlining possible designs and identified pro and cons of each design.

3 Conducted detailed research on the lift-based and drag based mechanism. Understood the
importance of minimising drag co-efficient to maximise efficiency.
4 Learnt how to use the power equation to estimate the power output of wind turbines. Gained an
understanding of Betzs limit in energy output. Group was formed.
5 Finished the initial design work and summited to the workshop instructor on the 03/04/2017.
6 Outline the advantages and disadvantages of the initial design to team members. Finalised the
design with the team. Involved in the discussion of material choice, task allocation and estimating
the dimension of the turbine. Began research on air foil shape that provides maximum efficiency.
7 Assisted in the making of the air foils through tracing and cutting the shapes onto basal wood and
smoothen edges using sand paper. Began brain storming of the ball bearing placement for the
foundation of the turbine.

Table 2 Individual Task by Ashlee K Dodgson

Week Tasks completed (Ashlee K Dodgson)


1-2 Read various literature to gain perspectives on wind turbines. Joint safety induction workshop.
3 Began brain storming possible designs through comparing the advantages and disadvantages
between vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines.
4 Completed the workshop induction, began researching the history of wind turbine to compare the
performance of each design. Attended tutorial and gained an understanding of energy output
formula.
5 Groups were formed. Began researching air foil designs, finished initial turbine design.
6 Began drafting the final design
7 Began construction of the air foil and assembled into blades skeletons.

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Table 3 Individual Task by Bailey F Gauta

Week Tasks completed (Bailey F Gauta)

1-2 Acquired general understanding of wind turbine, researched on the mechanism that allows
wind turbines to operate.
3 Conceptualising the possible designs and began identifying the strengths and weaknesses of
each designs.
4 Completed the workshop induction. Attended the tutorial and gain an understanding on how to
use energy output formulas to estimate the output of the turbine.
5 Groups were formed. Selected the maximum efficiency air foil design
6 Began drafting the design of the base, purchased tool and materials for the construction of the
turbine.
7 Began brain storming the housing of the motor for the wind turbine.
Table 4 Individual Task by PS Cheema

Week Tasks completed (PS Cheema)

1-2 Gained an understanding of wind turbine


3 Depicting the possible designs and began identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each
designs.
4 Completed the workshop induction. Attended the tutorial and gain an understanding on how to
use energy output formulas to estimate the output of the turbine.
5 Groups were formed. Selected the maximum efficiency air foil design
6 Felt sick and was not able to attend the group meeting
7 Waits for other components for the turbine from other team members to be completed in order
to start the assembly in week 8

3.0 Individuals initial designs

Sovisal Sun:

Initial design
Figure 1 Initial design by Sovisal Sun
The initial design was a two-bladed Darrieus wind turbine

that used a lift based system to generate lift force (refer to figure 1). The two blades were shaped into the

shape of NACA 0012 aerofoil profiles. This turbine design, in theory, ranks second in energy production

when compared to the three bladed lift-based horizontal axis wind turbine (2). The motor and the wiring

were placed under the central joint of the blades, which sits on top of a hollow wooden tower. PVC pipes at

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a length of 45 cm were used for the construction of the blades.

They were cut in half and bend to form the aerofoil blades. The

motor was attached to the top of the tower, and the wiring goes

through the hollow wooden tower to the foundation of the turbine.

The foundation of the tower is made from a sturdy and heavy

wooden box that provides structural support to the turbine.

Ashlee K Dodgson: Figure 1 Initial design by Ashlee K Dodgson

Initial design

The first design concept was a vertical axis wind turbine

that uses drag force to propel the blades (refers to figure 2). The

turbine consists of four arms connecting to the central rotating

axis. The four arms and central axis were made from dowel

wood while the blades were made from PVC pipes. Underneath

the wooden base of the turbine, consists of a gap that houses a

motor and a ball bearing that allow the central axis to spin.

Bailey F Gauta: Figure 2 Initial design by Bailey F Guanta

Initial design

The initial design was a vertical axis drag based wind turbine with three blades. To reduce cost and

weight of the turbine, PVC pipes was halved into the two and attached to the arm of the turbine. Wooden

rods were used for the construction of the central axis and attach the blades to the central axis. For the base

of the turbine, a thick and sturdy rounded wood was chosen to provide support for the turbine at a fast wind

speed.

PS Cheema:

Initial design

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Due to illness this team member was not able to contribute to the team the initial design and missed

the first group discussion on final design. However, the team had made an effort to provide explanations and

updates on the final design to the member. Consequently, each member of the group agreed upon adopting

the Darrieus three-bladed vertical axis wind turbine design.

4.0 Outcome of team discussion of initial design

The team agreed to adopt the Darrieus vertical axis design. After conducting an extensive literature

review, it was found that Darrieus VAWT generates a minuscule amount of torque (Torque is a type of force

that causes objects to rotate) (3-4). Without enough torque, this design has the problem of self-starting (fail

to rotate at low wind speed) and therefore requires extra force to begin rotation until the wind speed is high

enough to allow the turbine to rotate on its own (3). It is suggested in the literature that another wind turbine

should be used to initiate the rotation. However, this would increase the cost of the project and violates the

size constraint (1). To address this problem, the team decided to increase the number of the blades and use

the aerodynamic shape of the aerofoil to maximise the amount of lift generated (5). Initially, the team

decides to include four blades in the design as research shows that the efficiency of the turbine increases as

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the number of blades increases. However, according to skarsdttir the efficiency of the turbine can

improve by 3% when using three blades instead of two blades. On the other hand, the efficiency can

increases to 3.5% when using four blades (5). Since the improvement of turbine efficiency varies minimally

from three blades to four bladed turbines, the team decides to use three blades in the design as it reduces the

costs of the project.

5.0 Current design Figure 3 Overview of final design

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Overall design:

The current design is an adaptation of the initial two-bladed

Darrieus wind turbine (refer to figure 1). This final design consists of

three aerodynamics blades that are attached to the central axis via

wooden rods (refer to figure 4). The central axis is made from dowel

wood that sits on top of a ball bearing (refer to figure 8). The ball

bearing allows the central axis to spin and thus generates electricity. The

base will be made from hardening wood with a space to hold the

generator and the ball bearing. Since the design is a vertical axis wind

turbine, it can operate from any wind direction. Therefore, no budget

and time will be needed to spend on developing the yaw control system

and thus allows the team to have enough time to finish the project before the test date.

Blades design:

Wooden rods, sheet aluminium and thin plywood, will be used for the construction of the blades.

Two wooden rods will be used as structural support for each blade, and they will pierce through the aerofoils

(refer to figure 5). The team set the length of the blades to be 600mm, which is still within the constraint of

the project (1). The decision to use this length was due to the aim to maximise the output. According to the

output equation, Power = Cp r2 d u3, (Cp is Betzs limit, r is the length of the blade, d is air density,

u is wind speed) as the length of the blade increases the power output will also increase (6). Thus, ensure

that the turbine will satisfy the requirement of generating enough Figure 4 Blade Skeleton

electricity to power three 10 watts light bulbs (1).

The thin aluminium sheet will be used to cover the blade

skeletons. Using light and thin material like aluminium allows for easy

shaping of the material into the shape of the aerofoil. Moreover, the

weight of the turbine can also be reduced, which will allow the team to

move the turbine during the test day easily.


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Plywood will be used as caps for both ends of the blades due
Figure 5 Connection from the blade to the
to its strength. At both ends of the blades, L-brackets will be used to Central axis

connect the blades to the central axis (refer to figure 6). By

attaching the L brackets to both ends of the blades, the angle of the

blades can be easily adjusted to find the best angle for maximum

efficiency.

Air foil design:

After researching various aerofoil design, the team decided to the adopt the NACA 0012 aerofoil profile for

this turbine design (8). This shape was proven to generate maximum lift force which is essential for

initiating the rotation of the turbine. Moreover, it was discovered in the research that such design could self-

start at the wind speed of Figure 6 NACA 0012 Aerofoil profile 10 m/s, which gives confident to the

team that the turbine will spin under 11.1 m/s wind speed(8).

Basal woods will be used to shape the aerofoil due to its

lightness and thinness, which allows the team to make the aerofoil quickly.
Figure 8 Base design
Base design:

The base of this turbine will be made of a hollow wood in a rounded

shape. It has a gap that holds the generator and a bearing on top that

allows the central axis to spin. The rounded shape will provide greater

structural support for the central axis.

Table 5 Cost Analysis

Cost analysis: Costs


Material
Basal woods 17.65$
Dowel 4 9.34$
Aluminium sheet 35.75$
Ply wood (used left over pieces in the workshop) 0$
Rounded wood 2.80$
Total 65.54$

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6.0 Remaining task for each team members

Ashlee K Dodgson will be responsible for the constructing the blades. On the 23/04/2017, all the

aerofoil shapes and the aerofoil cap will be completed. Two 10mm holes will be drilled on each side of the

shapes. Then two wooden rods will slide through the two holes to create the skeleton of the blades (refer to

figure 5). Next, sheet metal will be bent and used to cover the skeleton according to the shape of the

aerofoil. Superglue will be used to hold the sheet metal in place. Once the superglue dried, the caps of blades

will be attached to the both ends of the blades which allow the L-brackets to be screwed into and connect the

blades to the L-brackets of the central axis (refer to figure 6).

Sovisal Sun will be responsible for making the central axis rotates. Starting from 23/04/2017, time

will be spent on constructing the foundation of the turbine. This foundation will be made from a hollow

cylindrical shape wood that will house a motor and a ball bearing. The ball bearing will allow the central

axis rod to spin smoothly to maximise the electricity generation. The task will begin with the treatment of

the ball bearing. The ball bearing will be treated with WB-40 lubricant and paint thinner to reduce friction

thus allows for a smooth rotation of the centre axis (9). At the centre of the foundation, a hole will be drilled

to allow the centre rod to connect to the base (9). The ball bearing will be located on the surface of the

cylinder on top of the drilled hole. Super glue will be used to hold the bearing in position (refer to figure 7).

Baily F Gauta will be responsible for crafting the housing for the motor. On the 23/04/2017, the

construction of the housing for the motor will begin. Underneath the cylinder, a wooden piece will be used

as housing for the motor (refer to figure 7). Both ends of the wood will be drilled, and two screws will be

used hold the wood piece in position. The dimension of the motor will be drawn onto the wood and holes

will be pre-drilled to allow the motor to fit in place when it is supplied on the test date.

PS Cheema will be responsible for final assembly and optimise the performance of the turbine. All

parts of the turbine include the blades, tower and base are expected to finish on the 27/04/17. The following

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day, time will be spent on assembling all the parts together, and the turbine should be able to undergo testing

on the 28/04/17. This schedule will allow the team to optimise the turbine and foresee potential problems

and fix the problem before the final test date on week 10.

7.0 Gantt Chart


Figure 7 Gantt chart of the remaining tasks

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8.0 Expected performance

To estimate the performance of the turbine, the team uses the power output equation:

Power = Betzs limit r2 d u3, (Cp is Betzs limit, r is the length of the blade, d is air density, u

is wind speed) (6)

Betzs limit = 16/27

r = 600mm = 0.06 m

d = 1.225 kg/m3

u = 11.1 m/s

Power = (16/27) (0.06)2 1.225 (11.1)3

Power = 561.41 watts.

The theoretical result is 18 times over the required 30 watts required to power three light bulbs. However,

this is just a theory. In the real world, the turbine performance can be hindered by other factors such as

friction of the bearing, the friction of the rotation axis and noise. However, the team is confident that the

turbine will spin and generate enough electricity to light up three 10 watts light bulbs. In addition, we are

expecting to get a mark of 7.5 in this project.

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9.0 Reference:

1. Newcastle U. Tutorial 1. Presentation presented at; 2017; ABEW.


2. Burton T. Wind energy handbook. 1st ed. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley; 2011.
3. Khan Academy [Internet]. Khan Academy. 2017 [cited 21 April 2017]. Available from:

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/torque-angular-momentum/torque-tutorial/a/torque
4. Ragheb M. Vertical axis wind turbines. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2011 Aug 1;1.
5. skarsdttir M. A General Description and Comparison of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines and

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines.


6. Njock Libii J, Drahozal D. The Influence of the Lengths of Turbine Blades on the Power Produced

by Miniature Wind Turbines that Operate in Non-uniform Flow Fields. World Transactions on

Engineering and Technology Education (WTE&TE). 2012;10(2).


7. Harris CD. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012 airfoil in the Langley 8

foot transonic pressure tunnel.


8. Bogateanu R, Dumitrache A, Dumitrescu H, Stoica Ci. Reynolds Number Effects on The

Aerodynamic Performance of Small VAWTs. UPB Sci. Bull., Series D. 2014;76(1):25-36.


9. RimstarORG. How to Make Bearings Spin Faster/Freely [Internet]. 2017 [cited 21 April 2017].

Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdvRFE680u0


10. Achamyeleh T, Bayray M. Aerodynamic Optimization of NACA64A410 Blade Aerofoil for Small

Wind Turbine Application with Ansys Fluent.


11. CgTrader. Wind Turbine 3D print model [Internet]. 2015 [cited 23 April 2017]. Available from:

https://www.cgtrader.com/3d-print-models/science/engineering/wind-turbine-56f0ef8f-1dd3-43f2-

9441-acd33bfcb1b3

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